Sample records for nuclear medicine scan

  1. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear Medicine Imaging What you need to know about… A nuclear medicine procedure is sometimes described as ... nuclear medicine scan. Estudios de Imagen de Medicina Nuclear Lo que usted necesita saber acerca de... Un ...

  2. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  5. A study of professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine workers using GTG-banding and solid stain

    PubMed Central

    Changizi, Vahid; Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Mousavi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: CT scan and nuclear medicine exams deliver a great part of medical exposures. This study examined professional radiation hazards in CT scan and nuclear medicine workers. Methods: In a cross sectional study 30 occupationally exposed workers and 7 controls (all from personnel of a laboratory) were selected. Physical dosimetry was performed for exposed workers. Blood samples were obtained from the experimental and control groups. Three culture mediums for each one were prepared in due to routine chromosome analysis using G-banding and solid stain. Results: There were significant increased incidence of chromatid gap (ctg) and chromatid break (ctb) with mean±SD frequencies of 3±0.84 and 3.1±1.40 per 100 cells respectively in the nuclear medicine workers versus controls with mean±SD frequencies of 1.9±0.69 and 1.3±0.84 for ctg and ctb, respectively. Chromosome gaps (chrg) were higher significantly in the nuclear medicine population (2.47±0.91) than in controls (1.4±0.9) (p< 0.05). In CT scan group the ctg and ctb were increased with a mean±SD frequency of 2.7±0.79 and 2.6±0.91 per 100 cells respectively compared with control group. The mean±SD frequencies of the chrb were 2.0±0.75 and 0.86±0.690 per 100 cells for exposed workers and control group, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes using solid stain method are reasonable biomarker reflecting personnel radiation damage.

  6. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  7. Nuclear Scans (Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are the possible complications? For the most part, nuclear scans are safe tests. The doses of radiation are small, and the radionuclides have a low ... else should I know about these tests? The radiation exposure from a nuclear scan comes from the radionuclides used – the scanner ...

  8. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  9. Internet and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Nyssen, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper aims in analyzing the effectiveness of the technological impact of internet technology on nuclear medicine. To make this evaluation we will first determine what we consider is the 'internet technology' and then see how the 'production line' in nuclear medicine benefits from this internet technology, putting both side by side. PMID:11137797

  10. Society of Nuclear Medicine

    Cancer.gov

    June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

  11. Nuclear medicine data communications.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, J C

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear Medicine was one of the earliest imaging modalities to adopt the use of computers for acquisition, processing, storage, and display of digital images. Originally used for processing images, computer technologies were quickly adopted for image storage, display, and transmission. Modern nuclear medicine cameras produce digital images that can be transmitted over computer networks to other cameras, storage devices, workstations, and printers. In order to achieve nuclear medicine data communication, images must be successfully acquired and transmitted to the appropriate location to be displayed or printed. Standards have been developed over the years to facilitate the creation of interfaces between vendors and equipment, notably the interfile format for nuclear medicine and the DICOM standard for medical images. Studies can be transmitted over network communication links to other sites using telecommunication protocol standards where they can be stored and/or displayed on a wide variety of devices. This ability to move images in a well-understood format to general purpose devices using standard equipment enables the use of the Internet to disseminate nuclear medicine study information over a wide area for clinical use, research, and education. A number of universities have created Internet sites with nuclear medicine teaching files and information. As technology advances, it will be feasible to transmit medical images of all kinds to virtually anyone who needs them in near real-time, without regard to the distance between locations, or the types of instrumentation and computers used. The next few years should prove to be very interesting for digital medical imaging in general and nuclear medicine in particular. PMID:9579417

  12. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  13. Pulmonary nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Pulmonary Nuclear Medicine; Radionuclide Venography as an Adjunct to V-P Imaging in the Assessment of Thromboembolic Disease; Assessment of Mucous Transport in the Respiratory Tract by Radioisotopic Techniques; Radiolabeled Blood Cells and Tracers in the Study of Acute Pulmonary Injury and ARDS; and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lungs.

  14. Nuclear medicine case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This text presents case studies in nuclear medicine which emphasize the diagnosis of the patient's problem rather than the technical performance of the procedure. The book is arranged by organ systems and each section begins with a description of the technique and findings in a normal study.

  15. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  16. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  17. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  18. Radioactivity in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The use of radioactivity in biomedical research probably goes back to the efforts of George von Hevesy and his concept of the tag(tracer). The first use of a tracer in humans was perhaps the work of H. Blumgart in 1927 when he used a solution of radon to trace the human bloodstream. In the mid 1930`s Robley Evans (MIT) suggested using {open_quotes}radioiodine{close_quotes} as a tracer in thyroid disease. From that point on radionuclides weir, firmly entrenched in medicine and biomedical research. At first iodine-128 was used, then iodine-131. In 1938 Segre and Seaborg described the discovery of Technetium-99m, the isotope which in later years would account for the major use in nuclear medicine practice. In 1946, the AEC issued its now classic list of radioisotopes for use in the scientific community. The age of the reactor had begun bringing about a revolution in one area of medical practice. The accelerator started coming back into favor in the 1950s but began to hit its stride in the 1960s and beyond, principally with making available iodine-123, thallium-201 and the positron emitters carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The history of radiochemistry, chemistry and uses of these and the number of other important radionuclides will be discussed.

  19. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W. (East Moriches, NY); Brill, A. Bertrand (Shoreham, NY); Bizais, Yves J. C. (Upton, NY); Rowe, R. Wanda (Upton, NY); Zubal, I. George (Upton, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  20. Nuclear Medicine CT Angiography

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    rotation is based at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center and gives the cardiology fellow experience. Understand the indications for exercise treadmill testing and specific nuclear cardiology tests, safe use patient and learn the importance of physical and pharmacologic stress in nuclear cardiology 3. Interpret

  1. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  2. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Dear Author,

    E-print Network

    Piana, Michele

    of Publications Society of Nuclear Medicine 1850 Samuel Morse Drive Reston, VA 20190-5316 Fax: (703) 708-9018 Tel of Publications Society of Nuclear Medicine 1850 Samuel Morse Drive Reston, VA 20190-5316 USA Corrections may also

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  4. Data resources for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Lemmel, H.D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Nuclear Data Section

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.

  5. New procedures in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The authors review the recent emergence of functional studies in nuclear medicine in this critical and informative text. The new procedures are presented in terms of their underlying physiology, indications, contraindications, methodology, results, interpretation and relationship to other evaluations. The volume includes discussions on the central nervous system, interventional studies, cardiac studies, bone densitometry, plus radiolabeled antibodies, radiolabeling of blood elements and flow and distribution.

  6. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  7. Graduates of 2004 Heidi Ambrose ---Nuclear Medicine

    E-print Network

    Michael Congrove --- Marine Biology Justin Crocker --- Biology Karen Culbertson --- Nuclear Medicine Medicine Dustin Earnhardt --- Chemistry and Biochemistry Rebecca Echipare --- Biology Assen Gueorguiev Laroia --- Biology Monica Lea --- Communication Rebecca Long --- Exercise Science Erin Mehalic

  8. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  10. New diagnostic approach to brain lesions in nuclear medicine. Differential diagnosis of brain lesions with a computed brain scan diagnosis by the likelihood method.

    PubMed

    Mori, H; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K; Kojima, K; Tonami, N

    1975-01-01

    Using 240 true positive brain scans, a computer system for the differential diagnosis of brain lesions has been evaluated. Eighty-six parameters were extracted from brain scan findings without relationship to neurological signs and symptoms, and the likelihood method was adopted as an example of mathematical logic. The results of our experiment indicated that the overall accuracy was 77 per cent for the maximum likelihood method. The digital computer gave satisfactory results, particularly for diseases such as infarct, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma, and subdural hematoma. In spite of several problems to be solved, this method could provide invaluable help in differential diagnosis of brain lesions. PMID:166053

  11. Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula Werneke; V. Ralph McCready

    2004-01-01

    Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic

  12. Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

    1983-12-01

    To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

  13. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  14. Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment. PMID:19914977

  15. Brief overview of nuclear medicine in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.C.; Chou, C.E.

    1989-04-01

    The year 1956 witnessed the birth of Nuclear Medicine in China, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). This course was preceded by a training course in nuclear instruments in which students learned to construct the radiation detection devices required for performing experiments using radioisotopes. In 1958, several courses in clinical nuclear medicine brought up the first generation of nuclear medicine physicians in China. Historically, some of the chief events include: (1) operation of the first reactor, producing 33 radioactive isotopes in 1958; (2) first linear scanner built in 1960; (3) setting up an organization for the control of radiopharmaceuticals in 1961; (4) distribution of the first batch of cyclotron-produced isotopes in 1963; (5) development and use of the first radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure in 1963; (6) production of tritium in 1964; (7) production of 99.8% enriched heavy water in 1965; (8) supply of 99mTc and 113mIn generators in 1972; (9) first gamma camera imported in 1972 and first homemade gamma camera installed in 1977; (10) founding of Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine (CSNM) in 1980; (11) publication of the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine beginning in 1981; (12) first single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imported in 1983. At present, there are 556 nuclear medicine departments in China with 4,000 staff.

  16. In vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine. Pediatric experience

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, W.A.; Hendee, W.R.; Gilday, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered.

  17. A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

    This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

  18. National Library of Medicine PubMed Central Back Issue Scanning Project

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    National Library of Medicine PubMed Central Back Issue Scanning Project Image Specifications and Functional Requirements for Citation Capture Version 3.2 May, 2007 National Library of Medicine NationalMed Central Back Issue Scanning Specifications U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike

  19. Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

  20. Nuclear Imaging of a Pregnant Patient: Should We Perform Nuclear Medicine Procedures During Pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Bural, Gonca G.; Laymon, Charles M.; Mountz, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is extremely rare, nuclear imaging of a pregnant woman presents a unique challenge to the nuclear medicine physician because of the high concern for radiation risk to the embryo or the fetus. This challenge has been exacerbated due to recent heightened public concern of medical procedures involving radiation. This awareness also has been emphasized to the referring physicians to the extent that the risks of most nuclear medicine scans are overstressed relative to the benefit. Radionuclide procedures are reluctantly ordered by clinicians in pregnant patients, because of the malpractice fear or because of uncertainty regarding fetal radiation dose. However, when used appropriately, the benefits of nuclear imaging procedures usually outweigh the minimal risks associated with small amount of radiation even in pregnant patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487481

  1. Nuclear Medicine Reporting System for Microcomputers

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Daniel; Haberman, Seth

    1982-01-01

    Description: In this paper we present a completely user-defined reporting system for nuclear medicine. It is inexpensive, highly flexible and can be adapted for general radiology. Equipment: Apple II with 2 disc drives and printer. Language: Microsoft basic with microcode subroutines Availability: Pending

  2. healthcare.utah.edu/radiology What is Nuclear Medicine?

    E-print Network

    Feschotte, Cedric

    healthcare.utah.edu/radiology Radiology What is Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear Medicine is a specialized area of radiology often used to help diagnose and treat abnormalities early in the progression depending on the specific procedure and preparations. Nuclear Medicine #12;healthcare.utah.edu/radiology

  3. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  4. Wavelet domain filtering for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, R.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Baraniuk, R.G. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Hellman, R.S. [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    We propose a new filtering/estimation method for nuclear medicine imaging. The statistical method of cross-validation is used to design optimal wavelet domain filters for improved image estimation. The quality of the resulting images is much better than standard image estimates, in both visual and mean square error senses. Moreover, experiments have shown that, using the new estimate, we can reduce the acquisition time by a factor of two and still retain high image quality.

  5. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

  6. Accuracy of Interpretation of Cranial Computed Tomography Scans in an Emergency Medicine Residency Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis Alfaro; M. Andrew Levitt; David K English; Virgil Williams; Ronald Eisenberg

    1995-01-01

    Study objectives: To determine the concordance of emergency physicians and radiologists in interpreting cranial computed tomography (CT) scans. The study also sought to determine the clinical significance of misinterpretations of cranial CT scans by emergency physicians.Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: A county hospital emergency medicine residency program. Participants: Five hundred fifty-five patients undergoing CT scanning during emergency department evaluation. Results:

  7. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... ????????? - ??? (Japanese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Korean (???) Bone Scan ? (?) ?? - ??? (Korean) ...

  8. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  9. Proton beam scanning modular unit for a nuclear microprobe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Sayko; A. G. Ponomarev; S. N. Mordyk; V. M. Eremenko; I. N. Lyfar; A. I. Mihajlichenko; S. N. Abramovich; Yu. I. Vinogradov; A. G. Zvenigorodsky; E. V. Zimin

    2007-01-01

    General ideas underlying the design of a proton beam scanning modular unit intended for a nuclear microprobe consisting of\\u000a a ferromagnetic x-y scanning system and a dynamic power supply are described. For an H+ ion energy of 14 MeV, the unit provides a rectangular scanning raster with a linear size of 300 ?m on the target and a minimal\\u000a point-to-point

  10. Nuclear medicine: will I glow in the dark, nurse?

    PubMed

    Sherry, I

    Nursing in nuclear medicine is an unknown field for most nurses. This article sheds light on the impact nuclear medicine can have on patients and on the nursing role in caring for patients undergoing diagnosis and treatment using radioisotopes. PMID:11209390

  11. Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    The 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Hartford BE 281 - BE 381 Biomedical Engineering Seminar I and II Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Study of Nuclear Medicine Supply Chains is a combination

  12. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  13. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  14. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  15. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  16. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  17. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  18. Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K. [Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2007-11-26

    Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

  19. Recommendations on strengthening the development of nuclear medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shih-chen

    2009-03-01

    This paper outlines briefly the role of nuclear medicine in life sciences and health care. Molecular imaging by using isotopic tracers can noninvasively visualize the chemistry or hidden process in the cells and tissues inside the body, obtaining "functional" images to provide early information of any disease and revealing the secrets of life. The vitality of nuclear medicine is its ability to translate bench into new clinical application that can benefits the patients. Although nuclear medicine community in China has made significant achievement with a great effort since 1950s, there are many obstacles to future development. Recommended measures are proposed here in an attempt to solve our existing problems. PMID:19382417

  20. Developments in gamma scanning irradiated nuclear fuel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Matsson; B. Grapengiesser

    1997-01-01

    Non-destructive methods, based on high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, have been further developed for on-site measurements of several nuclear fuel parameters and efficient verification of the fuel in-pile performance. The measuring system is based on a high-purity germanium detector (HPGe) together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line PC data aquisition module. Measurements have been carried out in the fuel storage pools

  1. CRC manual of nuclear medicine: Procedures. Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J.E.; Kline, R.C.; Keyes, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the procedures applied for the clinical nuclear medicine laboratory. The procedures are presented as proven guidelines. The chapters are included on quality assurance, radionuclide handling, and radiation safety.

  2. Left-ventricle boundary detection from nuclear medicine images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Dai; Wesley E. Snyder; Griff L. Bilbro; Rodney Williams; Robert Cowan

    1998-01-01

    We present here a new algorithm for segmentation of nuclear medicine images to detect the left-ventricle (LV) boundary. In\\u000a this article, other image segmentation techniques, such as edge detection and region growing, are also compared and evaluated.\\u000a In the edge detection approach, we explored the relationship between the LV boundary characteristics in nuclear medicine images\\u000a and their radial orientations: we

  3. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... imagegently.org What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses ... provide patients, parents and caregivers with information about nuclear medicine and radiation exposure. We hope this pamphlet answers your questions. ...

  4. Use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine in the United States: 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Callahan, Ronald J; Clanton, Jeffrey A; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Greenspan, Bennett S; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Moore, Stephen C; Ponto, James A; Shreeve, Walton W; Melo, Dunstana R; Linet, Martha S; Simon, Steven L

    2015-05-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, the authors assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake; brain scan; brain blood flow; lung perfusion and ventilation; bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans; cardiac imaging procedures; tumor localization studies; localization of gastrointestinal bleeding; and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologists' cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations. PMID:25811150

  5. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  6. PRESENT LIMITATIONS OF CdTe DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    365 PRESENT LIMITATIONS OF CdTe DETECTORS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE R. ALLEMAND, P. BOUTEILLER, M. LAVAL quality criteria, it is necessary to compare Cd-Te detectors results (or estimated characteristics) with other methods (i. e. 8cintillation cameras) in order to know the effective interest of Cd-Te in nuclear

  7. Comparative analysis of dosimetry parameters for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Stabin, M.G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For years many have employed the concept of ``total-body dose`` or ``whole-body dose,`` i.e., the total energy deposited in the body divided by the mass of the body, when evaluating the risks of different nuclear medicine procedures. The effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}), first described in ICRP Publication 26, has been accepted by some as a better quantity to use in evaluating the total risk of a procedure, but its use has been criticized by others primarily because the tissue weighting factors were intended for use in the radiation worker, rather than the nuclear medicine patient population. Nevertheless, in ICRP Publication 52, the ICRP has suggested that the H{sub E} may be used in nuclear medicine. The ICRP also has published a compendium of dose estimates, including H{sub E} values, for various nuclear medicine procedures at various ages in ICRP Publication 53. The effective dose (E) of ICRP Publication 60 is perhaps more suitable for use in nuclear medicine, with tissue weighting factors based on the entire population. Other comparisons of H{sub E} and E have been published. The authors have used the program MIRDOSE 3.1 to compute total-body dose, H{sub E}, and E for 62 radiopharmaceutical procedures, based on the best current biokinetic data available.

  8. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

  9. The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, B; Balan, K

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

  10. Nuclear medicine imaging in podiatric disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, R.D. Jr.; Hammes, C.S.

    1988-10-01

    Radionuclide scanning is a valuable diagnostic tool based on metabolic and anatomic imaging. When used in the appropriate clinical setting, radionuclide imaging is a sensitive, minimally invasive imaging modality that detects and differentiates skeletal from nonskeletal pathology in the painful foot. Isotopic scanning is of particular value in the evaluation of the diabetic foot and in the subsequent follow-up of response to therapy.72 references.

  11. Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

    1988-01-01

    This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

  12. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  13. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

  14. Overall system design of a PACS for nuclear medicine images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenno P. Ottes; Albert R. Bakker; Chel Vangennip; Bas M. van Poppel; Pieter J. Toussaint; Ruud Weber; Onno Weier

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the global system design of a PACS for nuclear medicine images. This NM PACS provides facilities for image capture, storage, display, manipulation and analysis. The NM PACS workstation displays besides images also the patient data from the HIS database. The NM PACS is equipped with well-defined HIS interface, which provides interoperability with HIS systems. The system design

  15. Nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Perkins; M. Frier

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging techniques have great potential in the study of the behaviour of drug formulations and drug delivery systems in human subjects. No other technique can locate so precisely the site of disintegration of a tablet in the Gl tract, the depth of penetration of a nebulised solution into the lung, or the residence time of a drug on

  16. Edge detection in gated cardiac nuclear medicine images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff X. Wang; Lon Small; Wesley E. Snyder; Rodney Williams

    1994-01-01

    Mean field annealing using a piecewise linear model was applied to gated cardiac nuclear medicine images as a preprocessing tool for image smoothing and noise reduction. A second derivative operator was then used to extract the edges for ventricle boundary estimation. Combined with the user input initial boundary estimate, the extracted edge information was used to find a minimum cost

  17. Nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    O'Reilly, P.H.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This edition on radionuclide techniques in urology and nephrology reflects the many advances since 1979. Emphasis has been given to diuretic renography and studies of urinary reflux. A new chapter discusses the diagnosis of lower urinary tract problems. The editors have divided the book into three sections. The first part presents a description of the techniques and their interpretation. Renography, renal scanning, clearance studies, and bone scanning are covered. The second section gives an in-depth discussion of the application of these techniques to obstructive uropathy, urologic tumors, renal transplantation, trauma, and lower urinary tract, pediatric, and nephrologic problems. The last part of the book deals with basic principles. It expands on the relevant theoretical and technical aspects not covered in detail in part 1. In this last portion of the book the editors have grouped together the chapters on physics, instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiation dosimetry.

  18. Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services

    SciTech Connect

    Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

  19. Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

  20. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  1. * DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease. It is a multi-

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Mei-Fang

    1 * DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease, and medicine. Though there are many diagnostic techniques currently available, nuclear medicine uniquely medicine from other imaging modalities, such as X-ray. Nuclear medicine procedures are safe, they involve

  2. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  3. Source book of educational materials for nuclear medicine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pijar, M.L.; Lewis, J.T.

    1981-08-01

    The Source Book has been divided into 22 sections. Each section corresponds to subject areas included in a compilation of curricula for nuclear medicine technology. Each section is subdivided into subsections entitled 'Publications' and in some chapters, 'Audiovisuals', and 'Training Aids'. Entries include title, author, producer, or publisher, data, ordering number if available, price, and when possible, a brief description. Publishers', producers' and manufacturers' addresses are found in Section 22 - Parts, A, B, and C. Section 22 - Part D lists periodicals of special interest to individuals involved in nuclear medicine. This list of resource materials is not exhaustive but in the opinion of the compilers is a representative sample of the material available in the field.

  4. Population exposure from nuclear medicine procedures: Measurement data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony R. Benedetto; Timothy W. Dziuk; Martin L. Nusynowitz

    1989-01-01

    In order to estimate the public radiation burden from nuclear medicine studies, a TLD chip in a sealed plastic bag was taped on the abdomen of patients who received ¹¹¹In as chloride or oxine, ²°¹T1 chloride, or one of four common {sup 99m}Tc agents. The TLD chip was removed after 24 h. Additionally, abdominal skin surface exposure rate measurements were

  5. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  6. Electron Accelerator's Production of Technetium-99m for Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, V. L.; Dikiy, N. P.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Medvedyeva, Ye. P.; Pugachov, G. D.; Tur, Yu. D.; Abramova, L. P.; Staren'ky, V. P.

    1997-05-01

    Technetium-99m provides up to 90nuclear medicine at present. His generator Mo-99 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation. One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in Mo-100 under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of Tc-99m production. Report contents both an analysis of some technical, economical and ecological aspects of Method and the results of experimental production of Tc-99m with KIPT electron linac as well as results of medical tests of produced radiopharmaceuticals.

  7. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  8. Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging.

    PubMed

    Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Vanbrocklin, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 - 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled "Photons Across Medicine", organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

  9. Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

  10. Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

  11. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

  12. Application of pet radionuclides for nuclear medicine targeted therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.D.; Macapinlac, H.; Humm, J.; Pentlow, K.; McDevitt, M.; Tjuvajev, J.; Blasberg, R.; Scheinberg, D.; Larson, S.; Zweit, J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York and The Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton (England)

    1997-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is the specialty of medical imaging which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts in this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radio-labeled tracers necessary to achieve the time-dependent molecular image. Preliminary results from our laboratory directed at oncologic applications include the preparation of specific PET radionuclides which allow an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. Illustrative examples and operational considerations of specific accelerator-produced radionuclides are presented. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

  14. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  15. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection.

  16. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  17. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 ?Sv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 ?Sv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled therapeutic 131I (2.5 mSv). In conclusion, the maximum expected annual dose to extremities is less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y).

  18. Physics of Nuclear Medicine Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201

    E-print Network

    Suel, Torsten

    Physics of Nuclear Medicine Yao Wang Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L are from the textbook. #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture Outline of decay · Radiotracers #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 3 What is Nuclear

  19. ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.

    PubMed

    Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21571791

  20. A modular scintillation camera for use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Milster, T.D.; Arendt, J.; Barrett, H.H.; Easton, R.L.; Rossi, G.R.; Selberg, L.A.; Simpson, R.G.

    1984-02-01

    A ''modular'' scintillation camera is discussed as an alternative to using Anger cameras for gamma-ray imaging in nuclear medicine. Each module is an independent gamma camera and consists of a scintillation crystal, light pipe and mask plane, PMT's, and processing electronics. Groups of modules efficiently image radionuclide distributions by effectively utilizing crystal area. Performance of each module is maximized by using Monte-Carlo computer simulations to determine the optical design of the camera, optimizing the signal processing of the PMT signals using maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators, and incorporating digital lookup tables. Each event is completely processed in 2 ..mu..sec, and FWHM of the PSF over the crystal area is expected to be 3 mm. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional prototypes are tested for spatial and energy resolution

  1. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  2. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  3. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  4. Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man Yu

    2014-05-01

    As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

  5. Comparing the brain CT scan interpretation of emergency medicine team with radiologists' report and its impact on patients' outcome.

    PubMed

    Talebian, Mohammad-Taghi; Kavandi, Elahe; Farahmand, Shervin; Shahlafar, Neda; Arbab, Mona; Seyedhosseini-Davarani, Seyedhossein; Nejati, Amir; Bagheri-Hariri, Shahram

    2015-06-01

    Requesting non-enhanced brain CT scans for trauma and non-trauma patients in ER is very common. In this study, the impact of incorrect brain CT scan interpretations by emergency medicine team on patients' primary and secondary outcome was evaluated in the setting where neuroradiologist reports are not always available. During a 3-month period, 450 patients were enrolled and followed for 28 days. All CT scans were interpreted by the emergency medicine team, and the patients were managed accordingly. Neuroradiologists' reports were considered as gold standard, and the patients were then grouped into the agreement or disagreement group. A panel of experts further evaluated the disagreement group and placed them in clinically significant and insignificant. The agreement rate between emergency medicine team and neuroradiologists was 86.4 %. The inter-rater reliability between emergency team and neuroradiologists was substantial (kappa?=?0.68) and statistically significant (p?scan, brain MRI, and lumbar puncture. Forty-one patients were managed clinically appropriate in spite of misinterpretation. A 28-day follow-up showed a mortality rate of 0.2 %; however, expert panel believed the death of this patient was not related to the CT scan misinterpretation. We conclude that although the disagreement rate in this study was 13.6 %, primary and secondary outcomes were not clinically jeopardized according to the expert panel idea and 28-day follow-up results. PMID:25354907

  6. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

  7. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  8. Multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging: artefacts, pitfalls and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    van Dalen, Jorn A.; Vogel, Wouter V.; Corstens, Frans H.M.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming an essential tool in oncology. Clinically, the best example of multimodality imaging is seen in the rapid evolution of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT scanners. However, use of multi-modality imaging is prone to artefacts and pitfalls. Important artefacts that may lead to clinical misinterpretation result from the use of CT data to correct for attenuation and the existence of mismatches between the fused images, for example due to respiratory movement. Furthermore, for institutions who proceed from a standalone PET to a hybrid PET-CT, there is an issue of interchangeability between these systems, especially for quantitative studies. Another issue is visualisation: hospital PACS is not sufficiently capable of adequately viewing integrated images. This article reviews and illustrates the most common artefacts and pitfalls that can be encountered in multi-modality nuclear medicine imaging. For correct management of oncological patients it is essential to be able to detect and correctly interpret these artefacts and pitfalls. Therefore, solutions and recommendations to these problems are provided. PMID:17535775

  9. New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

  10. Nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, T.J.; Schwarz, S.W.; Welch, M.J. (Washington Univ. Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinckrodt Inst. of Radiology)

    1994-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is the field of medical practice that involves the oral or intravenous administration of radioactive materials for use in diagnosis and therapy. The majority of radiopharmaceutical available are used for diagnostic purposes. These involve the determination of organ function, shape, or position from an image of the radioactivity distribution within an organ or at a location within the body. After administration, the radiopharmaceutical localizes within an organ or target tissue due to its biological or physiologic characteristics. This diagnostic capability is usually the result of the emission of gamma radiation from the radiopharmaceutical localized within an organ. This allows for external detection and imaging using a special type of camera known as a gamma camera. When a positron-emitting radionuclide decays, a positron (positive electron) is emitted from the nucleus. The positron then annihilates with an electron, resulting in the release of energy in the form of two 511-KeV [gamma]-rays at 180[degree] to one another. The energy of these photons is sufficient to pass through tissue. Thus, placing a series of detectors around the patient allows technicians to monitor the emission of both of the photons that result from a single positron annihilation. this ultimately allows an accurate quantification of the distribution of radioactivity in the body not possible when only a single [gamma]-ray is emitted.

  11. Nuclear medicine image segmentation using a connective network

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, J.; Smith, M.F.; Coleman, R.E. [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A method for post-reconstruction nuclear medicine image segmentation based on an analogy to the Ising model of a two-dimensional square lattice of N particles (pixel values) is presented. A reconstructed 2-D slice image is analyzed as a multi-pixel system where pixel values correspond to a 2-D lattice of points with non-zero interaction energy with their nearest neighbors. The model assumes that pixel intensities belonging to the same homogeneous image region are relatively constant, where region intensity means (or labels) are determined by both statistical parameter estimation and deterministic image analysis. The change in value of each pixel during the segmentation process depends on (1) the statistical properties in the reconstructed image and (2) the values (or states) of its nearest neighbors. These changes are either in the direction of statistically estimated intensity means or other previously analyzed regions of significance. The segmentation technique uses a new innovative relaxation labeling connective network. The global relaxation dynamics of the network are controlled by the interaction of local synergetic and logistic functions assigned to each pixel. This result may improve the localization of hot and cold regions of interest as compared to the original image.

  12. Portable gamma camera for clinical use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F. [Univ. of Rome, La Sapienza (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Up today Hamamatsu R3292 is the Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) with the largest sensitive area (10 cm of diameter). At the same time it has the minimum size for clinical application in Nuclear Medicine. A portable gamma camera was realized, based on 5 inches PSPMT coupled to a scintillating array. The head has a light weight (15 Kg.) spatial resolution resulted better than that of Anger Camera with good linearity response, good energy resolution and FOV coincident with intrinsic one of PSPMT. To optimize gamma camera response two different scintillating arrays were tested: YAP:Ce and CsI (Tl). Their overall size cover all photochatode active area, and crystal pixel size was 2 mm x 2 mm. The detection efficiency resulted comparable to that of Anger Camera. The best result was obtained by CsI (Tl) scintillating: an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.6 mm FWHM and a relative energy resolution of 17% FWHM. With a standard general purpose collimator a spatial resolution of about 2 mm resulted. Some preliminary results were also obtained in breast scintigraphy.

  13. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  14. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; ?ahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 ?Sv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 ?Sv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  15. Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

    2011-09-01

    Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

  16. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  17. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

    2006-07-05

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  18. Introduction In nuclear medicine, a pharmaceutical tagged with a radioactive isotope (a radio

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    tomography we can overcome the superposition of information and obtain cross­sectional views of a patient. In nuclear medicine, the detection of radioactive emission and the subsequent cross sectional image in medicine is a method used to view or image a selected cross section of a patient without surgical

  19. Quality management in nuclear medicine for better patient care: the IAEA program.

    PubMed

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Pascual, Thomas; Paez, Diana; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes the practice of nuclear medicine among its Member States with a focus on quality and safety. It considers quality culture as a part of the educational process and as a tool to reduce heterogeneity in the practice of nuclear medicine, and in turn, patient care. Sensitization about quality is incorporated in all its delivery mechanisms. The Agency has developed a structured peer-review process called quality management (QM) audits in nuclear medicine practices to help nuclear medicine facilities improve their quality through this voluntary comprehensive audit process. The process is multidisciplinary, covering all aspects of nuclear medicine practice with a focus on the patient. It complements other QM and accreditation approaches developed by professional societies or accreditation agencies. The Agency is committed to propagate its utility and assist in the implementation process. Similar auditing programs for practice in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, called QUADRIL and QUATRO, respectively, are also in place. Necessary amendments in the auditing process and content are incorporated based on technological and practice changes with time. The reader will become familiar with the approach of the Agency on QM in nuclear medicine and its implementation process to improve patient care. PMID:23561453

  20. CdZnTe arrays for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, H.B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear medicine, a gamma-ray-emitting radiotracer is injected into the body, and the resulting biodistribution is imaged using a gamma camera. Current gamma cameras use a design developed by Anger. An Anger camera makes use of a slab of scintillation detector that is viewed by an array of photomultiplier tubes and uses an analog position estimation technique to determine the position of the gamma ray`s interaction. The image-forming optics is usually a multi-bore collimator made of lead. Such cameras are characterized by poor, system spatial resolution ({approximately}1 cm) due to poor detector resolution ({approximately}0.4 cm) and poor collimator performance. Arrays of semiconductor detectors are an attractive alternative to scintillators for use in gamma cameras. Semiconductor detectors have excellent energy resolution. High spatial resolution is also possible because large semiconductor detector arrays with small pixel sizes can be produced using photolithography techniques. A new crystal growth technique (high-pressure vertical Bridgman) allows production of detector grade CdTe and CdZnTe in multikilogram ingots. Although the cost of CdZnTe detectors has come down substantially in the last few years, in part because of economies of scale, costs are still more than an order of magnitude higher than those required for a commercial camera ($20--$50/gram). High detector costs are perhaps the major stumbling block to developing a semiconductor gamma camera. The photolithography techniques required to make large CdZnTe arrays have already been demonstrated. This paper discusses the recent developments made in CdZnTe detectors.

  1. A dynamic renal phantom for nuclear medicine studies.

    PubMed

    SabbirAhmed, A S M; Demir, Mustafa; Kabasakal, Levent; Uslu, Ilhami

    2005-02-01

    Dynamic radionuclide renal study (renography) provides functional and structural information of the kidney and urinary tract noninvasively. Our purpose in this study is to describe the construction and test results of a dynamic renal phantom with different clinical features of radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five pieces of different shaped Plexiglas boxes: Two kidneys, one liver, two square shaped boxes (one heart and one bladder). The bladder was internally divided into two compartments in order to collect each kidney output separately. The dynamic circulation of the phantom was maintained under a hydrostatic pressure approximately equal to 13.3 kPa (average human blood pressure). The standard dose distribution among different organs and different renographic parameters were calculated from series of normal patients study (91 with 99mTc-DTPA, 68 with 99mTc-EC). All the studies were performed with same camera (Siemens Orbiter Digitrac 7500) equipped with LEAP (low energy all purpose) collimator using ADAC Pegasys II analytic package program under the same clinical procedure. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn for concerning organs and counts per second (CPS) were collected for each ROI. The series of renogram curves were generated by phantom-studies with different flow rates for left kidney (LK) and right kidney (RK). The renal index (RI) for an individual study was calculated as the product of two indexes: "Relative Renal Function" (RRF) (water-volume of LK/RK) and "Relative Renal Time" (RRT) (Tmax of LK/RK). The most significant correlation was found in total CPS for LK and RK between the EC group and phantom studies (p < 0.001). The calculated RI values were used to simulate the patients' study with different clinical features. The dynamics were found reproducible. The phantom is suitable for using in calibration and quality control protocols of the renogram procedure used in Nuclear Medicine. PMID:15789599

  2. Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

    2004-01-01

    The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

  3. Hot cell remote nuclear scanning of tank core samples

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.A.; Blewett, G.R.; Troyer, G.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Keele, B.D. [Bobolink, Knoxville TN (United States); Addleman, R.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC)-designed remote measurement system has been constructed for gamma and beta isotopic characterization of Hanford Site high-level waste tank core sample materials in a hot cell. A small, collimated, planar CdZnTe detector is used for gamma-ray spectroscopy. Spectral resolution of 2% full-width-at-maximum at 662 kiloelectronvolts (keV) has been obtained remotely using risetime compensation and limited pulse shape discrimination (PSD). Isotopic measurement of high-energy beta emitters was accomplished with a ruggedly made, deeply depleted, surface barrier silicon detector. The primary function of the remote nuclear screening system is to provide a fast, qualitative stratigraphic assessment (with isotopic information) of high-level radioactive material. Both gamma spectroscopy and beta measurements have been performed on actual core segments. Differences in radionuclide content, which correspond with color or texture variations, have been seen in constant cross section core samples, although for many samples the activity variation can be ascribed to geometry and/or mass factors. Discussion of the design, implementation, results and potential benefits will be presented.

  4. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j) Radiation biology; (k) Nuclear medicine in vivo and in vitro procedures; (l) Radionuclide therapy; (m) Computer...

  5. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j) Radiation biology; (k) Nuclear medicine in vivo and in vitro procedures; (l) Radionuclide therapy; (m) Computer...

  6. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j) Radiation biology; (k) Nuclear medicine in vivo and in vitro procedures; (l) Radionuclide therapy; (m) Computer...

  7. The scanning laser ophthalmoscope---a review of its role in bioscience and medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Sharp; A. Manivannan; H. Xu; J. V. Forrester

    2004-01-01

    The scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) offers the potential for retinal imaging that is complementary both to that of the fundus camera and also the newly developing technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT). It has the ability to produce rapid images at low light levels using light of specific wavelengths. This permits temporal studies of fluorescent-labelled cells which offer a unique

  8. Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

  9. Comparison between Impact factor, SCImago journal rank indicator and Eigenfactor score of nuclear medicine journals.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Sadeghi; Sarraf Shirazi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Despite its widespread acceptance in the scientific world, impact factor (IF) has been criticized recently on many accounts: including lack of quality assessment of the citations, influence of self citation, English language bias, etc. In the current study, we evaluated three indices of journal scientific impact: (IF), Eigenfactor Score (ES), and SCImago Journal rank indicator (SJR) of nuclear medicine journals. Overall 13 nuclear medicine journals are indexed in ISI and SCOPUS and 7 in SCOPUS only. Self citations, Citations to non-English articles, citations to non-citable items and citations to review articles contribute to IFs of some journals very prominently, which can be better detected by ES and SJR to some extent. Considering all three indices while judging quality of the nuclear medicine journals would be a better strategy due to several shortcomings of IF. PMID:22936507

  10. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  11. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  12. Trends of population radiation adsorbed dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran: 1985-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, H.; Tabeie, F.; Saghari, M. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-04-01

    In view of the rapid expansion of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran, this study was undertaken to examine trends of nuclear medicine practice in the country and to determine the mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita. Comprehensive national data covering 93% of all nuclear medicine centers in 1985-1989 were obtained. The total number of nuclear medicine examinations inc teased by 42% during these years. The relative frequency of thyroid investigations was 84% followed by liver/spleen and bone procedures (7% and 6%, respectively). {sup 99m}Tc was the radionuclide of choice for 86% of investigation while {sup 131}I alone accounted for 59% of collective effective dose equivalent. The annual average number of nuclear medicine procedures per 1,000 people was 1.9. For the thyroid, the highest number (48%) of patients investigated was in the 15-29 y age group and the lowest (3%) was in the >64 y age group. The male to female ratio of thyroid and cardiac patient was 0.18 and 3.64, respectively. The numbers of males and females studied for the remaining eight procedures were less frequent and about the same. The mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita was about 4.3 mSv and 8 {mu}Sv, respectively. {sup 131}I was responsible for most of collective effective dose equivalent produced by nuclear medicine. Therefore, future efforts should be concentrated on dose reduction for diagnostic {sup 131}I tests.

  13. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  14. Ethical Dilemmas in Today's Nuclear Medicine and Radiology Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Barron; E. Edmund Kim; M. D. Anderson

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as phy- sicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the Amer- ican College

  15. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  16. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  17. STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA N, a proton beam extracted from C-80 will be used for eyes therapy (high precision 80 MeV beam with low of radioisotopes for nu- clear medicine. The proton synchrotron S-230 was designed at G.N. Budker Nuclear Physics

  18. Nuclear medicine PACS with an Interfile\\/ACR-NEMA interface and on-line medical record interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice C. Honeyman; Meryll M. Frost; Edward V. Staab; Walter E. Drane; Mike Nicole

    1993-01-01

    A PACS system has been implemented at the University of Florida that has eliminated the use of film in Nuclear Medicine. Six acquisition devices, four display devices, three paper printers, and a digital archive comprise the system. Nuclear Medicine images are viewed on display workstations for diagnosis and are printed in color on paper to be placed in the patient's

  19. Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  20. Translating Extra-Nuclear Steroid Receptor Signaling to Clinical Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ellis R

    2014-01-01

    The existence and function of extra-nuclear steroid receptors (SR) to rapidly modulate signal transduction is now acknowledged as present in cells and organs throughout the body. Work over the past 15 years has defined key mechanisms that are required for sex steroid receptors to traffic to the plasma membrane, but mechanisms of localization in other cell organelles such as mitochondria is still unclear. Signaling by membrane-localized SR has now been reported to impact many aspects of adult organ functions, while the roles in organ development are under investigation. In hormone-responsive cancers, both extra-nuclear and nuclear sex steroid receptors appear to collaborate in the regulation of some key genes that promote malignancy. Here I review what is understood about the impact of extra-nuclear steroid receptor signaling to mitigate or promote disease processes. PMID:24752388

  1. Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

  2. Assesment of Population Dose from Nuclear Medicine Procedures in Pernambuco (Brazil) During the Period 1990 - 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Khoury; M. A. Pereira; M. G. Stabin; C. A. Hazin; G. Drexler

    Pernambuco, with its population of 7.1 million, is the most important States of the northeast region of Brazil, and many patients from other States of the region come to be treated in Recife. In Recife there were two clinics, one private the other public, with nuclear medicine practices during the period of 1990-1994. Data were collected on: a) the types

  3. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  4. The diffusion of a vanguard technique: The case of nuclear medicine in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bouckaert; X. Leroy

    1985-01-01

    How does a new technology spread across a country? Which are the factors influencing its spreading across time and space? We have attempted to answer to those questions through the example of nuclear medicine. We have used a macro-economic approach, based on regional and diachronic data (43 areas and three larger 'regions' from 1974 to 1982). Two separate fields have

  5. Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z., E-mail: dzhil@cpc.inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-15

    For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

  6. Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Background A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. Methods A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. Conclusions The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures. PMID:24133396

  7. A general algorithm for optimal sampling schedule design in nuclear medicine imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianjin Li; David Dagan Feng; Koon-pong Wong

    2001-01-01

    Optimal sampling schedule (OSS) is of great interest in biomedical experiment design, as it can improve the physiological parameter estimation precision and significantly reduce the samples required. A number of well designed algorithms and software packages have been developed, which deal with the instantaneous measurements at discrete times. However, in nuclear medicine tracer kinetic studies, the imaging systems, such as

  8. Photon dose kernels dataset for nuclear medicine dosimetry, using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis Papadimitroulas; George Loudos; Panagiotis Georgoulias; George C. Kagadis

    2011-01-01

    Photon dose point kernels (DPKs) were generated using the GATE toolkit for different media and for radionuclides of interest in nuclear medicine. In the present work the primary photon contribution of different isotopes in different media is calculated, since this dataset is not available in the literature according to our knowledge. The generated dataset consists of photon DPKs for some

  9. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:25766899

  10. Routes for supply of technetium-99m for diagnostic nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Goeij, J.J.M. de [Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    Technetium-99m is the most frequently used radio nuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Although competing noninvasive diagnostic techniques are emerging, the prospects for the next decades are that {sup 99m}Tc will continue to play an indispensable role in diagnostic medicine. However, this applies only when the requirements of a reliable, cheap, frequent, and worldwide supply of {sup 99m}Tc to hospitals are met. This latter issue has been frequently addressed in recent years in publications and presentations at scientific meetings. This paper presents an overview of current and future methods to supply {sup 99m}Tc.

  11. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  12. Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Richard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217 (Australia)

    2011-05-05

    A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

  13. Nuclear medicine evaluation of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.K.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Wenker, J.C.; Kopecky, K.K.

    1986-07-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver (FFIL) occasionally may be mistaken as metastatic disease, primary liver malignancy, or other space-occupying lesions on CT or ultrasound studies, especially if there is significant mass effect. In these confusing cases, Xe-133 liver imaging has been advocated for confirmation of FFIL, since such studies have been reported to be sensitive and specific. The authors present results of four Xe-133 and four Tc-99m sulfur colloid scans in six patients with FFIL. Xe-133 imaging was found useful for diagnostic confirmation in only one patient and was misleading in the other three. Routine liver-spleen imaging was a more reliable method of confirmation, since no focal defects were found in any of the patients.

  14. Modular 64x64 CdZnTe arrays with multiplexer readout for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.; Barrett, H.H.; Dereniak, E.L.; Eskin, J.D.; Marks, D.G.; Matherson, K.J.; Young, E.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Augustine, F.L. [Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The authors are developing modular arrays of CdZnTe radiation detectors for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging. Each detector is delineated into a 64x64 array of pixels; the pixel pitch is 380 {micro}m. Each pixel is connected to a corresponding pad on a multiplexer readout circuit. The imaging system is controlled by a personal computer. They obtained images of standard nuclear medicine phantoms in which the spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm was limited by the collimator that was used. Significant improvements in spatial resolution should be possible with different collimator designs. These results are promising for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging.

  15. Geometric matrix research for nuclear waste drum tomographic gamma scanning transmission image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Tuo, Xian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    A geometric matrix model of nuclear waste drums is proposed for transmission image reconstruction from tomographic gamma scans (TGS). The model assumes that rays are conical, with intensity uniformly distributed within the cone. The attenuation coefficients are centered on the voxel (cube) of the geometric center. The proposed model is verified using the EM algorithm and compared to previously reported models. The calculated results show that the model can obtain good reconstruction results even when the sample models are highly heterogeneous. Supported by NSFC (41374130), National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (41025015) National Science Foundation (41274109, 41104118)

  16. Survey of physician requirements in six specialties: manpower needs in anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report was prepared to assist the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC) in its efforts to model physician manpower requirements in six specialties: anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and radiology. The purpose of this report is to (1) survey and present the existing literature on manpower requirements in each of these six specialties, and (2) discuss the special problems present in each specialty in modeling manpower requirements, and where possible, suggest possible avenues of resolution.

  17. Comparison of Bayesian and classical reconstructions of tomographic gamma scanning for assay of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-12-01

    Tomographic gamma scanning has been used to assay special nuclear material for the past several years. Field experience suggests that the data analysis techniques can significantly affect the assay uncertainty. For example, a positive bias has been observed for low-activity samples. Recent attempts to reduce the bias without unacceptable increase in variance have taken a non-Bayesian approach. This paper will compare some of these non-Bayesian approaches to a Bayesian approach which is a modification of an approach used in photon emission computed tomography. The Bayesian approach is both more computationally demanding and more satisfying, though the choice of the prior probability for the distribution of nuclear material can impact the analysis. Assay results for scaled-down versions of the full-dimensioned problem will be presented for several methods and cases.

  18. Least squares regression analysis of serial scans in disc operating system environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Smith; M. S. Boyd; W. M. Jr. Flowers; P. H. Lehan; H. K. Hellems; W. J. McClain; B. F. Maskewitz

    1973-01-01

    From 3rd symposium on sharing of computer programs and technology in ; nuclear medicine; Miami, Florida, USA (16 Jun 1973). In proceedings of third ; symposium on sharing of computer programs and technology in nuclear medicine. ; Least squares regression analysis had been applied to serial scans of the ; myocardium. The computations were done with a Hewlett-Packard Model 2115A

  19. Physical dosimetry and mathematical dose calculation in nuclear medicine: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Amiri, Mehrangiz

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This paper addresses a comparison between physical dosimetry and mathematical dose calculation in nuclear medicine. Materials and Methods: Dose rate was calculated by mathematical external dose calculation formula and by physical dosimetry from the surface of 38 adult patients’ body referred to nuclear medicine department. Results of the methods were compared and correlation and regression tests were also performed. Results: Although the physical dosimetry data in this study are in good consistency with other researches, they are much lower than the results of mathematical dose calculation formula. The correlation coefficient between measured dose rate with calculated values derived by mathematical formula was found to be 0.852 (P value=0.148). Conclusion: It seems that physical dosimetry data are more accurate than the results of mathematical dose calculation. In case of using mathematical dose calculation formula, other correction factors should be considered and applied for getting reliable data. PMID:20844662

  20. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547 500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605 000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30 700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31 100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. PMID:25848115

  1. Population characteristics and absorbed dose to the population from nuclear medicine: United States1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred A. Mettler; James H. Christie; Arvis G. Williams; Robert D. Moseley; Charles A. Kelsey

    1986-01-01

    Those in the U.S. population who receive nuclear medicine examinations have been characterized by age and sex. Males received 42% of examinations while females received 58%. More than one-third of the examinations were done on persons older than 64 y of age and more than two-thirds on patients older than 45 y of age. The per caput effective dose equivalent

  2. Internal irradiation from nuclear medicine investigations: A comparison between effective dose equivalent and effective dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ostinelli, A.; Monti, A.; Milan, M. [Ospedale S. Anna, Como (Italy)

    1994-10-01

    ICRP Publication 60 (1990) proposes a partially revised method to calculate effective dose, a quantity previously defined in ICRP Publication 26 (1977) as effective dose equivalent. The authors applied these two different approaches to calculate the effective dose equivalent and the effective dose, in the case of internal irradiations from the most common nuclear medicine investigations. The results show clear differences between the two examined quantities, even if the differences are not statistically significant. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

  4. Conventional Nuclear Medicine in the Evaluation of Gastrointestinal and Genitourinary Tract Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ariane Boubaker

    \\u000a Conventional nuclear medicine investigations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are not commonly performed in routine clinical\\u000a practice, although prevalence of disorders affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract is quite high ranging from 15% to 40%\\u000a in European countries. Most diagnostic tests used to differentiate organic from nonorganic cause are invasive (endoscopy,\\u000a manometry, pH monitoring) and may be not well tolerated by

  5. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by stannous chloride associated to nuclear medicine kits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anderson P. Guedes; Valbert N. Cardoso; Jose C. P. De Mattos; Flavio J. S. Dantas; Vanessa C. Matos; Josiane C. F. Silva; Roberto J. A. C. Bezerra; Adriano Caldeira-de-Araujo

    2006-01-01

    At present, more than 75% of routine nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures use technetium-99m (99mTc). The binding between 99mTc and the drug to obtain the radiopharmaceutical needs a reducing agent, with stannous chloride (SnCl2) being one of the most used. There are controversies about the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of SnCl2 in the literature. Thus, the approaches below were used

  6. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  7. Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, 52750 (Mexico)

    2006-09-08

    The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

  8. Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaytán-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G.

    2006-09-01

    The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in México (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

  9. CT Scan (CAT Scan)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This patient education program explains the benefits and risks of Computed Axial Tomography, CAT scan or CT scan, and describes the procedure for the test. This is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: The tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  10. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-03-20

    In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

  11. Nuclear physics for medicine: how nuclear research is improving human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Angela

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an associated Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics, and its trans-disciplinary use and application in collaborative ventures between research groups.

  12. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Keith H S

    2002-03-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  13. A file format for the exchange of nuclear medicine image data: a specification of Interfile version 3.3.

    PubMed

    Todd-Pokropek, A; Cradduck, T D; Deconinck, F

    1992-09-01

    Working Group 1 of the European project COST-B2 on quality assurance of nuclear medicine software has been concerned with the development of an appropriate mechanism for the transfer of nuclear medicine image data files between computer systems from different vendors. To this end a protocol based upon Report No. 10 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) [1] was adopted. A previous publication [2] gave a specification (V3.2) for an intermediate file format with a list of key-value pairs for the header data associated with nuclear medicine image data files. This paper presents a revised specification for the intermediate file format and associated keys, now called V3.3, which has evolved from the experience in using the earlier version. It is hoped that the modifications proposed will improve the definition and usability of the file format as given in the earlier version. PMID:1448241

  14. Tomographic gamma scanning (TGS) to measure inhomogeneous nuclear material matrices from future fuel cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Estep, R.J.; Prettyman, T.H.; Sheppard, G.A.

    1993-06-01

    Current methods for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear materials (SNM) in 208-L drums can give assay errors of 100% or more when the drum matrix and/or radionuclide distribution is nonuniform. To address this problem, we have developed the tomographic-gamma-scanner (TGS) method for assaying heterogeneous drummed SNM. TGS improves on the well-established segmented-gamma-scanner (SGS) method by performing low-resolution tomographic emission and transmission scans on the drum, yielding coarse three-dimensional images of the matrix density and radionuclide distributions. The images are used to make accurate, point-to-point attenuation corrections. The TGS geometric counting efficiency is 60% that of a typical SGS device, allowing a TGS assay time of only 28 min per drum with a one-detector system. TGS may also be useful for non-destructive examination (NDE). Currently, TGS is the only practical method of imaging SNM in drums.

  15. A strategy for intensive production of molybdenum-99 isotopes for nuclear medicine using CANDU reactors.

    PubMed

    Morreale, A C; Novog, D R; Luxat, J C

    2012-01-01

    Technetium-99m is an important medical isotope utilized worldwide in nuclear medicine and is produced from the decay of its parent isotope, molybdenum-99. The online fueling capability and compact fuel of the CANDU(®)(1) reactor allows for the potential production of large quantities of (99)Mo. This paper proposes (99)Mo production strategies using modified target fuel bundles loaded into CANDU fuel channels. Using a small group of channels a yield of 89-113% of the weekly world demand for (99)Mo can be obtained. PMID:21816619

  16. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferid Haddad; Ludovic Ferrer; Arnaud Guertin; Thomas Carlier; Nathalie Michel; Jacques Barbet; Jean-François Chatal

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity\\u000a and high-energy cyclotron.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy\\u000a and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of

  17. Analysis of nuclear fiber cell compaction in transparent and cataractous diabetic human lenses by scanning electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D Freel; Kristin J Al-Ghoul; Jer R Kuszak; M Joseph Costello

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compaction of human ocular lens fiber cells as a function of both aging and cataractogenesis has been demonstrated previously using scanning electron microscopy. The purpose of this investigation is to quantify morphological differences in the inner nuclear regions of cataractous and non-cataractous human lenses from individuals with diabetes. The hypothesis is that, even in the presence of the osmotic

  18. Transportation issues in nuclear medicine and the release of radioactivity into the environment.

    PubMed

    Westerman, B R

    1986-07-01

    Large volumes of radioactive materials are shipped daily over the nation's highways, by air, and by other transportation modes for a variety of purposes. These shipments include those intended for nuclear medicine applications. Shipments are governed by the Federal Department of Transportation, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and, for international shipments, the International Atomic Energy Agency. Knowledge of the regulations of these agencies is essential for maintenance of a viable radiation safety program. The use of radioactive materials is invariably accompanied by the potential for release of radioactivity into the environment. This potential is addressed in the recommendations and regulations of several voluntary and governmental agencies. Recently, new concepts have been introduced into these recommendations and regulations that use the concepts of "annual limit of intake," "committed effective dose equivalent," and "derived air concentrations." These concepts improve the applicability of present standards for the release of radioactive materials into the environment and for the protection of individuals from these materials. PMID:3749916

  19. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist in improving the accuracy and tractability of dose and shielding calculations for nuclear medicine facility design. PMID:24849904

  20. Nonosseous abnormalities on bone scans.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Issa; Collier, B David; Mohammed, Ahmed M

    2003-09-01

    Although bone scanning is a test primarily concerned with skeletal abnormalities, important nonosseous findings are occasionally present on the images. To gauge the significance of such nonosseous uptake and, in particular, to determine whether these findings contain useful diagnostic information, the technical and medical staff in nuclear medicine must recognize the various patterns of nonbony uptake and understand their causes. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate the appearances of nonosseous uptake on bone scans, to categorize the forms of soft-tissue uptake, to emphasize technical artifacts leading to soft-tissue uptake, and to highlight the clinical significance of pathologic soft-tissue uptake. PMID:12968045

  1. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  2. Investigation of Recoil Collection Method for Production of High Specific Activity Nuclear Medicine Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan

    Production of high specific activity, reactor -produced isotopes will be important for the new generation of nuclear medicine anti-cancer radiopharmaceuticals, When the radiopharmaceuticals are prepared for applications in nuclear medicine or in-vivo trials, the product should be very high quality and normally of very high specific activity to avoid the risk of a contamination with impurities such as stable nuclides, i.e. the resultant solution needs to be in most cases as "carrier free" as possible, as well as free of extraneous nuclides. Unfortunately, many useful isotopes made by (n, gamma) reactions such as Au-198, Re -186 and Re-188 are not carrier-free. The aim of this research is to evaluate the production of high specific activity isotopes by (n, gamma) reactions using a hot atom recoil collection method. The apparatus designed for gold and rhenium recoil experiments has been constructed and operated in the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) to collect the recoil Au-198 and Re-188 atoms. The degree of isotopic enrichment of the product will then be ascertained. The results from the recoil experiments are discussed, and plans for modifications to improve the desired yield are discussed.

  3. The nuclear medicine therapy care coordination service: a model for radiologist-driven patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Applegate, Kimberly E; Duszak, Richard; Barron, Bruce J; Fitz, Jim; Halkar, Raghuveer K; Lee, Daniel J; Schuster, David M

    2015-06-01

    We developed a longitudinal care coordination service to proactively deliver high-quality and family-centered care in patients receiving radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. In an iterative, multidisciplinary team manner, a pretherapy consultation service, which included scripted interactions, documentation, and checklists for quality control, evolved over time into a robust patient-centered longitudinal care coordination nuclear medicine service. Radiation safety precautions, the rationale for therapy, and management of patient expectations were addressed through the initial consultation, and discharge and posttreatment care were managed during subsequent follow-up. The patient-physician relationship created during longitudinal nuclear medicine therapy care is one tool to help counteract the growing commoditization of radiology. This article describes the process that the nuclear medicine specialists in our department established to enhance radiologist value by providing both exceptional thyroid cancer treatment and continuity of care. PMID:25766086

  4. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology developed in this work to other nuclear medicine services where significant activities of (131)I are routinely handled as an effective means to optimize individual exposures and improve occupational radiation protection safety. PMID:25523310

  5. Design and operation of gamma scan and fission gas sampling systems for characterization of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, C.A.; Thornhill, R.E.; Mellinger, G.B.

    1989-09-01

    One of the primary objectives of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is to acquire and characterize spent fuels used in waste form testing related to nuclear waste disposal. The initial steps in the characterization of a fuel rod consist of gamma scanning the rod and sampling the gas contained in the fuel rod (referred to as fission gas sampling). The gamma scan and fission gas sampling systems used by the MCC are adaptable to a wide range of fuel types and have been successfully used to characterize both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods. This report describes the design and operation of systems used to gamma scan and fission gas sample full-length PWR and BWR fuel rods. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Recent progress in the application of extraction chromatography to radionuclide separations for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry

    2004-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  7. Applications of extraction chromatography in the development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Horwitz, E. P.; Chemistry

    2000-10-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  8. Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

  9. Job-sharing in nuclear medicine: an 8-year experience (1998-2006).

    PubMed

    Als, Claudine; Brautigam, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Job-sharing is generally defined as a situation in which a single professional position is held in common by two separate individuals, who alternatively, on a timely basis, deal with the workload and the responsibilities. The aim of the present paper is to discuss prerequisites and characteristics of job-sharing by medical doctors and implications in a department of nuclear medicine. Job-sharing facilitates the combination of family life with professional occupation and prevents burnout. The time schedule applied by job-sharers is relevant: will both partners work for half-days, half-weeks, or rather alternatively during one to two consecutive weeks? This crucial choice, depending on personal as well as on professional circumstances, certainly influences the workflow of the department. PMID:16791813

  10. Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. H.; Dong, S. L.; Yang, H. J. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chen, S. [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical Univ., Taiwan (China); Shih, C. T. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chuang, K. S. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Lin, C. H. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Yao, W. J. [PET Center, National Cheng Kung Univ. Hospital, Taiwan (China); Jan, M. L. [Physics Div., Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used to validate the accuracy of this system. The S values for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 18}F and {sup 131}I obtained by the system were compared to those from the MCNP4C code and OLINDA. The ratios of S values computed by this system to those obtained with OLINDA for various organs were ranged from 0.93 to 1.18, which are comparable to that obtained from MCNP4C code (0.94 to 1.20). The average ratios of S value were 0.99{+-}0.04, 1.03{+-}0.05, and 1.00{+-}0.07 for isotopes {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively. The simulation time of SimSET was two times faster than MCNP4C's for various isotopes. A 3D dose calculation was also performed on a patient data set with PET/CT examination using this system. Results from the patient data showed that the estimated S values using this system differed slightly from those of OLINDA for ORNL phantom. In conclusion, this system can generate patient-specific dose distribution and display the isodose curves on top of the anatomic structure through a friendly graphic user interface. It may also provide a useful tool to establish an appropriate dose-reduction strategy to patients in nuclear medicine environments. (authors)

  11. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  12. Advances in nuclear particle dosimetry for radiation protection and medicine - Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry (Editorial Material, English)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoetelief, J; Bos, A J.; Schuhmacher, H; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schultz, F W.; Pihet, P

    2004-12-15

    The Ninth Symposium on Neutron Dosimetry has been expanded to cover not only neutron radiation but heavy charged particle dosimetry as well. The applications are found in such fields as radiation protection, aircrew dosimetry, medicine, nuclear power and accelerator health physics. Scientists from many countries from around the world presented their work, and described the latest developments in techniques and instrumentation.

  13. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente

    2011-01-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for

  14. "Pseudo-thyroid lobe": A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature. PMID:25589815

  15. “Pseudo-thyroid lobe”: A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature. PMID:25589815

  16. Nuclear telemedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. T.; Szasz, I. J.

    1990-06-01

    Diagnostic nuclear medicine patient images have been transniitted for 8 years from a regional conununity hospital to a university teaching hospital 700 kiloinetres away employing slow scan TV and telephone. Transruission and interpretation were done at the end of each working day or as circumstances required in cases of emergencies. Referring physicians received the nuclear medicine procedure report at the end of the completion day or within few minutes of completion in case of emergency procedures. To date more than 25 patient studies have been transmitted for interpretation. Blinded reinterpretation of the original hard copy data of 350 patient studies resulted in 100 agreement with the interpretation of transmitted data. This technique provides high quality diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine services in remote hospitals where the services of an on-site nuclear physician is not available. 2. HISTORY Eight years ago when the nuclear medicine physician at Trail Regional Hospital left the Trail area and an other could not be recruited we examined the feasibility of image transmission by phone for interpretation since closing the department would have imposed unacceptable physical and financial hardship and medical constraints on the patient population the nearest nuclear medicine facility was at some 8 hours drive away. In hospital patients would have to be treated either based purely on physical findings or flown to Vancouver at considerable cost to the health care system (estimated cost $1500.

  17. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  18. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  19. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  20. A study on the dependence of the change in total scan time on the timing of the scan-time determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Hun; Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the change in the scan time according to the scan-time determination in an examination by using a pre-set time to identify a reasonable alternative to altering the scan time. A hepatobiliary scan was conducted using the radiopharmaceutical 99 m Tc-mebrofenin in the Nuclear Medicine Department of Asan Medical Center from January to March 2012. Scanning began five minutes after an intravenous injection of 222 MBq (megabecquere) (6 mCi). As two detectors were placed facing each other, the patient was asked to stand between the two detectors with the front of the abdomen pressed as close as possible against the detector. After scanning, the measurement was carried out to determine the expected end time of scanning when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total scan time. After scanning had been completed, the measurement time was compared with the final scan time and the expected scan time in the middle of scanning. A phantom was also used to examine the dependence of the change in time on the dose. The difference was examined when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total expected scan time after beginning the scan. According to the study results, the difference was five seconds or more at the maximum when the scan time was 10% of the total expected scan time. The difference was significant when the scan time was 25% or 50% of the total expected scan time.

  1. Organizing hematoma in a child presenting as a 'doughnut lesion' on nuclear scan. Case report.

    PubMed

    Harris, V J; Meeks, W; Goldbarg, H

    1977-01-01

    We report a 4 1/2-year-old boy who presented with a 4-week history of frontal headaches and fever, and generalized convulsion 5 months previously. Papilledema, an abnormal EEG and a brain scan with a frontal mass and 'doughnut' sign were found. The association of the clinical history with brain scan findings strongly suggested a brain abscess. At surgery the lesion proved to be an encapsulated hematoma; Histological findings suggest underlying microangiomata. PMID:891302

  2. Advances in computers and image processing with applications in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Todd-Pokropek, A

    2002-03-01

    The continuing advances in hardware performance had made many previously computationally unattractive methods feasible, an example being iterative reconstruction in tomography, which is now routine. Dynamic SPECT can also be performed. However the aim of image processing is not just to produce pretty pictures, but to extract good clinical information. The methods also need to incorporate clinical knowledge and be defined using clinical constraints. In general data in nuclear medicine are n-D, often 3-D plus time. Data reduction for example by the extraction of physiological information, is important. Such data are in any case hard to visualise without compression, for example some kind of dimensionality reduction, going from n-D to a 2-D "functional" image. Both linear and non-linear operations can be considered. To extract physiological data, we need to fit models. Two classes of method are important: data driven and hypothesis driven. Examples of data driven methods are principal component analysis and factor analysis, where the model is derived form the data. Hypothesis driven methods are all implicitly or explicitly based on model fitting. A preliminary data driven step followed by an hypothesis driven approach could be called constrained statistical image analysis. Examples are shown as used in nuclear medicine and are being extended to MRI. Another important problem considered is that of multi-modality image registration and fusion. Although many methods exist, all based on the minimisation of an appropriate distance functions between 2 image data sets such as mutual information, additional constraints are required when the images are not so similar. Additional constraints can be imposed by means of cluster analysis of the n-dimensional feature space. In the analysis of such data, tests against reference data sets (atlases) are required, normally requiring warping the data sets in space, for example by the use of optic flow, or some kind of diffusion equation. Real time analysis of data during acquisition can lead to optimisation of acquisition procedures. Incorporation of such image analysis into a decision support system is desirable. PMID:12072846

  3. Soraya Boudia, Radioisotopes "economy of promises : On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqu et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    at "redeeming" the act of having used the nuclear bomb.2 This desire for redemption made it possible in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqué et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine": On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities Soraya Boudia 7 rue de l

  4. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  5. College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped and advanced topics in nuclear medicine imaging physics, including positron emission tomographic procedures IN RADIATION MEDICINE. (1-6) Applied field work at the graduate level in the sciences relating to radiation

  6. Production of 99Mo for Nuclear Medicine by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    2009-03-01

    We have proposed a new route to produce 99Mo for nuclear medicine by the 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo reaction. The reaction cross section is known to be ˜1.5 b in the neutron energy, En, range from 12 to 17 MeV: 10-times larger than the thermal-neutron capture cross section of 98Mo. By irradiating an enriched 100Mo target for 198 h with neutrons of ˜1013 n/(cm2 s) at En˜ 14 MeV, one can produce 79 GBq/g specific activity of 99Mo. Since the cross sections for 100Mo(n, p)100Nb, 100Mo(n,n p)99Nb and 100Mo(n,?)97Zr at 12? En? 17 MeV are small, less than a few mb, radioactive waste during and/or after chemical processing of 99Mo would not be a serious problem. The proposed route could bring a major breakthrough in the solution of ensuring a constant and reliable supply of 99Mo without using highly enriched 235U.

  7. Constrained least-squares restoration of nuclear medicine images: selecting the coarseness function

    SciTech Connect

    Penney, B.C.; King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Baker, S.P.; Stritzke, P.; Doherty, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Image restoration using the constrained least-squares (CLS) method theoretically adapts to the image being processed. In addition, it only requires knowing the modulation transfer function of the imaging system when applied to nuclear medicine images. Prompted by these observations, a systematic evaluation of the effects of the form of the coarseness function (C(f)) used by the CLS method has been conducted. Nine C(f)'s are evaluated using an observer preference and a normalized mean-squared error (NMSE) criterion. This evaluation is conducted for three modulation transfer functions and a wide range of count levels. The results of the subjective studies support using the form of C(f) which has been most widely employed in previous studies, i.e., the form designed to minimize the energy in the second derivative of the restored image. A different form of C(f) is generally found to be optimal by the mean-squared error criterion. The CLS method is then compared to: (1) no processing, (2) count-dependent smoothing, and (3) count-dependent Metz restoration. When evaluated using objective measurements of error and contrast, the CLS method is found to be slightly inferior to the best method, Metz restoration. However, CLS restoration is found to be equal to or better than the other methods when judged by the results of observer preference studies.

  8. Clinical use of differential nuclear medicine modalities in patients with ATTR amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Slart, Riemer H J A; Dierckx, Rudi A; Hazenberg, Bouke P C

    2012-12-01

    Histological proof remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of amyloidosis. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are able to determine the amyloid load in the body. Currently, the best imaging modality is (123)I-SAP scintigraphy. This modality has high sensitivity for detecting amyloid deposits in all amyloid subtypes. Involvement of liver and spleen can be visualized before clinical signs are present. The addition of single photon emission computed tomography improves the differentiation of overlying organs. However, (123)I-SAP is not FDA approved. Its availability is limited to two centres in Europe. Furthermore, it is not suitable for imaging cardiac involvement of amyloidosis, due to movement, blood-pool content and lack of fenestrated endothelial in the myocardium. Phosphate derivates labelled with (99m)Tc, are able to detect calcium compounds in cardiac amyloidosis. Finally, (123)I-MIBG, an analogue of norepinephrine, can detect cardiac sympathetic innervation abnormalities as a consequence of amyloid deposits. Both these last techniques seem to be able to detect cardiac involvement before echocardiographic parameters are present. We illustrate the clinical use of these modalities with two patients with ATTR type amyloidosis. PMID:22913327

  9. Holospectral imaging: a multidimensional energy space representation of nuclear medicine information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Arsenault, Arnold; Gregoire, J.; Dupras, G.; Todd-Pokropek, Andrew

    1990-12-01

    Holospectral Imaging (HI), unlike the conventional technique, acquires data over a wide energy range. The new data is then used to form a series of frames corresponding to the object's spatial distribution at different energies. The multidimensional information is examined using the principal component analysis in order to characterize the different energy-dependent processes, namely: the primary photon information, the Compton scattering, the camera distorsions and the quantum noise. Each one of these factors has a typical location in the energy space RN (N is the number of energy frames). The primary photon is the main source of variance and has the most important contribution to the "principal" axis. In theory, without interference from other processes, the primaiy photon distribution defines a straight line in RN. Quantum noise will be distributed "around" this principal axis. However, scattering and camera distorsions will tend to pull the distribution toward a definite direction in the energy space. HI then finds, for each set of data, a transformation optimizing the "principal" information, the quality of this information being limited by the level of the statistical noise. Resulting images show an improvement in contrast to noise ratio and in quantitative analysis. We conclude that HI is a useful tool to describe the different contributions of scatter, camera non-uniformity and quantum noise to image variance. Therefore, energy variable should be included in the generalized transfer function of future nuclear medicine imaging systems.

  10. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  11. Scene setting: criteria for acceptability and suspension levels in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malone, Jim; Faulkner, Keith; Christofides, Stelios; Lillicrap, Stephen; Horton, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    The EC (European Commission) Directive on radiation protection of patients requires that Criteria for Acceptability of Equipment in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy be established throughout the member states. This paper reviews the background to this requirement and to its implementation in practice. It notes parallel requirements in the EC medical devices directive and International Electrotechnical Commission standards. It is also important to be aware and that both sets of requirements should ideally be harmonised due to the global nature of the equipment industry. The paper further reviews the type of criteria that can be well applied for the above purposes, and defines qualitative criteria and suspension levels suitable for application. Both are defined and relationships with other acceptance processes are considered (including acceptance testing at the time of purchase, commissioning and the issue of second-hand equipment). Suspension levels are divided into four types, A, B, C and D, depending on the quality of evidence and consensus on which they are based. Exceptional situations involving, for example, new or rapidly evolving technology are also considered. The publication and paper focuses on the role of the holder of the equipment and related staff, particularly the medical physics expert and the practitioner. Advice on how the criteria should be created and implemented and how this might be coordinated with the supplier is provided for these groups. Additional advice on the role of the regulator is provided. PMID:23173218

  12. The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

  13. Nuclear medicine studies in evaluation of skeletal lesions in children with histiocytosis X

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, A.R.; Tashjian, J.H.; Lazarus, K.; Wellman, H.N.; Baehner, R.L.

    1981-09-01

    Radiographs were compared with 99mTc scans of the bones and bone marrow as well as 67Ga-citrate scans to evaluate their sensitivity in identifying skeletal lesions in 21 children with histiocytosis X. Seven of 20 bone scans were completely normal in patients with extensive radiographic evidence of skeletal disease. In only one patient were bone scan changes demonstrated prior to radiographic abnormalities. None of the lesions was ''cold'' on the bone scans. 99mTc-sulfur colloid bone marrow scans and 67Ga-citrate whole-body scans were not valuable. Radiographic survey of the skeleton should be the primary diagnostic test employed in patients with histiocytosis X who have suspected skeletal lesions. Bone scans should be obtained only when the radiographs are normal or equivocal.

  14. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography: Literature scanned from April 11, 1987 through November 10, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

    1988-12-01

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data. The reader is referred to a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and to ''A Source List of Nuclear Data Bibliographies, Compilations, and Evaluations'' for a more comprehensive list. Since this publication is not cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in this paper. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments. 190 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Nuclear medicine staff and patient doses in Manitoba (1981-1985)

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, W.; Gordon, K.

    1989-03-01

    The number of diagnostic in vivo nuclear medicine (NM) procedures in the Province of Manitoba (population 1 million) has been examined over the period 1981 to 1985. The annual number of procedures performed has remained relatively constant at about 25 per thousand population. The isotope 99mTc accounted for 86% of all the studies performed and the number of NM procedures per imaging system was approximately 1,300 per annum. The total number of NM operators in the province increased from 30 in 1981 to about 40 in 1985. The mean NM operator dose was reduced from 3.8 mSv to 2.5 mSv over this five-year period and the collective operator dose underwent a smaller reduction of 13% to about 100 person-mSv in 1985. The value of the mean patient effective dose equivalent (HE) was relatively constant at 5.2 mSv. The contribution of diagnostic NM procedures to the annual per caput population dose in Manitoba was 0.13 mSv. Three diagnostic procedures (brain, bone and cardiac) accounted for approximately 80% of the collective patient HE. Patient profiles (age, sex and medical history) were obtained for the patients undergoing these three procedures, which showed them to be atypical in comparison to a normal working population. These data suggested that the application of the International Commission on Radiological Protection risk factor of 1.65 X 10(-2) Sv-1 to this patient population would have significantly overestimated the expected radiation detriment.

  16. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  17. Use of volume-rendered images in registration of nuclear medicine studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, J.W.; Miller, T.R.; Hsu, S.S. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology] [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology

    1995-08-01

    A simple operator-guided alignment technique based on volume-rendered images was developed to register tomographic nuclear medicine studies. For each of 2 three-dimensional data sets to be registered, volume-rendered images were generated in 3 orthogonal projections (x,y,z) using the method of maximum-activity projection. Registration was achieved as follows: (a) One of the rendering orientations (e.g. x) was chosen for manipulation; (b) The two dimensional rendering was translated and rotated under operator control to achieve the best alignment as determined by visual assessment; (c) This rotation and translation was then applied to the underlying three-dimensional data set, with updating of the rendered images in each of the orthogonal projections; (d) Another orientation was chosen, and the process repeated. Since manipulation was performed on the small two-dimensional rendered image, feedback was instantaneous. To aid in the visual alignment, difference images and flicker images (toggling between the two data sets) were displayed. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of separate clinical data sets acquired without patient movement. After arbitrary rotation and translation of one of the two data sets, the 2 data sets were registered. Mean registration error was 0.36 pixels, corresponding to a 2.44 mm registration error. Thus, accurate registration can be achieved in under 10 minutes using this simple technique. The accuracy of registration was assessed with use of duplicate SPECT studies originating from separate reconstructions of the data from each of the detectors of a triple-head gamma camera.

  18. Estimation of physiological parameters using knowledge-based factor analysis of dynamic nuclear medicine image sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, J.T.; Chen, C.T.; Cooper, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The authors have previously developed a knowledge-based method of factor analysis to analyze dynamic nuclear medicine image sequences. In this paper, the authors analyze dynamic PET cerebral glucose metabolism and neuroreceptor binding studies. These methods have shown the ability to reduce the dimensionality of the data, enhance the image quality of the sequence, and generate meaningful functional images and their corresponding physiological time functions. The new information produced by the factor analysis has now been used to improve the estimation of various physiological parameters. A principal component analysis (PCA) is first performed to identify statistically significant temporal variations and remove the uncorrelated variations (noise) due to Poisson counting statistics. The statistically significant principal components are then used to reconstruct a noise-reduced image sequence as well as provide an initial solution for the factor analysis. Prior knowledge such as the compartmental models or the requirement of positivity and simple structure can be used to constrain the analysis. These constraints are used to rotate the factors to the most physically and physiologically realistic solution. The final result is a small number of time functions (factors) representing the underlying physiological processes and their associated weighting images representing the spatial localization of these functions. Estimation of physiological parameters can then be performed using the noise-reduced image sequence generated from the statistically significant PCs and/or the final factor images and time functions. These results are compared to the parameter estimation using standard methods and the original raw image sequences. Graphical analysis was performed at the pixel level to generate comparable parametric images of the slope and intercept (influx constant and distribution volume).

  19. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Hasan, A.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-12-01

    In this report, an evaluation of the effects of albumin and albumin plus sodium palmitate in the phosphate buffer perfusate on the relative of unmetabolized fatty acid and the unknown metabolite(s) from isolated rat hearts administered 15-(p-(I-125)iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is described. Earlier studies had demonstrated the presence of a major unidentified polar radioactive component in the outflow of hearts injected with BMIPP and perfused with the traditional Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, which does not contain albumin. The current studies were performed with KH buffer containing either albumin (BSA) or albumin and palmitate (BSA/PAL) to assess the relative loss of the metabolite and unmetabolized BMIPP from the perfused hearts. The results demonstrated that in the presence of albumin both the unidentified material and BMIPP are present in the outflow (i.e., 5 min perfusate buffer, % BMIPP: KH, 3%; KH + BSA, 10%; KH + BSA/PAL, 41%). These results demonstrate that BMIPP is a major radioactive component in the outflow of isolated hearts using a perfusate containing BSA and palmitate and, more importantly, suggest for the first time that the slow myocardial wash-out observed in humans after administration of (I-123)BMIPP probably represents loss of both unmetabolized BMIPP and the unidentified metabolite. Coronary sinus sampling studies with dogs are now in progress to relate the relative contribution of these two components to the release of radioactivity from the heart. Also in this report, our population experience for several radioisotopes being used by the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program is summarized.

  20. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

  1. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

    2010-12-07

    A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  2. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  3. Non-ionic surfactant concentration profiles in undamaged and damaged hair fibres determined by scanning ion beam nuclear reaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenneson, P. M.; Clough, A. S.; Keddie, J. L.; Lu, J. R.; Meredith, P.

    1997-12-01

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was used with a scanning MeV 3He ion microbeam to determine the extent of permeation and segregation of a deuterated non-ionic surfactant (dC 12E 5) into virgin (undamaged) and alkalinic perm damaged hair fibres. 2-D concentration maps show an accumulation of deuterated surfactant in the cortex and medulla of both the virgin and damaged hair. By normalising to the matrix carbon, surfactant levels in the damaged hair were found to be three times higher than in the undamaged hair. This is the first reported direct spatial evidence of the penetration of surfactant into the centre of hair fibres. Furthermore it is the first application of NRA to this type of complex biological matrix.

  4. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute San Fernando Avenue No.22, Col. Section XVI (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

  5. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

    2012-10-01

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 ± 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 ± 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 ± 1.53 and 4.18 ± 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

  6. Knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the Nuclear Medicine Department: A questionnaire-based study among health-care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Subramani; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Bin Hashim, Tin Soe @ Saifullah; Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Kumar, Kalaimani Jayaraja; Ping, Wu Yet; Syamittra, Balakrishnan; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department among health-care professionals through a prospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 741 health-care professionals participated in the study by answering 10 simple questions about the role of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department and the availability of pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department. An online questionnaire system was used to conduct the study, and participants were invited to participate through personal communications and by promoting the study through social websites including Facebook, LinkedIn and Google (including Gmail and Google+). The study was conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 using the http://www.freeonlinesurveys.com/Webserver. Finally, the data provided by 621 participants was analyzed. Group frequency analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc. USA). Results: The participants were from Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, UAE and Nepal. In total, 312 (50.2%) female health-care professionals and 309 (49.8%) male health-care professionals participated in the study. Of the 621 participants, 390 were working in hospitals, and 231 were not working in hospitals. Of the participants who were working in hospitals, 57.6% were pharmacists. The proportion of study participants who were aware of nuclear pharmacists was 55.39%. Awareness about the role of the pharmacist in nuclear medicine was poor. Conclusion: The role of the pharmacist in a nuclear medicine unit needs to be highlighted and promoted among health-care professionals and hence that the nuclear medicine team can provide better pharmaceutical care. PMID:25538467

  7. The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).

    PubMed

    Bischof Delaloye, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    The emergence of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) provides a new therapeutic approach in which monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-specific antigens are used to target therapeutic radioisotopes to sites of disseminated disease. The target cell is eliminated and adjacent tumor cells, to which antibody has not bound, are also killed. To date, 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab are the only FDA-approved, and most extensively studied, radioimmunoconjugates for RIT of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Both 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and 131I-tositumomab utilize an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody to target radioactivity to malignant B-cells. 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan emits pure therapeutic beta radiation, permitting outpatient treatment. The high energy of the beta particles emitted by 90Y (2.3 MeV) achieves a wide-ranging crossfire effect. Approximately 90% of the energy is deposited within 5 mm of the radiation source, which kills not only antibody-bound cells but also neighboring malignant cells within a diameter of up to 12 mm. In addition, the half-life of 90Y matches the in vivo biological half-life of the monoclonal antibody (64 h), with negligible excretion of 90Y in urine. With 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan, hematological adverse events correlate with the degree of bone marrow involvement and the bone marrow reserve, rather than with dosimetric parameters, and doses to normal organs and red marrow are well below the accepted limits of 20 Gy to normal organs and 3 Gy to red marrow. A dosing schedule based on patient weight and baseline platelet counts has therefore been developed, and dosimetry is not routinely required. 131I, the isotope used in tositumomab RIT, emits both therapeutic beta radiation and highly penetrating gamma emissions. The lower energy of the beta particles emitted by 131I (0.6 MeV) achieves a crossfire effect of up to 2 mm in diameter, which is used to treat tumors. The gamma radiation emitted by 131I allows both dosimetry and biodistribution studies to be performed; such studies are important because the rate of 131I-tositumomab clearance varies among individuals. Therefore, dosimetry must be performed in each patient before the therapeutic dose of 131I-tositumomab is administered. Similarly, because of this variability in 131I clearance, the dosage of 131I-tositumomab is calculated accordingly for each patient. 131I-tositumomab is a substrate for dehalogenases, which decouple the radioisotope from the antibody moiety, resulting in free, circulating 131I, which can accumulate in the thyroid. Patients who receive 131I-tositumomab therapy are usually hospitalized in radioprotection wards, and are treated by specially trained hospital staff. The administration of RIT requires an integrated team approach, involving nuclear medicine (or, in some countries, radiation oncology), hematology-oncology, nursing, radiopharmacy and radiation safety personnel. Effective collaboration between all members of the RIT team is essential to treatment success, and understanding the properties of these novel agents will facilitate their safe and effective administration. PMID:15154740

  8. [Noninvasive measurement of cerebrovascular circulation with the scintillation camera. A neurologic nuclear medicine study].

    PubMed

    Podreka, I

    1984-01-01

    Repeated CBF-measurements can be performed after inhalation or intravenous injection of 133Xe. After the development of a bicompartmental model by Obrist et al. in 1975 atraumatic CBF-measurements became widely used but there were still some difficulties concerning the sensitivity of different flow-indices towards CBF changes in normals under test conditions or ischemia in stroke patients. Due to the "slippage phenomenon" mostly noncompartmental flow-indices are used for the detection of ischemic brain areas. In this study a scintillation camera, that is usually available in every nuclear medicine department, was used for atraumatic CBF-studies. A collimator consisting of hexagonal lead tubes (septa 0.2 mm thick; FWHM 1.7 cm in 10 cm) was constructed for this purpose. The obtained counting rate varied between 2432 and 9081 cps over the whole hemisphere and 116-1094 cps in regions of approximately 2.5 X 2.5 cm. In 31 patients with CVD CBF was measured with the intracarotid (i.c.) technique and 1 hour later after i.v. 133Xe-injection. Intravenous flow values were comparable to those obtained after i.c. 133Xe injection (fB X MFr = 0.904; p less than 0.001). In 12 of the used 13 regions also significant correlation coefficients were found. In order to estimate the reproducibility of the intravenous injection method CBF-measurements were performed in both hemispheres of 10 patients on two consecutive days. Highly significant correlation coefficients were found for hemispheric blood flow (r = 0.933; p less than 0.001) and temporal, frontotemporal, temporoparietal and praecentral regions, while in the high parietal, frontal and occipital region lower reporducibility was found. Normal CBF-values were obtained from 12 healthy volunteers (MF right hemisphere: 50.7 +/- 4.6 ml/100 g/min; MF left hemisphere: 50.6 +/- 4.6 ml/100 g/min). MF did not show any hyperfrontality, while F1 and the ISI gave highest flow values in frontal regions. The clinical status of 76 patients suffering from cerebral ischemia (68 with flow disturbances in one hemisphere, 8 with vertebrobasilar insufficiency) was estimated by a semiquantitative scorescale at time of admission and after an observation period lasting from 6 to 35 months. In each case CBF was measured twice: once in the subacute stage after onset of symptoms and once after the observation period. The duration of neurologic symptoms (TIA, RIND, CS) was compared to the obtained flow values. A significant relationship was found between the duration of symptoms and impairment of CBF, thus showing the prognostic value of intravenous CBF measurements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6595871

  9. Imaging genes, chromosomes, and nuclear structures using laser-scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Stephen G.

    1990-08-01

    For 350 years, the optical microscope has had a powerful symbiotic relationship with biology. Until this century, optical microscopy was the only means of examining cellular structure; in return, biologists have contributed greatly to the evolution of microscope design and technique. Recent advances in the detection and processing of optical images, together with methods for labelling specific biological molecules, have brought about a resurgence in the application of optical microscopy to the biological sciences. One of the areas in which optical microscopy is breaking new ground is in elucidating the large scale organization of chromatin in chromosomes and cell nuclei. Nevertheless, imaging the contents of the cell nucleus is a difficult challenge for light microscopy, for two principal reasons. First, the dimensions of all but the largest nuclear structures (nucleoli, vacuoles) are close to or below the resolving power of far field optics. Second, the native optical contrast properties of many important chromatin structures (eg. chromosome domains, centromere regions) are very weak, or essentially zero. As an extreme example, individual genes probably have nothing to distinguish them other than their sequence of DNA bases, which cannot be directly visualized with any current form of microscopy. Similarly, the interphase nucleus shows no direct visible evidence of focal chromatin domains. Thus, imaging of such entities depends heavily on contrast enhancement methods. The most promising of these is labelling DNA in situ using sequence-specific probes that may be visualized using fluorescent dyes. We have applied this method to detecting individual genes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei, and to imaging a number of DNA-containing structures including chromosome domains, metaphase chromosomes and centromere regions. We have also demonstrated the applicability of in situ fluorescent labelling to detecting numerical and structural abnormalities both in condensed metaphase chromosomes and in interphase nuclei. The ability to image the loci of fluorescent-labelled gene probes hybridized to chromosomes and to interphase nuclei will play a major role in the mapping of the human genome. This presentation is an overview of our laboratory's efforts to use confocal imaging to address fundamental questions about the structure and organization of genes, chromosomes and cell nuclei, and to develop applications useful in clinical diagnosis of inherited diseases.

  10. Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1994-02-01

    New methods based on reactive organometallic precursors containing organic functional groups that are generally responsible for physiologic responses are being exploited for preparation of radiopharmaceutials. This program focuses on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceutical. The new technology which is often based on organoborane chemistry is then utilized in nuclear medicine research at the UT Biomedical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE. facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New radiopharmaceutical are evaluated preclinically by colleagues at UT, Emory University and The University of Pennsylvania, and by Nova Screen.

  11. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90}, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution. Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

  12. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G

    2011-06-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9·X90, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution.Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

  13. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

  14. [Introduction of a quality management system compliant with DIN EN 9001:2000 in a university department of nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Jansen-Schmidt, V; Paschen, U; Kröger, S; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

    2001-12-01

    In 1995, the management of the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf proposed to establish a total quality assurance (QA) system. A revised QA-system has been introduced stepwise in the department of nuclear medicine since 1997, and certification was achieved in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 on February 14, 2001. The QA-handbook is divided into two parts. The first part contains operational (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in so-called standard operating procedures (SOP). They describe the indication of procedures as well as the competences and time necessary in a standardized manner. Up to now, more than 70 SOPs have been written as a collaborative approach between technicians and physicians during daily clinical routine after analysing and discussing the procedures. Thus, the results were more clearly defined processes and more satisfied employees. The second part consists of general rules and directions concerning the security of work and equipment as well as radiation protection tasks, hygiene etc. as it is required by the law. This part was written predominantly by the management of the department of nuclear-medicine and the QA-coordinator. Detailed information for the patients, documentation of the work-flows as well as the medical report was adopted to the QM-system. Although in the introduction phase of a QA-system a vast amount of time is necessary, some months later a surplus for the clinical workday will become available. The well defined relations of competences and procedures will result in a gain of time, a reduction of costs and a help to ensure the legal demands. Last but not least, the QA-system simply helps to build up confidence and acceptance both by the patients and the referring physicians. PMID:11797512

  15. Consensus Recommendations for Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy: A Joint Report of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Abell; Michael Camilleri; Kevin Donohoe; William L. Hasler; Henry C. Lin; Alan H. Maurer; Richard W. McCallum; Thomas Nowak; Martin L. Nusynowitz; Henry P. Parkman; Paul Shreve; Lawrence A. Szarka; William J. Snape; Harvey A. Ziessman

    2008-01-01

    This consensus statement from the members of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motility Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine recommends a standardized method for measuring gastric emptying (GE) by scintigraphy. A low-fat, egg-white meal with imaging at 0, 1, 2, and 4 h after meal ingestion, as described by a published multicenter protocol, provides standardized information about normal and delayed

  16. Feasibility and merits of performing preclinical imaging on clinical radiology and nuclear medicine systems.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Researchers have limited access to systems dedicated to imaging small laboratory animals. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility and merits of performing preclinical imaging on clinical systems. Materials and Methods. Scans were performed on rat and mouse models of diseases or injuries on four radiology systems, tomosynthesis, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), based on the availability at the author's institute. Results. Tomosysthesis delineated soft tissue anatomy and hard tissue structure with superb contrast and spatial resolution at minimal scan time and effort. CT allowed high resolution volumetric visualization of bones. Molecular imaging with PET was useful for detecting cancerous tissue in mouse but at the expense of poor resolution. MRI depicted abnormal or intervened tissue at quality and resolution sufficient for experimental studies. The paper discussed limitations of the clinical systems in preclinical imaging as well as challenges regarding the need of additional gadgets, modifications, or upgrades required for longitudinally scanning animals under anesthesia while monitoring their vital signs. Conclusion. Clinical imaging technologies can potentially make cost-effective and efficient contributions to preclinical efforts in obtaining anatomical, structural, and functional information from the underlying tissue while minimally compromising the data quality in certain situations. PMID:24490068

  17. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... uses small amounts of radioactive material to mark (tag) red blood cells (RBCs). Your body is then ... feeling light-headed Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin) Infection (a slight risk any time the skin ...

  18. Phase equilibria of cholesterol/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures: sup 2 H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Vist, M.R.; Davis, J.H. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-16

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry are used to map the phase boundaries of mixtures of cholesterol and chain-perdeuteriated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at concentrations from 0 to 25 mol % cholesterol. These distinct phases can be identified: the L{sub {alpha}} or liquid-crystalline phase, the gel phase, and a high cholesterol concentration phase, which we call the {beta} phase. The liquid-crystalline phase is characterized by highly flexible phospholipid chains with rapid axially symmetric reorientation; the gel phase has much more rigid lipid chains, and the motions are no longer axially symmetric on the {sup 2}H NMR time scale; the {beta} phase is characterized by highly ordered (rigid) chains and rapid axially symmetric reorientation. In addition, the authors identify three regions of two-phase coexistence. The first of these is a narrow L{sub {alpha}}/gel-phase coexistence region lying between 0 and about 6 mol % cholesterol at temperatures just below the chain-melting transition of the pure phospholipid/water dispersions, at 37.75{degree}C. The dramatic changes in the {sup 2}H NMR line shape which occur on passing through the phase transition are used to map out the boundaries of this narrow two-phase region. The boundaries of the second two-phase region are determined by {sup 2}H NMR difference spectroscopy, one boundary lying near 7.5 mol % cholesterol and running from 37 down to at least 30{degree}C; the other boundary lies near 22 mol % cholesterol and covers the same temperature range. The third two-phase lies above 37{degree}C, beginning at a eutectic point somewhere between 7.5 and 10 mol% cholesterol and ending at about 20 mol %. In this region, the L{sub {alpha}} and {beta} phases are in equilibrium.

  19. Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

    2001-02-01

    We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

  20. Computer assisted diagnosis in renal nuclear medicine: rationale, methodology and interpretative criteria for diuretic renography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew T; Garcia, Ernest V

    2014-01-01

    The goal of artificial intelligence, expert systems, decision support systems and computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) in imaging is the development and implementation of software to assist in the detection and evaluation of abnormalities, to alert physicians to cognitive biases, to reduce intra and inter-observer variability and to facilitate the interpretation of studies at a faster rate and with a higher level of accuracy. These developments are needed to meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the volume of diagnostic imaging studies coupled with a concurrent increase in the number and complexity of images in each patient data. The convergence of an expanding knowledge base and escalating time constraints increases the likelihood of physician errors. Errors are even more likely when physicians interpret low volume studies such as 99mTc-MAG3 diuretic scans where imagers may have had limited training or experience. Decision support systems include neural networks, case-based reasoning, expert systems and statistical systems. iRENEX (renal expert) is an expert system for diuretic renography that uses a set of rules obtained from human experts to analyze a knowledge base of both clinical parameters and quantitative parameters derived from the renogram. Initial studies have shown that the interpretations provided by iRENEX are comparable to the interpretations of a panel of experts. iRENEX provides immediate patient specific feedback at the time of scan interpretation, can be queried to provide the reasons for its conclusions and can be used as an educational tool to teach trainees to better interpret renal scans. iRENEX also has the capacity to populate a structured reporting module and generate a clear and concise impression based on the elements contained in the report; adherence to the procedural and data entry components of the structured reporting module assures and documents procedural competency. Finally, although the focus is CAD applied to diuretic renography, this review offers a window into the rationale, methodology and broader applications of computer assisted diagnosis in medical imaging. PMID:24484751

  1. Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

  2. A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

  3. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, 14080, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  4. Management of Radioactive Spills in Nuclear Medicine; Teaching and Assessing with Objectively Structured Assessment of Technical Skills.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Riffat Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Routine work in nuclear medicine requires the careful elution of radioactivity and its subsequent, storage and handling. Though all effort is maintained to prevent any "spill" of this radioactivity, accidents are bound to happen. The response to this spill is a methodically worked out a plan that is written and adopted as a "standard operating procedure." This protocol is taught to all involved in the area of working as a mock drill/apprenticeship model. No formal evaluation of learning is in place except for the mock drills. The objectively structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) is a variation on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, which is a form of workplace based assessment. The OSATS is cited in the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education evaluation toolbox on the website as the most desirable evaluation tool for the patient care topics. It is the objective of this paper is to introduce the "OSATS" for teaching, and assessment of the learning, of the protocol for the management of radioactive spill. As a review of the literature on the subject failed to reveal any such teaching protocol/material/document for this important technical skill, we hope that it may act as a landmark for the development of teaching and assessment of other technical skills also. PMID:26097418

  5. Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

  6. Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

  7. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  8. Management of Radioactive Spills in Nuclear Medicine; Teaching and Assessing with Objectively Structured Assessment of Technical Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Riffat Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Routine work in nuclear medicine requires the careful elution of radioactivity and its subsequent, storage and handling. Though all effort is maintained to prevent any “spill” of this radioactivity, accidents are bound to happen. The response to this spill is a methodically worked out a plan that is written and adopted as a “standard operating procedure.” This protocol is taught to all involved in the area of working as a mock drill/apprenticeship model. No formal evaluation of learning is in place except for the mock drills. The objectively structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) is a variation on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, which is a form of workplace based assessment. The OSATS is cited in the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education evaluation toolbox on the website as the most desirable evaluation tool for the patient care topics. It is the objective of this paper is to introduce the “OSATS” for teaching, and assessment of the learning, of the protocol for the management of radioactive spill. As a review of the literature on the subject failed to reveal any such teaching protocol/material/document for this important technical skill, we hope that it may act as a landmark for the development of teaching and assessment of other technical skills also. PMID:26097418

  9. The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France, pp. PM1-4, 2003 1 Abstract--Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths

    E-print Network

    The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631- 444-7837; fax: 631, WI 53201, USA. Wang is with the Department of Radiology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa

  10. CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Risks of CT scans include: Allergic reaction to contrast dye Being exposed to radiation CT scans expose you to more radiation than regular x-rays. Having many x-rays or CT scans over time may increase ...

  11. A Photothermal Line-Scanning System for NDT of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings of Nuclear Power Plant Components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lehtiniemi; J. Rantala; J. Hartikainen

    1995-01-01

    The main pump of the nuclear power plant primary circulation system is one of the most important and critical components of the pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant. For instance, the failure of plasma-sprayed coatings on the pump's shaft seal rings leads to shutdown of the entire reactor. However, suitable methods for NDT of these coatings have not been

  12. Study of a New Design of P-N Semiconductor Detector Array for Nuclear Medicine Imaging by Monte Carlo Simulation Codes

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M.; Ghorbani, M.; Khoshkharam, S.; Ashrafi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc99_m activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

  13. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  14. The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Jaszczak, R.J. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0 to 4.0 mm diameter apertures. Curves of the form sin{sup x}{theta}, where {theta} is the angle of the incident ray with the surface of the detector crystal, were fit to sensitivity measurements from the projection data. Experimentally measured x values were between 3.3 and 4.1 for Tc-99m and between 5.1 and 7.2 for I-131. Penetration near the pinhole aperture was modeled using (1) an expression for effective pinhole diameter that is a generalization of Anger{close_quote}s formula for normally incident photons and (2) a photon transport simulation code. Experimentally measured sensitivity exponents x from new and previously reported experimental observations were modeled within 15{percent} by the numerical simulations. For modeling using the generalized expression for effective diameter the average error was 1.4{percent} and the standard deviation was 7.7{percent}. For the photon transport simulation code the average error was 1.5{percent} and the standard deviation also was 7.7{percent}. The effect of pinhole aperture design parameters on angle-dependent sensitivity for high resolution pinhole apertures was modeled using a photon transport simulation code. The sensitivity exponents x were greater for 364 keV photons than for 140 keV photons and were greater for small aperture diameters, small acceptance angles, and large aperture channel heights. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. A photothermal line-scanning system for NDT of plasma-sprayed coatings of nuclear power plant components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lehtiniemi; J. Rantala; J. Hartikainen

    1994-01-01

    The main pump of the nuclear power plant primary circulation system is one of the most important and critical components of\\u000a the pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant. For instance, the failure of plasma-sprayed coatings on the pump's\\u000a shaft seal rings leads to shutdown of the entire reactor. However, suitable methods for NDT of these coatings have not been

  16. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach for quantifying multi-components in traditional complex herbal medicines, Qiong-Yu-Gao as an example.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-08-10

    An improved high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed to quantitatively evaluate the holistic quality of traditional complex herbal medicines (CHMs). Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), a classical CHM consisting of Rehmanniae Radix, Poriae and Ginseng Radix, was used as an example. Thirty-eight major components (including six pairs of epimers/isomers) belonging to five chemical types, i.e., iridoid glycosides, phenethylacohol glycosides, furfural derivatives, ginsenosides and triterpenoid acids, were selected as marker compounds. Programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning were designed to improve the sensitivity of the MS detection concerning the diverse chemical features of the analytes. The reference compounds of the analytes were individually injected directly into MS to optimize the ionization cone voltage and to select monitoring ion of each analyte. Nine channels with eight time segments were determined for monitoring the thirty-eight analytes, among which six were detected in positive and thirty-two in negative ion modes respectively. Higher signal-to-noise ratios of the analytes were achieved when compared with full time scanning. In addition, the linearity, precision, accuracy and stability of the method were also validated. The established method was applied for the quantitative evaluation of QYG samples prepared with three different methods. Obvious difference in the contents of thirty-eight components, in particular the original ginsenosides, degraded ginsenosides and furfural derivatives, was found among these QYG samples. All these results demonstrated that the established HPLC-ESI-MS with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach is very suitable for the standardization investigation of CHMs. PMID:25982197

  17. Thematic planning: the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in promoting education, medical research, and technology transfer among nuclear medicine communities of developing countries.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Dondi, Maurizio

    2008-03-01

    One of the major mechanisms of implementing the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programs in nuclear medicine has been through coordinated research projects (CRPs). In recent years, the IAEA has initiated a new type of CRP, called Doctoral CRP, in an attempt to further improve the effectiveness of its programs. The structure of the Doctoral CRP has been built on the structure of the existing CRP concept, but with a broader "thematic" approach. The word "thematic" indicates that these CRPs should both have a fairly broad scope and be designed so that their outcome, in terms of practical applications, might readily fit into the selected nuclear applications that are offered to Member States under the IAEA's mechanism for thematic planning. The Nuclear Medicine Section of IAEA's Division of Human Health initiated the first Doctoral CRP of IAEA in the year 2000, entitled, "Management of Liver Cancer Using Radionuclide Methods with Special Emphasis on Trans-Arterial Radio-conjugate Therapy and Internal Dosimetry." Since then, the CRP has accomplished several milestones, including development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical ((188)Re lipiodol) and successfully carrying out Phase I and Phase II clinical trials on patients using the new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. PMID:18243840

  18. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like? Special camera or imaging devices used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like? Special camera or imaging devices used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  20. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to radiation during air travel. Radiation, known as cosmic radiation, is in the upper atmosphere due to ... and Man-made Sources of Radiation Natural Sources Cosmic rays from space 8% Medical x-rays 11% ...

  1. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images. PMID:26009552

  2. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  3. Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

    1999-05-13

    Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

  4. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography. Literature scanned from April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985. First edition, Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1985-04-01

    The literature cited cover data on collisions in which the incident particle energy has a minimum energy of less than 100 MeV in the laboratory system, the data including excitation functions, or thick target or product yields leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state. Such quantities are included as fission yields, isomeric ratios, and excitation functions for specific particle groups where such data readily yield information on the excitation functions or thick target yields for the ground or metastable state. Selected compilations, evaluations, and reviews of charged-particle nuclear data are also listed. The bibliography is indexed by target and by residuals. (LEW)

  5. Single-copy nuclear gene primers for Streptanthus and other Brassicaceae from genomic scans, published data, and ESTs1

    PubMed Central

    Cacho, N. Ivalú; Strauss, Sharon Y.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We report 11 primer sets for nine single-copy nuclear genes in Streptanthus and other Thelypodieae (Brassicaceae) and their utility at tribal-level and species-level phylogenetics in this poorly resolved group. • Methods and Results: We selected regions based on a cross-referenced matrix of previous studies and public Brassica expressed sequence tags. To design primers, we used alignments of low-depth-coverage Illumina sequencing of genomic DNA for two species of Brassica mapped onto Arabidopsis thaliana. We report several primer combinations for five regions that consistently amplified a single band and yielded high-quality sequences for at least 70% of the species assayed, and for four additional regions whose utility might be clade specific. • Conclusions: Our primers will be useful in improving resolution at shallow depths across the Thelypodieae, and likely in other Brassicaceae. PMID:25202560

  6. Taking Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Taking Medicines Drugs in the Body Medicines can enter the body in many different ways, ... many steps happen along the way. Understanding how medicines work in your body can help you learn ...

  7. COPD Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here: Health Information > Medications > COPD COPD Medicine Your doctor may prescribe medicine to control the ... Learn how to manage your medications . Signs the Medicine Is Helping How can you work with your ...

  8. ADHD Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Learning & Emotional Problems > ADHD ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  9. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of technetium(V)-oxo complexes useful in nuclear medicine. 1. Complexes of mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG{sub 3}) and its methyl ester derivative (MAG{sub 3}OMe)

    SciTech Connect

    Grummon, G.; Rajagopalan, R.; Palenik, G.J. [Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1995-03-29

    Mercptoacetylpeptide complexes of {sup 99g}Tc are useful compounds for nuclear medicine. This work describes the synthesis and structural characterization of a mercaptoacetylglyclglycylglycine complex and its esterified analog. Structural characterization is accomplished through NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography.

  10. International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau, Germany, July 9-13, 2007 Abstract--Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)

    E-print Network

    International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau is with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (e-mail: jingwang@mil.sunysb.edu). H. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

  11. CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Nuclear physics, lasers, and medicine(Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 14 December 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    The scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 14 December 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Kotov Yu D (National Research Nuclear University 'Moscow Engineering Physics Institute' (MEPhI), Institute of Astrophysics, Moscow) "High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS"; (2) Pakhlov P N (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,' Moscow) "Exotic charmonium"; (3) Shcherbakov I A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser and plasma technologies in medicine"; (4) Balakin V E (Center for Physics and Technology, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Protvino, Moscow region) "New-generation equipment and technologies for the ray therapy of oncological diseases using a proton beam"; (5) Kravchuk L V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS." Papers based on reports 1, 3, and 5 are published below. The expanded content of the report by Pakhlov is presented in review form in Physics-Uspekhi 53 219 (2010). • High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS, Yu D Kotov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 619-631 • Laser physics in medicine, I A Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 631-635 • Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, L V Kravchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 635-639

  12. Reporting nuclear cardiology: a joint position paper by the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

    PubMed

    Trägårdh, Elin; Hesse, Birger; Knuuti, Juhani; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J; Edenbrandt, Lars; Delgado, Victoria; Donal, Erwan; Edvardsen, Thor; Galderisi, Maurizio; Habib, Gilbert; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Nieman, Koen; Rosenhek, Raphael; Agostini, Denis; Gimelli, Alessia; Lindner, Oliver; Slart, Riemert; Ubleis, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The report of an imaging procedure is a critical component of an examination, being the final and often the only communication from the interpreting physician to the referring or treating physician. Very limited evidence and few recommendations or guidelines on reporting imaging studies are available; therefore, an European position statement on how to report nuclear cardiology might be useful. The current paper combines the limited existing evidence with expert consensus, previously published recommendations as well as current clinical practices. For all the applications discussed in this paper (myocardial perfusion, viability, innervation, and function as acquired by single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography or hybrid imaging), headings cover laboratory and patient demographics, clinical indication, tracer administration and image acquisition, findings, and conclusion of the report. The statement also discusses recommended terminology in nuclear cardiology, image display, and preliminary reports. It is hoped that this statement may lead to more attention to create well-written and standardized nuclear cardiology reports and eventually lead to improved clinical outcome. PMID:25618478

  13. Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  14. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  15. Automatic classification of DMSA scans using an artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. W.; Duguid, R.; Mckiddie, F.; Staff, R. T.

    2014-04-01

    DMSA imaging is carried out in nuclear medicine to assess the level of functional renal tissue in patients. This study investigated the use of an artificial neural network to perform diagnostic classification of these scans. Using the radiological report as the gold standard, the network was trained to classify DMSA scans as positive or negative for defects using a representative sample of 257 previously reported images. The trained network was then independently tested using a further 193 scans and achieved a binary classification accuracy of 95.9%. The performance of the network was compared with three qualified expert observers who were asked to grade each scan in the 193 image testing set on a six point defect scale, from ‘definitely normal’ to ‘definitely abnormal’. A receiver operating characteristic analysis comparison between a consensus operator, generated from the scores of the three expert observers, and the network revealed a statistically significant increase (? < 0.05) in performance between the network and operators. A further result from this work was that when suitably optimized, a negative predictive value of 100% for renal defects was achieved by the network, while still managing to identify 93% of the negative cases in the dataset. These results are encouraging for application of such a network as a screening tool or quality assurance assistant in clinical practice.

  16. NIH/BRP: Optical Molecular Tomography for Regenerative Medicine NSF/MRI: Development of the Next-generation Nano-CT System for ROI-focused Scanning & Exact Interior Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Wang, Ge

    -generation Nano-CT System for ROI-focused Scanning & Exact Interior Reconstruction NIH/R01: Cardiac CT -- Advanced with targeted scanning and interior reconstruction capabilities, in collaboration with the leading nano at the pre- and post-implantation stages in a bio-reactor system and a sheep model respectively

  17. CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    An arm or chest radiograph looks all the way through a body without being able to tell how deep anything is. A CT scan is three-dimensional. By imaging and looking at several three-dimensional slices of a body (like slices of bread) a doctor could not only tell if a tumor is present, but roughly how deep it is in the body.

  18. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    SCHOOL OF MEDICINE SCHOOL OF MEDICINE #12;School of Medicine 127 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE School of Medicine http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medschool/ The Doctor of Medicine degree requires the satisfactory OF MEDICINE When you apply to the School of Medicine, you must submit the results from the Medical College

  19. Depth of interaction in scintillation crystal by light collimation for the design of {open_quotes}universal nuclear medicine imager{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect

    Bosnjakovic, V.B. [Univ. Clinical Center and Vinca Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The detector head for a dual headed {open_quotes}Universal Nuclear Medicine Imager{close_quotes} (UNMI) is designed. It is based on position sensitive (PS) area detectors fitted with a thick (0.75 inches) NaI(Tl) crystal. In order to make it {open_quotes}universal{close_quotes}, a means for determining the depth of interaction (DOI) in the crystal is devised. Crystal thickness is divided into two layers, each 3/8 inches thick, by insertion of a thin (0.03 inches) quartz (glass) layer; these layers added to the external lower and upper surfaces of crystal, too, form two internal {open_quotes}light collimator{close_quotes} (LC) channels by their reflectively (specular) polished couplings. These DOI channels, according to the light refraction / reflection law direct the light reflected from quartz layers (as exceeding a critical angle) through NaI(Tl) layers to the external parts of LC system; these are connected via quartz optical cables to the DOI determining PM tubes. DOI electronics including a coincidence circuit, connecting signals from conventional PS and DOI PM tubes arrays, identifies a DOI layer and shifts an, x, y, address to the particular DOI memory stack. The UNMI design is likely to retain spatial resolution of PS detectors - gamma cameras for low energy single photon emitters and to improve spatial resolution in PET studies done by PS detectors fitted with thick NaI crystals, enabling a proper correction for parallax error.

  20. Progress in the development of large-area modular 64 x 64 CdZnTe imaging arrays for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Matherson, K.J.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.; Eskin, J.D.; Dereniak, E.L.; Marks, D.G.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Young, E.T. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Augustine, F.L. [Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA (United States)] [Augustine Engineering, Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Previous efforts by this group have demonstrated the potential of hybrid semiconductor detector arrays for use in gamma-ray imaging applications. In this paper, the author describes progress in the development of a prototype imaging system consisting of a 64 x 64-pixel CdZnTe detector array mated to a multiplexer readout circuit that was custom designed for their nuclear medicine application. The detector array consists of a 0.15 cm thick slab of CdZnTe which has a 64 x 64 array of 380 {micro}m square pixel electrodes on one side produced by photolithography; the other side has a continuous electrode biased at {minus}150 V. Electrical connections between the detector electrodes and corresponding multiplexer bump pads are made with indium bump bonds. Although the CdZnTe detector arrays characterized in this paper are room-temperature devices, a slight amount of cooling is necessary to reduce thermally generated dark current in the detectors. Initial tests show that this prototype imager functions well with more than 90% of its pixels operating. The device is an excellent imager; phantom images have a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm, limited by the collimator bore.

  1. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Tichauer, Kenneth M; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W; Liu, Jonathan T C

    2015-07-21

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche. PMID:26134619

  2. Nuclear

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

    2004-01-01

    What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  3. Transmission scanning II

    SciTech Connect

    Alberi, J.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Bradley-Moore, P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1973-01-01

    From nuclear science symposium; San Francisco, California, USA (14 Nov 1973). Work has been continued on the development of techniques for imaging spatial elemental distributions by means of differential absorption about the K- absorption edge of the particular element Z. A method to correct for spurious effects due to differential absorption in overlying absorber is described. Initial clinical studies of thyroid iodine images on patierts are presented. Application of absorption edge transmission scanning to measurements of Ca cortent in thin in-vitro samples of rat bone is also discussed. An x-ray source with a broad energy spectrum was used. (CH)

  4. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2007--2008 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Takao Shimizu Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The Faculty of Medicine

  5. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  6. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  7. Cough Medicines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update

    2004-08-16

    A recent report in the journal Pediatrics questioned the effectiveness of over-the-counter children's cough medicines. In this Science Update, you'll hear more about the study, and why some medicines may have escaped this sort of rigorous testing.

  8. Behavioral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

  9. Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-05-01

    Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

  10. SU-C-9A-02: Structured Noise Index as An Automated Quality Control for Nuclear Medicine: A Two Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J; Christianson, O; Samei, E [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flood-field uniformity evaluation is an essential element in the assessment of nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras. It serves as the central element of the quality control (QC) program, acquired and analyzed on a daily basis prior to clinical imaging. Uniformity images are traditionally analyzed using pixel value-based metrics which often fail to capture subtle structure and patterns caused by changes in gamma camera performance requiring additional visual inspection which is subjective and time demanding. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a robust QC metrology for NM that is effective in identifying non-uniformity issues, reporting issues in a timely manner for efficient correction prior to clinical involvement, all incorporated into an automated effortless workflow, and to characterize the program over a two year period. Methods: A new quantitative uniformity analysis metric was developed based on 2D noise power spectrum metrology and confirmed based on expert observer visual analysis. The metric, termed Structured Noise Index (SNI) was then integrated into an automated program to analyze, archive, and report on daily NM QC uniformity images. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated over a period of 2 years. Results: The SNI metric successfully identified visually apparent non-uniformities overlooked by the pixel valuebased analysis methods. Implementation of the program has resulted in nonuniformity identification in about 12% of daily flood images. In addition, due to the vigilance of staff response, the percentage of days exceeding trigger value shows a decline over time. Conclusion: The SNI provides a robust quantification of the NM performance of gamma camera uniformity. It operates seamlessly across a fleet of multiple camera models. The automated process provides effective workflow within the NM spectra between physicist, technologist, and clinical engineer. The reliability of this process has made it the preferred platform for NM uniformity analysis.

  11. Confronting the problem of Cu-67 radiation measurement in the presence of contaminating Cu-64 isotope, using simple nuclear medicine radioisotope dose calibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Salako, Q.; DeNardo, G.L.; Shen, S. [Molecular Cancer Institute, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    In order to assess the contribution of contaminating Cu-64 to dosimetry after administration of Cu-67 labeled monoclonal antibody, differential measurement of Cu-67 and Cu-64 radiations from their mixture has been Investigated, using both multichannel analyzer (MCA) and dose calibrator techniques. Dose calibrator readings were collected on an aliquot from seven Cu-67 chloride (in 0.1 M HCI) supplies at varying time points after end of bombardment, at dial 052 (calibrator manufacturer`s recommendation for Cu-67 measurement). Least squares fitting analysis of these measurements and the supplier`s Cu-67/Cu-64 calibration values, were used to determine calibrator correction factors. Radiopharmaceutical doses were measured at injection times, and later analyzed for the individual Cu-67, Cu-64 contributions using the correction factors. Both {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and counting analysis were conducted on an aliquot of the Cu-67/Cu-64 mixture, using the MCA for 15 minutes, at times of dose calibrator measurements, using the 184 and 1346 keV photopeaks for Cu-67 and Cu-64 quantitation, respectively. The {gamma}-spectrum did not indicate the presence of radionuclidic impurities other than Cu-64, in the Cu-67 sample at the time of delivery. The results of analysis by dose calibrator gave correction factors of 1.04{plus_minus}0.04, 0.62{plus_minus}0.23 for Cu-67 and Cu-64 respectively, at dial 052. The estimates of Cu-67 and Cu-64 contributions from both methods were comparable with the supplier`s calibrated values, within experimental limits. The dose calibrator method is direct, rapid, reliable and useful to Nuclear Medicine clinics that do not have an MCA.

  12. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  13. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  14. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scan – cervical spine; Computed tomography scan – cervical spine; CT scan - cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Once you are inside the scanner, the ...

  15. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... polyps The cause of repeated bloody noses ( epistaxis ) Sinus infection ( sinusitis ) This results from this test may ...

  16. Herbal or Natural Medicines as Modulators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Related Nuclear Receptors for Therapy of Metabolic Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Hsun-Wei Huang; Bhavani Prasad Kota; Valentina Razmovski; Basil D. Roufogalis

    2005-01-01

    The use of herbal or natural medicines for the treatment of various disorders has a long and extensive history. Many of these herbal medicines are finding their way onto the world market as alternatives to prescribed drugs currently available to treat various disorders\\/ailments. In particular, hyperlipidaemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic coronary vascular disease, which can culminate in

  17. (scanning probe microscopy, (scanning tunneling microscopy, STM)

    E-print Network

    will have great impact on the nanoscience research and nanotechnology. Ing-Shouh Hwang Scanning Probe7 94.2 (1) (2) (3) ( 1) (scanning probe microscopy, SPM) SPM (scanning tunneling 1980's and the subsequent development of other scanning probe microscopies (SPMs) have provided

  18. COLLEGE OF MEDICINE & VETERINARY MEDICINE MEDICAL ELECTIVES

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    COLLEGE OF MEDICINE & VETERINARY MEDICINE MEDICAL ELECTIVES 1. INITIAL APPLICATION All applications for elective attachments within for General Medicine, General Surgery, Paediatrics and Emergency Medicine should give 12­24 months

  19. Medicines management.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-04-15

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the fifth essential skills cluster - medicines management. Nursing students should work to attain the knowledge and skills required for effective medicines management throughout their pre-registration education. The roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse in the area of medicines management are discussed in this the final article of the essential skills cluster series. PMID:25872850

  20. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2005--2006 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Nobutaka Hirokawa Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The University of Tokyo Graduate

  1. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE School of Medicine 127

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    SCHOOL OF MEDICINE #12;School of Medicine 127 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE School of Medicine http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medschool/ The Doctor of Medicine degree requires the satisfactory comple- tion of a four-year course of study composed Center and in nearby affiliated hospitals. PREPARING FOR THE STUDY OF MEDICINE When you apply

  2. Medicinal Herbman

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-07-21

    Broadcast Transcript: Japanese gardens are admired for their understated elegance, their meditation/movement fusion, their precise placement of essential elements such as water and stone. In this last way at least, Medicinal Herbman is typically...

  3. Progressive medicine.

    PubMed

    Martin, W John

    2005-06-01

    The term Progressive Medicine combines the evidence-based foundation of orthodox medicine with the growing understanding that life comprises much more than a series of biochemical reactions. Recent studies have identified an alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway as an auxiliary defense mechanism against various diseases, including both conventional and stealth-adapted virus infections. This pathway can be activated through non-pharmaceutical methods that work through biophysical rather than biochemical reactions. Validation of these methods requires well-documented and successful clinical outcome studies. The methods also need to be fully disclosed to regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These requirements have been largely ignored by many practitioners of complimentary and alternative medicine. They are essential elements of Progressive Medicine. PMID:15924875

  4. Personalized Medicines

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... our genes, our heredity, influences our responses to drugs. When different people take medications, they respond differently. ... the reasons people process medicines differently. Rochelle Long: Drugs act differently in people for a variety of ...

  5. Integrative Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Mosquera

    Presently the expansive growth of Integrative medicine has been fueled in part by a public discontent with conventional medicine\\u000a and increasing consumer demand for medical advice on the subjects of lifestyle, nutrition, exercise, and natural therapies.\\u000a Patients want more emphasis on health, healing and prevention of chronic illness rather than just diagnosis and treatment.\\u000a Numerous peer-reviewed, published studies in the

  6. [Sport medicine].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram

    2012-02-01

    It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg. PMID:22741210

  7. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece) and Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Methods: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 32}P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 111}In, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. Results: GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

  8. Osteopathic Medicine: About Osteopathic Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Easy: Video Series for OGME Directors Single Accreditation System Webinar Series Professional Development Continuing Medical Education DO Jobs Online AOA Board Certification Practice Management Quality and Research International Osteopathic Medicine test3 test4 DO ...

  9. Bioenergetic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a specific therapeutic strategy we call ‘bioenergetic medicine’. Bioenergetic medicine refers to the manipulation of bioenergetic fluxes to positively affect health. Bioenergetic medicine approaches rely heavily on the law of mass action, and impact systems that monitor and respond to the manipulated flux. Since classically defined energy metabolism pathways intersect and intertwine, targeting one flux also tends to change other fluxes, which complicates treatment design. Such indirect effects, fortunately, are to some extent predictable, and from a therapeutic perspective may also be desirable. Bioenergetic medicine-based interventions already exist for some diseases, and because bioenergetic medicine interventions are presently feasible, new approaches to treat certain conditions, including some neurodegenerative conditions and cancers, are beginning to transition from the laboratory to the clinic. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24004341

  10. Travel medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Dennis L.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Obsessive-compulsive disorder; published online 6 June 2006 Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder; genome-wide scan; covariate based

  12. Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bouland, Daniel L.; Doram, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The Council on Scientific Affairs of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in internal medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, and scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in internal medicine that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The items of progress listed below were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Internal Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under its direction. PMID:8191758

  13. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  14. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  15. school of medicine school of medicine

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    school of medicine #12;school of medicine Dr. Richard Hoppmann, Dean "The School of Medicine has, compassionate health care throughout the state and world." #12;the promise of medicine: to students, to society "Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also love of humanity." - Hippocrates It is a place where

  16. PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part I PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part I LSU HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Dayton W. Daberkow II, M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Section of Comprehensive Medicine #12;ACGME General CompetenciesACGME General Competencies 1. Patient Care - compassionate

  17. PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part II PROFESSIONALISM IN MEDICINE Part II LSU HEALTH SCIENCES CENTER DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE Dayton W. Daberkow II, M.D. Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Section of Comprehensive Medicine #12;Challenges to the Elements of Professionalism Challenges to the Elements

  18. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  19. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

  20. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

  1. [Osteopathic medicine].

    PubMed

    Klein, P; Lepers, Y; Salem, W

    2011-09-01

    Osteopathy is originated in the 19th century in the United States. Andrew Taylor Still seek for an alternative medical system to the orthodox medicine largely empirical and advocating bloodletting, calomel, etc., all of which was resumed with terms like" heroic medicine". Osteopathy as other alternative medical practices (homeopathy, eclecticism, etc.) based on rational and metaphysical postulates as vitalism or the fact that man is a divinely ordained machine. Still's approach was essentially manual and based on manipulation of the joints. Today osteopaths challenge these dogmas and seek to agree their practice within scientific biomedical standards. Even if strong randomized clinical trials are lacking, several surveys report how osteopathy gained public notoriety. Several recent meta-analyses pinpoint the benefit of the spinal manipulative treatment and even if there is no evidence that such an approach is superior to other advocated therapies there is no evidence that these therapies are more effective than the first one. The major indications for such a treatment are cervical and low back pain, either chronic or acute. The quality of the relationship between the practitioner and patient together with the placebo effect are important components of a treatment effect. Osteopathic education is an important aspect and only higher education institutions, i.e. universities can achieve and maintain adequate standards. Materia medica and surgery represent the two major therapeutic mainstreams in medicine; osteopathy considered as manual medicine could be the third one. PMID:22034767

  2. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Brune; B. Forkman; B. Persson

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection

  3. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Managing Your Medicines Updated:May 27,2015 If you have heart disease , medicine along with lifestyle changes may be part of ... Yourself • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  4. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Index to Drug-Specific Information Protecting Yourself Safe Disposal of Medicines Contact FDA Toll Free (855) 543- ... Medicine Driving When You Are Using Medicine Safe Disposal of Medicines Understanding Generic Drugs Facts about Generic ...

  5. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Our ePublications > Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet ePublications Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet Print this fact sheet ... and nurses find out about using medicines during pregnancy? Doctors and nurses get information from medicine labels ...

  6. Remote medicine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-04-29

    The international oil industry, catalyzed by a surge in exploration and production projects in remote regions, is giving health care for its travelers and expatriates a high priority. L.R. Aalund, the Journal`s Managing Editor--Technology, reports on why and how this is happening now. He covers this in articles on: health care in Russia, air ambulance evacuations, and the deployment of remote paramedics. Aalund gathered the information during trips to Finland and Russia and interviews with oil industry personnel, physicians, and other medical professionals in North America, Europe, and Siberia. Titles of the four topics presented in this special section on remote medicine are as follows: Oil companies focus on emergency care for expats in Russia; Air ambulance plan can be critical; Remote paramedics have high level of training; and Other facets of remote medicine.

  7. Transfusion medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  8. Emergency Medicine Grand Rounds Emergency Medicine Classroom

    E-print Network

    Emergency Medicine Grand Rounds Emergency Medicine Classroom Tuesday, September 3, 2013 8 am ­ 9 am Department Presented by: Azeem Tajani, MD PGY-3, ECU Emergency Medicine Objectives: 1. Discuss the State in the suicidal Patient. Accreditation: The Brody School of Medicine of East Carolina University is accredited

  9. College of Medicine MED Internal Medicine

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine MED Internal Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped. (Same as MI/PHA 616.) MED 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, MEDICINE. (1-3) With the advice and approval of his of Medicine. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity for exploration and study in an area which

  10. College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 ER 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE. (1 offered by the Department of Emergency Medicine. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity

  11. UW MEDICINE Referral Request UW Medicine

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    UW MEDICINE Referral Request PT.NO NAME DOB UW Medicine Harborview Medical Center ­ UW Medical MEDICINE REFERRAL REQUEST *U2394* *U2394* WHITE ­ MEDICAL RECORD UH2394 REV NOV 11 Thank you for referring your patient to UW Medicine. This form is to be completed by the outside referring provider or designee

  12. Master in Molecular Medicine Faculty of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Master in Molecular Medicine Faculty of Medicine February 2010 #12;University of Ulm There are many of the Master program The English Master course of studies combines the disciplines Biology and Medicine of research, development and application in the field of molecular medicine especially in universities

  13. Why sports medicine is not medicine.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Steven D; McNamee, Mike

    2006-06-01

    Sports Medicine as an apparent sub-class of medicine has developed apace over the past 30 years. Its recent trajectory has been evidenced by the emergence of specialist international research journals, standard texts, annual conferences, academic appointments and postgraduate courses. Although this field of enquiry and practice lays claim to the title 'sports medicine' this paper queries the legitimacy of that claim. Depending upon how 'sports medicine' and 'medicine' are defined, a plausible-sounding case can be made to show that sports medicine is not in fact a branch of medicine. Rather, it is sometimes closer to practices such as non-therapeutic cosmetic surgery. The argument of the paper is as follows. It begins with a brief statement concerning methodology. We then identify and subscribe to a plausible defining goal of medicine taken from a recognised authority in the field. Then two representative, authoritative, definitions of sports medicine are discussed. It is then shown that acceptance of these definitions of sports medicine generates a problem in that if they are accepted, no necessary commitment to the defining goal of medicine is present within sports medicine. It seems to follow that sports medicine is not medicine. In the final part of the paper a critical response to that conclusion is presented and rebutted. The response is one which rejects the identification of the defining goal of medicine upon which our argument rests. PMID:17195578

  14. Rev 01/08 Scan to PO-7070 PATIENT INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    Abdomen Pelvis Cervical Spine Thoracic Lumbar Extremity (specify): Other (specify): Mammogram Diagnostic Screening Others (specify): Ultrasound Abdomen Pelvis OB/GYN Other (specify): Nuclear Medicine Bone SPECT Cold Challenge Graft Flow Arterial Duplex Dialysis Graft Eval. Abdomen (please select): Renal

  15. Nuclear cardiac

    SciTech Connect

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques. (KRM)

  16. SU-E-I-65: The Joint Commission's Requirements for Annual Diagnostic Physics Testing of Nuclear Medicine Equipment, and a Clinically Relevant Methodology for Testing Low-Contrast Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    West, W. Geoffrey; Gray, David Clinton [West Physics Consulting, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce the Joint Commission's requirements for annual diagnostic physics testing of all nuclear medicine equipment, effective 7/1/2014, and to highlight an acceptable methodology for testing lowcontrast resolution of the nuclear medicine imaging system. Methods: The Joint Commission's required diagnostic physics evaluations are to be conducted for all of the image types produced clinically by each scanner. Other accrediting bodies, such as the ACR and the IAC, have similar imaging metrics, but do not emphasize testing low-contrast resolution as it relates clinically. The proposed method for testing low contrast resolution introduces quantitative metrics that are clinically relevant. The acquisition protocol and calculation of contrast levels will utilize a modified version of the protocol defined in AAPM Report #52. Results: Using the Rose criterion for lesion detection with a SNRpixel = 4.335 and a CNRlesion = 4, the minimum contrast levels for 25.4 mm and 31.8 mm cold spheres were calculated to be 0.317 and 0.283, respectively. These contrast levels are the minimum threshold that must be attained to guard against false positive lesion detection. Conclusion: Low contrast resolution, or detectability, can be properly tested in a manner that is clinically relevant by measuring the contrast level of cold spheres within a Jaszczak phantom using pixel values within ROI's placed in the background and cold sphere regions. The measured contrast levels are then compared to a minimum threshold calculated using the Rose criterion and a CNRlesion = 4. The measured contrast levels must either meet or exceed this minimum threshold to prove acceptable lesion detectability. This research and development activity was performed by the authors while employed at West Physics Consulting, LLC. It is presented with the consent of West Physics, which has authorized the dissemination of the information and/or techniques described in the work.

  17. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agaston ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will lie on your back with ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How the Body Works Main Page Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  19. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. N. Hounsfield; P. G. Langstone

    1978-01-01

    A scanning radiographic apparatus is described in which the object of the scanning is to project the radiation through a substantially planar region of a body along many linear paths. The progress of the scanning is monitored by timing signals. The timing signals are used to determine, at least in part, the widths of the beams and a characteristic, for

  20. Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

  1. Scan Software 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Scan Software 1 Introduction Scan is a graphical user interface designed to control a confocal microscope BIORAD MRC- 600. The software can acquire simultaneously two channels, scanning an area of 0. In addition, the software can control the stage position and amplifiers setup. The software runs on the Matlab

  2. Scanning the Conservation Horizon

    E-print Network

    Scanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment #12;Scanning Vulnerability Assessment. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. ISBN 978-0-615-40233-8 Financial.nwf.org #12;A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment ii Scanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide

  3. Boston University Family Medicine

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    Boston University Family Medicine Global Health CollaborativeFamily Medicine As part of the Department of Family Medicine at Boston University, the Collaborative is committed to introducing and improving Family Medicine programs around the world. Family Medicine is a holistic specialty that attends

  4. Safe Medicine Disposal Locations

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Keith

    Safe Medicine Disposal Locations Central Drug Store 4494 Mission St. SF, CA 94112 Charlie drop-off sites accept these non-controlled substances: prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, liquid medicines, empty inhaler cartridges, pet medicines and medicated ointments. #12

  5. YALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Pathology ITS and Digital Imaging

    E-print Network

    Repository Pathology Digital Slide Collection requires additional description form includes: ResidentYALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Pathology ITS and Digital Imaging 310 Cedar Street, BML 161 New Whole Slide Scanning Request Form Scan Slides For : Return slides to: I would like a copy of the digital

  6. Radioprotective agents in medicine.

    PubMed

    Durakovi?, A

    1993-12-01

    The diminished probability of strategic nuclear confrontation alleviates some of the global concerns about large numbers of radiation casualties in the event of a nuclear war. As a result of the protection of the environment, the management of smaller numbers of radiation casualties assumes a more predictable and more specific role confined to accidents in nuclear energy projects, industry, technology and science. Recent experience of the consequences of accidents in nuclear power plants, in the field of radiotherapy and in the disposal of radioactive waste and spent fuel, present the medical and scientific communities with formidable problems if such events are to lead to minimal adverse effects on the biosphere. Whereas it is not possible to predict a nuclear or radiation accident, radioprotection is hardly an issue of health science alone, but rather an issue of the strictest quality assurance in all aspects of the utilization of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation. Thus, the medical community concerned with radioprotection will have to confine its emphasis on the management of radiation-induced alterations of the human organism from acute radiation syndromes to the stochastic concepts of chronic alterations of radiosensitive organic systems. Current multidisciplinary research in the field of radioprotection involves all aspects of basic and clinical research ranging from the subatomic mechanisms of free radical formation, macromolecular and intracellular radiation-induced alterations, biochemical and physiological homeostatic mechanisms and organ level manifestations to the clinical management of radiation casualties in a controlled hospital environment. Radioprotective agents, although widely studied in the past four decades and including several thousand agents, have not reached the level of providing the field of medicine with an agent that conforms to all criteria of an optimal radioprotectant, including effectiveness, toxicity, availability, specificity and tolerance. This article discusses the current state of radioprotection in medical therapy, and emphasizes a need for continued research in the area of medical management of radiation casualties from the viewpoint of a realistic probability of nuclear incidents or accidents in the nuclear energy-dependent world at the end of the millennium. PMID:8192608

  7. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  8. National Farm Medicine Center

    MedlinePLUS

    Farm Medicine, Rural Health & Safety National Farm Medicine Center Established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic, the National Farm Medicine Center ...

  9. Feinberg School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    1.25.2012 SENIOR ELECTIVE CATALOG 2012-2013 Feinberg School of Medicine #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS_____________________________________ 18 Dermatology ________________________________________________ 19 Family Medicine _____________________________________________ 24 Internal Medicine_____________________________________________ 29 Neurology

  10. Urogynaecology Faculty Medicine

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Name: Profile Teaching commitment Urogynaecology Faculty Medicine Department Department of reproductive medicine and gynaecology Contact details Telephone +31887551041 E-mail address c innovation - Regenerative medicine External recognition COBRA award Dutch Pelvic Surgeons Publications List

  11. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  12. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  13. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  14. HIV Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Flying Publisher, _HIV Medicine 2005_ is a free, online "medical textbook that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the treatment of HIV Infection." This edition is an update of the 2003 version of the textbook (reported on in the June 13, 2003 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences). Chapter titles in the textbook include HIV Testing, HIV and Pulmonary Diseases, Mitochondrial Toxicity, HIV and HBV Coinfections, and Traveling with HIV, to name a few. The textbook is available in both German and English. Please note that while certain sections of the 2005 edition are currently available, many sections are still in the process of being published on the site. Sections from the 2003 edition are standing in for some of the forthcoming 2005 sections. The entire 352-page 2003 edition is available for download at this site as well.

  15. Medicine partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, J

    2003-01-01

    Partial medication compliance, where patients do not take enough of their prescribed medicine to achieve adequate outcomes, is common. Research using electronic monitoring to assess compliance has shown that people take approximately 75% of doses as prescribed, irrespective of the condition being treated or its severity. Erratic compliance often leads to discontinuation of therapy, as treatment is perceived to be ineffective. Compliance decreases as frequency of dosing increases. Inadequate compliance and treatment persistence results in poor outcomes, despite the best efforts of the medical team. It is important to develop and implement a strategy to improve compliance. Simple steps that can be taken include helping patients to select "cues" to remind them to take their tablets, use of dose reminder boxes, and visual feedback of compliance data from electronic monitors. PMID:12695430

  16. Medicine partnerships.

    PubMed

    Cramer, J

    2003-05-01

    Partial medication compliance, where patients do not take enough of their prescribed medicine to achieve adequate outcomes, is common. Research using electronic monitoring to assess compliance has shown that people take approximately 75% of doses as prescribed, irrespective of the condition being treated or its severity. Erratic compliance often leads to discontinuation of therapy, as treatment is perceived to be ineffective. Compliance decreases as frequency of dosing increases. Inadequate compliance and treatment persistence results in poor outcomes, despite the best efforts of the medical team. It is important to develop and implement a strategy to improve compliance. Simple steps that can be taken include helping patients to select "cues" to remind them to take their tablets, use of dose reminder boxes, and visual feedback of compliance data from electronic monitors. PMID:12695430

  17. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  18. An image pre-processing automatic system for bone scan metastasis evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stef?nescu, Cipriana; Rusu, V; Costin, Mihaela; Zbancioc, M

    2006-01-01

    Scintigraphic images provide morphologic and functional information referring to pointed human body tissues and organs. Depending on the ability and experience of the nuclear medicine physician and the degree of scintigram complexity, the diagnosis process becomes very difficult sometimes. Image processing might decrease subjectivity and help physicians in decision making in complex cases as bone metastasis diagnosis based on scintigraphic explorations. The aim of this paper is to describe the compulsory steps of a pre-processing method in order to build a database for an automatic final appreciation of pathologic bone scan areas as a percentage of the total bone scintigraphic surface. This may include the scintigraphic result in some metastasis probability category with more accuracy than a simple, subjective appreciation of the scintigram, especially in doubtful cases. This paper points to the steps of the processing method of the database used in the rule-based nuclear medicine aide-decision expert system (NMADES). The objective evaluation of the pathological sites requires image preprocessing operations in a number of steps: histogram transforms, correlated superposition of direct and reversed incidences to reinforce the uptake sites, smoothing by pseudo-cepstrum methods, symmetry axes extraction by robust linear regression and symmetric areas search with fuzzy methods. Some for and against's are underlined in the last section, devoted to conclusions and future work. PMID:19292101

  19. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim in medicine. Unfortunately, randomized controlled studies cannot answer many comparative effectiveness

  20. Health & Medicine Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics Translational Medicine. The emerging technology holds promise for a new generation of flexible, implantable

  1. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With ...

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NUCLEAR SCIENCE, VOL. 48, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2001 2411 A Coded Aperture for High-Resolution Nuclear

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    in astronomy and space applications [1]­[3], but also in physics [4], [5] and nuclear medicine [6]­[8]. Coded-Resolution Nuclear Medicine Planar Imaging With a Conventional Anger Camera: Experimental Results Roberto Accorsi- ular imaging, nuclear medicine imaging, small animal imaging. I. INTRODUCTION CODED apertures

  3. Radiation in medicine: Origins, risks and aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Donya, Mohamed; Radford, Mark; ElGuindy, Ahmed; Firmin, David; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation in medicine is now pervasive and routine. From their crude beginnings 100 years ago, diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy have all evolved into advanced techniques, and are regarded as essential tools across all branches and specialties of medicine. The inherent properties of ionizing radiation provide many benefits, but can also cause potential harm. Its use within medical practice thus involves an informed judgment regarding the risk/benefit ratio. This judgment requires not only medical knowledge, but also an understanding of radiation itself. This work provides a global perspective on radiation risks, exposure and mitigation strategies. PMID:25780797

  4. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  5. [Disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations. PMID:25842432

  6. Medicine organizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  7. INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE CANCER SURVIVORSHIP INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE Today more than ever, cancer survivors Survivorship Institute at Northwestern Medicine is exceptionally well-positioned to integrate the best medical

  8. Advancing MEDICINE Through TECHNOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Vajda, Sandor

    Advancing MEDICINE Through TECHNOLOGY Annual Report 2010 -2011 BME #12;2 ADVANCING MEDICINE THROUGH, please visit our website at: bu.edu/bme #12;ADVANCING MEDICINE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY BME 2010-2011 ANNUAL the past year, the Biomedical Engineering Department furthered its goal of advancing medicine through

  9. FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of Family medicine is the medical specialty which provides continuing the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity. (1986) (2003) Quality Healthcare In Family Medicine Quality

  10. Medicine and Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) #12;400 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Graduate Catalogue 2014­15 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Officers Vice President for Medical Affairs and the Raja N. Khuri Dean of the Faculty of Medicine Ziyad Ghazzal

  11. Medicine and Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Shihadeh, Alan

    Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) #12;370 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Graduate Catalogue 2013­14 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Officers Vice President for Medical Affairs and the Raja N. Khuri Dean of the Faculty of Medicine Ziyad Ghazzal

  12. Genome Medicine 2009, 11

    E-print Network

    Genome Medicine 2009, 11::88 Correspondence BBrriiddggiinngg tthhee ggaapp bbeettwweeeenn Care Medicine and CRISMA laboratory, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Scaife 602, 3550 Biotechnology Center, University of Torino, Via Nizza 52, I, 10126 Torino, Italy; 10Institutionen för Medicin

  13. Undergraduate Faculty of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    Undergraduate Medicine Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry #12;bristol.ac.uk/study A medical degree direction in medicine. At Bristol your medical education will start with a thorough scientific understanding, multicultural and forward-thinking; a fantastic environment in which to learn and practise medicine. The Medical

  14. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    SEM (Scanning electron Microscope) image of a vesicular ash particle erupted by Augustine volcano on January 13, 2006. The ash sample was collected during the ashfall in Homer, Alaska by John Paskievitch, AVO. The image was acquired by Pavel Izbekov using ISI-40 Scanning Electron Microscope at the A...

  15. Phase scan antenna array

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Stern; Richard W. Babbitt; Gerald Mikucki

    1986-01-01

    A phase scan antenna array for planar radar scanning in a single plane with a pencil-shaped beam is provided comprising a plurality of ferrite rod line source antennas. Each rod antenna has a plurality of beam-emitting slots spaced along one side thereof and is end fed in phase with the other antennas from a single hollow metallic waveguide by means

  16. Chest CT Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CT scan. On average, though, the amount of radiation will not exceed the amount a person is naturally exposed to over 3 years. The benefits of a CT scan should always be weighed against the possible risks. Rarely, people have allergic reactions to the contrast dye that's sometimes used during ...

  17. The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society A free, four-day short course on nuclear physics and public policy for anyone who wants to better understand nuclear power nuclear weapons P.M. Applications of Nuclear Physics on Earth: Nuclear power, weapons, and nuclear medicine. Topics

  18. A Standardized Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation Named Yejuhua Capsule Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Downregulating Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor-?B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Wen; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Li; Ning, Zhao-Xiao; Su, Zu-Qing; Li, Yu-Cui; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A standardized traditional Chinese medicine preparation named Yejuhua capsule (YJH) has been clinically used in treatments of various acute respiratory system diseases with high efficacy and low toxicity. In this study, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects and to elucidate underlying mechanisms of YJH against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Moreover, the chemical analysis and chromatographic fingerprint study were performed for quality evaluation and control of this drug. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5?mg/kg) into the lung in mice and dexamethasone (5?mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a positive control drug. Results demonstrated that pretreatments with YJH (85, 170, and 340?mg/kg, p.o.) effectively abated LPS-induced histopathologic changes, attenuated the vascular permeability enhancement and edema, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the ability of myeloperoxidase, declined proinflammatory cytokines productions, and downregulated activations of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This study demonstrated that YJH exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and supported that YJH was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI in clinic. And its mechanisms were at least partially associated with downregulations of TLR4/NF-?B pathways. PMID:25878714

  19. Mechanical properties of single cells - measurement possibilities using time-resolved scanning acoustic microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Lemor; Eike C. Weiss; Götz Pilarczyk; Pavel V. Zinin

    2004-01-01

    The interconnection between biochemical and mechanical processes inside cells, particularly cardiac cells, is of fundamental interest in biology and medicine. Scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) allows the study of elastic properties of biological cells. However, conventional SAM is too slow to trace fast variations of cardiac cell mechanical properties during contraction, and low frequency time-resolved SAM used in biology and medicine

  20. Diagnosis of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Abnormalities Using Spect: Agreement between Individualized Statistical Parametric Maps and Visual Inspection by Nuclear Medicine Physicians with Different Levels of Expertise in Nuclear Neurology

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Euclides Timóteo; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Nitrini, Ricardo; Tazima, Sergio; Peres, Stela Verzinhase; Filho, Geraldo Busatto

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Visual analysis is widely used to interpret regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT images in clinical practice despite its limitations. Automated methods are employed to investigate between-group rCBF differences in research studies but have rarely been explored in individual analyses. OBJECTIVES: To compare visual inspection by nuclear physicians with the automated statistical parametric mapping program using a SPECT dataset of patients with neurological disorders and normal control images. METHODS: Using statistical parametric mapping, 14 SPECT images from patients with various neurological disorders were compared individually with a databank of 32 normal images using a statistical threshold of p<0.05 (corrected for multiple comparisons at the level of individual voxels or clusters). Statistical parametric mapping results were compared with visual analyses by a nuclear physician highly experienced in neurology (A) as well as a nuclear physician with a general background of experience (B) who independently classified images as normal or altered, and determined the location of changes and the severity. RESULTS: Of the 32 images of the normal databank, 4 generated maps showing rCBF abnormalities (p<0.05, corrected). Among the 14 images from patients with neurological disorders, 13 showed rCBF alterations. Statistical parametric mapping and physician A completely agreed on 84.37% and 64.28% of cases from the normal databank and neurological disorders, respectively. The agreement between statistical parametric mapping and ratings of physician B were lower (71.18% and 35.71%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Statistical parametric mapping replicated the findings described by the more experienced nuclear physician. This finding suggests that automated methods for individually analyzing rCBF SPECT images may be a valuable resource to complement visual inspection in clinical practice. PMID:20037701

  1. [Of scanning and imaging: I remember].

    PubMed

    Lamielle, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Modern imaging and body scanning techniques appeared some 40 years. They have revolutionized the practice of diagnostic medicine. Some pioneers in this field are here to witness their earlier inventions being made obsolete by the rapid development of computer and electronic techniques. Since the first bronchial endoscopies performed in 1956, applications of imaging techniques have become commonplace. However, the virtual world has not yielded yet to the human capacity to perceive and integrate. This is a challenge to physicians who are more bound today to the dictates of engineering than to clinical practice. PMID:19579544

  2. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  3. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    A computed tomography (CT) scan of the knee is test that uses x-rays to make detailed images of the knee. ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. When you are inside the scanner, the ...

  4. CT scan (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

  5. Orbit CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... metformin (Glucophage) because you may need to take extra precautions. Before the scan, let your health care provider know if you have poor kidney function. This is because the contrast may not be able to be used.

  6. Risley prism scan patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Gerald F.

    1999-07-01

    The Risley optical scanning system consists of two sequential wedge prisms, which have wedge angles A1 and A2, that are capable of rotating about the optical scan axis at angular speeds (omega) 1 and (omega) 2. When a focused laser beam is directed along the optical scan axis and through the prisms, the emergent beam is deviated in a direction according to the relative orientation of the prisms with respect to each other. When the individual prisms are rotated clockwise or counterclockwise, the combined deviation angle and the orientation phase change with time, such that the image spot traces out a vector pattern. This paper presents an interesting set of generated scan patterns that include regular polygons by selecting particular values for the ratios of A2/A1 and (omega) 2/(omega) 1.

  7. Scanning thermal plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Scarpace; R. P. Madding; T. Green

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C\\/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots

  8. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-19

    Use a virtual scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to observe electron behavior in an atomic-scale world. Walk through the principles of this technology step-by-step. First learn how the STM works. Then try it yourself! Use a virtual STM to manipulate individual atoms by scanning for, picking up, and moving electrons. Finally, explore the advantages and disadvantages of the two modes of an STM: the constant-height mode and the constant-current mode.

  9. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  10. DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S board exam that allows them to prescribe and practice medicine. Within career in Internal medicine/Pediatrics working with an underserved population. She

  11. DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S board exam that allows them to prescribe and practice medicine. Within in internal medicine but upon coming to Stanford in 1991, began a long

  12. Genetic polymorphism of medicinally-used Codonopsis species in an internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA and its application to authenticate Codonopsis Radix.

    PubMed

    He, Jing Yu; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Goda, Yukihiro; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Codonopsis Radix has been prescribed as the roots of Codonopsis pilosula, C. pilosula var. modesta and C. tangshen in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In order to find out genetic markers for identifying the 3 taxa and to authenticate Codonopsis Radix, the molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence of nuclear ribosomal DNA was conducted on Codonopsis plants collected widely from Gansu Prov. and Chongqing city of China, the main producing areas of Codonopsis Radix. Significant genetic polymorphism was observed, represented by 11 types of ITS sequences in C. pilosula, 5 types in C. pilosula var. modesta and 5 types in C. tangshen. Among the determined sequences, 1, 1 and 2 types were thought to be of pure lines of each taxon, respectively, designated as types P0, PM0, T1 and T3, and the rest might be derived from hybridization. Hybrid lines were inferred to be resulting from the combination of these pure lines. The informative sites for discriminating the 3 taxa were detected at the nucleotide positions 122nd, 226th, 441st and 489th from upstream of the ITS sequence. For discrimination of the types of C. tangshen, including one type T0 registered in GenBank, the nucleotides at positions 135th, 489th and 500th were informative. Botanical sources of the crude drugs produced in a wide range of the southeast Gansu Prov. were C. pilosula, just those from Wenxian of Gansu Prov. were C. pilosula var. modesta. The crude drugs produced in Chongqing were derived from C. tangshen. PMID:23765107

  13. Medicine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the facts before you take any medicines during pregnancy. Many pregnant women take prescription medicines for health problems like diabetes, asthma, seizures, heartburn, and morning sickness. Other women take ...

  14. Medicines for Preterm Labor

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments are right for you. What kinds of medicines are used during preterm labor? There are three ... you to stay in bed all day. Do medicines used during preterm labor have side effects for ...

  15. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015: Fellows Course Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine April 2015 Thrombophilia More info for patients. SVM ... 1, 2014 Archive Submit a Case New! Vascular Medicine Videos Dr. Bruce Gray talks about his article, ...

  16. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Coolen, ACC "Ton"

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim & Sons, Ltd. Prepared using simauth.cls [Version: 2010/03/10 v3.00] #12;Statistics in Medicine J. E. BA

  17. Medicine and health studies

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Medicine and health studies Key facts · The excellent reputation of Sussex in research related to medicine has been enhanced by the opening of BSMS ten years ago. Working with partners such as the Genome

  18. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim/09/02 v2.00] #12;Statistics in Medicine L. Renfro et al. treatment effects on the surrogate and true

  19. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Stoiciu, Mihai

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim: 2010/03/10 v3.00] #12;Statistics in Medicine B. Klingenberg Under homogeneity of the risk difference

  20. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim & Sons, Ltd. Prepared using simauth.cls [Version: 2010/03/10 v3.00] #12;Statistics in Medicine Q. Chen et

  1. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  2. Giving Medicine to Children

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... be tough to get them to take their medicine. Watch this video for tips from an FDA ...

  3. Take Your Medicines Safely

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is approximately $75 billion spent annually on prescription medicine. All too often, however, we overlook the vital ... between prescription and over-the-counter remedies. Prescription medicine is prescribed by a doctor for a specific ...

  4. Safely Measuring Kids' Medicine

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... news/Safely_Measuring_033015.html Safely Measuring Kids' Medicine HealthDay News Video - March 30, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Safely Measuring Kids' Medicine For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  5. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  6. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the-counter or prescription drugs, herbs, and supplements. Always speak with your health ...

  7. THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN

    E-print Network

    Contractor, Anis

    THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE NORTHWESTERN INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE NORTHWESTERN INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE "At Northwestern Integrative Medicine we believe in healthcare that addresses

  8. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A Groneberg; Axel Fischer

    2006-01-01

    This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine

  9. Performing Narrative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  10. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2002 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories 5

  11. Undergraduate Faculty of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Bristol, University of

    Undergraduate Dentistry Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry #12;bristol.ac.uk/study Dental surgeons as one of the leading dental schools in the UK. The school is part of the Faculty of Medicine in departments under the theme of Advanced Care Dentistry. These include Oral Medicine, where you will learn

  12. Genomics & Medicine Doug Brutlag

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Genomics & Medicine Doug Brutlag Department of Biochemistry & BioMedical Informatics (by courtesyProtein PhenotypePhenotype (Symptoms)(Symptoms) DNADNA #12;Central Paradigm of Medicine DNADNA RNARNA Protein, Bioinformatics & Medicine BioinformaticsBioinformaticsGenomicsGenomics Identify Drug TargetsIdentify Drug Targets

  13. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://www.cabm.rutgers.edu 2009 Annual Administered By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by the University of Medicine and Dentistry;__________________________________________________________________________________ Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs

  14. Network medicine Tony Pawsona

    E-print Network

    Minireview Network medicine Tony Pawsona , Rune Lindingb,* a Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute strategies can be imple- mented. Transforming medicine into a network driven endeavour will require or through disease states. We term this ap- proach, network medicine. Ó 2008 Federation of European

  15. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Samson, Adeline

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim and Maternal-Fetal Medicine, GHU Necker - Enfants Malades, Universit´e Paris Descartes Correspondence to: MAP5: 2010/03/10 v3.00] #12;Statistics in Medicine J. J. Stirnemann, A. Samson, and J. C. Thalabard growth

  16. Morphogenesis & Regenerative Medicine

    E-print Network

    Brodie III, Edmund D.

    Morphogenesis Symposium & Regenerative Medicine May 27-29, 2009 Registration & Abstract submission will showcase some of the best research performed in morphogenesis and regenerative medicine. A wide range Francisco Haifan Lin Yale University Ruth Lehmann The Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine #12;

  17. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, passed away on May 1, 2011 at the age of 53 from complications of multiple Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

  18. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2005 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories 5

  19. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Coolen, ACC "Ton"

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, U.K. c Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala;Statistics in Medicine J. van Baardewijk et al. primary risk only primary & secondary risk SKM 1 0.0 0.2 0

  20. Medicine and health studies

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Medicine and health studies Key facts · The excellent reputation of Sussex in research related to medicine has been enhanced by the opening of BSMS. Working with partners such as the Genome Damage. · Medicine at BSMS was ranked in the top 20 in the UK in The Guardian University Guide 2013. · At present

  1. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2004 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories 5

  2. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2008 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey;__________________________________________________________________________________ Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs

  3. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2003 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories 5

  4. Comparative Medicine Copyright 2000

    E-print Network

    Comparative Medicine Copyright 2000 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Vol. Wallace, Jr.,2 and James E. Ferrell, Jr.3 From the Departments of 1 Comparative Medicine, and 3 Molecular at Stanford University's School of Medicine research animal facility. The affected frogs were purchased from

  5. Health Professions & Veterinary Medicine

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Health Professions & Veterinary Medicine For students interested in the human health professions or veterinary medicine, undergraduate study at Virginia Tech provides a solid academic background for graduate or professional school. Academic advisors are available to guide students planning to pursue careers in medicine

  6. Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine in the Line of Fire #12; UTHealthScienceCenter University of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing Sh ................................................................................................ DirectorofDevelopment VaCanT DirectorofplannedgivingVaCanT University of Tennessee Medicine Magazine

  7. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2007 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories 6

  8. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2002 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories

  9. Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine

    E-print Network

    C A B M Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine http://cabm.umdnj.edu 2006 Report By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine 2 CONTENTS Director's Overview 3 Research Programs and Laboratories 5

  10. Forschungsverbund community medicine

    E-print Network

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    15 Jahre Forschungsverbund community medicine 9. April 2010 Förderer · Bundesministerium für Störungen 12:10 Uhr Prof. Dr. U. John Präventionsforschung in der Community Medicine 12:35 Uhr Prof. Dr. W. Hoffmann / Dr. N. van den Berg Community Medicine: Forschung für den Patienten ,Bevölkerung` ­ Konzepte

  11. Pathology and Molecular Medicine

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic Pathology ROUNDS ARE SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Updated: October5, 2012 #12;

  12. INTRODUCTION TO GENOMIC MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    INTRODUCTION TO GENOMIC MEDICINE Genomics play a role in 21st century research and clinical practice and Washington University School of Medicine is at the forefront of this evolving field related to genomic medicine. Tentative Schedule: WHEN: WHERE: WHO CAN ATTEND? INTRODUCTION January 31

  13. Metropolitan Occupational Medicine

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    Metropolitan Occupational Medicine Conference October 18-19, 2014 New Brunswick, NJ Travel, lodging! The New York State Occupational and Environmental Medicine Association (NYOEMA) is joining with its sister medicine. To encourage medical students and residents to explore this field more thoroughly, NYOEMA

  14. Medicines By Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This publication discusses the many different ways medicines work in the body and how this information guides the hunt for drugs of the future. The science of pharmacology--understanding the basics of how our bodies react to medicines and how medicines affect our bodies--is already a vital part of 21st-century research. Pharmacology is a broad…

  15. International Emergency Medicine Fellowships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip D. Anderson

    International emergency medicine (IEM) fellowship training for United States medical graduates (USMGs) provides opportunities for gaining knowledge and skills valuable to physicians interested in pursuing careers in international health. USMG physicians working in IEM have tended to focus their activities on providing international humanitarian relief and developing emergency medicine (EM) training and care delivery systems. Observational Emergency Medicine fellowships for

  16. Behavioral sleep medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J Stepanski; Michael L Perlis

    2000-01-01

    As the knowledge base in sleep disorders medicine has broadened, a subspecialty that we will refer to as “behavioral sleep medicine” area is emerging. This article will define this subspecialty area, provide some historical context for its emergence, review issues related to specialty training and clinical practice, and suggest needs for future research.The term “behavioral sleep medicine” was selected because

  17. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with ... are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the first ...

  18. Three-Dimensional Body Scanning: A New Method to Estimate Body Surface Area in Neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Schloesser; M. Lauff; H. Buxmann; K. Veit; D. Fischer; A. Allendorf

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body surface area (BSA) is usually estimated by calculation with mathematical formulae. Three-dimensional body scanning (3D scan) offers a suitable alternative. Objectives: We determined the BSA in healthy term and near-term neonates by 3D scanning. This system should be useful in the setting of intensive care medicine. Methods: The measuring system consisted of a projector, two cameras, mirrors and

  19. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The overall sensitivity in the detection of interval changes, including both hot and cold lesions evaluated by use of the resubstitution and the leave-one-case-out methods, were 95.3%, with 5.97 false positives per view, and 83.2% with 6.02, respectively. The temporal subtraction image for successive whole-body bone scans has the potential to enhance the interval changes between two images, which also can be quantified. Furthermore, the CAD scheme for the detection of interval changes by use of temporal subtraction images would be useful in assisting radiologists' interpretation on successive bone scan images.

  20. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2006-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid (CA) and liver (all the extracts). The alterations promoted by TC extract could be related to cardiotonic, antidiabetes and renal toxicity. The alteration in liver in EA and CA extracts could be related to its hepatoprotective activities. The extracts (EA, MI, BG) were not capable to interfere in the survival of E. coli. Moreover, these extracts have protected the E. coli against the SnCl 2 action and this fact can be related to the free radical scavenging properties of the chemical compounds of the extracts. In conclusion these findings could be worthwhile to try to understand and to avoid some pitfalls in the nuclear medicine.

  1. The optical scanning technology in laser scanning and tracking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ying Li; Shi-Chun Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Laser scanning and tracking technology has been widely used in many applications. For a laser scanning and tracking system, a two-dimensional scanning mirror is usually combined with a plane array detector to detect and track the object. The scanning process and quality of acquired images from the detector are two key factors and they are both correlated with the choice

  2. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  3. Physics and engineering: milestones in medicine.

    PubMed

    Wells, P N

    2001-04-01

    The history of the development of the applications of physics and engineering in medicine provides an insight into contemporary practice and can help to mould the future. Physics and engineering form a continuum, and, in the present context, engineering is indistinguishable from applied physics. The modern scientific era, which extends over 500 years, is characterised by numerous significant developments: for example, the Nobel prizes which most closely relate to physics and engineering in medicine were for X-rays and radioactivity, the electrocardiogram, the scattering of radiation, the cyclotron, nuclear magnetic resonance, the transistor, radioimmunoassay and computed tomography; and a medical physicist has received the Peace Prize. The origins and development of nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance and ultrasonic imaging are representative of the whole field. Physics and engineering rank alongside other medical sciences and underpin many of their applications. In what is now the developed world, human life expectancy has increased dramatically, but the costs and risks of modern medicine have meanwhile become a huge problem. The growing divergence of rich and poor is now arguably the greatest challenge. The future cannot be predicted, but the potential of physics and engineering to improve medicine has never been greater. PMID:11410379

  4. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  5. DSQ Scanning Information: Westat

    Cancer.gov

    Westat, Inc. provides scanning and intelligent data capture for the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ). Services include providing printed questionnaires for data collection and processing completed questionnaires. Westat can provide a modified version of the DSQ for customized data collections. A verified data file along with images of the processed DSQ questionnaires are provided after processing.

  6. Scanning Electron Microscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Learning Network

    This site from the Museum of Science features an introduction to scanning electron microscopy and is suitable for high school or introductory college audiences. It includes resources for teachers, an image gallery, a self paced tour, links, and a QuickTime animation.

  7. Virtual Scanning Electron Microscopy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael W. Davidson

    This site from Florida State University features an interactive Java tutorial that explores various aspects of virtual scanning electron microscopy. Users can see how specimens appear when magnified in the virtual SEM. The site also features an image gallery and extensive information about different types of microscopy.

  8. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  9. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  10. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  11. Scanned beam medical imager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Lewis; Mark Holton; Martin Kykta; Amjad Malik; Frank Metting; Chris Ryerson; Chris Wiklof; Jianhua Xu

    2004-01-01

    We report on a conceptual design and feasibility demonstration for a scanned beam endoscope, with advantages over present CCD imaging technology in image resolution and quality, light source power, and package diameter. Theoretical calculations were made by optical modeling and finite element analysis of the performance projected for a design meeting size constraints. To verify the design target of 5

  12. Metrological scanning probe microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Dorozhovets; T. Hausotte; E. Manske; G. Jäger; N. Hofmann

    2006-01-01

    Today's technological progress calls for metrologically accurate object measurement, positioning and scanning with nanometre precision and over large measuring ranges. In order to meet that requirement a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM machine) was developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universitaet Ilmenau. This device is capable of highly exact long-range positioning and measurement

  13. [Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

    2010-10-01

    Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic. PMID:21287744

  14. Scanning Probe Alloying Nanolithography (SPAN)

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyungoo

    2010-07-14

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical System MLS Motorized Linear Stage MPU Microprocessor unit NEMS Nano-Electro-Mechanical System NSOM Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope PVDF Polyvinylidene difluoride SEM Scanning electron microscope SPAN Scanning.... AFM is a type of Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM). The SPM covers technologies to image and measure surfaces on a micro- or nano-scale. There are three most common types of SPM; Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM...

  15. The optical scanning technology in laser scanning and tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-ying; Zhou, Shi-chun

    2009-07-01

    Laser scanning and tracking technology has been widely used in many applications. For a laser scanning and tracking system, a two-dimensional scanning mirror is usually combined with a plane array detector to detect and track the object. The scanning process and quality of acquired images from the detector are two key factors and they are both correlated with the choice of scanning mode, which is a known hard problem and little has been done in the subject. Based on this deficiency, this paper analyzes and compares two common two-dimensional scan mode-continuous scan and step scan, from a theoretical point of view. As we known, the continuous scan can acquire data quickly and is easy to implement. But the acquired images may blur severely due to the fast continuous scan velocity. The step scan can produce highquality images, but it takes much longer time and is more difficult to control. Formulas are proposed in this paper to quantitatively measure the characteristics of each mode and evaluate the parameters that affect the scanning process. These results can be provided as a reference for the proper choice of scanning mode. Moreover, through analysis of imaging characteristics of the detector, an improved raster scan pattern is presented to reduce the number of dead zones and enhance the performance of the system.

  16. Abdominal MRI scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... used to look at: Blood flow in the abdomen Blood vessels in the abdomen The cause of ...

  17. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. PMID:24314047

  18. THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE OSHER CENTER FOR INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE OSHER CENTER FOR INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY "Atthe

  19. UW MEDICINE ANNUAL ADDRESS 2014 UW MEDICINE'S ROLE IN

    E-print Network

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    UW MEDICINE ANNUAL ADDRESS 2014 UW MEDICINE'S ROLE IN IMPROVING HEALTH: 2014 Paul G. Ramsey, M.D. CEO, UW Medicine Executive Vice President for Medical Affairs and Dean of the School of Medicine, University of Washington February 6, 2014 #12;UW MEDICINE ANNUAL ADDRESS 2014 Transformation · Common usage

  20. College of Medicine MD Medicine (M.D. Program)

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine MD Medicine (M.D. Program) KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course. Prereq: Permission of the Dean of the College of Medicine. MD 810 FOUNDATIONS OF DISEASE AND THERAPEUTICS INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE I. (10) Introduction to Clinical Medicine I is a year-long course for first

  1. College of Medicine, Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    College of Medicine, Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry Present 46th Annual Family Medicine Review Course and the 7th Family Medicine/Psychiatry CME Conference SPEAKING THE SAME LANGUAGE reservations if overnight accommodations are needed and ask for group "University of TN Family Medicine

  2. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Post-White; Elena Ladas

    \\u000a Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) encompasses practices and therapeutic modalities that fall outside of the mainstream\\u000a of conventional medicine. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine of the National Institutes of Health\\u000a (NCCAM, NIH)(2008) identifies four domains of CAM therapies, including mind–body, touch, energy, and biological therapies\\u000a (www.nccam.nih.gov). Children with cancer use therapies from all domains; most often used

  4. National Library of Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Catalog & Services History of Medicine Online Exhibitions & Digital Projects Information for Publishers Visit the Library Research at NLM Human Genome Resources Biomedical Research & Informatics Environmental Health & Toxicology Health ...

  5. Scanning thermal plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

    1975-01-01

    Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

  6. Scanning probe metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigg, David A.; Griffith, Joseph E.; Kochanski, G. P.; Vasile, Michael J.; Russell, Phillip E.

    1992-06-01

    The design of a scanning probe microscope suitable for metrology applications must include solutions to several problems. Actuator errors can be large because of their nonlinear behavior, but this can be solved by independently monitoring the actuator's motion. The probe must be shaped properly for a given measurement, and it must be characterized to allow interpretation of the measurement. We have studied the effects of interaction forces and probe shape with emphasis on surface roughness measurements.

  7. Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Lemmens

    \\u000a Since the early 2000s terrestrial laser scanning has evolved from a research and development (R&D) topic to a geo-data technology,\\u000a which is commercially offered by a multitude of land surveying companies and other service providers all over the world. The\\u000a technology is primarily used for the rapid acquisition of three-dimensional (3D) information of a variety of topographic and\\u000a industrial objects.

  8. EdgarScan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed at the PricewaterhouseCoopers Technology Centre, EdgarScan helps company researchers effectively sort through the mass of quarterly (10-Q) and annual filings (10-ks) housed at the SEC EDGAR Database (reviewed in the February 9, 1996 Scout Report). Filings and initial public offerings may be searched by company name or industry code, and search results are listed in an easy-to-read format with hypertext table and Excel spreadsheet output possibilities.

  9. Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website is from Boston Museum of Science and is an introduction to Scanning Electron Micrscope (SEM). It contains an image gallery of insects, plants and other items as seen with an SEM. A slide show and a movie explains how the microsope works. Teacher resources offer guidance on building your own microscope and setting up a lab, including wet mounts and staining cells. Information on how the Museum uses the scope, and additional electronic resources, completes the site.

  10. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Dow

    1992-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to image and modify the surfaces of III-V, II-VI and group IV semiconductors. A tip-simulator based on a photocode was developed. The simulator allows the development of ultra-sensitive electronics for controlling STM tip movement. Various forms of 'nano-machining', including chiselling, sanding, and sweeping of atoms on a surface, were developed. An STM design

  12. Radiopharmaceutical dosage selection for pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, R.M.; Hendee, W.R.

    1986-02-01

    To identify the most rational method for adjusting adult radiopharmaceutical dosages for children, four methods of dosage computation were examined from the perspectives of diagnostic adequacy and radiation absorbed dose. For static imaging, information density is the most important factor in study quality, and adjustment of dosage by body weight (Wt) for thick organs, and body surface area (BSA) for thin organs is recommended. Compared with adults, small children receive less radiation exposure if radiopharmaceutical dosages are adjusted by Wt, and slightly greater exposure if dosages are adjusted by BSA. For dynamic imaging studies, dosage requirements are governed by the spatial resolution needed for region of interest assignment, and the statistical reliability of the time-activity data. For dynamic renal imaging, renograms of similar quality are obtained if dosages are adjusted by height (Ht). Dynamic cardiac studies might appear to require dosages even larger than those adjusted by Ht which would result in higher radiation absorbed doses to pediatric patients. However, smaller dosages can be used in children by prolonging the imaging time and accepting lower temporal resolution. Dosage requirements for dynamic studies depend on which physiologic characteristics are measured from the time-activity data. Since the measurements of some characteristics demand higher count rates than others, dosage requirements ultimately depend on which measurements are clinically necessary. Close attention to the factors that determine these requirements may yield significant reduction in dosages, and thus in radiation exposure, for patients of all ages.

  13. [Nuclear Medicine in diagnosis of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Ioannis P; Giannoula, Evanthia

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide, creating a significant need for improved imaging modalities. The advantage of molecular imaging over other imaging methods, as confirmed by clinical experience, is the ability of providing functional information. This process is achieved by labeling a biomarker with an isotope of choice. Therefore imaging methods such as scintimammography (SM), (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT), positron emission mammography (PEM), lymphoscintigraphy, have proved to be extremely efficient compared to morphological imaging of anatomical lesions, as they allow the diagnosis, staging, assessment of therapeutic efficacy and patient monitoring to contribute as much as possible to improve the prognosis. The development of new radiopharmaceuticals in PET imaging, allowing the visualization and quantification of biomarkers, such as (18)F-fluoro-17-estradiol, which is bound by the estrogen receptors (ER), (18)F-fluoro-l-thymidine (FLT) which is a marker of cell proliferation, (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FISO) a marker of tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis markers such as (18)F-fluoroazomycinarabinoside, may give us additional information on the characteristics and progress of the disease and allow the conduct of targeted therapy. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) using monoclonal antibodies in order to recognize serum markers such as CA 15.3, CEA, cytokeratins TPA, TPS and Cyfra 21.1, are necessary in the diagnosis of a possible recurrence of the disease as well as the degree of response to treatment. Modern research focusing on the development of new specific functional breast imaging methods improves diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients with breast cancer. PMID:25397630

  14. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. PMID:25242173

  15. Nuclear medicine from Becquerel to the present.

    PubMed

    Graham, L S; Kereiakes, J G; Harris, C; Cohen, M B

    1989-11-01

    During a period of a little over ninety years, the use of radioactive materials has moved from the discovery of natural radioactivity by Becquerel to the use of highly sophisticated equipment for in-house production of biologically important molecules labeled with radionuclides, for the measurement of body functions. Radiation detectors have progressed from photographic plates and the gold leaf electroscope to the routine use of improved scintillation detectors for imaging the three-dimensional distribution of radioactive materials in the body as a function of space and time. It is expected that future improvements will be along the line of instruments with better spatial resolution, contrast, and sensitivity. Advances in hardware and software will be more than matched by developments in radiopharmaceuticals, including the use of monoclonal antibodies and receptor mapping agents which promise the exquisite specificity and sensitivity of radioimmunoassay procedures. PMID:2685940

  16. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging of inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    With the availability of indium-labeled white blood cells, radionuclide imaging studies have a definite role in the diagnosis and staging of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The In-/sup 111/ white blood cell study is particularly helpful in evaluating recurrent disease in patients with severe intercurrent diseases and in screening patients without the need for barium examinations.

  18. The computerized tomography scans and their dosimetric safety.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Ioannis; Karavida, Niovi; Kotzassarlidou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the volume of diagnostic procedures involving the use of ionizing radiation has rapidly increased. Technological advances in computed tomography (CT) equipment, with the availability of multi-slice acquisition and the introduction of hybrid systems, have made this modality extremely popular among other diagnostic procedures, especially in pediatrics and as a screening procedure for asymptomatic adults. Physicians' major radiation-related concern regarding diagnostic imaging, is possible iatrogenic malignancy. According to major national and international organizations responsible for evaluating radiation risks, there is no low-radiation threshold for inducing cancer. This means that no amount of radiation should be considered absolutely safe. Although, the risk of radiation-induced cancer is much smaller than the risk of cancer from natural sources, it can become a public health concern if large numbers of the population undergo increased numbers of CT screening procedures that may even be of uncertain benefit. In order to reduce the overall radiation dose from CT procedures in the population, it is important to keep radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable, by adjusting scanner parameters separately for each individual. In addition, it is crucial to eliminate the inappropriate referrals for CT tests and choose other diagnostic modalities, such as sonography, magnetic resonance imaging systems, or nuclear medicine procedures. While CT remains an important diagnostic procedure, it is important for health care community to reconsider the indications of a CT scan, especially in children and asymptomatic patients. Physicians who prescribe CT could assess its use on a case-by-case basis. When used prudently and optimally, CT remains a very valuable imaging modalitiy for both children and adults. PMID:18815660

  19. Scanning noise microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffert, J.; Cottin, M. C.; Sonntag, A.; Karacuban, H.; Utzat, D.; Bobisch, C. A.; Möller, R.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes a simple scheme enabling the real-time characterization of fluctuations, e.g., of the conductance in scanning tunneling microscopy. The technique can be used in parallel to other data acquisition, evaluating the rate, the amplitude, and the duty cycle of telegraphic noise in the tunneling current. This kind of scanning probe microscopy allows to evaluate the noise parameters as a function of the average tunneling current, the electron energy, and the lateral position. Images of the noise with Ångstrom spatial resolution are acquired simultaneously to the topographic information providing a direct correlation between the structural information and the noise. The method can be applied to a large variety of systems to monitor dynamics on the nanoscale, e.g., the localization of tunneling current induced switching within a single molecule. Noise spectroscopy may reveal the involved molecular orbitals, even if they cannot be resolved in standard scanning tunneling spectroscopy. As an example we present experimental data of the organic molecule copper phthalocyanine on a Cu(111) surface [J. Schaffert, M. C. Cottin, A. Sonntag, H. Karacuban, C. A. Bobisch, N. Lorente, J.-P. Gauyacq, and R. Möller, Nature Mater. 12, 223-227 (2013), 10.1038/nmat3527].

  20. Scanning holographic lidar telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

  1. Stanford University School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Bogyo, Matthew

    Stanford University School of Medicine SUMMA Conference 2010 REaching FORwaRd in MEdicinE #12 of Excellence in Diversity in Medical Education (COEDME), the Stanford University School of Medicine Office-xxvi Considering a Career in Medicine (for deletion/Dr. G) The Application Process The MCaT about the MCaT Practice

  2. High-scan-range cryogenic scanning probe microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Urazhdin; I. J. Maasilta; S. Chakraborty; I. Moraru; S. H. Tessmer

    2000-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a scanning probe microscope operable at temperatures down to 260 mK within a top-loading helium-3 cryostat. It achieves a large scan range with the sample situated near the bottom of the scanning head-maximizing the cooling efficiency of the liquid helium. The scan head is completely thermally compensated, thus eliminating thermal expansion and contraction on cooling

  3. Scanning Probe Microcopy (STM, AFM, SNOM)

    E-print Network

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    1 Chapter 5 Scanning Probe Microcopy (STM, AFM, SNOM) 2 Optical Microscope (OM) Electron Microscope - Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) - Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) - Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) - Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) - Scanning near

  4. Faculty of Medicine PhD Program in Experimental Medicine

    E-print Network

    Tübingen, Universität

    Faculty of Medicine PhD Program in Experimental Medicine Form 4 Suggestions Members of the Doctoral (Universitätsprofessor) at the Faculty of Medicine. As further doctoral committee members professors, junior professors

  5. Handheld Computing in Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Fischer; Thomas E Stewart; Sangeeta Mehta; Randy Wax; Stephen E Lapinsky

    2003-01-01

    Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use

  6. Safe Use of Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications Text Resize - A + A Search form Search Home Health and Aging A-Z Health Topics Index Alzheimer’s Information FAQs ... Staff Visitor Information Contact Us FAQs Stay Connected Home » Safe Use of Medicines ... Heath and Aging Safe Use of Medicines Introduction Read this booklet ...

  7. Intelligence in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Grasso, Floriana

    177_145 Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Generating recipient-centered explanations about drug 0933-3657(95)00029-I #12;124 B.D. Cur&s PI ul./Artijiciul lntellrpv~~ in Medicine 8 (19961 123%J4.i

  8. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK, and on other relevant issues. PMID:25193757

  9. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:26139674

  10. Alternative Medicine: A \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Anton J. M. de Craen

    2001-01-01

    A reflection on the scientific behavior of adherents of conventional medicine toward one form of alternative medicine—homeopa- thy—teaches us that physicians do reject seemingly solid evidence because it is not compatible with theory. Further reflection, how- ever, shows that physicians do the same within conventional medical science: Sometimes they discard a theory because of new facts, but at other times

  11. VETERINARY MEDICINE Strategic Plan

    E-print Network

    not currently reported in the United States, but with the potential to emerge here in the futureCOLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE Strategic Plan College of Veterinary Medicine The Ohio State our energy and efforts must be focused on creating a successful and very different future

  12. Medicines from Marine Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies-Coleman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

  13. Veterinary medicines: product update.

    PubMed

    2015-06-13

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:26067009

  14. VETERINARY MEDICINE & BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    VETERINARY MEDICINE & BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES http://vetmed.tamu.edu/graduate HigHligHts · In the FY competitive proposals to various funding agencies. · The Summer Veterinary Student Research Fellows (SVSRF Veterinary Medicine Foundation Endowment. · A Resident and Intern Seminar Series will be initiated, featuring

  15. Medicinal properties of legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to discuss the USDA, ARS medicinal legume germplasm taxonomy, molecular techniques, maintenance, evaluation, utilization, and conventional breeding for use by students and scientists working on medicinal legume genetic resources. The results of this study will provide a valu...

  16. Children's Knowledge about Medicines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almarsdottir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Examined knowledge about medicines and perceived benefit among 101 children, ages 7 and 10. Found that medicine knowledge was explained using age, educational environment, and degree of internal locus of control as significant predictors. The negative effect of internal locus of control predicted perceived benefit. Retention of drug advertising…

  17. Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine, & YOU Carrie Iwema, PhD, MLS 21st May 2012 AAAS/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human

  18. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease and Medicines (Brochure) Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines (Brochure) What You Need to Know Because you ... pharmacist and provider need to know about your medicine and supplement use Your kidneys do not filter ...

  19. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  20. Primary Health Faculty of Medicine,

    E-print Network

    Albrecht, David

    School of Primary Health Care Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences Central Clinical School Australian Centre for Blood Diseases Centre for Obesity Research and Education Medicine, Alfred Hospital Centre for Inflammatory Diseases School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine Australasian