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1

Nuclear Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

2

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)|

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

3

Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

Martire, J.R.

1987-10-01

4

Determination of clinical efficacy: nuclear medicine as applied to lung scanning  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a Society of Nuclear Medicine sponsored study of 2023 patients which compares two methods, logistic regression (LR) and entropy minimax pattern detection (EMPD), to evaluate efficacy. Lung scans, used in determining or excluding a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), were utilized to create the data set. The LR analysis, presented here, shows that lung scan findings have significant influence on the referring physician's diagnostic thinking. Models were developed for the probability of a signout diagnosis of PE, and equal patient groups tested the validity of these regression equations. A comparison of the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of EMPD and LR was done. EMPD predicts a signout diagnosis on only 41% of cases before lung scan and 71% after lung scan; LR provides a prediction of the signout diagnosis on 100% of cases. An advantage of EMPD is that it does not require poor probability estimates.

Saenger, E.L.; Buncher, C.R.; Specker, B.L.; McDevitt, R.A.

1985-07-01

5

Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the era of multimodality imaging techniques, functional information represents a remarkable aspect in medical imaging and\\u000a nuclear medicine is the technique par excellence for functional information. One of the first applications of radioactive\\u000a substances in clinical practice is represented by renal disorders, nowadays largely investigated by nuclear medicine examinations.\\u000a Among the different physiologic processes in which kidneys take part,

Egesta Lopci; Stefano Fanti

6

Accurate localization of life threatening colonic hemorrhage during nuclear medicine bleeding scan as an aid to selective angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe a new technique to help localize life threatening colorectal bleeding during nuclear medicine bleeding scan to\\u000a aid in selective angiography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  During the gastrointestinal bleeding scan, a simple metallic marker (paper clip) was used to localize the bleeding site on\\u000a the patient body. Angiography was then performed within 2 hours. The marker was then used to guide superselective angiography

Mubin I Syed; Azim Shaikh

2009-01-01

7

Nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography

H. N. Jr

1986-01-01

8

Nuclear Heart Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

9

Nuclear medicine at the crossroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many nuclear medicine procedures, originally developed more than 20 years ago, are now performed with new radiopharmaceuticals or instruments; it is therefore apposite to reappraise what we are doing and why we are doing it. The clinical utility of nuclear medicine is discussed with reference, by way of example, to gated blood pools scans and myocardial perfusion imaging; the importance

H. William Strauss

1996-01-01

10

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Helsinki 2004, and a dash of horizon scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine represents the major scientific and professional event in the field of nuclear medicine in Europe. Specialists from all allied professions meet to discuss the latest findings and discoveries. A very large industrial exhibition demonstrates the latest technological innovations and developments. This Highlights Lecture summarises the scientific and medical advances discussed

Peter J. Ell

2005-01-01

11

Pulmonary applications of nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine techniques have a long history in pulmonary medicine, one that has been continually changing and growing. Even longstanding methods, such as perfusion scanning for embolic disease or for pretherapy pulmonary function evaluation, have largely withstood the test of recent careful scrutiny. Not only have these techniques remained an important part of the diagnostic armamentarium, but we have learned

E. L. Kramer; C. R. Divgi

1991-01-01

12

Nuclear medicine annual, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

1984-01-01

13

Nuclear medicine annual  

SciTech Connect

This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

Freeman, L.M.

1988-01-01

14

Technologists for Nuclear Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)|

Barnett, Huey D.

1974-01-01

15

Nuclear medicine annual, 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide evaluation of brain death, bone imaging with SPECT, and lymphoscintigraphy are among the topics covered in Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1987. In addition, the book includes reviews of the role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Reports describe advances in radionuclide and magnetic resonance

L. M. Freeman; H. S. Weissmann

1987-01-01

16

Nuclear medicine annual, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is intended to help physicians to keep current with major developments in investigational and interventional nuclear medicine. Each volume reviews topics of medical imaging. Technological advances in instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and their clinical applications are explored in depth.

L. M. Freeman; H. S. Weissmann

1985-01-01

17

Society of Nuclear Medicine  

Cancer.gov

June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

18

Diagnostic nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The authors address major topics in nuclear medicine, as well as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), monoclonal antibodies, positron emission tomography, cerebral perfusion studies, computer applications, and cell-labeling techniques. They correlate nuclear medicine with other imaging modalities. In general, the text is clear and concise, with high-quality, well-annotated images. This book includes sections covering hepatobiliary, adrenal, esophageal, and gastric studies and detection of pulmonary emboli.

Gottschalk, A.; Hoffer, P.B.; Potchen, J.

1988-01-01

19

Nuclear medicine training in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are diverse approaches to the teaching of nuclear medicine in China: (1) Nuclear medicine is taught as part of the clinical curriculum in most medical schools. (2) Three medical schools undertake undergraduate training in nuclear medicine. (3) Four medical schools train nuclear medicine specialists to graduate level. (4) Eight medical schools have been authorized to provide a postgraduate programme

Shih-Chen Wang

1996-01-01

20

Nuclear medicine data communications.  

PubMed

Nuclear Medicine was one of the earliest imaging modalities to adopt the use of computers for acquisition, processing, storage, and display of digital images. Originally used for processing images, computer technologies were quickly adopted for image storage, display, and transmission. Modern nuclear medicine cameras produce digital images that can be transmitted over computer networks to other cameras, storage devices, workstations, and printers. In order to achieve nuclear medicine data communication, images must be successfully acquired and transmitted to the appropriate location to be displayed or printed. Standards have been developed over the years to facilitate the creation of interfaces between vendors and equipment, notably the interfile format for nuclear medicine and the DICOM standard for medical images. Studies can be transmitted over network communication links to other sites using telecommunication protocol standards where they can be stored and/or displayed on a wide variety of devices. This ability to move images in a well-understood format to general purpose devices using standard equipment enables the use of the Internet to disseminate nuclear medicine study information over a wide area for clinical use, research, and education. A number of universities have created Internet sites with nuclear medicine teaching files and information. As technology advances, it will be feasible to transmit medical images of all kinds to virtually anyone who needs them in near real-time, without regard to the distance between locations, or the types of instrumentation and computers used. The next few years should prove to be very interesting for digital medical imaging in general and nuclear medicine in particular. PMID:9579417

Honeyman, J C

1998-04-01

21

Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine and PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: With the increasing use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for scanning in oncology in our center, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure. Conventional nuclear medicine procedures such as gallium scan, bone scans, and sestamibi cardiac scans are used for comparative purposes.Procedure: Patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor (Victoreen

Stephen White; David Binns; Val Johnston; Megan Fawcett; Brett Greer; Filomena Ciavarella; Rodney Hicks

2000-01-01

22

Coordination compounds in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiopharmaceuticals, drugs containing a radionuclide, are used routinely in nuclear medicine departments for the diagnosis of disease and are under investigation for use in the treatment of disease. Nuclear medicine takes advantage of both the nuclear properties of the radionuclide and the pharmacological properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Herein lies the real strength of nuclear medicine, the ability to monitor biochemical

S. Jurisson; D. Berning; Wei. Jia; Dangshe. Ma

1993-01-01

23

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of

1990-01-01

24

Nuclear medicine case studies  

SciTech Connect

This text presents case studies in nuclear medicine which emphasize the diagnosis of the patient's problem rather than the technical performance of the procedure. The book is arranged by organ systems and each section begins with a description of the technique and findings in a normal study.

Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1986-01-01

25

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear medicine clinical information is derived from observing the distribution of a pharmaceutical administered to the\\u000a patient. By incorporating a radionuclide into the pharmaceutical, measurements can be made of the distribution of this radiopharmaceutical\\u000a by noting the amount of radioactivity present. These measurements may be carried out either in vivo or in vitro. In vivo imaging\\u000a is the most

Peter F. Sharp; Keith A. Goatman

26

Occupational Exposure in Nuclear Medicine and PET.  

PubMed

Purpose: With the increasing use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) for scanning in oncology in our center, a radiation dose survey was performed to determine the impact on staff exposure. Conventional nuclear medicine procedures such as gallium scan, bone scans, and sestamibi cardiac scans are used for comparative purposes.Procedure: Patients were measured using a hand-held radiation monitor (Victoreen 450-P) at various distances and times that replicate typical patient contact scenarios in the Diagnostic Imaging Department.Results: We present our findings from the survey and the implications these have on staff radiation exposure. The data suggest that emerging oncologic techniques such as PET, high dose gallium-67, and high dose Tl-201 do not represent a significantly greater occupational radiation hazard than conventional nuclear medicine procedures. PMID:11008102

White; Binns; Johnston; Fawcett; Greer; Ciavarella; Hicks

2000-05-01

27

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

1990-01-01

28

Image Registration Techniques in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine has a long tradition of incorporating quantitative analysis in its diagnostic procedures. Until recently, the analysis was based on radionuclide images as the sole input although the importance of the complementary information available from other modalities or from earlier scans has long been recognized. Indeed, qualitative correlation between images, based on anatomical expertise, has always been part of

B. F. Hutton; M. Braun; P. Slomka

29

Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

Atkins, H.L.

1984-01-01

30

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

... Nuclear Lo que usted necesita saber acerca de... Un procedimiento de medicina nuclear se describe algunas veces ... viaja a través del cuerpo, produce emisiones radioactivas. Un tipo especial de cámara detecta estas emisiones en ...

31

Introductory physics of nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is primarily addressed to resident physicians in nuclear medicine, as well as residents in radiology, pathology, and internal medicine. Topics covered include: basic review; nuclides and radioactive processes; radioactivity-law of decay, half-life, and statistics; production of radionuclides; radiopharmaceuticals; interaction of high-energy radiation with matter; radiation dosimetry; detection of high-energy radiation; in-vitro radiation detection; in-vivo radiation detection using external

1976-01-01

32

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

33

Oncological molecular imaging: nuclear medicine techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the expanding interest and development in mol- ecular biology, nuclear medicine imaging, essentially a molecular imaging technique studying biological processes at the cellular and molecular level, has much to offer. As other non-isotope techniques develop there has also been an opportunity for nuclear medicine to broaden its horizons in this field. Nuclear medicine's involvement in molecular imaging has been

G J R Cook

2003-01-01

34

1986 yearbook of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This year's edition summarizes recent published articles about nuclear medicine in major medical journals. The book starts with a review on quantitative analysis of thallium-201 scintigraphy. Chapters then follow on magnetic resonance imaging, the cardiovascular system, peripheral vasculature, the pulmonary system, physics and instrumentation, radiochemistry, and radiopharmacology, health physics and radiation biology, oncology, infection, bone, joints and muscles, the endocrine system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal tract, hemotology, and the central nervous system.

Hoffer, P.B.; Gore, J.C.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Sostman, D.

1986-01-01

35

Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to

1988-01-01

36

Nuclear Medicine Applications: Summary of Panel 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and tech...

A. P. Wolf

1988-01-01

37

Towards the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures for better spatial resolution, sensitivity, scan image quality and quantitation measurements by using a new Monte Carlo model featuring PET imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a Monte-Carlo model that can be used for the optimization of positron emission tomography (PET) procedures and image quality metrics. This model was developed using the Monte Carlo package of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) and the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR) with cluster computing to obtain reconstructed images. The PET scanner used in this study was the General Electric Discovery-ST (US). The GATE model was validated by comparing results obtained in accordance with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMA-NU-2-2001 protocol [Mawlawi et al (2004) and Bettinardi et al (2004)]. All images were reconstructed with the commonly used 2D filtered back projection and the 3D reprojection algorithms. We found that the simulated spatial resolution in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) agreed within less than 3.29% in 2D and less than 2.51% in 3D with published data of others, respectively. The 2D values for the sensitivity, scatter fraction and count-rate were found to agree within less than 0.46%, 4.59% and 7.86%, respectively with these published values. Accordingly, our study showed that the corresponding 3D values were found to agree to less than 1.62%, 2.85% and 9.13%, respectively with Mawlawi et al (2004) published values. Sensitivity, which was also estimated without the presence of attenuation material by simulating an ideal source, showed differences between the extrapolated and the ideal source values (with and without attenuation) ranging in 2D from 0.04% to 0.82% (radial location R=0cm) and 0.52% to 0.67% in 3D mode (radial locations R=10cm). The simulated noise equivalent count rate was found to be 94.31kcps in 2D and 66.9kcps in 3D at 70 and 15kBq/mL respectively, compared to 94.08kcps in 2D and 70.88kcps in 3D at 54.6kBq/mL and 14kBq/mL respectively, from the published by others values. The simulated image quality was found in excellent agreement with these published values. In conclusion, our study showed that our Monte Carlo model can be used to assess, optimize, simplify and reduce the simulation time for the quality control procedure of PET scanners. By using this model, sensitivity can be obtained in a more simplified procedure. Reconstructed images by STIR can be also used to obtain radiopharmaceutical distribution of images and direct dose maps, quite useful to nuclear medicine practitioners. PMID:23687642

Karpetas, George E; Michail, Christos M; Fountos, George P; Valsamaki, Pipitsa N; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Panayiotakis, George S

2013-05-20

38

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

39

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a

H. A. E. Schmidt; L Csernay

1988-01-01

40

New diagnostic approach to brain lesions in nuclear medicine. Differential diagnosis of brain lesions with a computed brain scan diagnosis by the likelihood method.  

PubMed

Using 240 true positive brain scans, a computer system for the differential diagnosis of brain lesions has been evaluated. Eighty-six parameters were extracted from brain scan findings without relationship to neurological signs and symptoms, and the likelihood method was adopted as an example of mathematical logic. The results of our experiment indicated that the overall accuracy was 77 per cent for the maximum likelihood method. The digital computer gave satisfactory results, particularly for diseases such as infarct, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma, and subdural hematoma. In spite of several problems to be solved, this method could provide invaluable help in differential diagnosis of brain lesions. PMID:166053

Mori, H; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K; Kojima, K; Tonami, N

41

Differential diagnosis in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book examines diagnostic techniques used in nuclear medicine. Topics considered include cardiovascular system, first-pass angiography (non-quantitative) of the heart and great vessels, blood pool and quantitative first-pass studies, pericardial imaging, 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate imaging, 201/Tl-thallium myocardial perfusion imaging, intracoronary particle injection, radionuclide angiography of medium sized arteries, 201/Tl-thallium imaging of arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities, radionuclide venography, lung imaging with radiolabeled particles in heart disease, central nervous system, cerebral blood flow, brain scintigraphy (static), endocrine system, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, the eye, dacryoscintigraphy, and radioactive phosphorus (32p-phosphorus).

Silberstein, E.B.; McAfee, J.G.

1984-01-01

42

Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot  

SciTech Connect

Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

1987-04-01

43

Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

Cesareo, R.

1988-01-01

44

Determination of efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine, a high technology field, is evaluated as to its usefulness. This paper describes the SNM study of 2023 patients comparing two methods evaluating efficacy for lung scanning (LS). Only the referring physicians determined the probabilities of the most important (MI) and most likely (ML) diagnoses and management before and after lung scanning. A logistic regression model was developed for probability of a signout diagnosis of PE. Equal patient groups tested the validity of the regression equations for the probability of PE as MI or ML. The models developed on Group I (G-I) and used on Group II (G-II) gave similar results. This shows that LS classifies PE and NOT PE categories where PE was considered both MI and ML. Entropy minimax pattern detection (EMPD) attempts prediction of signout diagnosis and management from prior patient attributes. In 2023 cases, attributes alone could not eliminate the use of LS for all patients. Comparing the two methods, the predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of each method are similar. EMPD predicts on a relatively small percent (40% before LS, 71% post LS) while the logistic equation predicts on 100% of the cases. An advantage of EMPD is that it does not require estimates of prior probability. However, LR, uses this estimate, thus incorporating intuitive knowledge not evaluated by EMPD. These methods are unique in showing that LS can direct the referring physician toward or away from anticoagulant therapy based on findings of the lung scan.

Saenger, E.L.; Buncher, C.R.; Specker, B.; McDevitt, R.A.

1984-01-01

45

Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System  

PubMed Central

Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Sahin, Figen; Babekoglu, Vahide; Ugur, Omer

2012-01-01

46

Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

Wolf, A.P.

1988-01-01

47

Basic principles of nuclear medicine techniques for detection and evaluation of trauma and sports medicine injuries.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine skeletal imaging is a very sensitive technique for evaluating bone and muscle abnormalities because it can detect minor changes in metabolism and blood flow. The specificity of bone imaging, however, depends on the ability of the nuclear medicine physician to make a differential diagnosis. To aid in making a specific diagnosis, this article describes the various patterns of abnormality in stress fractures, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), compartment syndrome, enthesopathy, and traumatic fractures. The characteristic scintigraphic appearance of joint injuries, muscle injuries (rhabdomyolysis), and radionuclide arthrography is discussed and the way the scan patterns change with time in these various disorders is described. A brief summary of the basic anatomy and physiology of bone and muscle in normal and injured tissue is presented and the basic mechanisms which cause the various abnormal scan patterns is postulated. In addition, a staging system for stress fractures is presented to help direct the referring physician toward the proper management of the injured patient. In most cases, nuclear medicine skeletal imaging can be used to differentiate between acute muscle injury, tibial stress syndrome, skeletal injury (periosteal reaction, stress fracture, and traumatic fracture) or an abnormality that is entirely associated with the joint or connective tissue. This differential diagnosis is easier if the nuclear medicine procedure is performed within a few days after the onset of injury. PMID:3291129

Matin, P

1988-04-01

48

Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last\\u000a decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging\\u000a in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted\\u000a by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion,

M. Donald Blaufox; Valery Kalika; Stephen Scharf; David Milstein

1982-01-01

49

Nuclear medicine imaging in rhabdomyolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of severe rhabdomyolysis is reported in which, some seven and one-half weeks after its occurrence, a gallium scan was strongly positive, due to abscess formation in the damaged muscle. A bone scan was weakly positive in the same area, due to gallium photons. A review of the the reported cases reveals that bone scans are a very sensitive

EUGENE A. CORNELIUS

1982-01-01

50

The Impact of Computers in Nuclear Medicine  

PubMed Central

Computers have had a major impact on the development of Nuclear Medicine. Computer technology has allowed improved acquisition, display and analysis of radionuclide data and is largely responsible for the ability of radionuclide studies to accurately quantify organ physiology. In addition, computers are vital to reconstruction tomography, which has been applied to nuclear imaging. Mathematical modeling, which provides improved quantitative descriptions of complex physiologic systems investigated by radionuclides is also aided by computer technology. The role of the computer has even be extended to administrative functions like patient record keeping, automated data reporting, and programmed instruction of nuclear medicine trainees. In this review these aspects of computers in nuclear medicine will be reviewed, with emphasis on the recent improvements in nuclear imaging. Imagesp59-a

Alderson, Philip O.

1978-01-01

51

Nuclear medicine imaging in rhabdomyolysis  

SciTech Connect

A case of severe rhabdomyolysis is reported in which, some seven and one-half weeks after its occurrence, a gallium scan was strongly positive, due to abscess formation in the damaged muscle. A bone scan was weakly positive in the same area, due to gallium photons. A review of the the reported cases reveals that bone scans are a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and are useful to monitor its repair.

Cornelius, E.A.

1982-10-01

52

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2013-04-01

53

Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications of nuclear medicine in pediatrics have grown parallel with the development of higher resolution complementary imaging modalities such as computed tomography, ultrasound, digital angiography, and magnetic resonance. The purpose of this article is to present clinically significant advances in pediatric nuclear imaging, with emphasis on newer techniques less often associated with pediatric patients.91 references.

M. A. Gainey; M. A. Capitanio

1988-01-01

54

Brief overview of nuclear medicine in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1956 witnessed the birth of Nuclear Medicine in China, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). This course was preceded by a training course in nuclear instruments in which students learned to construct the radiation detection devices required for performing experiments using radioisotopes. In 1958,

S. C. Wang; C. E. Chou

1989-01-01

55

Criteria for Acceptability for Radiological, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy Equipment – Part 4: Nuclear Medicine Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 2007, the European Commission commissioned a group of Experts to undertake the revision of Report RP91 on “Criteria for\\u000a Acceptability of Radiological (including Radiotherapy) and Nuclear Medicine Installations”, which will be published soon.\\u000a This paper presents the revised criteria for Nuclear Medicine Equipment.

S. Christofides; L. Malone; S. Mattsson; P. Horton

56

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work;

B WESTERMAN

1986-01-01

57

Nuclear physics in medicine, minefield and kitchen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plethora of phenomena discovered and investigated in the Maria Curie laboratories constitute nowadays basis of functioning of various advanced devices used in modern science, industry and medicine. In this article we briefly describe few examples of nuclear physics applications, such as: non-invasive imaging of living organisms by means of Positron Emission Tomography, remote identification of explosives and other dangerous substances, using the technique of atometry, and preservation of food by its exposure to nuclear radiation.

Moskal, Pawe?

2011-01-01

58

Radionuclide Cystogram (Bladder Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... as bladder scan, radionuclide cystogram is a diagnostic nuclear test that uses a solution containing radioactive material ... Kidney (Renal) Failure Kidney (Renal) Infection Kidney (Renal) Nuclear Medicine Scan Kidney (Renal) Transplantation Kidney (Renal) Trauma ...

59

Nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

This book presents explanations of current procedures involving the kidney with information of the performance of each test, its rationale, and interpretation. The information covers all currently used radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, test protocols, and mathematical principles of pathophysiology as they relate to nuclear medicine studies. Information is provided on which radiopharmaceutical, instrument, or computer application to use, and when.

Tauxe, W.N.; Dubousky, E.V.

1985-01-01

60

Progress and direction of gastrointestinal nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In summary, gastrointestinal nuclear medicine has made much progress in recent years due to advances in instrumentation, new radiopharmaceuticals, new clinical indications, and the development of new and better methodologies. This has been a personal view and I have only touched on some of these recent advances. This continues to be an area where radionuclide techniques truly demonstrate their ability

Manuel D. Cerqueira

1994-01-01

61

HOSPITAL PHYSICS: Nuclear medicine: diagnosis and therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine is a small but unique speciality, and any physics student who already enjoys computing, image processing, human biology and physiology as well as physics and chemistry, will be fascinated by this medical speciality. Those who enter, whether they be clinical or scientific, rarely leave and remain under its spell for life.

Dixon-Brown, Ann; Soper, Nigel D. W.

1996-03-01

62

Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

63

Wiener filter for nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the quality of digital nuclear medicine images, a new implementation of the Wiener restoration filter has been developed. The Wiener filter uses as its optimality criterion the minimization of the mean-square error between the undistorted image of the object and the filtered image. In order to form this filter, the object and noise power spectrums are needed. The

M. A. King; P. W. Doherty; R. B. Schwinger; B. C. Penney

2009-01-01

64

Liquid scintillation counting in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine can be measured by ; liquid scintillation (LS) counting, and the technique is the only practical ; approach to counting low-energy BETA emissions. The capabilities of LS ; counting and of some precautions that should be observed are reviewed. Because ; most scintillation solvents will tolerate only minimal amounts of aqueous samples

Bransome; E. D. Jr

1973-01-01

65

Noise reduction in nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common methods of reducing random noise in nuclear medicine use lowpass filtering, which has the disadvantage that it affects high-frequency components of the image. We developed a noise-reduction approach that estimates signal and noise levels in each of several frequency bands and removes the appropriate amount of noise with little effect on the signal in each band.

C. C. Kuni; B. H. Hasegawa; W. R. Hendee

1983-01-01

66

Wavelet domain filtering for nuclear medicine imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new filtering\\/estimation method for nuclear medicine imaging. The statistical method of cross-validation is used to design optimal wavelet domain filters for improved image estimation. The quality of the resulting images is much better than standard image estimates, in both visual and mean square error senses. Moreover, experiments have shown that, using the new estimate, one can

Robert D. Nowak; David J. Nowak; R. G. Baraniuk; Robert S. Hellman

1996-01-01

67

Standardized Annotation of Nuclear Medicine Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no generally accepted standards for annotating nuclear medicine images. This is a potential problem when- ever hardcopies from other centers are being evaluated, reinterpreted or compared to actual images of the same patient. Proposals for image annotation are elaborated to support image evaluation by a third party. In this paper, examples are given of lung scintigraphy, thyroid scintigraphy,

Karl H. Bohuslavizki; Eberhard Henze; Markus Schwaiger; Malte Clausen

68

Perspectives in nuclear medicine: pulmonary studies  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of I-131 labeled macroaggregates in 1964, noninvasive techniques involving injection of radiolabeled agents and remote detection of emitted radiation have become well established in detecting pulmonary disorders in routine clinical medicine. In the past, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been dominated by studies that depict the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and/or ventilation-perfusion balance (e.g., for the detection of pulmonary embolism, obstructive airway disease, lung carcinoma). With the recent development of emission tomography and the potential for new, function-oriented radiopharmaceuticals, however, pulmonary nuclear medicine is entering a new era. The status of contemporary pulmonary nuclear medicine is briefly reviewed in several areas of major interest and applications and focus on areas where new developments are needed and seem feasible in the near future. Several important regional physiological processes measurable by these techniques include: (a) the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism, (b) relative pulmonary blood flow, (c) permeability to specific molecules, (d) lung tissue metabolism, (e) ventilation distribution and (f) the relationship between ventilation and blood flow (perfusion). (JMT)

Budinger, T.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); McNeil, B.J.; Alderson, P.O.

1982-01-01

69

Limits of Tumor Detectability in Nuclear Medicine and PET  

PubMed Central

Objective: Nuclear medicine is becoming increasingly important in the early detection of malignancy. The advantage of nuclear medicine over other imaging modalities is the high sensitivity of the gamma camera. Nuclear medicine counting equipment has the capability of detecting levels of radioactivity which exceed background levels by as little as 2.4 to 1. This translates to only a few hundred counts per minute on a regular gamma camera or as few as 3 counts per minute when using coincidence detection on a positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Material and Methods: We have experimentally measured the limits of detectability using a set of hollow spheres in a Jaszczak phantom at various tumor-to-background ratios. Imaging modalities for this work were (1) planar, (2) SPECT, (3) PET, and (4) planar camera with coincidence detection capability (MCD). Results: When there is no background (infinite contrast) activity present, the detectability of tumors is similar for PET and planar imaging. With the presence of the background activity , PET can detect objects in an order of magnitude smaller in size than that can be seen by conventional planar imaging especially in the typical clinical low (3:1) T/B ratios. The detection capability of the MCD camera lies between a conventional nuclear medicine (planar / SPECT) scans and the detection capability of a dedicated PET scanner. Conclusion: Among nuclear medicine’s armamentarium, PET is the closest modality to CT or MR imaging in terms of limits of detection. Modern clinical PET scanners have a resolution limit of 4 mm, corresponding to the detection of tumors with a volume of 0.2 ml (7 mm diameter) in 5:1 T/B ratio. It is also possible to obtain better resolution limits with dedicated brain and animal scanners. The future holds promise in development of new detector materials, improved camera design, and new reconstruction algorithms which will improve sensitivity, resolution, contrast, and thereby further diminish the limits of tumor detectability. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Erdi, Yusuf Emre

2012-01-01

70

[Evidence-based nuclear medicine and experience-based nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

The basis and methods of Evidence-Based medicine (EBM) and its applications in Nuclear Medicine (NM) are described. EBM criteria are contrasted with clinical experience. Some NM Meta-analysis and Systematic Reviews are described. The methods of redefining the probability through diagnostic tests and the methods of Decision Analysis and of Cost-Efficiency Studies applied to NM are described. Finally a Series of proposals to improve the application of EBM to NM are presented. PMID:11205044

Carreras Delgado, J L

2000-01-01

71

Nanotechnology and nuclear medicine; research and preclinical applications.  

PubMed

The birth of nanotechnology in human society was around 2000 years ago and soon found applications in various fields. In this article, we highlight the current status of research and preclinical applications and also future prospects of nanotechnology in medicine and in nuclear medicine. The most important field is cancer. A regular nanotechnology training program for nuclear medicine physicians may be welcome. PMID:21761018

Assadi, Majid; Afrasiabi, Kolsoom; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyedabadi, Mohammad

72

Hospital-wide distribution of nuclear medicine studies through a broadband digital network.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine provides a good environment for the evaluation of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) because of the relatively small quantity of digital data that are generated, leading to reduced requirements for storage, display, and transmission compared with those found in radiology. The PACS in nuclear medicine is characterized by use of a single computer as a central storage, display, and analysis node. Images are acquired with use of small, low-cost computers attached to each camera. This network configuration offers advantages of convenience, but with great reliance on a single computer. A campus-wide picture network is under development at Washington University employing broadband cable television technology supplemented by baseband Ethernet (Digital Equipment Corp, Maynard, MA) components. All areas of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are connected via a PACS testbed project. A radiology information system, supporting over 250 terminals, provides digital tracking of patients and report generation and retrieval. A new image workstation is under development in conjunction with Digital Equipment Corp. This system will permit display in multiple windows of report information and images from various modalities. A lung scan demonstration project is now beginning that is designed to test the value of a PACS in nuclear medicine. Digitally acquired chest radiographs will be displayed on an image workstation in nuclear medicine along with digital ventilation and perfusion lung scans. It is hoped that time-consuming logistic bottlenecks now encountered in lung scan interpretation will be reduced. PMID:2367872

Miller, T R; Jost, R G; Sampathkumaran, K S; Blaine, G J

1990-07-01

73

Role of nuclear medicine in chemotherapy of malignant lesions.  

PubMed

The major role of nuclear medicine in clinical oncology is in tumor imaging, which includes evaluating specific organs or the entire body for the presence of tumor. Nuclear medicine studies have been used clinically in the initial evaluation of the tumor extent and in the subsequent management of the cancer patient to assess response to treatment, to detect early relapse, and to assist in making decisions concerning follow-up treatment. Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion study for intraarterial chemotherapy has been helpful in monitoring the catheter tip, providing a map of regional perfusion at the capillary level (tumor vascularity), evaluating the degree of arteriovenous shunt in tumor bed, and optimizing division of the dose of chemotherapeutic agent when bilateral arterial catheters are used. Quantitative and serial radionuclide angiocardiography has been useful in assessing doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Adria Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio) toxicity, and 67Ga-citrate imaging has been used to monitor chemotherapy effect on lungs and kidneys. Radionuclide venography can demonstrate suspected thrombus, and the delineation of the vascular anatomy also allows proper placement of another catheter for continuous effective chemotherapy. Serial bone scans have been the primary modality to assess the response of bone metastasis to systemic therapy in breast cancer patients, and nuclear hepatic imaging may show tumor response, hepatocellular dysfunction, and cholecystitis related to chemotherapeutic agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3885397

Kim, E E; Haynie, T P

1985-01-01

74

Quantitative Analysis in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This book provides a review of image analysis techniques as they are applied in the field of diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. Driven in part by the remarkable increase in computing power and its ready and inexpensive availability, this is a relatively new yet rapidly expanding field. Likewise, although the use of radionuclides for diagnosis and therapy has origins dating back almost to the discovery of natural radioactivity itself, radionuclide therapy and, in particular, targeted radionuclide therapy has only recently emerged as a promising approach for therapy of cancer and, to a lesser extent, other diseases.

Zaidi, Habib

75

A Memoir of Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: Part III: Finding a Place for Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

major impediment to the utilization of pediatric nuclear medicine techniques occurred in the mid- 1970s with the introduction of competitive imaging technologies such as CT and ultrasound. Although the early versions of these technologies were somewhat primitive, the use of these modalities increased with technological advances, innovative upgrades, and newer devices. My personal experiences in practice, research, and teaching in

James J. Conway

76

The role of the IAEA in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programmatic activities in nuclear medicine of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are mainly directed towards developing countries and include co-ordination of research projects, technical co-operation and information services. During the last 30?40 years the IAEA has introduced nuclear medicine in 39 countries. It has started more than 350 RIA laboratories and thereby often disseminated nuclear medicine to areas

Steffen Groth; Ajit Padhy

1999-01-01

77

Nuclear Medicine Techniques for the Diagnosis and Therapy of Prostate Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear medicine techniques play an important role in (re)staging and treatment of prostate carcinoma patients. These techniques are reviewed in this paper. For many years, bone scanning has been a valuable tool for the evaluation of bone metastases. Although utilized in a more refined way since the introduction of serum prostate–specific antigen (PSA) measurement, it is still the procedure of

W. J. G. Oyen; J. A. Witjes; F. H. M. Corstens

2001-01-01

78

WHOLE BODY SCANNING IN MEDICINE. II. CLINICAL ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole-body scans were conducted in 439 patients using I¹³¹, Fe\\/sup ; 59\\/, Cu⁶⁴, Sr⁸⁵, \\/Ca⁴⁷, or I¹³¹-label ed 5-; iododexyuridine. With I¹³¹, functioning metastases were demonstrated in 11 ; of 26 patients with follicular or papillary thyroid cancer. Fe⁵⁹ scans ; demonstiatecl extramedullary, hematopoiesis in patients with polycythemia vera, ; myelofibrosis, and myelophthisic anemia. Cu⁶⁴ studies showed abnormal ; concentration

W. J. K. Simpson; A. D. Rotenberg; R. G. Baker

1962-01-01

79

Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

1982-07-01

80

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

2012-10-01

81

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

2011-10-01

82

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

83

Where are we with nuclear medicine in pediatrics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of nuclear medicine in children is different from that in adults. Technical considerations including immobilization, dosing of radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation are of major importance. Image magnification and the capability to perform singlephoton emission tomography are essential to performing state of the art pediatric nuclear medicine. New advances in instrumentation with multiple detector imaging, the possibility of clinical positron

Helen R. Nadel

1995-01-01

84

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing

R. Finn; J. Fowler

1988-01-01

85

Pharmacologic Interventions in Nuclear Medicine Assessment of Cardiac Perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drugs that are currently used for therapeutic purposes can also be used in diagnostic tests. This paper will review the use of such pharmacological interventions in cardiac assessment in Nuclear Medicine. To fully com- prehend the effect of these drugs, a small review of diag- nostic nuclear medicine as currently used to assess cardiac perfusion is included. This will allow

Gilbert G. Matte; David C. Barnes; Douglas N. Abrams

2001-01-01

86

Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

Loudos, George K.

2007-11-01

87

[Cancer, environment, radiation and nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

Today, although science and technology have greatly developed, cancer is still under the shadow of prejudice and considered as a death sentence. As for who is to blame for this situation, we should not forget the actual influence of natural, technical and social environment in which we all live and offer or receive various forms of energy. Various kinds of radiation including radiation from the sun are found in our natural environment and radiation from the sun contributes especially to the development of melanoma. In our social environment we tend to develop harmful habits such as smoking and alcohol drinking, to have insufficient physical exercise and increased body weight. All these habits are concidered potentially carcinogenic. A new branch of medicine, which also tries to diagnose and treat cancer has been created lately. This is the speciality of Nuclear Medicine which has developed since 1945. This new specialty, aided by modern equipment has many useful diagnostic and therapeutic applications against cancer as mentioned in this lecture. PMID:20809000

Minas, Aristippos K

88

Minimizing and communicating radiation risk in pediatric nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The value of pediatric nuclear medicine is well established. Pediatric patients are referred to nuclear medicine from nearly all pediatric specialties including urology, oncology, cardiology, gastroenterology, and orthopedics. Radiation exposure is associated with a potential, small, risk of inducing cancer in the patient later in life and is higher in younger patients. Recently, there has been enhanced interest in exposure to radiation from medical imaging. Thus, it is incumbent on practitioners of pediatric nuclear medicine to have an understanding of dosimetry and radiation risk to communicate effectively with their patients and their families. This article reviews radiation dosimetry for radiopharmaceuticals and also CT given the recent proliferation of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. It also describes the scientific basis for radiation risk estimation in the context of pediatric nuclear medicine. Approaches for effective communication of risk to patients' families are discussed. Lastly, radiation dose reduction in pediatric nuclear medicine is explicated. PMID:22393223

Fahey, Frederic H; Treves, S Ted; Adelstein, S James

2012-03-01

89

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section...482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services...

2012-10-01

90

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section...482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services...

2011-10-01

91

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2009-10-01

92

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2010-10-01

93

A genome scan for serum triglyceride in obese nuclear families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are increased in extremely obese individuals, indicating abnormalities in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. We carried out a genome scan for serum TG in 320 nuclear families segregating ex- treme obesity and normal weight. Three hundred eighty-two Marshfield microsatellite markers (Screening Set 11) were genotyped. Quantitative linkage analyses were performed us- ing family regression and variance

Wei-Dong Li; Chuanhui Dong; Ding Li; Cathleen Garrigan; R. Arlen Price

2004-01-01

94

Training Requirements for Chemists in Radiotracer Development for Nuclear Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight th...

R. Finn J. Fowler

1988-01-01

95

Labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals applied in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book includes material on radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine with a section on in vitro assays. Contents are divided into four parts: radioisotopes, labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals; radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostic purposes; in vitro methods of analysis with labelled compounds and applications of radioimmunoassay to medicine.

Balaban, A.; Galateanu, I.; Geogescu, G.; Simionescu, L.

1986-01-01

96

Brain Tumor Imaging: European Association of Nuclear Medicine Procedure Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a These guidelines summarize the views of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Neuroimaging Committee (ENC).\\u000a The purpose of the guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting\\u000a the results of brain tumor imaging using 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET) as well as radiolabeled amino acid analogues\\u000a SPECT or PET. The aim is to help in achieving a

Thierry Vander Borght; Susanne Asenbaum; Peter Bartenstein; Christer Halldin; Özlem Kapucu; KoenVan Laere; Andrea Varrone; Klaus Tatsch

97

Left-ventricle boundary detection from nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a new algorithm for segmentation of nuclear medicine images to detect the left-ventricle (LV) boundary. In\\u000a this article, other image segmentation techniques, such as edge detection and region growing, are also compared and evaluated.\\u000a In the edge detection approach, we explored the relationship between the LV boundary characteristics in nuclear medicine images\\u000a and their radial orientations: we

Xiaolong Dai; Wesley E. Snyder; Griff L. Bilbro; Rodney Williams; Robert Cowan

1998-01-01

98

Nuclear medicine in the first year of life.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine has an important role in the care of newborns and children less than 1 y old. Patients in this age group present with a spectrum of diseases different from those of older children or adults. These patients can benefit from the full range of nuclear medicine studies. In these young children, nuclear medicine studies are more likely to be used to evaluate a wide range of congenital conditions but also can be helpful for evaluating acquired conditions such as infection, cancer, and trauma. This review first will cover the general aspects of nuclear medicine practice with these patients, including the special considerations that can help achieve successful diagnostic imaging. These topics will include clinical indications, imaging technology, instrumentation, software, positioning and immobilization, sedation, local and general anesthesia, radiopharmaceutical doses, radiation risk, and dose reduction. The review then will discuss the specific nuclear medicine studies that typically are obtained in patients in this age group. With extra care and attention to the special needs of this population, nuclear medicine departments can successfully study patients less than 1 y old. PMID:21622894

Treves, S Ted; Baker, Amanda; Fahey, Frederic H; Cao, Xinhua; Davis, Royal T; Drubach, Laura A; Grant, Frederick D; Zukotynski, Katherine

2011-06-01

99

IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a priority for healthcare providers in many countries. The IAEA's response to meet the increasing needs for training has been 2-folds. Through its regular program, a priority is given to the development of standardized syllabi and education and clinical training guides. Through its technical cooperation programme, support is given for setting up national medical physics education and clinical training programs in countries. In addition, fellowships are granted for professionals working in the field for specialized training, and workshops are organized at the national and regional level in specialized topics of nuclear medicine physics. So as to support on-the-job training, the IAEA has also setup a gamma camera laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The laboratory is also equipped with QC tools and equipments, and radioisotopes are procured when training events are held. About 2-3 specialized courses are held every year for medical physicists at the IAEA gamma camera laboratory. In the area of research and development, the IAEA supports, through its coordinated research projects, new initiatives in quantitative nuclear medicine and internal dosimetry. The future of nuclear medicine is driven by advances in instrumentation, by the ever increasing availability of computing power and data storage, and by the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging and therapy. Future developments in nuclear medicine are partially driven by, and will influence, nuclear medicine physics and medical physics. To summarize, the IAEA has established a number of programs to support nuclear medicine physics and will continue to do so through its coordinated research activities, education and training in clinical medical physics, and through programs and meetings to promote standardization and harmonization of QA or QC procedures for imaging and treatment of patients. PMID:23561455

Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

2013-05-01

100

Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

Entine, G.

1985-05-07

101

[Alzheimer's dementia, sleep disorders and nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

In case new diagnostic procedures for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) appear, Nuclear Medicine (NM) would like to be aware of them in order to evaluate its own contribution to diagnose AD by SPET and PET brain studies. Recently, sleep disturbances were studied in AD and tend to be diagnostic for early AD. In AD the actual time of night sleep was found to be 5.7 h, while awakeness time for the same night sleep increased to 2.7 h. Also in AD, the REM and the slow wave stage (SWS) during sleep are shorter and hypopnea and apnea phases are abundant. Internal body temperature during night sleep is only slightly increased in AD, while in temporofrontal dementia and in normal individuals this increase is significant. The circadian rhythm of melatonin is disturbed in AD. The normal duration of inspiration and expiration during daytime which is reversed during normal night sleep, has not been studied in patients with AD. However, this reverse condition favoring inspiration is expected to provide more oxygen to the brain. Chronic but not acute stress causes memory loss and is currently being studied by us as a possible causative factor for memory loss in AD. Tomographic SPET and PET brain studies can locate the site of brain damage in AD. This is important since memory has recently been classified into four categories, namely episodic, semantic, procedural and working memory. In early AD only procedural memory remains intact. This means that these patients may drive a car, do computer word processing and play some games at home or/and in the field. This memory is located in specific nuclei in the cerebellum and the occipital frontal area which do not relate to sites of other kinds of memory. This difference could be well identified by tomographic SPET or PET studies. Thus NM may also diagnose the early stage of AD. Another issue refers to the indications that the unified Medicare and Medicaid system in the USA has issued on September 15, 2004 for performing a PET (18)F-FDG study for AD. These indications are fully described in this editorial. PMID:15886744

Grammaticos, Philip

102

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody (90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

103

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

1983-01-01

104

Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging.

Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

2012-01-01

105

The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered.

McGlone, B; Balan, K

2001-01-01

106

Nuclear medicine imaging in podiatric disorders  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide scanning is a valuable diagnostic tool based on metabolic and anatomic imaging. When used in the appropriate clinical setting, radionuclide imaging is a sensitive, minimally invasive imaging modality that detects and differentiates skeletal from nonskeletal pathology in the painful foot. Isotopic scanning is of particular value in the evaluation of the diabetic foot and in the subsequent follow-up of response to therapy.72 references.

Karl, R.D. Jr.; Hammes, C.S.

1988-10-01

107

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-12-01

108

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

1988-01-01

109

Small-animal preclinical nuclear medicine instrumentation and methodology.  

PubMed

Molecular medicine enhances the clinician's ability to accurately diagnose and treat disease, and many technological advances in diverse fields have made the translation of molecular medicine to the clinic possible. Nuclear medicine encompasses 2 technologies--single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)--that have driven the field of molecular medicine forward. SPECT and PET, inherently molecular imaging techniques, have been at the forefront of molecular medicine for several decades. These modalities exploit the radioactive decay of nuclides with specific decay properties that make them useful for in vivo imaging. As recently as the mid-1990s, SPECT and PET were mostly restricted to use in the clinical setting because their relatively coarse spatial resolution limited their usefulness in studying animal (especially rodent) models of human disease. About a decade ago, several groups began making significant strides in improving resolution to the point that small-animal SPECT and PET as a molecular imaging technique was useful in the study of rodent disease models. The advances in these 2 techniques progressed as the result of improvements in instrumentation and data reconstruction software. Here, we review the impact of small-animal imaging and, specifically, nuclear medicine imaging techniques on the understanding of the biological basis of disease and the expectation that these advances will be translated to clinical medicine. PMID:18396180

Rowland, Douglas J; Cherry, Simon R

2008-05-01

110

Utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in Taiwan, 1997–2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To analyze the utilization of nuclear medicine scintigraphy in the Taiwanese population within the national health-care system\\u000a between 1997 and 2009.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Based on the Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database of 1997–2009, a retrospective population-based analysis\\u000a was conducted. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were employed to analyze the frequencies and longitudinal trends\\u000a in the utilization of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures

Mao-Chin Hung; Wanhua Annie Hsieh; Peter Wushou Chang; Jeng-Jong Hwang

111

State of the art in nuclear medicine dose assessment.  

PubMed

Basic calculational methods and models used in dose assessment for internal emitters in nuclear medicine are discussed in this overview. Methods for quantification of activity in clinical and preclinical studies also are discussed, and we show how to implement them in currently available dose calculational models. Current practice of the use of internal emitters in therapy also is briefly presented here. Some of the future challenges for dose assessment in nuclear medicine are discussed, including application of patient-specific dose calculational methods and the need for significant advances in radiation biology. PMID:18662553

Stabin, Michael G; Brill, A Bertrand

2008-09-01

112

Patient preparation for diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures: an analysis of ward nurse knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This study examined ward nurse understanding of diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures in order to assess whether they were adequately informed to prepare their patients for nuclear medicine imaging examinations.Method A questionnaire was used to establish ward nurse knowledge and understanding of nuclear medicine. The questionnaire had two sections: nurse characteristics and nurse knowledge of information sources about nuclear

R. Higgins; P. Hogg

2002-01-01

113

Nuclear medicine and ultrasound; correlation in diagnosis of disease of liver and biliary tract.  

PubMed

Even though the radiocolloid scan is nonspecific it will be approximately 70%-80% accurate in predicting the presence or absence of liver disease and somewhat less accurate than that in making statements as to the specific type of disease. This compares well with other modalities. The ability of nuclear medicine techniques to provide a correct diagnosis is improved when additional isotopic techniques such as hepatic blood flow studies and 131I-rose bengal and 67Ga scanning are performed. Ultrasound scanning is also non specific. To date, the major application of ultrasound in the study of the liver has been in deciphering puzzling contour abnormalities seen on nuclear medicine scans and in demonstrating fluid-filled abnormalities. Its usefulness in diffuse and solid focal lesions has been less dramatic. More recently, however, the development of gray scale has necessitated a reevaluation of the technique. Gray scale demonstrates a large number of intrahepatic interfaces that were previously invisible, and it has already been shown to demonstrate focal disorders such as metastasis more easily than the nongray-scale method. It can also demonstrate dilated biliary radicals, the gallbladder, and gallstones. In addition, while routinely studying the liver one can evaluate diaphragmatic motion and various retroperitoneal structures such as the pancreas, lymph nodes, and abdominal vascular structures. PMID:1209273

Lomonaco, A; Kline, P; Halpern, S; Leopold, G

1975-10-01

114

Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.  

PubMed

Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

Grammaticos, Philip C

115

Nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

This edition on radionuclide techniques in urology and nephrology reflects the many advances since 1979. Emphasis has been given to diuretic renography and studies of urinary reflux. A new chapter discusses the diagnosis of lower urinary tract problems. The editors have divided the book into three sections. The first part presents a description of the techniques and their interpretation. Renography, renal scanning, clearance studies, and bone scanning are covered. The second section gives an in-depth discussion of the application of these techniques to obstructive uropathy, urologic tumors, renal transplantation, trauma, and lower urinary tract, pediatric, and nephrologic problems. The last part of the book deals with basic principles. It expands on the relevant theoretical and technical aspects not covered in detail in part 1. In this last portion of the book the editors have grouped together the chapters on physics, instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiation dosimetry.

O'Reilly, P.H.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

1986-01-01

116

Automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions with wide-angle acceptance for nuclear fragment detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsion, a tracking detector with sub-micron position resolution, has played a successful role in the field of particle physics and the analysis speed has been substantially improved by the development of automated scanning systems. This paper describes a newly developed automated scanning system and its application to the analysis of nuclear fragments emitted almost isotropically in nuclear evaporation. This system is able to recognize tracks of nuclear fragments up to |tan ?| < 3.0 (where ? is the track angle with respect to the perpendicular to the emulsion film), while existing systems have an angular acceptance limited to |tan ?| < 0.6. The automatic scanning for such a large angle track in nuclear emulsion is the first trial. Furthermore the track recognition algorithm is performed by a powerful Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for the first time. This GPU has a sufficient computing power to process large area scanning data with a wide angular acceptance and enough flexibility to allow the tuning of the recognition algorithm. This new system will in particular be applied in the framework of the OPERA experiment: the background in the sample of ? decay candidates due to hadronic interactions will be reduced by a better detection of the emitted nuclear fragments.

Fukuda, T.; Fukunaga, S.; Ishida, H.; Kodama, K.; Matsuo, T.; Mikado, S.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Sudo, J.

2013-01-01

117

Adaptive Neural Network for Nuclear Medicine Image Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel adaptive neural network is proposed for image restoration using a nuclear medicine gamma camera based on the point spread function of measured system. The objective is to restore image degradation due to photon scattering and collimator photon penetration with the gamma camera and allow improved quantitative external measurements of radionuclides in-vivo. The specific clinical model proposed is the

Wei Qian; Huaidong Li; Maria Kallergi; Dansheng Song; Laurence P. Clarke

1998-01-01

118

Advanced Compton camera system for nuclear medicine: Prototype system study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gamma-ray imager called Compton camera is expected as a new medical instrument for nuclear medicine. It has several advantages over the conventional techniques such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography. Especially, the Compton camera can expand the range of diagnosis and therapy because various gamma-ray energies can be measured without changing system configuration. Many studies have

Ryota Kohara; Takashi Shirahata; Tetsuo Nakazawa; Osamu Miyazaki; Shigeto Kabuki; Shunsuke Kurosawa; Kentaro Miuchi; Hidetoshi Kubo; Toru Tanimori; Tadaki Nakahara; Etsuo Kunieda; Atsushi Kubo; Hirofumi Fujii

2008-01-01

119

High Transparency Coded Apertures in Planar Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coded apertures provide an alternative to the collimators of nuclear medicine imaging, and advances in the field have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry. Thickness of the aperture material, however, results in a decoded image with thickness artifacts, and constrains both image resolution and the available manufacturing techniques. Thus in theory, thin apertures are clearly desirable,

David M. Starfield; David M. Rubin; Tshilidzi Marwala

2007-01-01

120

Carcinogenic risk in diagnostic nuclear medicine: biological and epidemiological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade new data have become available on the mechanism of carcinogenesis and on cancer induction by ionizing radiation. This review concentrates on these two items in relation to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine. On the basis of reports of expert committees, the concept of radiation risk is elucidated for high and low doses. Mortality

F. Overbeek; E. K. J. Pauwels; J. J. Broerse

1994-01-01

121

Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation. PMID:23604741

Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

2013-04-19

122

Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging. 3rd edition  

SciTech Connect

This book covers topics ranging from basic physics and instrumentation to various aspects of clinical imaging and regulatory issues. It includes a section on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical sections include newer aspects of nuclear medicine, such as antibody imaging, pharmacologic stress, bone mineral analysis, evaluation of renovascular hypertension, and the role of gallium in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Mettler, F.A.; Guiberteau, M.J.

1991-01-01

123

Dictionary/handbook of nuclear medicine and clinical imaging  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the following topics: Fundamentals of English medical etymology, Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols, denotations, and signs commonly used or defined in the dictionary, Characteristics of the elements, Characteristics of practicable radioisotopes and of selected radionuclides commonly used in nuclear medicine, Properties and production of radionuclides, Radioactive decay, Radiopharmaceuticals, and Radiation dosimetry.

Iturralde, M.P. (Univ. of Pretoria and H.S. Verwoerd Hospital, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (ZA))

1989-01-01

124

Dictionary\\/handbook of nuclear medicine and clinical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book covers the following topics: Fundamentals of English medical etymology, Abbreviations, acronyms, symbols, denotations, and signs commonly used or defined in the dictionary, Characteristics of the elements, Characteristics of practicable radioisotopes and of selected radionuclides commonly used in nuclear medicine, Properties and production of radionuclides, Radioactive decay, Radiopharmaceuticals, and Radiation dosimetry.

Iturralde

1989-01-01

125

Measuring and Minimizing the Radiation Dose to Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Nuclear medicine technologists rely on a single dosimeter to measure their work-related dose. Estimates of whole-body effective dose are based on the assumptions that the radiation is incident from the front and in a uniform beam. We sought to investigate these assumptions and also to quantify doses associated with different activities. Methods: A single technologist wore 3 electronic dosimeters

Thea M. Lundberg; Peta J. Gray; Marissa L. Bartlett

126

Applicability of the rotation collimator to nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotation collimator is recommended as a camara for radiology and nuclear medicine. The advantages over Fresnel skiagraphy are that the collimator uses a high quantum efficiency, single-channel detector and automatic numerical processing to produce an image in almost real time on a cathode ray tube without needing any cumbersome photographic steps. The use of a halftone screen permits the

L. Mertz

1974-01-01

127

Edge detection in gated cardiac nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean field annealing using a piecewise linear model was applied to gated cardiac nuclear medicine images as a preprocessing tool for image smoothing and noise reduction. A second derivative operator was then used to extract the edges for ventricle boundary estimation. Combined with the user input initial boundary estimate, the extracted edge information was used to find a minimum cost

Cliff X. Wang; Lon Small; Wesley E. Snyder; Rodney Williams

1994-01-01

128

PULSE MONITOR FOR UPPER EXTREMITIES DOSIMETRY IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the manipulation of radioactive materials in Nuclear Medicine service the body parts of workers that are more displayed to the ionizing radiation are hands, underarm and arm. Therefore is necessary to developing personal dosimeters to monitoring of easy reproduction and low cost with purpose to determine the doses level radiation received by the worker in these extremities. However thermoluminescent

Clêdison de Jesus Cunha; Nascimento Souza

129

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2009-10-01

130

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2010-10-01

131

Concerning Nuclear Medicine Services. Notes on the Practical Situation in 1977.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear medicine presents a certain number of teething problems, which are analysed here. An attempt is made first to estimate the worthwhileness or utility/cost ratio of a nuclear medicine service by determining firstly the expenses involved and secondly...

D. Ducassou

1977-01-01

132

Abstracts of the 1st croatian international congress of nuclear medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Main scientific topics of the Congress were: diagnostic and therapeutical procedures in nuclear medicine, thyroid gland - diagnosis and therapy, instrumentation and imaging in nuclear medicine, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiation protection and radiobiolo...

1994-01-01

133

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods;

C. T. Kieffer; P. A. Suto

1983-01-01

134

Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services  

SciTech Connect

The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

1986-07-01

135

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

SciTech Connect

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5. The three-day interval between the incident and its discovery outside the USSR caused great apprehension. This chain of events indicates the very important role for the nuclear medicine physician, the medical physicist and their colleagues. It is likely that this medical specialty area is staffed by personnel who are best qualified to interpret these findings and to determine the necessary course of action both for patients and the general public. The nuclear medicine specialist can provide valuable input in estimating the radiation dose impact resulting from such an incident. This estimate may be accomplished either by combining measured activity levels with the physiological and physical factors involved; or by actual in vivo counting and quantitation of radioactivity in individuals exposed to radionuclides. From the measured activities in air, water and food, and assumed intakes for various age groups, doses can be estimated both for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides. In vivo measurements of radionuclides can be performed with conventional instrumentation used routinely in nuclear medicine laboratories.

Kereiakes, J.G.; Saenger, E.L.; Thomas, S.R.

1986-07-01

136

Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

137

Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

1988-04-01

138

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine  

PubMed Central

Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10

McKinstry, C S

1986-01-01

139

An integrated system for large scale scanning of nuclear emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Scanning System, developed to analyse nuclear emulsions at high speed, has been completed with the development of a high level software infrastructure to automate and support large-scale emulsion scanning. In one year, an average installation is capable of performing data-taking and online analysis on a total surface ranging from few m2 to tens of m2, acquiring many billions of tracks, corresponding to several TB. This paper focuses on the procedures that have been implemented and on their impact on physics measurements. The system proved robust, reliable, fault-tolerant and user-friendly, and seldom needs assistance. A dedicated relational Data Base system is the backbone of the whole infrastructure, storing data themselves and not only catalogues of data files, as in common practice, being a unique case in high-energy physics DAQ systems. The logical organisation of the system is described and a summary is given of the physics measurement that are readily available by automated processing.

Bozza, Cristiano; D'Ambrosio, Nicola; De Lellis, Giovanni; De Serio, Marilisa; Di Capua, Francesco; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Di Ferdinando, Donato; Di Marco, Natalia; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Fini, Rosa Anna; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Grella, Giuseppe; Ieva, Michela; Kose, Umut; Longhin, Andrea; Mauri, Nicoletta; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Monacelli, Piero; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Pastore, Alessandra; Patrizii, Laura; Pozzato, Michele; Pupilli, Fabio; Rescigno, Regina; Romano, Giorgio; Rosa, Giovanni; Ruggieri, Alessandro; Russo, Andrea; Simone, Saverio; Sirignano, Chiara; Sirri, Gabriele; Stellacci, Simona Maria; Tenti, Matteo; Tioukov, Valeri; Togo, Vincent; Valieri, Claudia

2013-03-01

140

CT and MR in pulmonary embolism: A changing role for nuclear medicine in diagnostic strategy.  

PubMed

The goal of this article is to summarize current data on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in relation to the radionuclide ventilation perfusion scan. It is important for the nuclear medicine, CT, and MR communities to develop a shared approach to this disorder. Triage using chest radiographs appears to be a practical method for enhancing both nuclear medicine and CT/MR performance. The realization that there is no clinically available gold standard for the diagnosis of PE suggests that the imaging community should replace impractical and idealistic discussions with more realistic outcome-oriented approaches. A simplified one-step evaluation of the pulmonary arteries and the lower extremity veins for deep venous thrombus can provide a comprehensive examination for PE. CT is currently a more practical diagnostic tool, whereas MR offers a scientific probe for pulmonary physiology including the regional mapping of ventilation-perfusion relationships. Nuclear medicine, CT, and MR thus form an imaging triad for the diagnosis of acute PE. PMID:12105799

Hatabu, Hiroto; Uematsu, Hidemasa; Nguyen, Binh; Miller, Wallace T; Hasegawa, Ichiro; Gefter, Warren B

2002-07-01

141

Patient exposures to HIV during nuclear medicine procedures.  

PubMed

Although the potential for transmission of bloodborne pathogens to patients through transfusion of contaminated blood is well known, it is less widely recognized that such transmission can also occur during medical procedures involving withdrawal and reinjection of blood or blood products (e.g., nuclear medicine procedures). Since 1989, three patients (two in hospitals in the United States and one in the Netherlands) undergoing nuclear medicine procedures have been reported to have inadvertently received intravenous injections of blood or other material from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two of these patients are known to have become infected with HIV during these procedures; HIV test results are not available for the third patient. This report summarizes these three incidents and provides recommendations for preventive measures. PMID:1640924

1992-08-01

142

Search of new scintillation materials for nuclear medicine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide crystals have a great potential to develop new advanced scintillation materials which are dense, fast, and bright. This combination of parameters, when combined with an affordable price, gives a prospect for materials to be applied in nuclear medicine devices. Some of them have been developed in the last two decades along the line of rear-earth (RE) garnet (RE3Al5O12) oxiorthosilicate

Mikhail Korzhik; Poul Lecoq

2001-01-01

143

Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2005-05-04

144

Nuclear medicine image segmentation using a connective network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for post-reconstruction nuclear medicine image segmentation based on an analogy to the Ising model of a two-dimensional square lattice of N particles (pixels) is presented. A reconstructed 2-D slice image is analyzed as a multi-pixel system where pixels correspond to a 2-D lattice of points with non-zero interaction energy with their nearest neighbors. The model assumes that pixel

J. Peter; R. Freyer; M. F. Smith; C. Scarfone; R. E. Coleman; R. J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

145

A practical guide to quality improvement in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Innovations and improvements in the field of nuclear medicine have created remarkable image accuracy and detail, which allow physicians to better diagnose disease. This ability has led to dramatic differences in patient care. To ensure that these diagnoses are reliable, imaging facilities must constantly monitor and seek to improve their practices. Quality improvement is a formal process of examining and improving performance through the analysis of data with the primary goal of enhancing patient care. Quality improvement activities in a nuclear medicine laboratory should emphasize accuracy and efficiency, patient and staff safety, and the patient's experience during care. Quality improvement in the nuclear medicine laboratory can potentially reduce the number of studies that need to be repeated because of poor quality, increase diagnostic accuracy, reduce radiation exposure, increase patient satisfaction, and save resources. This article will review the process of quality improvement; provide detailed, step-by-step instructions with special emphasis on project selection and data collection; and show examples of how to perform quality improvement projects. PMID:23071346

Farrell, Mary Beth; Abreu, Sue H

2012-10-15

146

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

147

Initial experience with a nuclear medicine viewing workstation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician's time to about 5-minutes of physician's time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.

Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.

1992-07-01

148

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

149

Nuclear medicine in pediatric neurology and neurosurgery: epilepsy and brain tumors.  

PubMed

In pediatric drug-resistant epilepsy, nuclear medicine can provide important additional information in the presurgical localization of the epileptogenic focus. The main modalities used are interictal (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and ictal regional cerebral perfusion study with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Nuclear medicine techniques have a sensitivity of approximately 85% to 90% in the localization of an epileptogenic focus in temporal lobe epilepsy; however, in this clinical setting, they are not always clinically indicated because other techniques (eg, icterictal and ictal electroencephalogram, video telemetry, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) may be successful in the identification of the epileptogenic focus. Nuclear medicine is very useful when MRI is negative and/or when electroencephalogram and MRI are discordant. A good technique to identify the epileptogenic focus is especially needed in the setting of extra-temporal lobe epilepsy; however, in this context, identification of the epileptogenic focus is more difficult for all techniques and the sensitivity of the isotope techniques is only 50% to 60%. This review article discusses the clinical value of the different techniques in the clinical context; it also gives practical suggestions on how to acquire good ictal SPECT and interictal FDG-PET scans. Nuclear medicine in pediatric brain tumors can help in differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, in assessing the response to treatment, in directing biopsy, and in planning therapy. Both PET and SPECT tracers can be used. In this review, we discuss the use of the different tracers available in this still very new, but promising, application of radioisotope techniques. PMID:17707242

Patil, Shekhar; Biassoni, Lorenzo; Borgwardt, Lise

2007-09-01

150

Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

2005-12-01

151

To what extent can artificial neural network support nuclear medicine?  

PubMed

Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are computer programs that emulate the operation of a large number of processing units that mimic the fundamental mechanisms of the biological activity of nervous cells as well as their connections and interactions. As a human brain, an ANN has the ability to learn from the experience of general relations between variables and thus ANN are particularly suitable to capture the natural complexity of medical data. Today ANN are widely used as a tool for computer aided diagnosis. This editorial discusses to what extent ANN can support Nuclear Medicine. PMID:23106047

Palumbo, Barbara; Fravolini, Mario Luca

2012-10-25

152

Interface requirements in nuclear medicine devices and systems  

SciTech Connect

Interface designs for three nuclear medicine imaging systems, and computer networking strategies proposed for medical imaging departments are presented. Configurations for two positron-emission-tomography devices (PET III and ECAT) and a general-purpose tomography instrument (the UNICON) are analyzed in terms of specific performance parameters. Interface designs for these machines are contrasted in terms of utilization of standard versus custom modules, cost, and ease of modification, upgrade, and support. The requirements of general purpose systems for medical image analysis, display, and archiving, are considered, and a realizable state-of-the-art system is specfied, including a suggested timetable.

Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Brill, A.B.; Noz, M.E.

1982-01-01

153

Nuclear medicine in diagnosis and therapy of bone and joint diseases.  

PubMed

Concerning bone and joint diseases therapy of rheumatic synovitis (= radiosynoviorthesis) was introduced in 1952 before clinically relevant diagnostic procedures were developed. Radionuclides of Sr and later on 99mTc phosphonates then started the wide use of bone scintigraphy since > 30 years. The diagnostic methods have an excellent sensitivity for detection of local abnormalities of bone metabolism, the specificity of such studies, however, is low. Modifications of the technique (3-phase-bone-scintigraphy, pinhole collimators, ROI-technique), increasing knowledge of pathological scan patterns and introduction of other radionuclide studies (67Ga, 201Tl, inflammation scans with 99mTc-leukocytes or 99mTc-HIG) as well as 18FDG-PET have increased the specificity significantly in recent years and improvements of imaging systems (SPECT) also increased the accuracy of diagnostic methods in diseases of bone and joints. Therapy of such diseases has made considerable progress: inflamed, swollen joints can effectively be treated with 90Y-, 186Re, 169Er-colloids or with 165Dy-particles by radiosynoviorthesis. Severe pain due to disseminated bone metastases of cancer or polyarthritis can be controlled by radionuclide therapy with 89Sr, 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re- or 188Re-HEDP and possibly 117mSn-DTPA with an acceptable risk of myelodepression. Possibilities, technical details and limitations of radionuclide applications for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes must be considered if optimal benefit for individual patients should be achieved. Overall Nuclear Medicine can become an essential element in management of bone and joint diseases. The relationship of Nuclear Medicine to bone and joint pathology is peculiar: In 1952 treatment of rheumatic synovitis by radiosynoviorthesis with 198Au Colloid was started by Fellinger and Schmid before diagnostic approaches to bone pathology existed. Bone scintigraphy was introduced only in 1961 using 85Sr but obviously the unfavourable radiation characteristics of this radionuclide limited it's broad application and 87mSr did not improve this situation. Only when 99mTc phosphonates were developed by Subramanian the importance of bone scintigraphy became apparent: The excellent imaging properties of these radiotracers showed, that abnormal bone metabolism could be visualized even before morphological alterations in the skeleton become visible on radiographies or even CT-scans. Moreover, proposals made earlier to use 32P or 89Sr for palliation of pain in patients with disseminated skeletal metastases were picked up again and led also to other radiopharmaceuticals (186Re-HEDP, 153Sm-EDTMP, 117mSn-DTPA) which are applied today for the same purpose with very good success. Therefore Nuclear Medicine today has a broad program for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to diseases of bone and joints. In bone scanning the high sensitivity led to inclusion of this method for routine staging and re-staging programs in a variety of cancer forms which have a trend to develop bone metastases (e.g. breast, lung, prostate, melanoma) but the low specificity of abnormal patterns on such scans can impair the diagnostic value of the technique. To increase specificity and to define inflammatory lesions, radiotracers used for "inflammation scanning" were introduced such as labeled granulocytes, 99mTc Human Immunoglobulin and others but also a simple modification of bone scanning--triple phase bone scintigraphy--was used. Recently the excellent properties of 18F for PET of the skeleton were rediscovered again and emission CT scanning--possibly with overlay with transmission CT or MRT pictures--can enhance the diagnostic impact of radionuclide bone studies. PMID:14601000

Riccabona, G

1999-01-01

154

NUCLEAR REACTORS IN THE SERVICE OF MEDICINE. THE COOPERATION BETWEEN THE REACTOR PLANT AND THE INSTITUTE FOR MEDICINE IN THE NORDRHEIN-WESTFALEN\\/JULICH NUCLEAR RESEARCH INSTALLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief survey is given on the future cooperation between the reactor ; stations and the Institute for Medicine being established at the Nuclear Research ; Installation Nordrhein-Westfalen\\/Jullich according to the well-tested model of ; the Clinical Department in the Atomic Center of Brookhaven, USA. The capacities ; are mentioned and the desired requirements of medicine are enumerated by way

1962-01-01

155

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

Kotz, D.

1995-08-01

156

Highlights of nuclear medicine. [Recent advances in techniques, raiopharmaceuticals, and data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This summary discusses recent advances in nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, renal imaging, pulmonary studies, gastrointestinal studies, hematological studies, imaging bone joints, immunological approaches to the in vivo radioisotopic detection of cancer, brain imaging, imaging endocrine glands with emphasis on adrenal and thyroid function studies, pediatric nuclear medicine, the development of new radiopharmaceuticals and imaging instruments,

1977-01-01

157

Gdynia Oncology Centre of the Polish Red Cross Maritime Hospital in Gdynia Nuclear Medicine Department.  

PubMed

A new Nuclear Medicine Department has been opened in Gdynia. In October 2011, the construction and procuring equipment for the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of the Polish Red Cross Maritime Hospital in Gdynia-Red?owo was completed after several years of efforts. PMID:22936514

?uka, Krzysztof

2012-08-28

158

[In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine]. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-12-31

159

(In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-01-01

160

Will the Australian nuclear medicine technologist workforce meet anticipated health care demands?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of national nuclear medicine tech- nologist workforce size was made from census data in 2001 and 1996 and from the professional body in 2004. A survey conducted by the authors in 2005 provided retention patterns in north-east- ern Australia and suggested causes. Utilisation of nuclear medicine diagnostic services was estab- lished through the Medicare Benefits Schedule group statistics. More

Edwina Adams; Deborah Schofield; Jennifer Cox; Barbara Adamson

2008-01-01

161

Role of nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

The application of radionuclide studies to nephrologic and urologic practice has reached a measurable degree of maturity during the past several years. In spite of this, the utilization of these techniques in many institutions in the United States continues to be far less frequent than one would expect from the clinical advantages. The aim of this editorial is to try to place the role of nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology in perspective. At the present time, in spite of the large number of renal agents that have been developed, there is no practical ideal radiopharmaceutical that can serve as a universal agent. Arbitrarily, one may reduce the chief armamentarium to only four radiopharmaceuticals; technetium-99m DTPA, I-131 OIH (orthoiodohippurate), technetium-99m glucoheptonate and technetium-99m DMSA. These agents are discussed with their relative advantages and disadvantages.

Blaufox, M.D.; Fine, E.; Lee, H.B.; Scharf, S.

1984-05-01

162

Selected Interventions in Nuclear Medicine: Gastrointestinal Motor Functions  

PubMed Central

Measurement of gastrointestinal functions by scintigraphy is established in clinical practice and research. The most commonly used test is the gastric emptying test. This is acknowledged as the gold standard and is conducted according to a consensus statement from the national nuclear medicine and motility societies. Other techniques are somewhat more esoteric (e.g. measurement of gastric accommodation with SPECT) or the scintigraphic approach is not the acknowledged gold standard (e.g. colonic transit, recto-anal angle and emptying, esophageal transit). The performance characteristics of many of the scintigraphic measurements have been published and the pros and cons established in the literature. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy is an integral and important component of the assessment of gastrointestinal function.

Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael

2009-01-01

163

An efficient and cost effective nuclear medicine image network.  

PubMed

An image network that is in use in a large nuclear medicine department is described. This network was designed to efficiently handle a large volume of clinical data at reasonable cost. Small, limited function computers are attached to each scintillation camera for data acquisition. The images are transferred by cable network or floppy disc to a large, powerful central computer for processing and display. Cost is minimized by use of small acquisition computers not equipped with expensive video display systems or elaborate analysis software. Thus, financial expenditure can be concentrated in a powerful central computer providing a centralized data base, rapid processing, and an efficient environment for program development. Clinical work is greatly facilitated because the physicians can process and display all studies without leaving the main reading area. PMID:3622561

Sampathkumaran, K S; Miller, T R

1987-01-01

164

Nuclear medicine imaging in tuberculosis using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

In this paper, data available on nuclear medicine imaging using commercially available radiopharmaceuticals for the differentiation, staging, and prediction or assessment of the response to treatment in tuberculosis (TB) are reviewed. Limited available studies suggest that single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using either 201Tl, 99mTc-sestamibi, or 99mTc-tetrofosmin is accurate (?85%) and has a high negative predictive value (?90%) for the differentiation of TB from carcinoma in patients presenting with a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN). The criteria for detection of TB on 201Tl SPECT are nondepiction of the suspicious lesion in the delayed image or a negative retention index [washout on the delayed images (3–4 h postinjection) vs. the early image (5–15 min postinjection)] and a comparable-to-background uptake on 99mTc-sestamibi or 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT. Another SPECT tracer of potential interest for the differentiation of TB from malignant SPN that warrants further exploration, is N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP). In contrast, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET is unable to differentiate malignancy from TB and thus cannot be used as a tool to reduce futile biopsy/thoracotomy in these patients. A limited number of studies have reported on the potential of nuclear medicine imaging in assessment of the extent of disease in patients with extrapulmonary TB using 67Ga-citrate SPECT and 18F-FDG PET, respectively. 67Ga-citrate SPECT was shown to be as sensitive as bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone infection and was found to be complementary to computed tomography (CT) imaging. 18F-FDG PET was found to be significantly more efficient when compared with CT, respectively, in over half of patients for the identification of sites of lymph node involvement that were missed by CT and often the only sites of extrapulmonary TB identified. Unfortunately, 18F-FDG PET findings did not lead to alterations in treatment planning in any of the patients under study. Additional studies confirming these findings are urgently required. Similar to the setting of SPN, 18F-FDG PET cannot differentiate malignant lymph node involvement from lymph node involvement by TB. These results and the recent findings of Demura and colleagues using 18F-FDG PET further suggest that nuclear medicine imaging techniques could be used for the evaluation of therapeutic response. Prospective studies, focusing on specific subgroups of patients in whom such an imaging approach might be clinically relevant, for example in multidrug-resistant TB patients, are warranted. In acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, 67Ga scintigraphy proved to be a reliable and sensitive method for the primary detection and follow-up of opportunistic pneumonias, including TB. Combining 201Tl scintigraphy with 67Ga scintigraphy was shown to increase the specificity for both pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, which is a 67Ga(+) and 201Tl(-) mismatch pattern in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients that is specific for mycobacterial infections. Finally, the results obtained using both SPECT and PET indicate that nuclear medicine could be an important noninvasive method for the determination of disease activity, detection of extrapulmonary TB, and determination of response to therapy. PMID:22422098

Sathekge, Mike; Maes, Alex; D'Asseler, Yves; Vorster, Mariza; Van de Wiele, Christophe

2012-06-01

165

NMINT--introductory courseware for nuclear medicine: database design.  

PubMed Central

Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) provides a dynamic and self-paced learning experience to the medical trainee. Microcomputer based hypermedia systems integrate text, graphics, and image information. We present the design of an introductory CAI course for nuclear medicine called NMINT and elaborate on the underlying relational database that contains clinically relevant information and links to local or remote image storage over high speed networks. The IBM PS/2 Windows system uses Toolbook software augmented by C language modules for image and image-overlay database access. The current implementation stores text, graphical lesson material, and image index information on microcomputer magnetic disk; image data are stored on the attached optical disk. The storage architecture is described in detail. We emphasize its multi-access methods and its expandability into department-wide image networks.

Mankovich, N. J.; Verma, R. C.; Yue, A.; Veyne, D.; Ratib, O.; Bennett, L. R.

1991-01-01

166

Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopic Investigations of Simulated Nuclear Waste Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Technology Center are using advanced microscopy techniques to understand the effects of trace organic chemical additions on nuclear waste slurry flow properties. Trace organic chemicals, surfactants (rheology modifiers), are being used in all types of industries to modify the flow properties of various commercial chemicals. Nuclear waste treatment at the Department of

Calloway

2003-01-01

167

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

168

ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.  

PubMed

The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21571791

Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

2011-05-13

169

ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.  

PubMed

The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21636052

Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

2011-06-01

170

SPECT (Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography) Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... organs. A SPECT scan is a type of nuclear imaging test, which means it uses a radioactive ... 2..50010-5--cesec19. Accessed Dec. 17, 2010. Nuclear medicine. American Society of Radiologic Technologists. https://www. ...

171

The Current Status and Future Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice\\u000a and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians,\\u000a technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing\\u000a approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6

Myung Chul Lee; So Won Oh; June-Key Chung; Dong Soo Lee

2010-01-01

172

Bone Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... Sign up Definition A bone scan is a nuclear imaging test that helps diagnose and track several ... you can expect A bone scan is a nuclear imaging procedure. In nuclear imaging, tiny amounts of ...

173

IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

174

Nuclear Medicine Procedures for the Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this review is on the current role of nuclear imaging studies in the clinical evaluation of patients with acute and chronic renal failure. In this setting nuclear imaging has two roles: diagnostic and prognostic, indicating that these methods are an essential component in the evaluation of renal diseases. The functional assessment of the kidney by nuclear medicine

Sabine E. Haufe; K. Riedmüller; U. Haberkorn

2006-01-01

175

Multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging: artefacts, pitfalls and recommendations.  

PubMed

Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming an essential tool in oncology. Clinically, the best example of multimodality imaging is seen in the rapid evolution of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scanners. However, use of multi-modality imaging is prone to artefacts and pitfalls. Important artefacts that may lead to clinical misinterpretation result from the use of CT data to correct for attenuation and the existence of mismatches between the fused images, for example due to respiratory movement. Furthermore, for institutions who proceed from a standalone PET to a hybrid PET-CT, there is an issue of interchangeability between these systems, especially for quantitative studies. Another issue is visualisation: hospital PACS is not sufficiently capable of adequately viewing integrated images. This article reviews and illustrates the most common artefacts and pitfalls that can be encountered in multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging. For correct management of oncological patients it is essential to be able to detect and correctly interpret these artefacts and pitfalls. Therefore, solutions and recommendations to these problems are provided. PMID:17535775

van Dalen, Jorn A; Vogel, Wouter V; Corstens, Frans H M; Oyen, Wim J G

2007-05-28

176

Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 ?m square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 ?m and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 ?m. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 ?m pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 ?m pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the ‘ideal’ sensor are made.

Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

2009-06-01

177

Proceedings of a workshop on molecular nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy (DOE) has increased the emphasis on research in structural biology and molecular biology. The Department has increased support substantially in the area of basic molecular and structural biology research. To exploit the advances in these fields, OHER has sought to apply those advances in their other areas of responsibility, e.g., health effects research, environmental biology, and, in particular, nuclear medicine. The applications of biotechnology have contributed greatly to the productive research efforts of molecular biology. These techniques include gene manipulation for targeted gene delivery; characterization of molecular probes for hormone, tumor, and neuroreceptors; the receptor-agonist/antagonist binding interactions; studies of mechanisms of cellular communication; and the development of in vitro diagnostics such as molecular probes for studying the aging process and patients with mental disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. The importance of this work is the reasonable expectation that mainly, through an appreciation of the molecular basis of disease, will the most effective and rapid progress be made toward understanding, identifying, solving, and preventing specific disease processes. Critical questions arising before and during the Workshop are how the following technologies can be applied in a practical clinical research or patient management setting: the recombinant DNA methodology, the technology of engineered monoclonal antibodies, the new methods for protein production and purification, and the production of transgenic animals.

Reba, R.C. (ed.) (Chicago Univ., IL (United States))

1992-01-01

178

Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

2011-09-01

179

A Computer Program for Calculation of Approximate Embryo/Fetus Radiation Dose in Nuclear Medicine Applications  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Bayram, Tuncay; Sonmez, Bircan

2012-01-01

180

Development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% o...

F. F. Knapp

1998-01-01

181

A computer program for calculation of approximate embryo/fetus radiation dose in nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487527

Bayram, Tuncay; Sönmez, Bircan

2012-04-01

182

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas (LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging)

2006-07-05

183

Semiconductor detectors for Compton imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation is underway at the University of Liverpool to assess the suitability of two position sensitive semiconductor detectors as components of a Compton camera for nuclear medical imaging. The ProSPECTus project aims to improve image quality, provide shorter data acquisition times and lower patient doses by replacing conventional Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) systems. These mechanically collimated systems are employed to locate a radioactive tracer that has been administered to a patient to study specifically targeted physiological processes. The ProSPECTus system will be composed of a Si(Li) detector and a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, a configuration deemed optimum using a validated Geant4 simulation package. Characterising the response of the detectors to gamma irradiation is essential in maximising the sensitivity and image resolution of the system. To this end, the performance of the HPGe ProSPECTus detector and a suitable Si(Li) detector has been assessed at the University of Liverpool. The energy resolution of the detectors has been measured and a surface scan of the Si(Li) detector has been performed using a finely collimated 241Am gamma ray source. Results from the investigation will be presented.

Harkness, LJ; Judson, D. S.; Kennedy, H.; Sweeney, A.; Boston, A. J.; Boston, H. C.; Cresswell, J. R.; Nolan, P. J.; Sampson, J. A.; Burrows, I.; Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I. H.; Simpson, J.; Bimson, W. E.; Kemp, G. J.

2012-01-01

184

4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

185

The use of different types of thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure extremity doses in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth–dose curves in LiF detectors of different effective thicknesses, together with their responses, were calculated for typical nuclear medicine radiation fields with 99mTc, 18F and 90Y sources. Responses were analysed in function of the radionuclide, detector effective thickness and irradiation geometry. On the other hand the results of the nuclear medicine measurement campaign of the ORAMED project were presented focussing

A. Carnicer; M. Ginjaume; M. A. Duch; F. Vanhavere; M. Sans Merce; S. Baechler; I. Barth; L. Donadille; P. Ferrari; M. Fulop; G. Gualdrini; S. Krim; M. Mariotti; X. Ortega; A. Rimpler; N. Ruiz; P. Olko

186

Hot cell remote nuclear scanning of tank core samples  

SciTech Connect

A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-designed remote measurement system has been constructed for gamma and beta isotopic characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste tank core sample materials in a hot cell. A small, collimated, planar CdZnTe detector is used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Spectral resolution of 2% full-width-at-maximum at 662 kiloelectronvolts (keV) has been obtained remotely using risetime compensation and limited pulse shape discrimination (PSD). Isotopic measurement of high-energy beta emitters was accomplished with a ruggedly made, deeply depleted, surface barrier silicon detector. The primary function of the remote nuclear screening system is to provide a fast, qualitative stratigraphic assessment (with isotopic information) of high-level radioactive material. Both gamma spectroscopy and beta measurements have been performed on actual core segments. Differences in radionuclide content, which correspond with color or texture variations, have been seen in constant cross section core samples, although for many samples the activity variation can be ascribed to geometry and/or mass factors. Discussion of the design, implementation, results and potential benefits will be presented.

Beck, M.A.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Keele, B.D. [Bobolink, Knoxville TN (United States); Addleman, R.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

1995-11-01

187

Quality management in nuclear medicine for better patient care: the IAEA program.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes the practice of nuclear medicine among its Member States with a focus on quality and safety. It considers quality culture as a part of the educational process and as a tool to reduce heterogeneity in the practice of nuclear medicine, and in turn, patient care. Sensitization about quality is incorporated in all its delivery mechanisms. The Agency has developed a structured peer-review process called quality management (QM) audits in nuclear medicine practices to help nuclear medicine facilities improve their quality through this voluntary comprehensive audit process. The process is multidisciplinary, covering all aspects of nuclear medicine practice with a focus on the patient. It complements other QM and accreditation approaches developed by professional societies or accreditation agencies. The Agency is committed to propagate its utility and assist in the implementation process. Similar auditing programs for practice in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, called QUADRIL and QUATRO, respectively, are also in place. Necessary amendments in the auditing process and content are incorporated based on technological and practice changes with time. The reader will become familiar with the approach of the Agency on QM in nuclear medicine and its implementation process to improve patient care. PMID:23561453

Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Pascual, Thomas; Paez, Diana; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

188

A dynamic renal phantom for nuclear medicine studies.  

PubMed

Dynamic radionuclide renal study (renography) provides functional and structural information of the kidney and urinary tract noninvasively. Our purpose in this study is to describe the construction and test results of a dynamic renal phantom with different clinical features of radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five pieces of different shaped Plexiglas boxes: Two kidneys, one liver, two square shaped boxes (one heart and one bladder). The bladder was internally divided into two compartments in order to collect each kidney output separately. The dynamic circulation of the phantom was maintained under a hydrostatic pressure approximately equal to 13.3 kPa (average human blood pressure). The standard dose distribution among different organs and different renographic parameters were calculated from series of normal patients study (91 with 99mTc-DTPA, 68 with 99mTc-EC). All the studies were performed with same camera (Siemens Orbiter Digitrac 7500) equipped with LEAP (low energy all purpose) collimator using ADAC Pegasys II analytic package program under the same clinical procedure. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn for concerning organs and counts per second (CPS) were collected for each ROI. The series of renogram curves were generated by phantom-studies with different flow rates for left kidney (LK) and right kidney (RK). The renal index (RI) for an individual study was calculated as the product of two indexes: "Relative Renal Function" (RRF) (water-volume of LK/RK) and "Relative Renal Time" (RRT) (Tmax of LK/RK). The most significant correlation was found in total CPS for LK and RK between the EC group and phantom studies (p < 0.001). The calculated RI values were used to simulate the patients' study with different clinical features. The dynamics were found reproducible. The phantom is suitable for using in calibration and quality control protocols of the renogram procedure used in Nuclear Medicine. PMID:15789599

SabbirAhmed, A S M; Demir, Mustafa; Kabasakal, Levent; Uslu, Ilhami

2005-02-01

189

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: the incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15–19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field.

Alberto Cuocolo; Wanda Acampa; Andrea Varrone; Marco Salvatore

2006-01-01

190

Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.  

PubMed

The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

Cuocolo, A

2011-06-01

191

Comparison of Bayesian and classical reconstructions of tomographic gamma scanning for assay of nuclear materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomographic gamma scanning has been used to assay special nuclear material for the past several years. Field experience suggests that the data analysis techniques can significantly affect the assay uncertainty. For example, a positive bias has been observed for low-activity samples. Recent attempts to reduce the bias without unacceptable increase in variance have taken a non-Bayesian approach. This paper will

T. L. Burr; D. J. Mercer; T. H. Prettyman

1998-01-01

192

Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

2004-01-01

193

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to

Kotz

1995-01-01

194

The continuing important role of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, the continuing importance and status of development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine are discussed. Radioisotope costs and availability are two important factors, and both nuclear reactors and accelerator facilities are required for production of the parent radioisotopes. Radionuclide generator research is currently focused on the development of generators which provide radioisotopes for positron emission tomography

S. Mirzadeh

1994-01-01

195

Nuclear medicine technologists are able to accurately determine when a myocardial perfusion rest study is necessary  

PubMed Central

Background In myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), typically a stress and a rest study is performed. If the stress study is considered normal, there is no need for a subsequent rest study. The aim of the study was to determine whether nuclear medicine technologists are able to assess the necessity of a rest study. Methods Gated MPS using a 2-day 99mTc protocol for 121 consecutive patients were studied. Visual interpretation by 3 physicians was used as gold standard for determining the need for a rest study based on the stress images. All nuclear medicine technologists performing MPS had to review 82 training cases of stress MPS images with comments regarding the need for rest studies, and thereafter a test consisting of 20 stress MPS images. After passing this test, the nuclear medicine technologists in charge of a stress MPS study assessed whether a rest study was needed or not or if he/she was uncertain and wanted to consult a physician. After that, the physician in charge interpreted the images and decided whether a rest study was required or not. Results The nuclear medicine technologists and the physicians in clinical routine agreed in 103 of the 107 cases (96%) for which the technologists felt certain regarding the need for a rest study. In the remaining 14 cases the technologists were uncertain, i.e. wanted to consult a physician. The agreement between the technologists and the physicians in clinical routine was very good, resulting in a kappa value of 0.92. There was no statistically significant difference in the evaluations made by technicians and physicians (P?=?0.617). Conclusions The nuclear medicine technologists were able to accurately determine whether a rest study was necessary. There was very good agreement between nuclear medicine technologists and physicians in the assessment of the need for a rest study. If the technologists can make this decision, the effectiveness of the nuclear medicine department will improve.

2012-01-01

196

Nuclear medicine comes of age: its present and future roles in diagnosis.  

PubMed

The current role of nuclear medicine in clinical diagnosis was surveyed in a retrospective review of medical records by two internists. About one radiologic imaging study in 20 was a radionuclide procedure, and a somewhat larger fraction was performed in outpatients. The internists found that diagnostic screening procedures in nuclear medicine influenced patient management in 63% of hospital inpatients, and quantitative/monitoring types of tests influenced management in 56%. Of the projected health care costs in the United States of $490 billion, all imaging procedures will account for only $12 billion, and nuclear medicine procedures will account for about $1 billion. Nuclear medicine research continues to blossom. The National Institutes of Health budget for diagnostic imaging research in fiscal year 1988 totaled $86.6 million; nuclear medicine projects represented 43% of this total, all other projects in radiology represented 30%, and projects outside radiology represented 30%. Research with positron emitters and positron emission tomography totaled $20.5 million, and research with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies totaled $6.2 million. Two major problems may hinder the future practice of nuclear medicine in the United States compared with that in other developed countries: (a) the serious time lag in the approval process for new radiopharmaceuticals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and other agencies and (b) the lack of a facility dedicated to the continuous production of radionuclides for biomedical research. Now, there is sporadic production permitted only during high-energy physics experiments. The recent developments which will probably induce the greatest changes in clinical nuclear medicine in the near future are the improvements in design and utilization of single photon emission computed tomographic devices and prolific generation of new radiopharmaceuticals, especially technetium-99m agents for cerebral and myocardial imaging and tumor agents. PMID:2406775

McAfee, J G; Kopecky, R T; Frymoyer, P A

1990-03-01

197

The Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe and its Applications in Biology and Environmental Science  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear microscopy is one of the most powerful tools which are able to determine quantitative trace element distributions in complex samples on a microscopic scale. The advantage of nuclear microprobes are that different ion beam analytical techniques, like PIXE, RBS, STIM and NRA can be applied at the same time allowing the determination of the sample structure, major, minor and trace element distribution simultaneously.In this paper a nuclear microprobe setup developed for the microanalysis of thin complex samples of organic matrix at the Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility is presented. The application of nuclear microscopy in life sciences is shown through an example, the study of penetration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of bodycare cosmetics in skin layers.

Kertesz, Zsofia [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

2007-11-26

198

Brain death revisited: utility confirmed for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides considerable improvement of prognosis in treatable causes of coma, modern intensive care has resulted in a number of patients being kept alive although it is obvious they have no chance of regaining consciousness or of leading a life outside the intensive care unit. Furthermore, advances in immunosuppressive therapy and in surgical techniques have accelerated the field of transplantation medicine.

M. Weckesser; O. Schober

1999-01-01

199

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

SciTech Connect

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

Kieffer, C.T. (Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY); Suto, P.A.

1983-03-01

200

Application of nuclear particle tracks: A scanning x-ray microscope  

SciTech Connect

The scanning x-ray microscope (SXM) is a short-wavelength analog of a near-field optical-scanning microscope, promising spatial resolution of {approximately}100{angstrom} up to {approximately}5 keV x-ray energy. A portion of a synchrotron x-ray beam streams through an etched nuclear particle track in an opaque membrane and impinges on an object within the narrow stream. Scattered or transmitted x-rays are detected with a photon counter. The SXM is feasible because a useful number of synchrotron x-rays, even from a bend magnet, will stream through a small diameter pore. The properties and limitations of the SXM are discussed together with other submicroscopic applications of nuclear particle tracks. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Ebert, P.J.

1991-09-30

201

Cardiac imaging using nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography.  

PubMed

This article concentrates on specific issues that are of current interest in mainstream nuclear cardiology. These include developments in myocardial perfusion technique, the potential diagnostic benefits of ECG-gating and attenuation correction, nuclear imaging in the diagnosis of hibernating myocardium, and the cost-effectiveness of perfusion imaging in patients with suspected angina. PMID:15193933

Crean, Andrew; Dutka, David; Coulden, Richard

2004-05-01

202

An introduction to economic analysis in medicine--the basics of methodology and chosen terms. Examples of results of evaluation in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

This article overviews the basic terms and methodology approaches in economic analysis in medicine: cost-benefit analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis and costminimisation analysis. Particular emphasis is put on nuclear medicine economic evaluation, e.g. FDG - PET studies, sestamibi breast cancer imaging and radioiodine therapy of hyperthyroidism. PMID:14600950

Brockhuis, Bogna; Lass, Piotr; Popowski, Piotr; Scheffler, Justyna

2002-01-01

203

Nuclear medicine in the acute clinical setting: indications, imaging findings, and potential pitfalls.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine imaging provides valuable functional information that complements information obtained with anatomic imaging techniques in the evaluation of patients with specific acute clinical manifestations. Nuclear medicine studies are most often used in conjunction with other imaging modalities and as a problem-solving tool. Under certain circumstances a nuclear medicine study may be indicated as the first-line imaging modality, as in the case of renal scintigraphy for transplant dysfunction in the early postoperative period. Nuclear imaging may be preferred when a conventional first-line study is contraindicated or when it is important to minimize radiation exposure. The portability of nuclear imaging offers particular advantages for the evaluation of critically ill patients whose clinical condition is unstable and who cannot be safely transported out of the intensive care unit. The ability to visualize physiologic and pathophysiologic processes over relatively long time periods without adding to the patient's radiation exposure contributes to the high diagnostic sensitivity of several types of nuclear medicine studies. Viewing the acquired images in the cine mode adds to the value of these studies for diagnosing and characterizing dynamic abnormalities such as intermittent internal bleeding and bile or urine leakage. In this pictorial review, the spectrum of nuclear medicine studies commonly performed in the acute care setting is reviewed according to body systems and organs, with detailed descriptions of the indications, technical considerations, findings, and potential pitfalls of each type of study. Supplemental material available at http://radiographics.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/rg.332125098/-/DC1. PMID:23479703

Uliel, Livnat; Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Holz, Andrew L; McConathy, Jonathan

204

Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

205

Efficacy of clinical diagnostic procedures utilized in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, 1 December 1981-30 November 1982  

SciTech Connect

The efficacy of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was measured. Three levels of efficacy were defined. However, two different methods of evaluating efficacy itself were first compared. Using two methods, logistic regression and entropy-minimax pattern detection, substantial agreement was found between them in several clinical observations. (1) There are no attributes that indicate that any grouping of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings is capable of suggesting that a patient does or does not have a pulmonary embolus. (2) The lung scan test is the only reliable method which indicates that a patient may have a pulmonary embolus or does not have a pulmonary embolus. (3) The validity of these conclusions and the ability to apply them widely to ongoing clinical practice is based on the prospective design of the Study which included an appropriate distribution of institutions by type, size, and geographic location. Also, the only judgement samples was that of the referring physician. (ERB)

Saenger, E.L.

1982-07-01

206

Proceedings of seventh symposium on sharing of computer programs and technology in nuclear medicine, computer assisted data processing  

SciTech Connect

The Council on Computers (CC) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) annually publishes the Proceedings of its Symposium on the Sharing of Computer Programs and Technology in Nuclear Medicine. This is the seventh such volume and has been organized by topic, with the exception of the invited papers and the discussion following them. An index arranged by author and by subject is included.

Howard, B.Y.; McClain, W.J.; Landay, M. (comps.)

1977-01-01

207

Evaluating the fundamental qualities of a nuclear medicine radiographer for the provision of an optimal clinical service  

Microsoft Academic Search

The developing nature of nuclear medicine practice highlights the need for an evaluation of the fundamental qualities of a Radiographer working within this discipline. Existing guidelines appear to be in place for clinical technologists working within nuclear medicine. However, limited guidance has been provided for Radiographers practicing within this discipline. This article aims to discuss the fundamental qualities that are

Marc Griffiths; Simon King; Rob Stewart; Gary Dawson

2010-01-01

208

Advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation: considerations in the design and selection of an imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Nuclear medicine remains a vibrant and dynamic medical specialty because it so adeptly marries advances in basic science\\u000a research, technology, and medical practice in attempting to solve patients’ problems. As a physicist, it is my responsibility\\u000a to identify or design new instrumentation and techniques, and to implement, validate, and help apply these new approaches\\u000a in the practice of nuclear

Jonathan M. Links

1998-01-01

209

Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture

F. F. Jr. Knapp; S. Mirzadeh; A. L. Beets

1995-01-01

210

The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

2013-05-01

211

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the

J. Coulot

2003-01-01

212

Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions  

SciTech Connect

For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

Dzhilavyan, L. Z., E-mail: dzhil@cpc.inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15

213

Assesment of Population Dose from Nuclear Medicine Procedures in Pernambuco (Brazil) During the Period 1990 - 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pernambuco, with its population of 7.1 million, is the most important States of the northeast region of Brazil, and many patients from other States of the region come to be treated in Recife. In Recife there were two clinics, one private the other public, with nuclear medicine practices during the period of 1990-1994. Data were collected on: a) the types

H. J. Khoury; M. A. Pereira; M. G. Stabin; C. A. Hazin; G. Drexler

214

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

215

The Impact of Nuclear Medicine on the Diagnosis and Management of Cardiovascular Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the methods of diagnostic cardiology have brought a change in emphasis toward noninvasive patient study. Nuclear Medicine techniques play an important part among noninvasive methods which enable diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation in the majority of patients with cardiac problems, without resorting to dangerous, painful and costly cardiac catheterization. Discussed are only a few of the myriad clinical

Elias H. Botvinick; David M. Shames

1976-01-01

216

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT and BNCT agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Medicine Program at the University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A small, but significant portion of our effort is directed toward the design of boron-containing neutron therapy agents. The uniqueness of the UT program is

Kabalka

1990-01-01

217

High-transparency coded apertures in planar nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coded apertures provide an alternative to collimators in gamma-ray imaging. Advances in the field of coded apertures have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry of nuclear medicine. Nevertheless, image resolution and the manufacturing techniques that are available are constrained by the thickness of the aperture material. Thickness artifacts result. Thin apertures are theoretically desirable, but high

David M. Starfield; David M. Rubin; Tshilidzi Marwala; Rex J. Keddy

2007-01-01

218

A Memoir of Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: Part 1. Pioneers and Early Advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

r. Conrad Nagle, Newsline editor, has requested that I provide an essay on the history of pediatric nuclear medicine. I recognize that the development of a complex medical discipline results from a series of introductory innovations and contributions by many in- dividual practitioners and by industry. These innovations and contributions, small and large, evolve over time and build one upon

James J. Conway

219

Criteria for Acceptability for Radiological, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy Equipment – Part 3: Radiotherapy Equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 2007, the European Commission has commissioned a group of Experts to undertake the revision of Report RP91 on “Criteria\\u000a for Acceptability of Radiological (including Radiotherapy) and Nuclear Medicine Installations”, which will be published soon.\\u000a This paper presents the revised criteria for Radiotherapy Equipment.

P. Horton; I.-L. Lamm; W. Lehmann; S. Lillicrap

220

Delivery of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine and ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes and provides an overview of, and recent developments in, the area of liposomal contrast agents as applied to the diagnostic specialities of magnetic resonance, computed tomography, nuclear medicine and ultrasonography. Following a brief background of the clinical context and role of contrast agents in these various modalities, the review presents, where appropriate, a discussion of the theoretical

Colin Tilcock

1999-01-01

221

Advances In Processing Of Physical Problems Associated With Acquired Information In Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate functional measurements in nuclear medicine are affected by the attenuation due to photon beam interaction with matter, the poor spatial resolution and the bad energy resolution of the gammaray detector. In this work, an innovative processing of all these effects will be suggested for single photon emission computed tomography imaging. The method requires all of the energy information. Scatter

R. BEN YOUNES; J. Mas; A. Pousse; R. Bidet

1991-01-01

222

Current status of diagnostic counting and imaging techniques used in nuclear medicine: a sketch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnostic procedures used in Nuclear Medicine are designed to provide ; information about the static and\\/or dynamic distribution of some particular ; stable or radioactive material within the patient, as well as the quantity of the ; material present. Thus, the static distribution of ¹³¹I in the thyroid ; indicates the structure of the gland, whereas changes in the distribution

Beck

1975-01-01

223

Stochastic online appointment scheduling of multi-step sequential procedures in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The increased demand for medical diagnosis procedures has been recognized as one of the contributors to the rise of health care costs in the U.S. in the last few years. Nuclear medicine is a subspecialty of radiology that uses advanced technology and radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. Procedures in nuclear medicine require the use of radiopharmaceuticals, are multi-step, and have to be performed under strict time window constraints. These characteristics make the scheduling of patients and resources in nuclear medicine challenging. In this work, we derive a stochastic online scheduling algorithm for patient and resource scheduling in nuclear medicine departments which take into account the time constraints imposed by the decay of the radiopharmaceuticals and the stochastic nature of the system when scheduling patients. We report on a computational study of the new methodology applied to a real clinic. We use both patient and clinic performance measures in our study. The results show that the new method schedules about 600 more patients per year on average than a scheduling policy that was used in practice by improving the way limited resources are managed at the clinic. The new methodology finds the best start time and resources to be used for each appointment. Furthermore, the new method decreases patient waiting time for an appointment by about two days on average. PMID:23536029

Pérez, Eduardo; Ntaimo, Lewis; Malavé, César O; Bailey, Carla; McCormack, Peter

2013-03-28

224

A general algorithm for optimal sampling schedule design in nuclear medicine imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal sampling schedule (OSS) is of great interest in biomedical experiment design, as it can improve the physiological parameter estimation precision and significantly reduce the samples required. A number of well designed algorithms and software packages have been developed, which deal with the instantaneous measurements at discrete times. However, in nuclear medicine tracer kinetic studies, the imaging systems, such as

Xianjin Li; David Dagan Feng; Koon-pong Wong

2001-01-01

225

Upper extremity DVT correlation of MR and nuclear medicine flow imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to determine correlation between MR and nuclear medicine flow studies in the evaluation of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis. We retrospectively reviewed MR and radionuclide venography images obtained in 10 patients with suspected upper extremity venous thrombosis. In nine cases there was complete agreement in the identification of thrombus. In one case, MR images

Julia R. Fielding; J. Stevan Nagel; Oliver Pomeroy

1997-01-01

226

Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image restoration using the constrained least-squares (CLS) method theoretically adapts to the image being processed. In addition, it only requires knowing the modulation transfer function of the imaging system when applied to nuclear medicine images. Prompted by these observations, a systematic evaluation of the effects of the form of the \\

Bill C. Penney; Michael A. King; Ronald B. Schwinger; Stephen P. Baker; Peter Stritzke; Paul W. Doherty

1987-01-01

227

The use of data compression in telecomunication of Nuclear Medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike conventional radiographs, the detail contained within Nuclear Medicine images is not fine in its structure. Consequently, it is possible that some loss of detail may be tolerable when using data compression techniques in image telecomunication. This study has been performed to compare a software implementation of the linear predictive coding method with a hardware based 2 dimensional cosine transform

Stuart A. Jackson; Ivan Szasz

1992-01-01

228

High energy 3-D nuclear medicine imaging using coded apertures with a conventional gamma camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard nuclear medicine imaging uses photon collimation and thus suffers from very low sensitivity, especially if high energy (>511 keV) isotopes are to be imaged. Coded aperture techniques use a coded pattern mask instead of a collimator to encode the photon source distribution, thus every photon source contributes to the signal in the whole detector area. It significantly improves the

L. Zhangl; R. C. Lanzal; B. K. P. Horn; R. E. Zimmerman

1998-01-01

229

Development of an automated multisample scanning system for nuclear track etched detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an automated scanning system for handling a large number of nuclear track etched detectors (NTEDs). The system consists of a magazine station for sample storage, a robotic sample loader, a high-speed wide-area digital imaging microscope device (modified HSP-1000) and PitFit software for analyzing etch pits. We investigated the performance of the system using CR-39 plastic NTED samples exposed to high-energy heavy ions and fast neutrons. When applying the system to fast neutron dosimetry, the typical scanning speed was about 100 samples/day with a scan area of 4 cm2/sample. The neutron doses obtained from a fully automatic measurement agreed closely with those from a semi-automatic measurement. These results indicate the feasibility of fully automatic scanning of CR-39 personal neutron dosimeters. The system is also expected to be applicable to future large-scale experiments using CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass NTEDs for observing ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays with high mass resolution.

Tawara, H.; Eda, K.; Takahashi, K.; Doke, T.; Hasebe, N.; Kodaira, S.; Ota, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.

2008-08-01

230

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5.

J. G. Kereiakes; E. L. Saenger; S. R. Thomas

1986-01-01

231

Nuclear medicine in the 1990s: a quantitative physiological approach.  

PubMed

This paper describes the potential advantages to medical diagnosis and treatment that might be obtained from the wider application of positron emission tomography as a clinical tool. Developments along the lines suggested here will require a radical change in thinking from both clinicians and the medically related scientific community in the UK and some enlightened and resourceful funding from a mixture of charitable, industrial and government sources. If these ideas are to be pursued successfully, then the work must start now on a much wider scale than is presently perceived in the UK, and close collaboration between physicists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, clinicians and industrialists is needed. Furthermore, it is imperative that the scientific developments now underway in silicon technology, parallel data processors, biochemical and pharmacological processes and even high-temperature superconductors be kept under close and constant review by those associated with the technological advancements of medicine, so that the value of such developments is rapidly transferred to applications to medicine. This must include closer relationships between academic medicine and science than is the general rule in the UK at present. In conclusion, the scenario presented here includes the installation of regional cyclotron facilities to provide a large number of institutions in the UK with positron-emitter labelled radiopharmaceuticals. Additionally, agents labelled with radionuclides from in-house generators and other already existing higher-energy cyclotrons will provide a versatile and valuable range of radiopharmaceuticals for the study of human disease. These developments must be supported by the manufacture of lower-cost positron camera systems, as suggested here, connected to high-data-rate parallel processors to provide images of body function and to determine the effects brought about by disease. These images may then be processed using algorithms based on kinetic models of the body systems to provide information about the basic biochemical and physiological processes of the body. Such a development could have a profound effect on our knowledge of human disease and on our ability to control and treat it successfully. PMID:2785428

Ott, R J

1989-05-01

232

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long?held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases. PMID:23244780

Parr, Ryan L; Martin, Luis H

2012-07-01

233

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long?held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases.

2012-01-01

234

``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, ``The Unveiled Heart'', has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

2004-07-01

235

Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

Smart, Richard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217 (Australia)

2011-05-05

236

Comparison of Bayesian and classical reconstructions of tomographic gamma scanning for assay of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

Tomographic gamma scanning has been used to assay special nuclear material for the past several years. Field experience suggests that the data analysis techniques can significantly affect the assay uncertainty. For example, a positive bias has been observed for low-activity samples. Recent attempts to reduce the bias without unacceptable increase in variance have taken a non-Bayesian approach. This paper will compare some of these non-Bayesian approaches to a Bayesian approach which is a modification of an approach used in photon emission computed tomography. The Bayesian approach is both more computationally demanding and more satisfying, though the choice of the prior probability for the distribution of nuclear material can impact the analysis. Assay results for scaled-down versions of the full-dimensioned problem will be presented for several methods and cases.

Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

1998-12-01

237

Nuclear medicine survey recommendations for a changing regulatory environment.  

PubMed

The revision of 10 CFR 35 approved on 23 September 2000 and due for implementation in 2001, reduces the number of required radiation and contamination surveys to one ambient radiation survey each day when an administration requiring a written directive is used. This paper compares the current requirements in 10 CFR 35; the single, remaining, specific requirement in the revised part 35; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guidance in the proposed NUREG SR1556 and the general requirement for surveys to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 20. We also make recommendations on what periodic surveys are prudent. PMID:11669196

Vernig, P G; Schumacher, T A

2001-11-01

238

Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach-Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach-Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift 35Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO3, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

Nesprías, F.; Debray, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Kreiner, A. J.; Vega, N.; de la Fournière, E.

2013-04-01

239

MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

2010-11-01

240

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188\\/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated

F. F. Jr. Knapp; A. L. Beets; R. Boll; H. Luo; D. W. McPherson; S. Mirzadeh

1997-01-01

241

Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used

H. H. Lin; S. L. Dong; H. J. Yang; Sharon Chen; C. T. Shih; K. S. Chuang; C. H. Lin; W. J. Yao; M. L. Jan

2011-01-01

242

A high-speed, pressurised multi-wire gamma camera for dynamic imaging in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

High count rate detectors are of particular interest in nuclear medicine as they permit lower radiation doses to be received by the patient and allow dynamic images of high statistical quality to be obtained.We have developed a high-speed gamma camera based on a multi-wire proportional chamber. The chamber is filled with a xenon gas mixture and has been operated at

A. Barr; L. Bonaldi; G. Carugno; G. Charpak; D. Iannuzzi; M. Nicoletto; A. Pepato; S. Ventura

2002-01-01

243

The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99\\/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the

F. F. Jr

1998-01-01

244

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188\\/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194

F. F. Knapp Jr.; A. P. Callahan; S. Mirzadeh; C. Brihaye; M. Guillaume

1991-01-01

245

The molecular imaging approach to image infections and inflammation by nuclear medicine techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory and infectious diseases are a heterogeneous class of diseases that may be divided into infections, acute inflammation\\u000a and chronic inflammation. Radiological imaging techniques have, with the exception of functional MRI, high sensitivity but\\u000a lack in specificity. Nuclear medicine techniques, by contrast, allow the in vivo detection in humans of different physiologic\\u000a and pathologic phenomena and offer noninvasive tools to

Alberto SignoreAndor; Andor W. J. M. Glaudemans

246

A nuclear medicine gamma-ray detector based on germanium strip detector technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in germanium strip detector technology have opened up the possibility to produce a novel gamma-ray detector for use in nuclear medicine. The advantages of position sensitivity coupled with the fine spectral resolution from high-purity germanium can be exploited to produce a tracking detector for use with a variety of biochemically useful isotopes. The tracking ability of the gamma-ray

C. J Hall; W. I. Helsby; R. A Lewis; P. Nolan; A. Boston

2003-01-01

247

Redundant array of independent disks: Practical on-line archiving of nuclear medicine image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

While various methods for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine image data exist, none support rapid on-line search and\\u000a retrieval of information. We assembled a 90-Gbyte redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system using 10-, 9-Gbyte disk\\u000a drives. The system was connected to a personal computer and software was used to partition the array into 4-Gbyte sections.\\u000a All studies (50,000) acquired

James L. Lear; Jonathan P. Pratt; Nelson Trujillo

1996-01-01

248

Use of differential scanning fluorimetry as a high-throughput assay to identify nuclear receptor ligands  

PubMed Central

Identification of ligands that interact with nuclear receptors is both a major biological problem and an important initial step in drug discovery. Several in vitro and in vivo techniques are commonly used to screen ligand candidates against nuclear receptors; however, none of the current assays allow screening without modification of either the protein and/or the ligand in a high-throughput fashion. Differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) allows unmodified potential ligands to be screened as 10µL reactions in 96-well format against partially purified protein, revealing specific interactors. As a proof of principle, we used a commercially-available nuclear receptor ligand candidate chemical library to identify interactors of the human estrogen receptor ? ligand binding domain (ER? LBD). Compounds that interact specifically with ER? LBD stabilize the protein and result in an elevation of the thermal denaturation point, as monitored by the environmentally-sensitive dye SYPRO orange. We successfully identified all three compounds in the library that have previously been identified to interact with ER?, with no false positive results.

DeSantis, Kara; Reed, Aaron; Rahhal, Raneen; Reinking, Jeff

2012-01-01

249

Patient exposure to ionising radiation due to nuclear medicine cardiac procedures.  

PubMed

Nuclear cardiology procedures are among the most extensively performed radionuclide studies. Procedures for the assessment of myocardial perfusion, contractile function and metabolism have gained a prominent position in clinical practice. Health risk to patients from radiopharmaceuticals results only from exposure to ionizing radiation. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures,including the cardiological ones, are accompanied by a very small risk of radiation induced malignant tumours. Death risk from stress and rest perfusion of myocardium (effective dose of about 10 mSv) could be estimated as lower than 0.1 per mille. PMID:23047576

Ku?mierek, Jacek; P?achci?ska, Anna

2012-04-24

250

Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

1995-02-01

251

Extremity exposure in nuclear medicine: preliminary results of a European study.  

PubMed

The Work Package 4 of the ORAMED project, a collaborative project (2008-11) supported by the European Commission within its seventh Framework Programme, is concerned with the optimisation of the extremity dosimetry of medical staff in nuclear medicine. To evaluate the extremity doses and dose distributions across the hands of medical staff working in nuclear medicine departments, an extensive measurement programme has been started in 32 nuclear medicine departments in Europe. This was done using a standard protocol recording all relevant information for radiation exposure, i.e. radiation protection devices and tools. This study shows the preliminary results obtained for this measurement campaign. For diagnostic purposes, the two most-used radionuclides were considered: (99m)Tc and (18)F. For therapeutic treatments, Zevalin(®) and DOTATOC (both labelled with (90)Y) were chosen. Large variations of doses were observed across the hands depending on different parameters. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of the positioning of the extremity dosemeter for a correct estimate of the maximum skin doses. PMID:21233097

Sans Merce, M; Ruiz, N; Barth, I; Carnicer, A; Donadille, L; Ferrari, P; Fulop, M; Ginjaume, M; Gualdrini, G; Krim, S; Mariotti, F; Ortega, X; Rimpler, A; Vanhavere, F; Baechler, S

2011-01-12

252

Synthesis and theoretical analysis of samarium nanoparticles: perspectives in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The use of lanthanides as radionuclides in nuclear medicine is well-known, because they can be used for detecting and treating cancerous tumors. Due to the fact that the doses are directly related to the number of unstable atoms involved, the possibility of obtaining controlled-size lanthanide nanoparticles opens a wide scope for their application in nuclear medicine. In this work, we report the synthesis of anew samarium nanoparticle by using the bioreduction method, where the pH conditions play an important role in the size control of the produced clusters. The nanoparticles were characterized by using an transmission electron microscope, in addition to the use of a quantum mechanical method to relate the atomic and electronic structures to the chemical selectivity, which allows us to predict a direct coordination between the DTPA-bis-biotin molecules with the samarium nanoparticles larger than 55 atoms. This work involves experimental and theoretical methods to propose a totally new application for nanotechnology in nuclear medicine. PMID:16852046

Ascencio, Jorge A; Rincon, Ana C; Canizal, Gerardo

2005-05-12

253

Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality were analysed to position nuclear medicine organisations in the service triangle theory of Haywood-Farmer [ Int J Production and Operations Management 1988; 6:19-29]. After distinguishing the service quality dimensions of nuclear medicine, a comparison was made between the service quality perceptions of patients ( n=259) and those of personnel ( n=24). We examined the importance of different service quality dimensions by studying their relationship to patient satisfaction. The proposed five dimensions of SERVQUAL, the most commonly used service quality measurement scale, were not confirmed. Patients considered tangibles and assurance as one dimension, while the original empathy dimension was separated into empathy and convenience. Personnel perceived all service quality dimensions as less good than did patients, except for empathy. Results indicated that patients' perception of service quality was correlated with patient satisfaction, especially in terms of reliability and tangibles-assurance. Based on these service quality dimensions, we suggest that nuclear medicine services need to optimise their physical and process component and the technical skills of personnel. PMID:12192553

De Man, Stefanie; Gemmel, Paul; Vlerick, Peter; Van Rijk, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi

2002-06-20

254

Development of software for clinical protocols in nuclear medicine. Final report for the period 21 November 1994 - 21 November 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After two technical contracts of IAEA, a portable image processing software (PIP) has been developed and some clinical protocols for nuclear medicine studies with IBM PCs which are connected to analogue gamma cameras. In addition, a suitable front end for...

A. Todd-Pokropek

1996-01-01

255

32. Dni Nuklearnej Mediciny: Suhrny prednasok a posterov. (32. Days of the Nuclear Medicine: Summaries of the lectures and posters).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the conference dealing with nuclear medicine problems. The book consists of the sections: (1) Introduction lectures; (2) Radionuclide diagnostic methods in the oncology; (3) Miscellaneous; (4) Device techn...

1995-01-01

256

Efficacy of Clinical Diagnostic Procedures Utilized in Nuclear Medicine. Technical Progress Report, 1 December 1981-30 November 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The efficacy of nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was measured. Three levels of efficacy were defined. However, two different methods of evaluating efficacy itself were first compared. Using two methods, logistic regression and entropy-minimax patter...

E. L. Saenger

1982-01-01

257

Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research: Positron Computed Tomography Assessment. Final Report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of the final phase of the study effort generally titled Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research. The previous work is reviewed and extended to an assessment providing perspectives on medical applications of positron emission t...

E. J. Potchen G. I. Harris D. A. R. D. Gift J. E. Siebert

1983-01-01

258

Automated interpretation of nuclear medicine scans for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pattern recognition algorithms make consistent measureable comparisons among image sets. In this application, normal patient patterns are recongnized and the degree of difference from normal indicates a medical diagnosis of either low- or high-probability of pulmonary embolism. The figure of merit for this study is the vector inner product between the Fourier transforms of each patient image and a filter. The medical application lends itself to implemenation in an optical correlator.

Banish, Michele R.; Datz, Frederick L.; Christian, Paul E.

1995-08-01

259

Nuclear imaging in pediatrics  

SciTech Connect

The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

Siddiqui, A.R.

1985-01-01

260

Integration Between Computed Tomography and Nuclear Medicine for Non-invasive Assessment of Coronary Anatomy and Myocardial Perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of nuclear medicine techniques to cardiology is based on the identification of the functional consequences of coronary stenoses, i.e. of myocardial ischaemia. In nuclear cardiology, the evaluation of myocardial perfusion with single-photon- emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the most commonly performed procedure. The SPECT study is currently performed with electrocardiogram (ECG) gating, which enables a simultaneous evaluation of

Wanda Acampa; Mario Petretta; Carmela Nappi; Alberto Cuocolo

2010-01-01

261

PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (Y????/?Y????/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their research and results to more than 150 participants from 14 countries. During the conference, exhibitors presented medical equipment used in nuclear medicine. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, the European Regional Development Fund and the Cyprus Biomedical Research Foundation. Also, we appreciate the support of the various local sponsors listed in the conference programme. We would like to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to the organising committee, the scientific committee and the supporting professional organizations for the success of the conference. We also thank all of speakers for their excellent contributions, all the participants for their input, and the exhibitors for their valuable presentations. Special thanks go to Demetris Kaolis, Maria Christofidou, Isabelle Chrysanthou, Charalambos Yiannakkaras, Ourania Demetriadou, and Elena Christofidou for their invaluable contribution to the conference. The conference volume consists of 26 selected proceedings papers. We would like to thank all of the authors for their time and genuine efforts and the reviewers for their fruitful comments. The Conference Chairpersons Stelios Christofides and Yiannis Parpottas

Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

2011-09-01

262

Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.  

PubMed Central

The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and an assumed dose limit of 1 mSv (effective dose equivalent) to the infant.

Stabin, M G

1997-01-01

263

An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,?) or (?,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity?gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented. PMID:23556835

D'Auria, John M; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E; Ruth, Thomas J; Schmor, Paul

2013-03-01

264

[Advances of the surgery of the breast cancer with help of the nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

The incorporation of the nuclear medicine to the surgical current practice In the treatment of the cancer of breast, by means of the application of radioactive isotopes, have supposed a great achievement not only in the surgical and predicted results but also in the surgical skills more effective and less aggressive. The systematic research of the marking and extirpation of Sentinel Lymph Node is avoiding in the early cancer the linfadenectomy axilar. The application of the ROLL and SNOLL skills is being determinant in the extirpation with trustworthy margins of the non-palpable lesions cancer, with big safety instead harpoons that we used before. PMID:20432675

Sierra García, Antonio

2009-01-01

265

The traceability chain of 131I measurements for nuclear medicine in Cuba.  

PubMed

The national traceability chain for (131)I activity measurements performed in nuclear medicine in Cuba is described. At the highest (primary) level, liquid scintillation counting employing the CIEMAT/NIST method is used; at the secondary level, a secondary standard radionuclide calibrator is utilized that allows for a quick and simple transference of the measurement unit to the tertiary level of end-users' instruments. The equivalence of Cuban standards and the assessment of measurement uncertainties at the end-user level are determined through the results of measurement comparisons. PMID:22534014

Oropesa, P; Moreno, Y; Serra, R A; Hernández, A T

2012-03-05

266

National comparison of 131I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries.  

PubMed

A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of (131)I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value. PMID:20006521

Olsovcová, Veronika; Iwahara, Akira; Oropesa, Pilar; Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha; Ghafoori, Mostafa; Son, Hye-Kyung; Sahagia, Maria; Tastan, Selma; Zimmerman, Brian

2009-11-20

267

ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity\\u000a and high-energy cyclotron.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy\\u000a and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of

Ferid Haddad; Ludovic Ferrer; Arnaud Guertin; Thomas Carlier; Nathalie Michel; Jacques Barbet; Jean-François Chatal

2008-01-01

268

Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

2008-04-01

269

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

270

"Nuclear" medicine physicians as communicators: their point of view on the aftermath of "nuclear" disaster.  

PubMed

On March 11th, 2011 earthquakes and a subsequent tsunami devastated northern Japan. The consecutive technical catastrophe in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only an additional local tragedy, it also turned out to be a global disaster. In this review we intend to discuss emerging problems and enlighten a way to communicate in such events, tell people how to react in such scenarios and prevent panic by providing rational information. PMID:22476594

Staudenherz, Anton; Sinzinger, Helmut

2012-02-01

271

Precision magnetic quadrupole lens for a nuclear scanning microprobe based on an ÉGP-10 electrostatic tandem accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic ideas underlying the design of a precision magnetic quadrupole lens for a nuclear scanning microprobe with a maximal\\u000a accelerating voltage of 14 MV are set forth. Four magnetic quadrupoles are combined into doublets. The doublets are placed\\u000a on adjusting gears, which bring the local coordinate system of each lens into coincidence with the laboratory system related\\u000a to the axis

V. A. Rebrov; A. G. Ponomarev; D. V. Magilin; I. A. Beloshapka; A. B. Dudnik; S. N. Abramovich; N. V. Zavjalov; A. G. Zvenigorodsky; E. V. Zimin

2007-01-01

272

Optimization of the probe-forming system for a scanning nuclear microprobe based on the ÉGP-10 electrostatic tandem accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probe-forming system of a nuclear scanning microprobe based on the parametric multiplets of quadrupole lenses is optimized.\\u000a The optimization is aimed at creating an ion probe with energy of several MeV that produces a micrometer spot on the target\\u000a at a current of ?100 pA. The influence of different geometric and physical parameters on the ion-optical properties of the

S. N. Abramovich; V. N. Zavjalov; A. G. Zvenigorodsky; I. G. Ignat’ev; D. V. Magilin; K. I. Melnik; A. G. Ponomarev

2005-01-01

273

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

274

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

275

An iterative particle filter approach for respiratory motion estimation in nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners has made accurate compensation of patient motion increasingly important. A major source of corrupting motion in NM acquisition is due to respiration. Therefore a particle filter (PF) approach has been proposed as a powerful method for motion correction in NM. The probabilistic view of the system in the PF is seen as an advantage that considers the complexity and uncertainties in estimating respiratory motion. Previous tests using XCAT has shown the possibility of estimating unseen organ configuration using training data that only consist of a single respiratory cycle. This paper augments application specific adaptation methods that have been implemented for better PF estimates with an iterative model update step. Results show that errors are further reduced to an extent up to a small number of iterations and such improvements will be advantageous for the PF to cope with more realistic and complex applications.

Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Wells, Kevin; Lewis, Emma; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

2011-03-01

276

Individual monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Monitoring of internal exposure for nuclear medicine workers requires frequent measurements due to the short physical half-lives of most radionuclides used in this field. The aim of this study was to develop screening measurements performed at the workplace by local staff using standard laboratory instrumentation, to detect whether potential intake has occurred. Such measurements do not enable to determine the committed effective dose, but are adequate to verify that a given threshold is not exceeded. For radioiodine, i.e. (123)I, (124)I, (125)I and (131)I, a calibrated surface contamination monitor is placed in front of the thyroid to detect whether the activity threshold has been exceeded. For radionuclides with very short physical half-lives (? 6 h), such as (99m)Tc and those used in positron emission tomography imaging, i.e. (11)C, (15)O, (18)F and (68)Ga, screening procedures consist in performing daily measurements of the ambient dose rate in front of the abdomen. Other gamma emitters used for imaging, i.e. (67)Ga, (111)In and (201)Tl, are measured with a scintillation detector located in front of the thorax. For pure beta emitters, i.e. (90)Y and (169)Er, as well as beta emitters with low-intensity gamma rays, i.e. (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re and (188)Re, the procedure consists in measuring hand contamination immediately after use. In Switzerland, screening procedures have been adopted by most nuclear medicine services since such measurements enable an acceptable monitoring while taking into account practical and economic considerations. PMID:21081522

Baechler, S; Stritt, N; Bochud, F O

2010-11-15

277

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for

F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente

2011-01-01

278

Preoperative Localization of Parathyroid Adenomas: A Comparison of Power and Colour Doppler Ultrasonography with Nuclear Medicine Scintigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To compare power and colour Doppler ultrasonography (US) with nuclear medicine scintigraphy (NM) in the preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with biochemical evidence of PHPT underwent pre-operative US and NM for parathyroid adenoma localization. Both studies were interpreted independently without prior knowledge of the other study's findings. All

Jac D. Scheiner; Damian E. Dupuy; John M. Monchik; Richard B. Noto; John J. Cronan

2001-01-01

279

Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with

Heineman

1993-01-01

280

Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

2011-01-01

281

The effects of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine on diagnostic radioimmunoassay testing. Is there any significant interference  

SciTech Connect

The administration of radioisotopes for diagnostic nuclear medicine scans and therapeutic procedures is quite prevalent today. A period of interference with the counting of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) test may occur with the serum of a patient receiving an in vivo radionuclide that decays by gamma emission. Because the logistics of precounting all specimens may be cumbersome and prohibitive, it is important to determine the degree of this interference. In this study, the authors evaluate the potential interference of the most commonly used radioisotopes with RIA studies. For two months (March and August 1988) 10,650 patient serum specimens were counted for significant background gamma radiation before RIA testing. Forty-three patients, on whom 105 RIA tests were performed, were identified as having preassay gamma radiation in their serum. With the use of selective energy windows for each different interfering radionuclide, proportional determinations were made as to the amount of interfering gamma radiation spilling into the iodine 125 test marker window. It was shown that initial whole serum pretest gamma counts as high as 111,000 counts/minute did not significantly affect the results of the RIA. Because of the meticulous washing and decanting procedures required in modern RIA and the monoclonal nature of most antibodies used currently, it appears the degree of nonspecific binding of this potentially interfering radiation is minuscule. The energy level of cobalt 57, however, and many of the other commonly used radioisotopes, overlaps so closely that it is difficult to window for this interference. It is possible, therefore, that this distinction cannot be made and folate and vitamin B12 test systems using cobalt 57 markers may have to be routinely prescreened.

Riccio, J.A.; Maturani, D.; Wright, J.; Fleetwood, M.K. (Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (USA))

1990-11-01

282

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

283

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51+/-0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05+/-0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

284

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator  

PubMed Central

Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N?,N?,N??-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC.

Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

2011-01-01

285

Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography: Literature scanned from April 11, 1987 through November 10, 1988  

SciTech Connect

This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data. The reader is referred to a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and to ''A Source List of Nuclear Data Bibliographies, Compilations, and Evaluations'' for a more comprehensive list. Since this publication is not cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in this paper. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments. 190 refs., 3 tabs.

Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

1988-12-01

286

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

287

CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine diagnostic applications are growing in search for more disease specific or more physiologically relevant imaging. The data are obtained non-invasively from large field /? cameras or from miniaturised probes. As far as single photon emitters are concerned, often labelled with 99mTc (140 keV, /?), nuclear instrumentation deals with poor counting statistics due to the method of spatial localisation and low contrast to noise due to scatter in the body. Since the 1960s attempts have been made to replace the NaI scintillator by semiconductor detectors with better spectrometric characteristics to improve contrast and quantitative measurements. They allow direct conversion of energy and thus more compact sensors. Room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as cadmium tellure and cadmium zinc tellure have favourable physical characteristics for medical applications which have been investigated in the 1980s. During one decade, they have been used in miniaturised probes such as for inter-operative surgery guidance which is today in a fast growing phase. This material suffers from charge transport problems which has slowed down imaging applications. Owing to a considerable research work on material, contacts and dedicated electronics small field of view compact pixellated /? cameras have been prototyped and one already marketed. Although extended clinical evaluation has to be conducted and long-term reliability assesed, the available data already confirm the expected gain in image contrast. Medical interest for dedicated imaging systems is greater than it was in the 1980s when the first mobile /? cameras were marketed. The future of CdTe or CdZnTe-based imager for routine use now relies at first on industrial costs.

Scheiber, C.

2000-07-01

288

Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.  

PubMed

This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed. PMID:11214886

Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

2001-03-01

289

A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

2012-12-01

290

Nuclear medicine diagnostic techniques in the era of pathophysiology-based CSF biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine techniques were the first functional imaging techniques used to support the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Perfusion-SPECT allows registration of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) which is altered in a characteristic temporal-parietal pattern in AD. Numerous studies have shown the diagnostic value of reduced CBF and metabolic changes using perfusion-SPECT and FDG-PET in AD diagnosis as well as in differential diagnosis against frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia with Lewy-Bodies (DLB), and vascular cognitive disorders. This renders perfusion-SPECT an important piece of the puzzle (together with other diagnostic tests) by the clinician is often faced when making a final etiologic dementia diagnosis especially between AD and FTD. A similar diagnostic value can be expected when arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI sequence is used, but the diagnostic value has yet to be confirmed in lager studies. Recently, more pathophysiology-based biomarkers in CSF and Amyloid-PET tracers have been developed that probably have a higher diagnostic accuracy than the more indirect rCBF changes seen in perfusion-SPECT. In the current review, we describe recent advances in AD biomarkers as well as improvements in the SPECT technique. PMID:21971454

Weih, Markus; Degirmenci, Umüt; Kreil, Sebastian; Suttner, Gerald; Schmidt, Daniela; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lewczuk, Piotr; Kuwert, Torsten

2011-01-01

291

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

292

Production of 99Mo for Nuclear Medicine by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a new route to produce 99Mo for nuclear medicine by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction. The reaction cross section is known to be ˜1.5 b in the neutron energy, En, range from 12 to 17 MeV: 10-times larger than the thermal-neutron capture cross section of 98Mo. By irradiating an enriched 100Mo target for 198 h with neutrons of ˜1013 n/(cm2 s) at En˜ 14 MeV, one can produce 79 GBq/g specific activity of 99Mo. Since the cross sections for 100Mo(n, p)100Nb, 100Mo(n,n p)99Nb and 100Mo(n,?)97Zr at 12? En? 17 MeV are small, less than a few mb, radioactive waste during and/or after chemical processing of 99Mo would not be a serious problem. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99Mo without using highly enriched 235U.

Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

2009-03-01

293

An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.  

PubMed

Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

2011-04-01

294

Correlative imaging in abdominal infection: an algorithmic approach using nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of focal and diffuse infectious processes involve the abdomen. At one extreme are diseases such as pyelonephritis, cystitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, conditions usually diagnosed without imaging studies and treated without complications. At the other extreme are abdominal abscesses, which may defy clinical diagnosis, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and may remain undetected or insufficiently characterized in spite of multiple imaging studies. The limited diagnostic value of clinical evaluation and plain film radiography in abscess detection has lead to widespread use of sophisticated imaging techniques including Gallium-67 (67Ga) scintigraphy, Indium-111 WBC (111In-WBC) scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography (US). Abdominal abscesses occur in a wide variety of anatomic sites, may involve any abdominal organ system, and have a number of different causes. The heterogeneity of the disease process and the varying capabilities of the different imaging techniques (with respect to site and organ system) make reliance on a single technique undesirable. An algorithmic approach using 67Ga or 111In-WBC scintigraphy, CT, and US provides a logical and clinically practical approach to complicated abdominal infection. By recognizing differences in clinical presentation and by appreciating the diagnostic strengths and weaknesses of nuclear medicine, CT, and US, the algorithm provides a reliable and direct route to accurate diagnosis while minimizing unnecessary examinations.

Gagliardi, P.D.; Hoffer, P.B.; Rosenfield, A.T.

1988-10-01

295

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

296

Rapid estimation of inhaled particle size for internal dose during nuclear emergency medicine.  

PubMed

Information on particle size is one of the important factors for internal dose estimation at accidents with airborne radioactive materials. An autoradiography method has been investigated as a technique for the sizing of alpha-emitting particles. Concerning nuclear emergency medicine, the waiting time for dose estimation is limited. For determining the shortest estimation time, the exposure time of autoradiography was examined using PuO2 particles captured on HEPA filters. In this study, the effective counting efficiency of tracks produced by alpha particles was evaluated to be 0.31 by a numerical simulation. The minimum exposure time for PuO2 with aerodynamic diameter of 5 ?m was found to be only 10 min. When any star-like alpha particle track was not detected after 6 h of exposure, even if the sample had significant radioactivity, the aerodynamic diameter was assumed to be less than 1 ?m. When the radioactivity of PuO2 particles detected by autoradiography within 1 h was dominant of total activity, the aerodynamic diameter would be estimated to be over 5 ?m. These results indicate that the precise dose estimation is useful for the decision of medical treatment. PMID:24162059

Fukutsu, Kumiko; Yamada, Yuji

2013-12-01

297

[The indication for radiosynoviorthesis. From the perspective of the nuclear medicine expert, rheumatic orthopedist and internist].  

PubMed

Radiosynovectomy or radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), the intra-articular injection of beta-emitting radionuclides (e.g. colloidal preparations of 90-Yttrium, 186-Rhenium or 169-Erbium), is an approved, reliable and easily performed therapy for the treatment of chronic synovitis without harmful side effects. The best clinical results have been obtained in patients with predominantly inflammatory joint disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or reactive arthritis. But RSO is also established to treat pain and persistent effusions after total knee replacement. It also represents an adjuvant therapy in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis to protect against recurrence following synovectomy. In patients with hemophilia and arthropathy a reduction in joint bleeding is seen and the use of coagulation factor is reduced. The indication for RSO should be made in close cooperation between the referring physician, the rheumatologist and the nuclear medicine expert in the context of a multimodal therapy concept. In this way, success rates of over 80%, with only few side effects, can be achieved, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis and hemophilic arthropathy. PMID:21267739

Linke, R; Gelse, K; Schuch, F

2011-01-01

298

Highlights of the 25th Anniversary EANM Congress Milan 2012: nuclear medicine and molecular imaging at its best.  

PubMed

The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) celebrated its 25th Anniversary Congress in Milan under the chairmanship of Professor Emilio Bombardieri and the auspices of the Italian Society of Nuclear Medicine. As always, the Congress was a great success: more than 5,530 participants from 88 countries came from Europe and beyond. In spite of limited budgets, industry again made an important contribution: New innovative equipment and tracers demonstrating the latest technology and innovations were presented by 122 companies. This review is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions made in the fields of oncology, multimodality imaging, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers, and in other clinical sciences as well as in radionuclide therapy, which all show promising and great innovations. PMID:23917722

Langsteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

2013-08-06

299

A study on the dependence of the change in total scan time on the timing of the scan-time determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the change in the scan time according to the scan-time determination in an examination by using a pre-set time to identify a reasonable alternative to altering the scan time. A hepatobiliary scan was conducted using the radiopharmaceutical 99 m Tc-mebrofenin in the Nuclear Medicine Department of Asan Medical Center from January to March 2012. Scanning began five minutes after an intravenous injection of 222 MBq (megabecquere) (6 mCi). As two detectors were placed facing each other, the patient was asked to stand between the two detectors with the front of the abdomen pressed as close as possible against the detector. After scanning, the measurement was carried out to determine the expected end time of scanning when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total scan time. After scanning had been completed, the measurement time was compared with the final scan time and the expected scan time in the middle of scanning. A phantom was also used to examine the dependence of the change in time on the dose. The difference was examined when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total expected scan time after beginning the scan. According to the study results, the difference was five seconds or more at the maximum when the scan time was 10% of the total expected scan time. The difference was significant when the scan time was 25% or 50% of the total expected scan time.

Lee, Jong-Hun; Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

2013-03-01

300

Comparison of TLD100 and MCP-Ns for use as an extremity dosemeter for PET nuclear medicine staff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on extremity monitoring of PET nuclear medicine personnel. In particular, it aims to compare the performance of ring dosemeters with TLD-100 and MCP-Ns detectors during the handling of positron emitters such as 18F-FDG radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental and Monte Carlo results highlight the fact that the contribution of positron to Hp(0.07), in contact with or at short distances from

M. Ginjaume; S. Pérez; M. A. Duch; X. Ortega

2008-01-01

301

The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

302

Production of therapeutic radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for applications in nuclear medicine, oncologyand interventional cardiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Greater availability of therapeutic radioisotopes is required to meet the demands for increasing clinical applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology. Because of the need for very high specific activity products, methods other than direct neutron capture reactions (n,?-elastic and n,n’-inelastic routes) are required to insure that the highest specific activity - and hopefully no carrier added (nca) -

S. Mirzadeh; A. L. Beets; M. Du

2005-01-01

303

Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

1989-05-01

304

Research and Development Program (for the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology, University of California, Los Angeles). Fiscal Year 1966.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biomedical program of the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology for FY 1966 is conducted within the scope of the following categories: Somatic Effects of Radiation; Combating Detrimental Effects of Radiation; Molecular and Cellular Leve...

1964-01-01

305

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

306

Nuclear medicine staff and patient doses in Manitoba (1981-1985)  

SciTech Connect

The number of diagnostic in vivo nuclear medicine (NM) procedures in the Province of Manitoba (population 1 million) has been examined over the period 1981 to 1985. The annual number of procedures performed has remained relatively constant at about 25 per thousand population. The isotope 99mTc accounted for 86% of all the studies performed and the number of NM procedures per imaging system was approximately 1,300 per annum. The total number of NM operators in the province increased from 30 in 1981 to about 40 in 1985. The mean NM operator dose was reduced from 3.8 mSv to 2.5 mSv over this five-year period and the collective operator dose underwent a smaller reduction of 13% to about 100 person-mSv in 1985. The value of the mean patient effective dose equivalent (HE) was relatively constant at 5.2 mSv. The contribution of diagnostic NM procedures to the annual per caput population dose in Manitoba was 0.13 mSv. Three diagnostic procedures (brain, bone and cardiac) accounted for approximately 80% of the collective patient HE. Patient profiles (age, sex and medical history) were obtained for the patients undergoing these three procedures, which showed them to be atypical in comparison to a normal working population. These data suggested that the application of the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk factor of 1.65 X 10(-2) Sv-1 to this patient population would have significantly overestimated the expected radiation detriment.

Huda, W.; Gordon, K.

1989-03-01

307

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1995-12-31

308

A Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications using 113mIn1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies show our prototype Compton camera, C-SPRINT, matches the 99mTc performance of clinically available mechanically collimated systems if an advantage in sensitivity of ~45 can be achieved. Imaging at higher energies substantially reduces the required sensitivity advantage. At ~400keV, our Compton camera system needs only five times the raw count rate of a mechanically collimated system imaging at 99mTc energy to reach the performance ``break even'' point. We analyze our C-SPRINT system performance for the isotope 113mIn (391.7keV), and compare it to a collimated system imaging 99mTc. 113mIn has been used in nuclear medicine applications in the past, and can potentially be used to label many of the same radiopharmaceuticals as 99mTc. In order to fully compare the two systems, their relative sensitivities are combined with the relative amount of useful gamma rays that escape the object being imaged (the patient) for the same patient radiation dose. Results for uniformly distributed sources show that for equal lifetime radiation dose, the ratio of useful 99mTc to 113mIn gamma rays is 1.59. For a point source of activity centered inside the ellipsoid, the useful ratio decreases to 1.33. These fractions scale up the required raw sensitivity advantage to yield a required sensitivity advantage of 5 - 8. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that a raw sensitivity advantage of 25 can be achieved by improving C-SPRINT geometry and using a larger volume of silicon detectors. We conclude that gains of 3-5 in noise equivalent sensitivity are achievable when imaging 113mIn with our Compton camera relative to a collimated system imaging 99mTc.

LeBlanc, J. W.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Hua, C.; Rogers, W. L.; Wehe, D. K.; Wilderman, S. J.

1999-02-01

309

Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratoryof Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation inNuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NMdepartments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collectedinformation about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on thewrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q andHp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses alwayswere absorbed by those staff members who were involved insources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time period was 4.22 mSv for Hp(10)a and 67.7 mSv for Hp(0.07)a. In 2011 no case of exceeding the allowed dose limits was noted. PMID:24068634

Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, S?awomir; Krajewski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

310

Stereo (scanning electron microscopy) section fractography of isolated cleavage regions in nuclear vessel steels  

SciTech Connect

Fractographic observations, including stereographic views and quantitative facet angle measurements, have been reported of isolated cleavage regions (ICR's) formed at the ductile fracturing transition of several heavy-section nuclear vessel steel materials, including A533B C1.1 and A508 steels and their weld metals. The authors' further investigations have revealed that ICR's occurred in the same weld metal at closely spaced groupings of smaller silicate particles termed particle clumps, which failed by a debonding and hole-joining mechanism, often in a coplanar and brittle manner.

Zhang, X.J.; Armstrong, R.W.; Irwin, G.R. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1989-12-01

311

Reconstruction of the activity of point sources for the accurate characterization of nuclear waste drums by segmented gamma scanning.  

PubMed

This work improves the reliability and accuracy in the reconstruction of the total isotope activity content in heterogeneous nuclear waste drums containing point sources. The method is based on ?(2)-fits of the angular dependent count rate distribution measured during a drum rotation in segmented gamma scanning. A new description of the analytical calculation of the angular count rate distribution is introduced based on a more precise model of the collimated detector. The new description is validated and compared to the old description using MCNP5 simulations of angular dependent count rate distributions of Co-60 and Cs-137 point sources. It is shown that the new model describes the angular dependent count rate distribution significantly more accurate compared to the old model. Hence, the reconstruction of the activity is more accurate and the errors are considerably reduced that lead to more reliable results. Furthermore, the results are compared to the conventional reconstruction method assuming a homogeneous matrix and activity distribution. PMID:21353575

Krings, Thomas; Mauerhofer, Eric

2011-02-12

312

Non-ionic surfactant concentration profiles in undamaged and damaged hair fibres determined by scanning ion beam nuclear reaction analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was used with a scanning MeV 3He ion microbeam to determine the extent of permeation and segregation of a deuterated non-ionic surfactant (dC12E5) into virgin (undamaged) and alkalinic perm damaged hair fibres. 2-D concentration maps show an accumulation of deuterated surfactant in the cortex and medulla of both the virgin and damaged hair. By normalising to the matrix carbon, surfactant levels in the damaged hair were found to be three times higher than in the undamaged hair. This is the first reported direct spatial evidence of the penetration of surfactant into the centre of hair fibres. Furthermore it is the first application of NRA to this type of complex biological matrix.

Jenneson, P. M.; Clough, A. S.; Keddie, J. L.; Lu, J. R.; Meredith, P.

1997-12-01

313

Narrow nuclear resonance position or cross section shape measurements with a high precision computer controlled beam energy scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative positions, intensity and shape of narrow resonances (?~100eV) in (p,?), (p,??) and (p,p'?) reactions induced on the isotopes 13C, 15N, 18O, 19F, 23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 29Si, 30Si and 52Cr were investigated in the energy range from 150 to 2500keV, using a fully automatic hysteresis free energy scanning system. The energy differences between the resonance positions were measured with optimum accuracy, down to around +/-100eV. The results are of interest for the easy and accurate calibration of accelerators and for determining the energy scale in the neighbourhood of resonances used for depth profiling experiments with high precision. The new set-up allows the automatic recording of nuclear reaction or elastic scattering excitation curves over wide energy ranges, up to +/-10% around any central energy. The results illustrate also how powerful a tool such a scanning system may be in various fields of ion beam analysis.

Amsel, G.; D'Artemare, E.; Battistig, G.; Girard, E.; Gosset, L. G.; Révész, P.

1998-03-01

314

Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of

Bill Williams; Tilman A. Ruff

2007-01-01

315

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

de Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

2010-12-01

316

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

SciTech Connect

A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

2010-12-07

317

Suitability of nuclear medicine gamma cameras as gamma spectrometers in the event of a radiological emergency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine gamma cameras are large area NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors that measure both the position and energy of incident gamma rays. A typical, commercial, large field-of-view (LFOV), gamma camera has about 2000 cm3 of useful detector volume with an entrance window of 50×40 cm2 by 1 cm thickness. A 3?×3? NaI(Tl) detector, by comparison, has 17.4% of the volume and 2.3% of the area of the LFOV gamma camera. A 2002 survey reported 11,700 gamma cameras as being installed in hospitals and clinics in the US. In the event of a radiological emergency, the ability to utilize some of this installed detector capacity would be desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of using the gamma camera as a large area gamma spectrometer for detecting and quantifying isotopes likely to be involved in a radiological emergency caused by dispersion of radioactivity by a so called “dirty bomb.” Monte Carlo modeling was used to analyze detection sensitivity as a function of energy for the camera vs. the 3?×3? cylinder. For a point source positioned 100 cm from the face of the detector, the ratio of total extrinsic efficiency of the camera to that of the 3?×3? cylinder varied from 40.3 at 140 keV to 7.3 at 5 MeV. Ratios for extrinsic efficiency of peaks (including the full energy peak, single escape, and double escape peaks) varied from 41.1 at 140 keV to 5.5 at 5 MeV. Modifications that will be required to enable the cameras to function as spectrometers over a wide energy range are described and discussed. Given the large sensitivity advantage, the fact that the camera is shielded on three sides, and that cameras are already present at many locations to where victims of a disaster would be transported, it is desirable that such system capabilities be investigated.

Engdahl, J. C.; Bharwani, K.

2005-11-01

318

A Compton camera for low energy gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

C-SPRINT is a prototype electronically-collimated imaging system that has been built using pixellated, low-noise, position-sensitive silicon as the first detector, and a sodium iodide scintillation detector ring as the second detector. The camera was intended to characterize potential performance gains of Compton cameras in nuclear medicine applications. The system consists of a single 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.03 cm3 silicon pad detector module with 2 keV energy resolution centered at the front face of a 50 cm diameter, 12 cm long NaI detector annulus. Calculations of the Uniform Cramer-Rao lower bound show that a "design Compton camera" based on our prototype can challenge existing mechanically-collimated systems at low to medium energies (˜140.5 - 400 keV) despite the deleterious effects of Doppler broadening. Measurements with our current system have yielded system sensitivity and spatial resolution estimates using 99mTc and 131I isotopes. Results showed an absolute efficiency of 1.8 x 10 -7 for 99mTc and 1.2 x 10-6 for 131I. The 99mTc value is an order of magnitude lower than predicted because of a combination of worse than expected silicon detector triggering performance, timing resolution issues, and system dead time effects. After correcting for these, efficiency predictions based on Monte Carlo analysis fall within 10% of the measured values. Spatial resolution estimates are also within 10% of analytical predictions. Measured resolution for the 99mTc point source was 15 min FWHM while in the 131I case, resolution improved to 8 mm FWHM. Extended source imaging was performed to characterize system performance under more challenging conditions. Images obtained were compared with measurements using a clinically-available mechanically collimated Anger camera. A resolution-variance study was also conducted for both isotopes. The results showed that the C-SPRINT camera performance on a per-detected photon basis was worse than the Anger camera for 99mTc but was similar for 131I, as predicted by theory. Potentially large gains in raw system sensitivity of a Compton camera similar in design to C-SPRINT could lead to substantial improvements in noise-equivalent performance of electronically-collimated cameras over mechanical systems, particularly in the energy range above 200 keV.

Leblanc, James Walter

319

Water mobility in heterogeneous emulsions determined by a new combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy, image analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance diffusometry, and finite element method simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were combined in a quantitative way in finite element calculations of water propagation in CLSM images obtained from a very heterogeneous emulsion. The propagators calculated on the basis of microstructure were Fourier transformed and subsequently compared with the echo decays obtained by the NMR diffusometry method. The results showed

N. Lore´n; M. Nyde´n; A.-M. Hermansson

2005-01-01

320

Medicine and nuclear war: from Hiroshima to mutual assured destruction to abolition 2000.  

PubMed

To determine how physicians might participate in the prevention of nuclear war in the post-Cold War era, we review, from a medical perspective, the history of the nuclear weapons era since Hiroshima and the status of today's nuclear arsenals and dangers. In the 1950s, physicians were active partners in governmental civil defense planning. Since 1962, physicians have stressed prevention of nuclear war as the only effective medical intervention. Public advocacy by physicians helped end both atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1960s and superpower plans for fighting a nuclear war in the 1980s. Today's dangers include nuclear arms proliferation, an increasing risk of nuclear terrorism, and the 35000 warheads that remain in superpower-nuclear arsenals, many still on hair-trigger alert. Physicians have recently joined with military and political leaders and over 1000 citizens' organizations in calling for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. Global medical collaboration in support of a verifiable and enforceable Nuclear Weapons Convention would be a major contribution to safeguarding health in the 21st century. PMID:9701082

Forrow, L; Sidel, V W

1998-08-01

321

Efficacy of clinical diagnostic procedures utilized in nuclear medicine. Final report, August 1977-November 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a study of 2023 patients comparing two methods of evaluating the efficacy of lung scanning in patients suspected of having pulmonary embolism (PE). Only the referring physicians determined the probability of the most important (MI) and most likely (ML) diagnoses, and management, before and after lung scanning. A logistic regression model was developed for the probability of a signout diagnosis of PE. Equal patient groups tested the validity of the regression equations for the probability of PE both before and after the lung scan. The models developed on half the data (Group I) were then tested on the second half of the data set (Group II) to determine their ability to predict with similar results. This shows that the lung scan classifies PE and NOT PE patients well. Entropy minimax pattern detection (EMPD) attempts to predict the diagnosis and management from prior patient attributes. In 2023 cases, attributes alone could not iminate the use of lung scans for all patients. Comparing the two analytic methods, the predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of each method are similar. However, EMPD predicts on a relatively small percent of cases (40% prior and 715 post scan) while logistic regression equations predict on 100% of cases. 29 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs.

Saenger, E.L.

1986-06-01

322

The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).  

PubMed

The emergence of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) provides a new therapeutic approach in which monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-specific antigens are used to target therapeutic radioisotopes to sites of disseminated disease. The target cell is eliminated and adjacent tumor cells, to which antibody has not bound, are also killed. To date, 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab are the only FDA-approved, and most extensively studied, radioimmunoconjugates for RIT of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Both 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab utilize an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody to target radioactivity to malignant B-cells. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan emits pure therapeutic beta radiation, permitting outpatient treatment. The high energy of the beta particles emitted by 90Y (2.3 MeV) achieves a wide-ranging crossfire effect. Approximately 90% of the energy is deposited within 5 mm of the radiation source, which kills not only antibody-bound cells but also neighboring malignant cells within a diameter of up to 12 mm. In addition, the half-life of 90Y matches the in vivo biological half-life of the monoclonal antibody (64 h), with negligible excretion of 90Y in urine. With 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, hematological adverse events correlate with the degree of bone marrow involvement and the bone marrow reserve, rather than with dosimetric parameters, and doses to normal organs and red marrow are well below the accepted limits of 20 Gy to normal organs and 3 Gy to red marrow. A dosing schedule based on patient weight and baseline platelet counts has therefore been developed, and dosimetry is not routinely required. 131I, the isotope used in tositumomab RIT, emits both therapeutic beta radiation and highly penetrating gamma emissions. The lower energy of the beta particles emitted by 131I (0.6 MeV) achieves a crossfire effect of up to 2 mm in diameter, which is used to treat tumors. The gamma radiation emitted by 131I allows both dosimetry and biodistribution studies to be performed; such studies are important because the rate of 131I-tositumomab clearance varies among individuals. Therefore, dosimetry must be performed in each patient before the therapeutic dose of 131I-tositumomab is administered. Similarly, because of this variability in 131I clearance, the dosage of 131I-tositumomab is calculated accordingly for each patient. 131I-tositumomab is a substrate for dehalogenases, which decouple the radioisotope from the antibody moiety, resulting in free, circulating 131I, which can accumulate in the thyroid. Patients who receive 131I-tositumomab therapy are usually hospitalized in radioprotection wards, and are treated by specially trained hospital staff. The administration of RIT requires an integrated team approach, involving nuclear medicine (or, in some countries, radiation oncology), hematology-oncology, nursing, radiopharmacy and radiation safety personnel. Effective collaboration between all members of the RIT team is essential to treatment success, and understanding the properties of these novel agents will facilitate their safe and effective administration. PMID:15154740

Bischof Delaloye, Angelika

2003-01-01

323

Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.  

PubMed

Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. PMID:17987979

Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

324

RBC nuclear scan  

MedlinePLUS

... often done to locate the site of bleeding in patients who have blood loss from the colon or other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. A variation on this test, called a ventriculogram, may be performed to check heart function.

325

Combination of liquid scintillation counting and passive sampling strategy for the determination of I in air and application to estimate the inhalation dose to the staff of a nuclear medicine service  

Microsoft Academic Search

I, commonly used in nuclear medicine, can be incorporated into the human body in a variety of chemical and physical forms. This study describes a sensitive method for the determination of I concentration and its application to the estimation of the amount of airborne I inhaled by staff workers of a Nuclear Medicine Department. Our method uses passive sampling with

Fernando Jiménez; Luis Deban; Rafael Pardo; Paloma García-Talavera

2012-01-01

326

[Introduction of a quality management system compliant with DIN EN 9001:2000 in a university department of nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

In 1995, the management of the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf proposed to establish a total quality assurance (QA) system. A revised QA-system has been introduced stepwise in the department of nuclear medicine since 1997, and certification was achieved in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 on February 14, 2001. The QA-handbook is divided into two parts. The first part contains operational (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in so-called standard operating procedures (SOP). They describe the indication of procedures as well as the competences and time necessary in a standardized manner. Up to now, more than 70 SOPs have been written as a collaborative approach between technicians and physicians during daily clinical routine after analysing and discussing the procedures. Thus, the results were more clearly defined processes and more satisfied employees. The second part consists of general rules and directions concerning the security of work and equipment as well as radiation protection tasks, hygiene etc. as it is required by the law. This part was written predominantly by the management of the department of nuclear-medicine and the QA-coordinator. Detailed information for the patients, documentation of the work-flows as well as the medical report was adopted to the QM-system. Although in the introduction phase of a QA-system a vast amount of time is necessary, some months later a surplus for the clinical workday will become available. The well defined relations of competences and procedures will result in a gain of time, a reduction of costs and a help to ensure the legal demands. Last but not least, the QA-system simply helps to build up confidence and acceptance both by the patients and the referring physicians. PMID:11797512

Jansen-Schmidt, V; Paschen, U; Kröger, S; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

2001-12-01

327

Phase Transformations And Dynamics Of 4-Cyano-4?-Pentylbiphenyl (5cb) By Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Analysis Differential Scanning Calorimetry, And Wideangle X-Ray Diffraction Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymorphism of 4-cyano-4?-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Three new phases has been identified and characterized structurally and dynamically. By a slow cooling at a rate ? 0.2 K\\/min, the nematic phase crystallizes into a phase noted C1. Upon a fastest cooling (?5 K\\/min) a

T. Mansaré; R. Decressain; C. Gors; V. K. Dolganov

2002-01-01

328

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT and BNCT agents. Progress report, March 1, 1990-February 28, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Medicine Program at the University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A small, but significant portion of o...

G. W. Kabalka

1990-01-01

329

Boron in Nuclear Medicine: New Synthetic Approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT Agents: Progress Report, March 1, 1989-February 28, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in PET and SPECT. A small, but significant portion of our effort is directed t...

G. W. Kabalka

1989-01-01

330

Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine: English, German, French and Russian  

SciTech Connect

This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering, compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language. The subject matter dealt with is indicated in detail on the interleaves preceding each separate part of the dictionary. The majority of terms have been compiled from texts in the same language. Care has been taken to use standard terms. The terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) as part of the International Atomic Energy Organization has been incorporated in full.

Sube, R.

1986-01-01

331

Attenuation Map Segmentation without Reconstruction Using a Level Set Method in Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear medical imaging, attenuation maps are images of the set of the linear attenuation coefficients of the observed body region. They are reconstructed from transmission SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) acquisitions (the projections). The geometrical information of attenuation maps is crucial. We make the reasonable hypothesis that they are composed of homogeneous regions limited by straight edges. Thus,

Eric Debreuve; Michel Barlaud; Gilles Aubert; Jacques Darcourt

1998-01-01

332

Fuzzy-logic adaptive neural networks for nuclear medicine image restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neural network with adaptive fuzzy logic rule is proposed for image restoration as required for quantitative imaging using a nuclear gamma camera. The overall aims is to compensate for image degradation due to photon scattering and photon penetration through the collimated gamma camera to allow more accurate measurement of radiotracers in vivo. In this work, fuzzy rules are

L. P. Clarke; Wei Qian

1998-01-01

333

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

334

Radiopharmaceuticals 1994. Nil desperandum. European Association of Nuclear Medicine Committees on Radiopharmaceuticals and Positron Emission Tomography.  

PubMed

On the basis of the discussions at a symposium held in Düsseldorf and attended by representatives of various interested bodies, European legislation as it affects radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed. Due consideration is given to the new, centralised and decentralised, registration procedures, effective since 1 January 1995. The dossier required to support an application for marketing authorisation is discussed, separate consideration being given to single-photon emitters, therapeutic radio-nuclides and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The role of the European Pharmacopoiea is also considered. It is concluded that the new, modified procedures for the registration of medicinal products in the European Union may actually inhibit free availability of radio-pharmaceuticals within the Community, and that there is a strong case for modification of the European Directives so that radiopharmaceuticals are placed in a separate category to therapeutic drugs, with less stringent registration requirements. PMID:7556305

Cox, P H; Meyer, G J

1995-06-01

335

[The nuclear physicist, Rudolf Fleischmann and medicine at the University of Strassburg].  

PubMed

Under German occupation in World War II,Alsace-Lorraine was subjected to politically enforced Germanization. One means was science policy. The newly founded research institute of the medical school of the University of Strasbourg for instance was modeled on the Heidelberg Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research of Ludolf von Krehl, incorporating institutes for internal medicine, physics and chemistry, and housing very modern research facilities. The expansion created tremendous professional opportunities for young German scientists like Rudolf Fleischmann, who worked in Strasbourg until the liberation, when he was taken as prisoner by the allied intelligence mission "Alsos." Released in 1946, Fleischmann started a second career in Hamburg and Erlangen, where he died in 2002. In one of his last interviews, which he gave to the author of this paper, he called the Strasbourg period a prerequisite for establishing his own scientific reputation. PMID:17152580

Weiss, Burghard

2006-01-01

336

Meeting report: nuclear receptors: transcription factors and drug targets connecting basic research with translational medicine.  

PubMed

The biannual European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) conference on nuclear receptors was organized by Beatrice Desvergne and Laszlo Nagy and took place in Cavtat near Dubrovnik on the Adriatic coast of Croatia September 25-29, 2009. The meeting brought together researchers from all over the world covering a wide spectrum from fundamental mechanistic studies to metabolism, clinical studies, and drug development. In this report, we summarize the recent and exciting findings presented by the speakers at the meeting. PMID:20519330

Tuckermann, Jan; Bourguet, William; Mandrup, Susanne

2010-06-02

337

NUCLEAR MEDICINE'S DOUBLE HAZARD Imperiled Treatment and the Risk of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the production of metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), the world's most important radiopharmaceutical, focusing on reliability of supply and risks of nuclear terrorism. Only four producers manufactured about 95 percent of the world's Tc-99m; a closure of any of them could cause worldwide shortfalls. Moreover, all four employ highly enriched uranium in their production process, in a form relatively

Cristina Hansell

338

Enhanced Feature Extraction in Planar Nuclear Medicine Using Pixon® Minimum-Complexity Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new feature-extraction-receiver-operating-characteristic (FEROC) test to evaluate the ability of image processing to improve the accuracy of the diagnostic information extracted from medical images. The test is applied to simulated planar nuclear images processed by the Pixon minimum-complexity method, originally developed in astronomy, which adaptively smoothes the images to bring out subtle contrasts with minimal loss of

Amos Yahil; A. Hans Vija; Eric G. Hawman

2006-01-01

339

Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

Jin, Yutaka

2008-01-01

340

A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

2011-11-01

341

Variable-pitch rectangular cross-section radiofrequency coils for the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance investigation of sealed medicines packets.  

PubMed

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S

2012-10-26

342

Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010, with a maximum time interval of ± 9 months between the two types of medical exams. For 51 patients, the indication was the detection of CAD. For 45 patients, the indication was to assess viability and/or ischemia after MI, PCI or CABG. Out of 84 patients with CAD confirmed by angiography, 80 patients resulted in abnormal MPI (sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 98%). Out of 12 patients with normal coronaries, 10 patients resulted in normal MPI (specificity of 83% and negative predictive value of 71%).In conclusion, for the patients with abnormal MPI and confirmed CAD, MPI was a useful aid for further therapy management.

Koumna, S.; Yiannakkaras, Ch; Avraamides, P.; Demetriadou, O.

2011-09-01

343

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

344

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

345

A photothermal line-scanning system for NDT of plasma-sprayed coatings of nuclear power plant components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main pump of the nuclear power plant primary circulation system is one of the most important and critical components of\\u000a the pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant. For instance, the failure of plasma-sprayed coatings on the pump's\\u000a shaft seal rings leads to shutdown of the entire reactor. However, suitable methods for NDT of these coatings have not been

R. Lehtiniemi; J. Rantala; J. Hartikainen

1994-01-01

346

Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of 131I, 123I, 99Tcm, 67Ga and 201Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006.The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable

Luiz Tauhata; Akira Iwahara; Antonio E. de Oliveira; Eduarda Alexandre Rezende; José Ubiratan Delgado; Carlos José da Silva; Joyra A. dos Santos; Ieda G. Nícoli; Frederico G. Alabarse; Ana Maria Xavier

2008-01-01

347

Radiation dose to technicians per nuclear medicine procedure: comparison between technetium-99m, gallium-67, and iodine-131 radiotracers and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to determine the non-extremity gamma dose received by a technician while performing an ordinary\\u000a nuclear medicine procedure or a static (i.e. without blood sampling) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) study. The dose per patient was measured by means of a commercial electronic pocket Geiger Mueller dosimeter,\\u000a worn in the upper left

C. Chiesa; V. De Sanctis; F. Crippa; M. Schiavini; C. E. Fraigola; A. Bogni; C. Pascali; D. Decise; R. Marchesini; E. Bombardieri

1997-01-01

348

Development of More Efficacious Tc-99, Organ Imaging Agents for Use in Nuclear Medicine by Analytical Characterization of Radiopharmaceutical Mixtures: Progress Report for Period September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which...

W. R. Heineman

1988-01-01

349

A genome-wide scan for type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes in nuclear families with multiple affected siblings in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A genome-wide search for genes that predispose to type 1 diabetes using linkage analysis was performed using 900 microsatellite markers in 70 nuclear families with affected siblings from Finland, a population expected to be more genetically homogeneous than others, and having the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes in the world and, yet, the highest proportion in Europe of

Qing Qiao; Anne-May Österholm; Bing He; Janne Pitkäniemi; Heather J Cordell; Cinzia Sarti; Leena Kinnunen; Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf; Karl Tryggvason; Jaakko Tuomilehto

2007-01-01

350

Nuclear medicine in oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, ²⁴Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of ⁸⁹Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the

1996-01-01

351

General Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... within a large, doughnut-shaped scanner similar in appearance to a computed tomography (CT) scanner. SPECT uses ... one position and you will be asked to change positions in between images. While the camera is ...

352

Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at this time is ... within a large, doughnut-shaped scanner similar in appearance to a computed tomography (CT) scanner. SPECT uses ...

353

Career Information: Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... administer adjunctive medications in order to perform patient imaging procedures using sophisticated instrumentation; Process data and enhance digital images using advanced computer technology; Provide images, data ...

354

3D reconstruction of VZV infected cell nuclei and PML nuclear cages by serial section array scanning electron microscopy and electron tomography.  

PubMed

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Like all herpesviruses, the VZV DNA genome is replicated in the nucleus and packaged into nucleocapsids that must egress across the nuclear membrane for incorporation into virus particles in the cytoplasm. Our recent work showed that VZV nucleocapsids are sequestered in nuclear cages formed from promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in vitro and in human dorsal root ganglia and skin xenografts in vivo. We sought a method to determine the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of nucleocapsids in the nuclei of herpesvirus-infected cells as well as the 3D shape, volume and ultrastructure of these unique PML subnuclear domains. Here we report the development of a novel 3D imaging and reconstruction strategy that we term Serial Section Array-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SSA-SEM) and its application to the analysis of VZV-infected cells and these nuclear PML cages. We show that SSA-SEM permits large volume imaging and 3D reconstruction at a resolution sufficient to localize, count and distinguish different types of VZV nucleocapsids and to visualize complete PML cages. This method allowed a quantitative determination of how many nucleocapsids can be sequestered within individual PML cages (sequestration capacity), what proportion of nucleocapsids are entrapped in single nuclei (sequestration efficiency) and revealed the ultrastructural detail of the PML cages. More than 98% of all nucleocapsids in reconstructed nuclear volumes were contained in PML cages and single PML cages sequestered up to 2,780 nucleocapsids, which were shown by electron tomography to be embedded and cross-linked by an filamentous electron-dense meshwork within these unique subnuclear domains. This SSA-SEM analysis extends our recent characterization of PML cages and provides a proof of concept for this new strategy to investigate events during virion assembly at the single cell level. PMID:22685402

Reichelt, Mike; Joubert, Lydia; Perrino, John; Koh, Ai Leen; Phanwar, Ibanri; Arvin, Ann M

2012-06-07

355

Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

1999-05-13

356

Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

1987-12-01

357

WBC scan  

MedlinePLUS

... scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for areas ... then mixed with a small amount of a radioactive material ( radioisotope ) called indium-111. The cells with ...

358

Kinetic model building using advanced nuclear medicine techniques: the kinetics of chromium(III) in the human body. [¹Cr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a valid index of chromium (III) nutritional status can be determined with satisfaction through in vivo kinetic analysis. Three normal subjects and three patients suffering from hemochromatosis were periodically scanned with the Donner Laboratory computerized whole body scanners, starting seconds after radiochromium(III) was administered intravenously, up to a period of 84

1978-01-01

359

Medicines and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-four urban children grades K-6 were interviewed in an exploratory study in 1980 to provide information about children's knowledge and orientations toward medicines and abusable substances. Responses indicated children believe themselves to have considerable autonomy in medicine use — 72% said they ask for medicines, 67% get medicines for themselves and others, and 19% (more often older and less economically

Patricia J. Bush; Frances R. Davidson

1982-01-01

360

Simulation of Thermal Responses of 125TeO2 Solid Target to Energetic Proton Bombardment from Cyclotron When Fabricating 124I Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With nuclear medicine receiving greater attention due to its unique characteristics in both diagnostics and therapeutics during recent decades, finding a highly controllable fabrication method becomes more urgent. The radioisotope 124I (T1/2=4.18d E?+=2.13MeV I?+=25%) has gained plentiful interests in the medical usages such as functioning imaging of cell proliferation in brain tumors using [124I]iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), imaging of immunoreactions in tumors using 124I-labelled monoclonal antibodies, the in-vivo imaging of 124I-labelled tyrosine derivatives, and the classical imaging of thyroid diseases with 124I, among others. Furthermore, it is because that thermal response of target during the fabrication process may affect the production of 124I to some extent and needs thorough investigations. Hence, the compact cyclotron located in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was employed in this study to generate 20MeV protons to irradiate TeO2 solid targets in which the radioisotopes 124I were produced through the 125Te(p, 2n)124I nuclear reaction. In addition, the widely-used ANSYS computer code was adopted to theoretically analyze thermal responses of TeO2 to irradiation cases with variations in ion beam current and its thermal conductivity. The results indicate that TeO2 temperature is strongly dependent on its thermal conductivity and ion beam current. In particular, TeO2 surface temperature is extremely sensitive to the air-gap size between TeO2 and target holder. Thus the target holder is suggested to be re-designed in order to prevent TeO2 from melting and a high efficiency production of radioisotopes 124I for nuclear medical diagnostics can be successfully achieved.

Peir, Jinn-Jer; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Duh, Ting-Shieh

361

Development of more efficacious Tc99, organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1987August 31, 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. Three areas have been investigated during the second year of this

Heineman

1988-01-01

362

Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992August 31, 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with

Heineman

1993-01-01

363

CT Scans  

Cancer.gov

An arm or chest radiograph looks all the way through a body without being able to tell how deep anything is. A CT scan is three-dimensional. By imaging and looking at several three-dimensional slices of a body (like slices of bread) a doctor could not only tell if a tumor is present, but roughly how deep it is in the body.

364

Nuclear medicine imaging of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The key role of cellular differentiation and tumor grade: from theory to clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nuclear medicine imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool for the management of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, mainly developed considering some cellular characteristics that are specific to the neuroendocrine phenotype. Hence, overexpression of specific trans membrane receptors as well as the cellular ability to take up, accumulate, and decarboxylate amine precursors have been considered for diagnostic radiotracer development. Moreover, the glycolytic metabolism, which is not a specific energetic pathway of neuroendocrine tumors, has been proposed for radionuclide imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. The results of scintigraphic examinations reflect the pathologic features and tumor metabolic properties, allowing the in vivo characterization of the disease. In this article, the influence of both cellular differentiation and tumor grade in the scintigraphic pattern is reviewed according to the literature data. The relationship between nuclear imaging results and prognosis is also discussed. Despite the existence of a relationship between the results of scintigraphic imaging and cellular differentiation, tumor grade and patient outcome, the mechanism explaining the variability of the results needs further investigation.

Rust, Edmond; Hubele, Fabrice; Marzano, Ettore; Goichot, Bernard; Pessaux, Patrick; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel

2012-01-01

365

Aging-induced changes in microstructure and water distribution in fresh and cooked pork in relation to water-holding capacity and cooking loss – A combined confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry were combined to characterize microstructural changes and water distribution in fresh and cooked pork during an aging period of 14 days. At day 1 (24h postmortem) a few muscle fibres, which appear swollen, were observed in both fresh and cooked meat. An identical microstructure was still apparent after

Ida Krestine Straadt; Marianne Rasmussen; Henrik Jørgen Andersen; Hanne Christine Bertram

2007-01-01

366

Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

367

Mitochondrial Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial medicine represents a complex of clinical, biochemical, pathological and genetic information crucial in diagnosis\\u000a and treatment. An outline of the development of mitochondrial medicine was for the first time published by Luft in 1994 [22].\\u000a Several organizations are focused on mitochondrial medicine, from experimental and clinical research (Mitochondrial Research\\u000a Society – MRS) to patients application (Mitochondrial Medicine Society –MMS),

Anna Gvozdjáková

368

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

369

BioChroma - A New and Patented Technology for Processing Radioactive Wastewater from Nuclear Medicine Therapy Facilities in Hospitals and Clinics  

PubMed Central

After undergoing radionuclide therapy, patients generate wastewater with a considerable amount of radioactivity, which can reach levels of as much as 90% of the administered dose. Due to the risk of accumulation after discharge into the sewer, it is advisable to collect this effluent for its treatment prior to final discharge. Delay and decay (natural decomposition of the isotope) is the most commonly used technical method of abating radioactive iodine, but it is frequently criticized as being complex and very expensive. BioChroma is a technology that has been developed as an alternative to these complicated and expensive systems. This paper describes this new technology and presents, as an example, a system that was installed and successfully commissioned in the middle of 2008 in a nuclear medicine ward with 12 beds in Stuttgart (Germany). Based on existing legislation, the responsible authorities and the company that operated the hospital agreed on a maximum activity level of 5 Bq/l. If a typical delay and decay system would have been installed, the 180 m3 treatment plant that was already available in the hospital cellar would have to be extended by additional 150 m3. By implementing the patented BioChroma process, the space requirements were reduced by 75%. For instance, since the new system was integrated into the existing installation, tanks accounting for 120 m³ could be used as buffering volume in the new wastewater treatment plant. The operation of the referred plant is currently producing very good results with values below the specified limit of 5 Bq/l for the isotope 131I. In addition, 90Y has been reported to be eliminated at the same time. Over the past 2 years of operation, the wastewater treatment plant has been able to achieve a maximum processing capacity of more than 2,000 l/day, which equates to a nuclear medicine ward with approx. 20 beds. The highest level recorded during the test period (of 180 days after start-up) was a peak of nearly 2,800 l/day.

Rodriguez, Jose Canga

2012-01-01

370

The white blood cell scan in orthopedics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (¹¹¹In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven ¹¹¹In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients.

S. L. Propst-Proctor; MICHAEL F. DILLINGHAM; I. ROSS MCDOUGALL; DAVID GOODWIN

1982-01-01

371

Comparison of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology and Thyroid Scan in Solitary Thyroid Nodule  

PubMed Central

Objective. This was a comparative study between FNAC and thyroid scan used to diagnose the solitary thyroid nodule and histopathology was used as gold standard to compare the results of both modalities. We hypothesized that Fine needle aspiration cytology and thyroid scan diagnose solitary thyroid nodule (STN) as accurately as histopathology. Materials and Methods. This study comprised of 50 patients with solitary thyroid nodules (STN) presented to OPD. After clinical examination these patients were referred to Centre for Nuclear Medicine, Mayo Hospital Lahore for thyroid function tests and thyroid scan (TS). These patients underwent FNAC in the department of Pathology and surgery in Mayo Hospital. The cases were operated and evaluated for histopathological changes. Results. On thyroid scan, 40 patients (80%) having cold nodule were labeled as suspicious 10 patients (20%) had hot nodule. On FNAC 23 patients (46%) had benign lesion, 22 patients (44%) had indeterminate lesion and 5 patients (10%) had malignant lesions. On histopathology, 45 patients (90%) were confirmed to have benign lesions and 5 patients (10%), malignant lesions. After comparison of results of thyroid scan and FNAC with histopathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of thyroid scan were 80%, 20%, 10%, 90% and 26%, respectively whereas those of FNAC were 80%, 97.7%, 80%, 97.7% and 96%, respectively. Conclusion. Fine needle aspiration was a significantly better predictor of malignancy than thyroid scan and resulted in a smaller proportion of excisions for benign nodules.

Basharat, Rabia; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Saeed, Shahzad; Hamid, Tahira

2011-01-01

372

Permeability of gloves used in nuclear medicine departments to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose: Radiation protection considerations.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the safety of the individual protection devices, the permeability of four different types of disposable gloves, commonly used in hospitals, was tested in relation to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]-FDG). From these radiopharmaceutical solutions, a drop was deposited on the external surface of the glove which was opened and stretched with the external surface placed upward. The smear test technique permitted to evaluate the activity onto the inner surface of the glove at different times. The smear tests were measured in a well sodium iodide detector calibrated in efficiency for (99m)Tc and (18)F. The permeability was tested on ten samples of each type of gloves and was expressed as the ratio of the activity onto the inner surface at each time interval to the activity deposited on the external surface of the glove. For each type of gloves and for each sampling time, mean value, standard deviation and percentage coefficient of variation of permeability were evaluated. One type of gloves showed a low resistance to permeation of both radiopharmaceuticals, while another one only to pertechnetate. The other gloves were good performers. The results of this study suggest to test permeability for gloves used for handling radiopharmaceuticals, before their adoption in the clinical routine. This practice will provide a more careful service of radiation protection for nuclear medicine department staff. PMID:23419926

Ridone, S; Matheoud, R; Valzano, S; Di Martino, R; Vigna, L; Brambilla, M

2013-02-15

373

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch's research group for heart and brain imaging.

Heineman, W.R.

1992-01-24

374

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

375

A comparison of experimental and simulated propagators in porous media using confocal laser scanning microscopy, lattice Boltzmann hydrodynamic simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confocal laser scanning microscopy has been used to obtain 3D optical image stacks of packings of glass ballotini in various fluorescent dye-containing fluids inside a 3D micromodel. The fluids' refractive index was matched to that of the glass ballotini so that clear images at an appreciable depth (?400 ?m) inside the packings were obtained. The lattice Boltzmann method was then

Robert J. Harris; Andrew J. Sederman; Michael D. Mantle; John Crawshaw; Michael L. Johns

2005-01-01

376

Behavioral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

1982-01-01

377

Vulnerable Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

Bochner, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

378

Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.  

PubMed

Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

2013-05-01

379

Herbal or Natural Medicines as Modulators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Related Nuclear Receptors for Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of herbal or natural medicines for the treatment of various disorders has a long and extensive history. Many of these herbal medicines are finding their way onto the world market as alternatives to prescribed drugs currently available to treat various disorders\\/ailments. In particular, hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease, which can culminate in

Tom Hsun-Wei Huang; Bhavani Prasad Kota; Valentina Razmovski; Basil D. Roufogalis

2005-01-01

380

CT scanning of the heart  

SciTech Connect

It is generally agreed that all present diagnostic cardiac methods including echocardiography, nuclear medicine, and coronary arteriography have significant limitations. Nuclear cardiology provides excellent diagnostic sensitivity using small amounts of radioactive tracers, but it currently lacks the spatial fidelity needed to differentiate many anatomic structures in the heart. CT complements the capabilities of these alternative imaging modalities. Computed tomography offers accurate reconstruction of the whole myocardium with far greater spatial and density resolution in three dimensions. CT may eventually find its most important and clinically useful application in the diagnosis and management of heart disease.

Lipton, M.J.; Brundage, B.H.; Higgins, C.B.; Boyd, D.P.

1983-01-01

381

Complementary medicine.  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care.

Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

1998-01-01

382

An Atlas of Planar and SPECT Bone Scans, Second Edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field of Medicine. Nuclear medicine\\/diagnostic imaging. Format. Hardcover book. Audience. Physicians and trainees in the fields of nuclear medicine and radiology. Purpose. To provide a comprehensive up-to-date atlas of skeletal scintigraphy, including planar and SPECT images, for authoritative clinical reference. Content. Ten chapters, 7 of which are organized by category of bone disease. The first chapter is a review of

Lawrence E. Holder; Ignac Fogelman; David D. Collier

383

A Directory of Computer Software Applications - Medicine and Biology, 1970-November, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medicine and biology reports that list computer programs and/or their documentation are cited. These software applications pertain to topics such as nuclear medicine, health insurance, ecology models, radiation exposure, industrial medicine, and environme...

1978-01-01

384

Managing Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... about medicines to treat Alzheimer’s disease, see the “Alzheimer’s Disease Medications Fact Sheet,” www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers- disease-medications-fact-sheet. The Alzheimer’s Disease Education and Referral ( ...

385

Recent advances in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume is the fifth in a series that began in 1948. The subjects covered in it are limited to instrumentation in positron emission tomography, and heavy-ion radiotherapy. The volume is intended as both a historical document and a presentation of the current status of instrumentation in radiopharmaceuticals and positron emission tomography and of the use of neutrons and heavy

J. H. Lawrence; T. F. Budlinger

1978-01-01

386

Mathematical modelling in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Modern imaging techniques can provide sequences of images giving signals proportional to the concentrations of tracers (by emission tomography), of X-ray-absorbing contrast materials (fast CT or perhaps NMR contrast), or of native chemical substances (NMR) in tissue regions at identifiable locations in 3D space. Methods for the analysis of the concentration-time curves with mathematical models describing the physiological processes and the appropriate anatomy are now available to give a quantitative portrayal of both structure and function: such is the approach to metabolic or functional imaging. One formulates a model first by defining what it should represent: this is the hypothesis. When translated into a self-consistent set of differential equations, the model becomes a mathematical model, a quantitative version of the hypothesis. This is what one would like to test against data. However, the next step is to reduce the mathematical model to a computable form; anatomically and physiologically realistic models account of the spatial gradients in concentrations within blood-tissue exchange units, while compartmental models simplify the equations by using the average concentrations. The former are known as distributed models and the latter as lumped compartmental or mixing chamber models. Since both are derived from the same ideas, the parameters are usually the same; their differences are in their ability to represent the hypothesis correctly, quantitatively, and sometimes in their computability. In this essay we review the philosophical and practical aspects of such modelling analysis for translating image sequences into physiological terms.

Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Henrich, Michael M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

2010-01-01

387

(Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-01-01

388

Nuclear medicine and esophageal surgery  

SciTech Connect

The principal radionuclide procedures involved in the evaluation of esophageal disorders that are amenable to surgery are illustrated and briefly described. The role of the radionuclide esophagogram (RE) in the diagnosis and management of achalasia, oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy and its complications, tracheoesophageal fistulae, pharyngeal and esophageal diverticulae, gastric transposition, and fundoplication is discussed. Detection of columnar-lined esophagus by Tc-99m pertechnetate imaging and of esophageal carcinoma by Ga-67 citrate and Tc-99m glucoheptonate studies also is presented. 37 references.

Taillefer, R.; Beauchamp, G.; Duranceau, A.C.; Lafontaine, E.

1986-06-01

389

[Sport medicine].  

PubMed

It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg. PMID:22741210

Epstein, Yoram

2012-02-01

390

Safe Use of Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Home » Health and Aging » Publications Safe Use of Medicines Introduction Neighbors Gail and Alice talk about medicine ... Learn more about medicine safety Safe Use of Medicines Take Your Medicine the Right Way—Each Day! ...

391

Medicine and Madison Avenue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the National Humanities Center, the Digital Scriptorium, and Duke University, this online exhibit examines "the complex relationship between modern medicine and modern advertising." Containing over 600 documents dating from 1913 to 1963, the collection contains different printed advertisements organized around categories such as personal and oral hygiene and household products. Perhaps the most compelling of these categories are the supplementary documents that include scanned images of internal reports from different marketing companies, along with editorials and articles from medical journals during the period. The site is rounded out with some suggestions on using these primary documents in the classroom, including materials for both teachers and students.

2002-01-01

392

A study of total measurement error in tomographic gamma scanning to assay nuclear material with emphasis on a bias issue for low-activity samples  

SciTech Connect

Field experience with the tomographic gamma scanner to assay nuclear material suggests that the analysis techniques can significantly impact the assay uncertainty. For example, currently implemented image reconstruction methods exhibit a positive bias for low-activity samples. Preliminary studies indicate that bias reduction could be achieved at the expense of increased random error variance. In this paper, the authors examine three possible bias sources: (1) measurement error in the estimated transmission matrix, (2) the positivity constraint on the estimated mass of nuclear material, and (3) improper treatment of the measurement error structure. The authors present results from many small-scale simulation studies to examine this bias/variance tradeoff for a few image reconstruction methods in the presence of the three possible bias sources.

Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

1998-12-31

393

Fluorescence detection of 8-oxoguanine in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of cultured cells using a recombinant Fab and confocal scanning laser microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) in DNA is considered a marker of oxidative stress and DNA damage. We describe a multifluorescence technique to detect the localization of 8-oxoG in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA using a mouse recombinant Fab 166. The Fab was generated by repertoire cloning and combinatorial phage display, and specifically recognized 8-oxoG in DNA, as determined by

Rebecca P Soultanakis; Robert J Melamede; Ivan A Bespalov; Susan S Wallace; Kenneth B Beckman; Bruce N Ames; Douglas J Taatjes; Yvonne M. W Janssen-Heininger

2000-01-01

394

Nuclear Waste Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related

Glendon W. Gee; Philip D. Meyer; Andy L. Ward

2005-01-01

395

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

396

Mesopotamian medicine.  

PubMed

Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots. PMID:17378276

Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

2007-01-01

397

[Alternative medicine].  

PubMed

In a critical situation of world official medicine, we can find different alternatives therapies: natural therapy traditional and complementary, survival sometimes, of antique stiles and conditions of life. New sciences presented for them empiricism to the margin of official science. Doctors and sorcerer do the best to defeat the horrible virus that contribute to build symbols categories of sick. The alternatives put dangerously in game the scientific myth of experiment and exhume, if they got lost, antique remedy, almost preserved like cultural wreck very efficient where the medicine is impotent. Besides alternatives and complementary therapies, that are remedies not recognized conventional from official medicine, there are the homeopathic, phytotherapy, pranotherapy, nutritional therapy, the ayurveda, the yoga, ecc. Italians and internationals research show a composite picture of persons that apply that therapies. Object of this work is to understand and know the way that sick lighten their sufferings and role that have o that can assume the nurses to assist this sick. PMID:12146072

Mitello, L

398

Scan more with memory scan test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost all manufacturing memory test programs use the time-efficient Scan test to screen the defective chips in an early stage. Usually, Scan is used to screen out the easy-to-detect hard faults like stuck-at-faults. In this paper we will show how Scan can be modified to increase the fault coverage and detect unique faults. It will be shown that many additional

S. Hamdioui; Z. Al-Ars

2009-01-01

399

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)|

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

400

Evaluation and management of patients in the acute phase of myocardial infarction - the role of nuclear medicine in the coronary care unit  

SciTech Connect

This is the third article in a four-part continuing education series relating to patient care and management. After completing the article, the reader should be able to: 1) understand the application, potential, and problems of nuclear cardiology in the coronary care unit; 2) recognize the utilization of nuclear cardiology in acute coronary care management; and 3) appreciate the important role of nuclear cardiology in cardiac patient care.

Palac, R.T.; Gray, L.; Brown, P.H.; Glowniak, J.V.

1988-09-01

401

Medicine safety and children  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. Do not call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...

402

Using Medicines Wisely  

MedlinePLUS

... of Medicine Sepa cómo tomar sus medicamentos - Use Medicines Wisely Medicines can treat health problems and help ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...

403

Transfusion medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol\\/sup R\\/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus

K. Murawski; F. Peetoom

1986-01-01

404

Personalizing Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA is the essence of biological diversity. But it's responsible for more than just the basics like eye color, hair texture or height. At a less visible level, DNA also varies our bodies' reactions to our environment. It's also the foundation of personalized medicine, a developing medical model that takes our genetic differences into account.\\u000aThis new approach may reshape

2011-01-01

405

Transfusion medicine  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

1986-01-01

406

Comparison of image enhancement methods for the effective diagnosis in successive whole-body bone scans.  

PubMed

Whole-body bone scan is one of the most frequent diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine. Especially, it plays a significant role in important procedures such as the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and evaluation of osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can also be used to monitor the possibility of any recurrence of the tumor. However, it is a very time-consuming effort for radiologists to quantify subtle interval changes between successive whole-body bone scans because of many variations such as intensity, geometry, and morphology. In this paper, we present the most effective method of image enhancement based on histograms, which may assist radiologists in interpreting successive whole-body bone scans effectively. Forty-eight successive whole-body bone scans from 10 patients were obtained and evaluated using six methods of image enhancement based on histograms: histogram equalization, brightness-preserving bi-histogram equalization, contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization, end-in search, histogram matching, and exact histogram matching (EHM). Comparison of the results of the different methods was made using three similarity measures peak signal-to-noise ratio, histogram intersection, and structural similarity. Image enhancement of successive bone scans using EHM showed the best results out of the six methods measured for all similarity measures. EHM is the best method of image enhancement based on histograms for diagnosing successive whole-body bone scans. The method for successive whole-body bone scans has the potential to greatly assist radiologists quantify interval changes more accurately and quickly by compensating for the variable nature of intensity information. Consequently, it can improve radiologists' diagnostic accuracy as well as reduce reading time for detecting interval changes. PMID:20195695

Jeong, Chang Bu; Kim, Kwang Gi; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki

2011-06-01

407

Bone density scan (image)  

MedlinePLUS

A bone density scan measures the density of bone in a person. The lower the density of a bone the ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and ...

408

Scanning Cursor Adaptability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the research and findings related to the Scanning Cursor Adaptability Study. The data herein pertains to the review of automated cartographic and scanning cursor programs, digitizing device vendors, the analysis of interface requiremen...

A. J. Kreutzer G. W. Hunka T. B. Kolassa P. N. Mandryck

1981-01-01

409

Home reporting for the nuclear clinician?  

PubMed

The computer-based 'home office' is becoming a widely accepted mode of operation for modern businesses. It is implausible to believe that a nuclear medicine department can be covered permanently at a distance by a single physician, but it should be possible to provide cover for colleagues during sickness or at night or weekends. We have used a 486 PC with a high-resolution screen and software provided by LINK Medical Ltd to obtain images from hospital sites using a modem link to ADAC, Bartec and Nuclear Diagnostic SUN workstations. The data were transferred via standard telephone lines to the homes of two of the authors. During a trial period lasting several months, 60 lung scans, 20 bone scans, 1 gastrointestinal bleeding study, 4 leukocyte scans, 5 bone tomograms, 9 renograms, 6 myocardial perfusion tomograms and 2 gated cardiac studies were transferred. The system allowed transfer of a 128 x 128 eight-view lung scan to be completed in approximately 2 min. The program on the PC allowed alteration of individual image contrast, image rotation, cine display and a variety of colour scales to enhance image interpretation. A system to transfer chest X-rays has been developed and typical transfer times are approximately 3.5 min. Within the viewing protocol on the PC, a reporting window was available with the ability to fax the report directly to the hospital. The system allowed consultants who live at a distance from their nuclear medicine departments to provide cover and is now used as an integral part of our out-of-hours service. The system also allows cover of satellite units or to provide cover for junior staff at night or weekends. PMID:8719987

O'Doherty, M J; Kettle, A G; Bird, N J; Barrington, S F; Wells, C P; Coakley, A J

1995-12-01

410

Rehabilitation medicine.  

PubMed Central

The nature of rehabilitation medicine is outlined in terms of its objectives, its methods, the patient groups which it seeks to help and its relationships to other specialties. Some major advances of recent years are discussed, such as the development of the impairment/disability/handicap framework. With particular emphasis upon neurological rehabilitation, the breadth of the specialty is then illustrated with examples of current preoccupations. These include recovery patterns of the damaged nervous system, testing the efficacy of existing therapies, applying new treatment techniques and developing quantitative measures of disability and handicap. Looking to the future, some key areas are identified where further advances might be sought. Images Figure

Cozens, J. A.; Chamberlain, M. A.

1995-01-01

411

Rapid Frequency Scan EPR  

PubMed Central

In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

2011-01-01

412

Evolutionary medicine.  

PubMed

Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Evolutionary, or darwinian, medicine takes the view that contemporary diseases result from incompatibility between the conditions under which the evolutionary pressure had modified our genetic endowment and the lifestyle and dietary habits in which we are currently living, including the enhanced lifespan, the changes in dietary habits and the lack of physical activity. An evolutionary trait express a genetic polymorphism which finally improve fitness, it needs million years to become functional. A limited genetic diversity is a necessary prerequisite for evolutionary medicine. Nevertheless, search for a genetic endowment would become nearly impossible if the human races were genetically different. From a genetic point of view, homo sapiens, is homogeneous, and the so-called human races have only a socio-economic definition. Historically, Heart Failure, HF, had an infectious origin and resulted from mechanical overload which triggered mechanoconversion by using phylogenically ancient pleiotropic pathways. Adaptation was mainly caused by negative inotropism. Recently, HF was caused by a complex remodelling caused by the trophic effects of mechanics, ischemia, senescence, diabetes and, neurohormones. The generally admitted hypothesis is that cancers were largely caused by a combination of modern reproductive and dietary lifestyles mismatched with genotypic traits, plus the longer time available for a confrontation. Such a concept is illustrated for skin and breast cancers, and also for the link between cancer risk and dietary habits. PMID:15154569

Swynghedauw, B

2004-04-01

413

[Sleep medicine].  

PubMed

Approximately one third of adults report difficulty sleeping, and 10% to 15% have the clinical disorder of insomnia. Among primary care patients, approximately half have sleep difficulties, but these difficulties often are undetected. Sleep disorders, especially chronic insomnia, results in impaired occupational performance and diminished quality of life. Insomnia is associated with higher healthcare usage and costs, including a 2-fold increase in hospitalizations and physician visits. Insomnia is also a risk factor for a number of other medical and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, hypertension. This presentation describes different sleep disorders (insomnia, hypersomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep related movement disorders, circadian rhythms sleep disorders, parasomnias), diagnostic methods available in sleep medicine. The various treatment options for these sleep disorders are also identified. PMID:21387812

Skalski, Micha?

2010-01-01

414

HIV Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Flying Publisher, _HIV Medicine 2005_ is a free, online "medical textbook that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the treatment of HIV Infection." This edition is an update of the 2003 version of the textbook (reported on in the June 13, 2003 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences). Chapter titles in the textbook include HIV Testing, HIV and Pulmonary Diseases, Mitochondrial Toxicity, HIV and HBV Coinfections, and Traveling with HIV, to name a few. The textbook is available in both German and English. Please note that while certain sections of the 2005 edition are currently available, many sections are still in the process of being published on the site. Sections from the 2003 edition are standing in for some of the forthcoming 2005 sections. The entire 352-page 2003 edition is available for download at this site as well.

415

Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

2012-05-01

416

Optics for vector scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector scanning of laser beams is critical to the success of stereolithography, laser marking, CAD-output-to-microfilm and many other industrial applications. The design of a vector scan lens system can assume many different configurations. This paper will discuss pre-objective, and post-objective alternatives for two and three axis scanning. Various parameters required for system specification are reviewed and the basic configuration of

Jonathan S. Ehrmann

1991-01-01

417

Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis  

SciTech Connect

Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

1986-07-01

418

Scanning Electron Microscopy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the scanning electron microscope, including detection signals (secondary, backscattered, and absorbed electrons and x-rays) sample handling, and applications in various science areas. (SK)|

Smith, Judith A.

1982-01-01

419

Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

420

The white blood cell scan in orthopedics  

SciTech Connect

A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

1982-08-01

421

Physical medicine and rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

Physical medicine and rehabilitation are services that can help people regain body functions they lost due to ... or developmental disorders Speech disorders and language problems Physical medicine and rehabilitation services also include sports medicine ...

422

Alternative and Integrative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... These alternative medicine systems often are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, ... medicine emphasizes health restoration rather than disease treatment. Learning More Given how much information about alternative medicine ...

423

Radioprotective agents in medicine.  

PubMed

The diminished probability of strategic nuclear confrontation alleviates some of the global concerns about large numbers of radiation casualties in the event of a nuclear war. As a result of the protection of the environment, the management of smaller numbers of radiation casualties assumes a more predictable and more specific role confined to accidents in nuclear energy projects, industry, technology and science. Recent experience of the consequences of accidents in nuclear power plants, in the field of radiotherapy and in the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, present the medical and scientific communities with formidable problems if such events are to lead to minimal adverse effects on the biosphere. Whereas it is not possible to predict a nuclear or radiation accident, radioprotection is hardly an issue of health science alone, but rather an issue of the strictest quality assurance in all aspects of the utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Thus, the medical community concerned with radioprotection will have to confine its emphasis on the management of radiation-induced alterations of the human organism from acute radiation syndromes to the stochastic concepts of chronic alterations of radiosensitive organic systems. Current multidisciplinary research in the field of radioprotection involves all aspects of basic and clinical research ranging from the subatomic mechanisms of free radical formation, macromolecular and intracellular radiation-induced alterations, biochemical and physiological homeostatic mechanisms and organ level manifestations to the clinical management of radiation casualties in a controlled hospital environment. Radioprotective agents, although widely studied in the past four decades and including several thousand agents, have not reached the level of providing the field of medicine with an agent that conforms to all criteria of an optimal radioprotectant, including effectiveness, toxicity, availability, specificity and tolerance. This article discusses the current state of radioprotection in medical therapy, and emphasizes a need for continued research in the area of medical management of radiation casualties from the viewpoint of a realistic probability of nuclear incidents or accidents in the nuclear energy-dependent world at the end of the millennium. PMID:8192608

Durakovi?, A

1993-12-01

424

Metabonomics study of essential hypertension and its chinese medicine subtypes by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

A metabonomic study was performed to investigate the metabolic mechanism of essential hypertension and its Chinese medicine subtypes, including "Yin-deficiency and Yang-hyperactivity syndrome" (YDYHS) and "Yin-Yang deficiency syndrome" (YYDS). Plasma samples from 22 healthy volunteers, 31 hypertensive patients with YDYHS, and 29 hypertensive patients with YYDS were analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The three groups were distinctly classified by principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). According to identified biomarkers and their related pathways, abnormal glucose metabolism might be the main common pathway from YDYHS to YYDS, and sympathetic nervous system activation would play an important role in the pathogenesis of YDYHS, while a low metabolic rate usually occurred in YYDS. PMID:23533506

Li, Yunlun; Nie, Lei; Jiang, Haiqiang; Lin, Jiamao; Zhou, Honglei; Xie, Jun; Qu, Zhengjun; Qi, Dongmei; Zhang, Yunhui

2013-02-25

425

Ultrasonic scanning system for prosthetic applications in rehabilitation medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory prototype imaging system has been built to aid in the development of an ultrasonic imaging system to generate three-dimensional mapping of skin and bone surfaces needed for computer-aided design of prosthetic limbs. The laboratory system incorporates a commercial ultrasonic imaging transducer. A first-order model of the ultrasonic image was developed to study the effect of varying system parameters.

A. K. Morimoto; F. M. Dickey; N. E. Walsh

1992-01-01

426

Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan  

MedlinePLUS

V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion ...

427

Alternative Medicine Fraud  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Traditional Chinese Medicine. Guilin Hospital of Sino-western Medicine Warning Letter; Life Enhancement Products, Inc. Warning Letter. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

428

Optics for vector scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector scanning of laser beams is critical to the success of stereolithography, laser marking, CAD-output-to-microfilm and many other industrial applications. The design of a vector scan lens system can assume many different configurations. This paper will discuss pre-objective, and post-objective alternatives for two and three axis scanning. Various parameters required for system specification are reviewed and the basic configuration of the two axis scan head is presented. The pre-objective scan f-theta lens, its scan distortion, telecentric options, and single origin scan systems are described. Fixed focus and dynamic focus post-objective systems are presented discussing the relative merits of each approach and noting the limitations of each design solution. Data presented describe limiting field sizes for fixed focus systems, and limiting f-numbers for thin lens systems. Thin lens design equations for three post-objective configurations are presented with suggested optimization techniques for overall system layout. Examples of pre-objective and post-objective scan lens systems as well as pre- configured systems are presented.

Ehrmann, Jonathan S.

1991-02-01

429

Magnetism in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing the weak magnetic fields generated by brain and cardiac activity, are currently under investigation.

Schenck, John

2000-03-01

430

[Medicinal leeches].  

PubMed

Leeches are hermaphroditic and hematophagous annelids. One important medical species, Hirudo medicinalis, comes from hirudiniculture of fresh water pools. Thanks to their three mandibles with some 300 teeth on their anterior muscular sucker, they easily grab to tissues and by secreting their saliva containing numerous powerful enzymes, such as hyaluronidase, collagenase and inhibitors of platelet aggregation and coagulation, like hirudin, allow blood sucking. Once they are full of blood (up to 15 g of blood), they detach themselves from their prey. Used ever since the 18th Egyptian Dynasty, leeches became famous during the first part of the XIXth century, thanks to a French physician, François Joseph Victor Broussais, known to his adversaries as the "vampire of medicine" for treating various conditions such as phlebotomy, laryngitis, ocular problems, obesity, mental disorders, etc. Overfishing, therapeutic failures and most particularly, the emergence of hygiene, brought the decline of living leeches. In 1884, an extract of leeches was obtained--hirudin and henceforth used. Nowadays, leeches are still used in microsurgery to enhance the venous circulation in finger reimplantation or skin flap transposition. Hirudin is synthesized through recombinant DNA technology and molecules such as lepirudin and desirudin are available on the market as anticoagulant. PMID:19998801

Massart, D; Sohawon, S; Noordally, O

431

Diving medicine.  

PubMed

Recreational diving developed in the late 1940s when self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) first became available for civilian use. At the same time the development of the commercial airliner, in particular the jet airliner, made possible the concept of international travel for pleasure as opposed to business. Over the past 50 years the number of international tourists has increased by over 2500% from a mere 25 million in 1950 to over 700 million in 2002 (Treadwell TL. Trends in travel. In: Zuckerman JN, editor. Principles and practice of travel medicine, 2001; p. 2-6). The popularity of recreational diving has also increased over the same period from an activity experienced by a small number of individuals in the early 1950s to an activity today enjoyed by many millions. The combination of increased international travel and the means by which to enter and explore the underwater world has led to diving becoming increasingly popular as a tourist activity. PMID:16887745

Benton, P J; Glover, M A

2005-09-28

432

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an introductory activity on scanning tunneling microscopy. As the module states, "a scanning tunneling microscope is a powerful tool for observing and manipulating the atomic-scale world." The activity covers concepts such as the tunneling effect, scanning the surface, two modes of operation, and individual atom manipulation. This module allows students to test their knowledge as they go.The other educational modules in this series can be found here. Instructors and students are encouraged to sign up with the Electron Technologies site here before starting to use these materials.

2012-10-08

433

Scanning Probe Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this hour-long activity has students "simulate the function of a scanning probe microscope" by creating their own scanning probe microscope (SPM) boxes. The Teacher's Guide contains everything the instructor needs to carry out the lesson: goals and objectives, advanced preparation notes, safety considerations, materials, questions, and even variations for different classrooms. The Student Worksheet walks students through the activity by having them begin by making a prediction, giving the procedures, providing space to record observations, and asking open questions for students to respond to. This is a ready-to-use activity for classrooms looking to explore nanotechnology and scanning probe microscopes.

2009-04-14

434

Dance Medicine: Current Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dance medicine has grown exponentially over the past 10 to 15 years and continues to grow every year as more former professional dancers and stu- dents of dance enter into the field of medicine. Dance medicine is part of the field of performing arts medicine, which specializes in evaluating and treat- ing performing artists such as musicians, dancers, actors\\/actresses, and

Clay Miller

2006-01-01

435

The conical scan radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A satellite-borne conical scan radiometer (CSR) is proposed, offering multiangular and multispectral measurements of Earth radiation fields, including the total radiances, which are not available from conventional radiometers. Advantages of the CSR for meteorological studies are discussed. In comparison to conventional cross track scanning instruments, the CSR is unique with respect to the selected picture element size which is kept constant by means of a specially shaped detector matrix at all scan angles. The conical scan mode offers the chance to improve angular sampling. Angular sampling gaps of previous satellite-borne radiometers can be interpolated and complemented by CSR data. Radiances are measured through 10 radiometric channels which are selected to study cloudiness, water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, ground and mean stratospheric temperature, and aerosols.

Prosch, T.; Hennings, D.

1982-07-01

436

SATCOM Electronic Scan Antenna.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this final report is presented the progression of the electronic scan antenna research highlighting the key results and stumbling blocks throughout this SBIR phase II period. The original premise was to use the FLAPS technology, a Malibu Research paten...

2000-01-01

437

The Scanning Electron Microscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scanning electron microscope combines the techniques of the cathode-ray tube and the conventional electron microscope--both considered indispensable to modern technology. The SEM, which presents a picture having a distinct three-dimensional appearance...

R. F. W. Pease

1968-01-01

438

CT scan (image)  

MedlinePLUS

CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

439

Knee CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

A computed tomography (CT) scan of the knee is test that uses x-rays to make detailed images of the knee. ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. When you are inside the scanner, the ...

440

Scanning thermal plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C\\/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots

F. L. Scarpace; R. P. Madding; T. Green

1975-01-01

441

Nuclear analytical chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

1984-01-01

442

To intercompare and to test all the Nuclear Medicine procedures used in the Department of Nuclear Medicine for diagnostic and research purposes starting with and giving particular importance to the procedures for liver disease. Final report for the period 1985 - 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study had the purpose to evaluate solitary liver defects with Tc-99m sulfur colloid and to assess the additional benefits by combining routine liver scan with liver blood pool image and Ga-67 liver imaging. 103 patients with various liver diseases hav...

S. Asghar

1988-01-01

443

Development of more efficacious Tc-99, organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. Three areas have been investigated during the second year of this project. (1) A chromatographic procedure has been developed for the separation of technetium dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) complexes. Tc-DPD complexes have been isolated from radiopharmaceutical preparations. The concentration of each complex in the preparation varies significantly depending on the pH of the preparation, the concentration of technetium, the presence or absence of oxygen, and the time interval after preparation. A single Tc-DPD complex has been isolated which shows good skeletal uptake and rapid soft tissue clearance. (2) An HPLC procedure for analyzing urine for Tc-Diphosphonate complexes has been developed. A Tc-HEDP complexd injected into a dog was found to concentrate rapidly in the bladder in the same chemical form. (3) An HPLC technique for the determination of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in disphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples has been developed. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Heineman, W.R.

1988-04-01

444

Concurrent PET/CT with an integrated imaging system: intersociety dialogue from the joint working group of the American College of Radiology, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance.  

PubMed

Rapid advances in imaging technology are a challenge for health care professionals, who must determine how best to use these technologies to optimize patient care and outcomes. Hybrid imaging instrumentation, combining 2 or more new or existing technologies, each with its own separate history of clinical evolution, such as PET and CT, may be especially challenging. CT and PET provide complementary anatomic information and molecular information, respectively, with PET giving specificity to anatomic findings and CT offering precise localization of metabolic activity. Historically, the acquisition and interpretation of the 2 image sets have been performed separately and very often at different times and locales. Recently, integrated PET/CT systems have become available; these systems provide PET and CT images that are acquired nearly simultaneously and are capable of producing superimposed, coregistered images, greatly facilitating interpretation. As the implementation of this integrated technology has become more widespread in the setting of oncologic imaging, questions and concerns regarding equipment specifications, image acquisition protocols, supervision, interpretation, professional qualifications, and safety have arisen. This article summarizes the discussions and observations surrounding these issues by a collaborative working group consisting of representatives from the American College of Radiology, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance. PMID:16000293

Coleman, R Edward; Delbeke, Dominique; Guiberteau, Milton J; Conti, Peter S; Royal, Henry D; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Siegel, Barry A; Federle, Michael F; Townsend, David W; Berland, Lincoln L

2005-07-01

445

Concurrent PET/CT with an integrated imaging system: intersociety dialogue from the Joint Working Group of the American College of Radiology, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance.  

PubMed

Rapid advances in imaging technology are a challenge for health care professionals, who must determine how best to use these technologies to optimize patient care and outcomes. Hybrid imaging instrumentation, combining 2 or more new or existing technologies, each with its own separate history of clinical evolution, such as PET and CT, may be especially challenging. CT and PET provide complementary anatomic information and molecular information, respectively, with PET giving specificity to anatomic findings and CT offering precise localization of metabolic activity. Historically, the acquisition and interpretation of the 2 image sets have been performed separately and very often at different times and locales. Recently, integrated PET/CT systems have become available; these systems provide PET and CT images that are acquired nearly simultaneously and are capable of producing superimposed, coregistered images, greatly facilitating interpretation. As the implementation of this integrated technology has become more widespread in the setting of oncologic imaging, questions and concerns regarding equipment specifications, image acquisition protocols, supervision, interpretation, professional qualifications, and safety have arisen. This article summarizes the discussions and observations surrounding these issues by a collaborative working group consisting of representatives from the American College of Radiology, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, and the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance. PMID:17411882

Coleman, R Edward; Delbeke, Dominique; Guiberteau, Milton J; Conti, Peter S; Royal, Henry D; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Siegel, Barry A; Federle, Michael P; Townsend, David W; Berland, Lincoln L

2005-07-01

446

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

Heineman, W.R.

1992-01-24

447

Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

1998-11-01

448

Shipborne hydrographic laser scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications like hydro-archeology, hydrobiology, or hydraulic engineering sometimes require accurate surveying of submerged areas with point densities usually only achieved with mobile or terrestrial laser scanning. For navigable waterbodies, hydrographic laser scanning from a floating platform represents a viable solution. RIEGL's new hydrographic laser scanner VQ-820-G with its exceptionally high measurement rate of up to 110,000 net measurements per second and its small laser footprint is optimally suited for such applications. We present results from a measurement campaign surveying prehistoric lake dwellings at Lake Constance in Germany. While the aim of typical hydrographic laser scanning applications is to roughly acquire the ground's shape and structure, in this case it was tried to determine the exact position, shape, and attitude of the remainders of the piles. The special requirements with respect to mission planning and data processing are discussed and the performance of the laser scanner is assessed.

Pfennigbauer, Martin; Rieger, Peter; Schaich, Martin

2011-10-01

449

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1988-02-05

450

Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a versatile type of scanning probe microscopy for studies in molecular biology and materials science. Recent advances in feedback and probe fabrication have greatly increased the resolution, stability, and speed of imaging. Noncontact imaging and the ability to deliver materials to localized areas have made SICM especially fruitful for studies of molecular biology, and many examples of such use have been reported. In this review, we highlight new developments in the operation of SICM and describe some of the most exciting recent studies from this growing field.

Chen, Chiao-Chen; Zhou, Yi; Baker, Lane A.

2012-07-01

451

V/SCAN  

PubMed Central

V/SCAN™ is a computerized video scanning instrument incorporating new concepts in the analysis of microscopic images, having applications to the detailed analysis and construction of chromosome karyotypes. Its primary use is for research applications in the areas of automating hybrid cell karyotyping where 150 or more chromosomes may appear, of automating prometaphase banding pattern analysis where complex banding patterns occur, and of automating fluorescence stains of chromosomal probes which appear on interphase cells. The instrument also includes the capability of very high-speed locating of chromosome spreads and other objects, and of large-scale image archiving and retrieval.

Golab, T.J.; Ledley, R.S.; Buas, M.; Lubs, H.A.

1988-01-01

452

Behavioral medicine in Russian family medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation's recently adopted family medicine as a specialty, but with little or no training in psychosocial and behavioral issues, unlike many training programs in other countries. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of Russian primary care physicians regarding the practice of behavioral medicine and psychosocial methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted

David Buyck; Michael Floyd; Fred Tudiver; Lana McGrady; Andrea Journagin; Svetlana Kishenko

2005-01-01

453

Medicinal Herb Garden  

MedlinePLUS

... June 22, 2008) You may access the Medicinal Herb Garden images via the following lists: Index by ... the University of Washington in Seattle, the Medicinal Herb Garden is a resource for herbalists, medics, and ...

454

Sports Medicine Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)|

Ryan, Allan J.

1978-01-01

455

Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. Objective: The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Materials and methods: Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusions: Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use. PMID:23746335

Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

2013-06-07

456

Alanine Scan of Endothelin.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Order to get an insight into the endothelin's (ET) structural requirements for vasoconstrictor activity, a series of analogs was synthesized by SPPS, using the Boc-benzyl protecting group strategy. The paper describes the L-alanine scan, in which each ...

R. de Castiglione J. P. Tam W. Liu J. W. Zhang M. Galantino

1992-01-01

457

Scan This Book!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2007-01-01

458

Scan This Book!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2007-01-01

459

SCANS: The Missing Link.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three specific classroom techniques for teaching vocational English as a Second Language to adults are discussed. They are three items on the SCANS (Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) list of "easy things" to do to integrate workplace basics into the classroom, designed to encourage a student-focused classroom. They include: (1)…

Price-Machado, Donna

460

Teaching the SCANS Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.