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1

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear Medicine Imaging What you need to know about… A nuclear medicine procedure is sometimes described as ... nuclear medicine scan. Estudios de Imagen de Medicina Nuclear Lo que usted necesita saber acerca de... Un ...

2

Nuclear Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

3

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

4

Nuclear Scans (Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... Nuclear scans make pictures based on the body’s chemistry rather than on physical shapes and forms (as ... risk of being toxic or causing an allergic reaction. Some people may have pain or swelling at ...

5

What Is Nuclear Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... Normal Enzyme Level Smoker Reduced Enzyme Level 5 Nuclear medicine can detect the radiation coming from inside a patient’s body. All of ... from outside the body using machines that send radiation through the body. As a result, nuclear medicine determines the cause of a medical problem ...

6

Society of Nuclear Medicine  

Cancer.gov

June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

7

Whistleblowers and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Healthcare facilities that practice nuclear medicine are subject to federal "whistleblower" protection laws when an employee reports a potentially unsafe radiological condition. This article addresses enforcement of the applicable sections of the Atomic Energy Act and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations in order to help such facilities avoid running afoul of those laws, which can result in fines, generate civil lawsuits by the claimant, and significantly disrupt the operation of a healthcare facility. PMID:10538012

Rysavy, C F; Donald, J W

1999-01-01

8

Handbooks in radiology: Nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This series of handbooks covers the basic facts, major concepts and highlights in seven radiological subspecialties. ''Nuclear Medicine'' is a review of the principles, procedures and clinical applications that every radiology resident and practicing general radiologist should know about nuclear medicine. Presented in an outline format it covers all of the organ systems that are imaged by nuclear medicine.

Datz

1988-01-01

9

Pulmonary applications of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine techniques have a long history in pulmonary medicine, one that has been continually changing and growing. Even longstanding methods, such as perfusion scanning for embolic disease or for pretherapy pulmonary function evaluation, have largely withstood the test of recent careful scrutiny. Not only have these techniques remained an important part of the diagnostic armamentarium, but we have learned how to use them more effectively. Furthermore, because of technical advances, we are in a phase of expanding roles for nuclear imaging. Gallium citrate scanning for the mediastinal staging and follow-up of lymphoma has been recognized as a valuable adjunct to the anatomic information provided by CT and MRI. With the growth of PET technology in areas that have been explored in a limited fashion until now, such as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and lung carcinoma, evaluation and management of these patients may substantially improve. Finally, in the field of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, attention is now being turned to both the diagnostic and the therapeutic problems presented by lung carcinoma. As radiolabeling methods are refined and as new and better antibodies are developed, radioimmunodetection and therapy in lung carcinoma may begin to make inroads on this common and hard to control disease.157 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Divgi, C.R. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

1991-03-01

10

Nuclear Heart Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... to make your heart work hard and beat fast. If you can't exercise, you might be given medicine to increase your heart rate. This is called a pharmacological (FAR-ma-ko-LOJ-ih-kal) stress test. The second set of pictures is taken later, while your ...

11

Nuclear medicine hepatobiliary imaging.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine hepatobilary imaging (HIDA) is a time proven imaging methodology that uses radioactive drugs and specialized cameras to make imaging diagnoses based on physiology. HIDA radiopharmaceuticals are extracted by hepatocytes in the liver and cleared through the biliary system similar to bilirubin. The most common indication for HIDA imaging is acute cholecystitis, diagnosed by nonfilling of the gallbladder due to cystic duct obstruction. HIDA can detect high grade biliary obstruction prior to ductal dilatation; images reveal a persistent hepatogram without biliary clearance due to the high backpressure. HIDA also aids in the diagnosis of partial biliary obstruction due to stones, biliary stricture, and sphincter of Oddi obstruction. It can confirm biliary leakage postcholecystectomy and hepatic transplantation. Calculation of a gallbladder ejection fraction after cholecystokinin infusion is commonly used to diagnose chronic acalculous gallbladder disease. Diseased gallbladders do not contract. There are many other less common but valuable diagnostic indications for HIDA imaging. PMID:19879969

Ziessman, Harvey A

2010-02-01

12

Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

Atkins, H.L.

1984-01-01

13

Nuclear medicine and the nuclear power plant  

SciTech Connect

There were over 9,000,000 diagnostic and therapeutic administrations of radiopharmaceuticals in the United States in 1981. In Pennsylvania alone, there were approximately 650,000 diagnostic and 77,000 therapeutic administrations in 1981. With a state population of 12,000,000, this means that 1 in every 16 persons underwent some type of nuclear medicine treatment in a single year's time. These figures show that the chances of a nuclear power plant worker undergoing nuclear medicine treatment are far from remote. In fact, the chance are increasing each year as the use of nuclear diagnostic and therapeutic techniques continues to rise. Nuclear medicine patients present special problems to power plant health physicists. Some of these are discussed in this paper.

Buring, M.R. (Pennsylvania Power and Light Co., Susquehanna Steam Electric Station, Berwick, PA (US)); Brill, D.R. (Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (US))

1985-04-01

14

Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

NONE

2001-04-01

15

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

16

Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

2014-01-01

17

Graduates of 2004 Heidi Ambrose ---Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

Michael Congrove --- Marine Biology Justin Crocker --- Biology Karen Culbertson --- Nuclear Medicine Medicine Dustin Earnhardt --- Chemistry and Biochemistry Rebecca Echipare --- Biology Assen Gueorguiev Laroia --- Biology Monica Lea --- Communication Rebecca Long --- Exercise Science Erin Mehalic

18

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

19

Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic

Ursula Werneke; V. Ralph McCready

2004-01-01

20

Heart PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

21

The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Dear Author,  

E-print Network

The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Dear Author, This letter describes how to proof your manuscript slated for an upcoming issue of the Journal of Nuclear Medicine. This PDF is the only set of proofs you.) on the last page; 3) proofread any tables and equations carefully; 4) check that any Greek, especially µ (mu

Piana, Michele

22

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a wide range of disciplines, including cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, oncology, and hematology.

Schmidt, H.A.E.; Csernay, L

1988-01-01

23

Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.  

PubMed

Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment. PMID:19914977

Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

2009-12-01

24

Scanning Behavior in the Medicinal Leech Hirudo verbana  

PubMed Central

While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called ‘head movement’ and another called ‘body waving’. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call ‘scanning’. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior. PMID:24465907

Harley, Cynthia M.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

25

A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

26

Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging  

SciTech Connect

Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

1982-01-01

27

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2014-04-01

28

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2013-04-01

29

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2010-04-01

30

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2012-04-01

31

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2011-04-01

32

Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

33

Nuclear medicine techniques in breast imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress has been made in anatomic imaging with mammography, ultrasound, and MRI, but the noninvasive differentiation of malignant from benign breast masses is an unmet goal. Most breast biopsies still are performed in patients with benign disease. Improved nuclear medicine imaging devices, better radiopharmaceutical agents, and new methods of guiding biopsies and surgery are being developed, signaling a growing role

Richard L Wahl

1996-01-01

34

healthcare.utah.edu/radiology What is Nuclear Medicine?  

E-print Network

healthcare.utah.edu/radiology Radiology What is Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear Medicine is a specialized area of radiology often used to help diagnose and treat abnormalities early in the progression depending on the specific procedure and preparations. Nuclear Medicine #12;healthcare.utah.edu/radiology

Feschotte, Cedric

35

Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

1989-01-01

36

A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

Blower, Philip J

2014-11-18

37

Nuclear Medicine Imaging in the Pediatric Patient  

PubMed Central

Pediatric nuclear medicine provides a wealth of information on a variety of disease states; however, precautions on dosing have to be taken into consideration. Also, expertise in conducting procedures and interpreting the results in pediatric patients is necessary. Emphasis is placed on diagnostic studies involving the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, genitourinary system, gastrointestinal system, endocrine system, pulmonary system, and cardiovascular system along with a brief explanation of the mechanism of localization of the radiopharmaceuticals involved. Radiation safety issues are addressed when the expectant mother or nursing mother is administered radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:23115536

Loveless, Vivian

2006-01-01

38

Employment in nuclear medicine during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear medicine technologist can work throughout a pregnancy with high confidence that her occupational radiation exposure will not add any significant risk to her changes of having a normal pregnancy and child. All that is required is for the employer to provide an ALARA work place and for the technologist to observe carefully all radiation safety guidelines and to maintain her occupational exposure ALARA. Current guidance is that the total uterine dose during gestation be less than 0.5 rem (5 mSv). The vast majority of nuclear medicine technologists can achieve this dose level easily, with no modifications of duties or work practices. Technologists working with generators and radiopharmaceutical kits may wish to temporarily transfer to other duties within the clinic, not necessarily to reduce routine exposures but to minimize the changes of an accident having high-dose or high-contamination potential. All of the available human data show that there is small additional risk to the fetus or neonate due to occupational radiation exposure compared to naturally occurring risks so long as the dose is within recommended guidelines.

Benedetto, A.R.

1986-12-01

39

Eigenimage filtering of nuclear medicine image sequences  

SciTech Connect

In many nuclear medicine imaging sequences the localization of radioactivity in organs other than the target organ interferes with imaging of the desired anatomical structure or physiological process. A filtering technique has been developed which suppresses the interfering process while enhancing the desired process. This technique requires the identification of temporal sequential signatures for both the interfering and desired processes. These signatures are placed in the form of signature vectors. Signature matrices, M/sub D/ and M/sub U/, are formed by taking the outer product expansion of the temporal signature vectors for the desired and interfering processes respectively. By using the transformation from the simultaneous diagonalization of these two signature matrices a weighting vector is obtained. The technique is shown to maximize the projection of the desired process while minimizing the interfering process based upon an extension of Rayleigh's Principle. The technique is demonstrated for first pass renal and cardiac flow studies. This filter offers a potential for simplifying and extending the accuracy of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.

Windham, J.P.; Froelich, J.W.; Abd-Allah, M.

1985-05-01

40

Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Hindi (??????) Bone Scan ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

41

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

2014-10-01

42

Stereoscopic full aperture imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images of planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) used in nuclear medicine are often low quality. They usually appear to be blurred and noisy. This problem is due to the low spatial resolution and poor sensitivity of the acquisition technique with the gamma camera (GC). Other techniques, such as coded aperture imaging (CAI) reach higher spatial resolutions than GC. However, CAI is not frequently used for imaging in nuclear medicine, due to the decoding complexity of some images and the difficulty in controlling the noise magnitude. Summing up, the images obtained through GC are low quality and it is still difficult to implement CAI technique. A novel technique, full aperture Imaging (FAI), also uses gamma ray-encoding to obtain images, but the coding system and the method of images reconstruction are simpler than those used in CAI. In addition, FAI also reaches higher spatial resolution than GC. In this work, the principles of FAI technique and the method of images reconstruction are explained in detail. The FAI technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with filiform and spherical sources. Spatial resolution tests of GC versus FAI were performed using two different source-detector distances. First, simulations were made without interposing any material between the sources and the detector. Then, other more realistic simulations were made. In these, the sources were placed in the centre of a rectangular prismatic region, filled with water. A rigorous comparison was made between GC and FAI images of the linear filiform sources, by means of two methods: mean fluence profile graphs and correlation tests. Finally, three-dimensional capacity of FAI was tested with two spherical sources. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (>100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times) than that of GC with LEHR collimator, in both cases, with and without attenuating material and long and short-distance configurations. The FAI decoding algorithm reconstructs simultaneously four different projections which are located in separate image fields on the detector plane, while GC produces only one projection per acquisition. Simulations have allowed comparison of both techniques under ideal identical conditions. Our results show it is possible to apply an extremely simple encoded imaging technique, and get three-dimensional radioactivity information for simplistic geometry sources. The results are promising enough to evaluate the possibility of future research with more complex sources typical of nuclear medicine imaging.

Strocovsky, Sergio G.; Otero, Dino

2011-06-01

43

Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

1982-07-01

44

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

45

Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

1984-06-01

46

Nuclear medicine in clinical neurology: an update  

SciTech Connect

Isotope scanning using technetium 99m pertechnetate has fallen into disuse since the advent of x-ray computerized tomography. Regional brain blood flow studies have been pursued on a research basis. Increased regional blood flow during focal seizure activity has been demonstrated and is of use in localizing such foci. Cisternography as a predictive tool in normal pressure hydrocephalus is falling into disuse. Positron tomographic scanning is a potent research tool that can demonstrate both regional glycolysis and blood flow. Unfortunately, it is extremely expensive and complex to apply in a clinical setting. With support from the National Institutes of Health, seven extramural centers have been funded to develop positron tomographic capabilities, and they will greatly advance our knowledge of stroke pathophysiology, seizure disorders, brain tumors, and various degenerative diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is a potentially valuable tool since it creates tomographic images representing the distribution of brain water. No tissue ionization is produced, and images comparable to second-generation computerized tomographic scans are already being produced in humans.

Oldendorf, W.H.

1981-01-01

47

Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.  

PubMed

The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

2014-06-01

48

Personalized peer-comparison feedback and its effect on emergency medicine resident ultrasound scan numbers  

PubMed Central

Background Clinician-performed ultrasound has become a widely utilized tool in emergency medicine and is a mandatory component of the residency curricula. We aimed to assess the effect of personalized peer-comparison feedback on the number of ultrasound scans performed by emergency medicine residents. Findings A personalized peer-comparison feedback was performed by sending 44 emergency medicine residents a document including personally identified scan numbers and class averages. The number of ultrasound scans per clinical shift for a 3-month period before and after the feedback intervention was calculated. The average number of ultrasound exams per shift improved from 0.39 scans/shift before to 0.61 scans/shift after feedback (p?=?0.04). Among the second year residents, the scans/shift ratio improved from 0.35 to 0.87 (p?=?0.07); for third year residents, from 0.51 to 0.58 (p?=?0.46); and from 0.33 to 0.41 (p?=?0.21) for the fourth year residents before and after the intervention, respectively. Conclusions A personalized peer-comparison feedback provided to emergency medicine residents resulted in increased ultrasound scan numbers per clinical shift. Incorporating this method of feedback may help encourage residents to scan more frequently. PMID:24422791

2014-01-01

49

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2010-10-01

50

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2011-10-01

51

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2014-10-01

52

Career prospects for graduating nuclear medicine residents: survey of nuclear medicine program directors.  

PubMed

There has been much consternation in the nuclear medicine (NM) community in recent years regarding the difficulty many NM graduates experience in securing initial employment. A survey designed to determine the extent and root causes behind the paucity of career opportunities was sent to all 2010-2011 NM residency program directors. The results of that survey and its implications for NM trainees and the profession are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:23763875

Harolds, Jay A; Guiberteau, Milton J; Metter, Darlene F; Oates, M Elizabeth

2013-08-01

53

NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

Not Available

1990-02-02

54

NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

Not Available

1990-02-02

55

Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension  

PubMed Central

Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5%) but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing's syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of role of nuclear medicine imaging in endocrine hypertension. Development of newer radiotracers might further broaden the role of nuclear medicine in these patients. PMID:23087853

Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

56

Labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals applied in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book includes material on radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine with a section on in vitro assays. Contents are divided into four parts: radioisotopes, labelled compounds and radiopharmaceuticals; radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnostic purposes; in vitro methods of analysis with labelled compounds and applications of radioimmunoassay to medicine.

Balaban, A.; Galateanu, I.; Geogescu, G.; Simionescu, L.

1986-01-01

57

Scanning of Vehicles for Nuclear Materials  

E-print Network

Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

Katz, J I

2014-01-01

58

Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

Katz, J. I.

2014-05-01

59

Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

Katz, J. I. [Dept. Physics and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

2014-05-09

60

A Low-Cost Nuclear Medicine Acquisition Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant obstacle to the use of local area networks in Nuclear Medicine has been the high cost of computer systems capable of digitizing the analog outputs of conventional gamma cameras. A PC-based Nuclear Image Acquisition Station has been designed using readily available components that permits acquisition, display and transfer of nuclear images. Processing functions, including camera uniformity corrections, image rotation and edge enhancement and other operators Elre available locally. With appropriate file format manipulation, images may alternatively be transferred to a conventional Nuclear Medicine computer for processing and archival storage. Hardware and software costs required to implement these functions on an existing micro are less than $4000.

Goble, John C.

1986-06-01

61

What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... imagegently.org What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine uses ... provide patients, parents and caregivers with information about nuclear medicine and radiation exposure. We hope this pamphlet answers your questions. ...

62

Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

Entine, G.

1985-05-07

63

Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

64

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

65

The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

McGlone, B; Balan, K

2001-01-01

66

Further progress for a fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with Large Angle Scanning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASSO (Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA) is a scanning system designed in the framework of the OPERA experiment as a result of several R&Ds aimed to improve the performance of the European Scanning System (ESS) by increasing the scanning speed, the angular acceptance and the efficiency in microtrack reconstruction. The novel Continuous Motion (CM) scanning approach allows to double the ESS nominal speed without any changes in the hardware set-up. The LASSO modular design makes the system easily adaptable to new hardware. The novel microtrack reconstruction algorithm has been developed to be efficient in both standard Stop&Go (SG) and CM modes, performing a number of corrections during the processing like corrections for vibrations, optical distortions, field of view curvature. As an intermediate step it reconstructs silver grains positions inside emulsion layer to make a transition from 2D images to real 3D traces of a charged particle. This allows the algorithm to have no internal limits on the slope of microtracks being equally efficient on all angles. The LASSO has been used for about one year for mass production scanning of emulsion films of OPERA, Muon Radiography and also of films employed to study nuclear fragmentation of ion beams used in medical physics. More than 50000 cm2 of the emulsion surface have been analyzed during this period.

Alexandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

2014-02-01

67

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

1988-01-01

68

Position paper on the development of a middle level provider in nuclear medicine: the nuclear medicine practitioner.  

PubMed

The development of an educational program and credentialing structure to support and recognize an advanced level of the practice of nuclear medicine technology is now underway. This work parallels the efforts in many, if not most, health care disciplines as they seek to achieve the twin goals of developing enhanced career paths and providing the best possible patient care in an environment where science and technology can run roughshod over concepts taught in the classroom a mere decade ago. Education is key to both goals. A master's level degree in nuclear medicine technology, coupled with an advanced practice credential recognizing both the educational achievement and a level of clinical expertise, will give nuclear medicine practitioners the knowledge and the right to practice their profession at a high level of autonomy, leading to more efficient and higher quality health care services. To that end the following position paper was prepared by members of the Advance Practice Task Force of the SNMTS and presented to the SNMTS Executive Council and the SNM Board of Directors. In June 2005, the executive council and the board of directors approved a resolution supporting the establishment of a middle level provider in nuclear medicine known as the nuclear medicine practitioner. PMID:17146114

Pickett, Martha W; Keech, Frances K; Owen, Mary Anne Mimi; Stachowiak, Anne; Fulk, Lynnette A; Murphy, Kathleen H; Christian, Paul E; Hunter, Kathy; Hubble, William L; Gordon, Leonie L; Dillehay, Gary L; Henkin, Robert E

2006-12-01

69

Simultaneous acquisition of physiological data and nuclear medicine images.  

PubMed

A technique has been developed that allows the simultaneous acquisition of both image and physiological data into a standard nuclear medicine computer system. The physiological data can be displayed along with the nuclear medicine images allowing temporal correlation between the two. This technique has been used to acquire images of gastroesophageal reflux simultaneously with the intraluminal esophageal pH. The resulting data are displayed either as a standard dynamic sequence with the physiological data appearing in a corner of the image or as condensed dynamic images. PMID:3183752

Rosenthal, M S; Klein, H A; Orenstein, S R

1988-11-01

70

Simultaneous acquisition of physiological data and nuclear medicine images  

SciTech Connect

A technique has been developed that allows the simultaneous acquisition of both image and physiological data into a standard nuclear medicine computer system. The physiological data can be displayed along with the nuclear medicine images allowing temporal correlation between the two. This technique has been used to acquire images of gastroesophageal reflux simultaneously with the intraluminal esophageal pH. The resulting data are displayed either as a standard dynamic sequence with the physiological data appearing in a corner of the image or as condensed dynamic images.

Rosenthal, M.S.; Klein, H.A.; Orenstein, S.R.

1988-11-01

71

Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.  

PubMed

Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

Grammaticos, Philip C

2004-01-01

72

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...be licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation...

2011-10-01

73

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...be licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation...

2010-10-01

74

Nuclear medicine in urology and nephrology  

SciTech Connect

This edition on radionuclide techniques in urology and nephrology reflects the many advances since 1979. Emphasis has been given to diuretic renography and studies of urinary reflux. A new chapter discusses the diagnosis of lower urinary tract problems. The editors have divided the book into three sections. The first part presents a description of the techniques and their interpretation. Renography, renal scanning, clearance studies, and bone scanning are covered. The second section gives an in-depth discussion of the application of these techniques to obstructive uropathy, urologic tumors, renal transplantation, trauma, and lower urinary tract, pediatric, and nephrologic problems. The last part of the book deals with basic principles. It expands on the relevant theoretical and technical aspects not covered in detail in part 1. In this last portion of the book the editors have grouped together the chapters on physics, instrumentation, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiation dosimetry.

O'Reilly, P.H.; Shields, R.A.; Testa, H.J.

1986-01-01

75

Introduction to holospectral imaging in nuclear medicine for scatter subtraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to image analysis and processing, called holospectral imaging, is proposed for dealing with Compton scattering contamination in nuclear medicine imaging. The method requires that energy information be available for all detected photons. A set of frames (typically 16) representing the spatial distribution at different energies is then formed. The relationship between these energy frames is analyzed, and the

D. Gagnon; A. Todd-Pokropek; A. Arsenaualt; G. Dupras

1989-01-01

76

Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

2014-01-01

77

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMRT] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 have earned an AAS degree in Radiologic Technology (30-31 semester credits of Radiologic Technology

Sheridan, Scott

78

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMFR] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 RIS 44000 Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences 2 C Semester Eight: [15 Credit Hours] RIS

Sheridan, Scott

79

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMRT] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 have earned an AAS degree in Radiologic Technology (31-32 semester credits of Radiologic Technology

Sheridan, Scott

80

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMFR] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 to enroll in RIS courses RIS 44000 Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences 2 C Semester Eight: [14

Sheridan, Scott

81

Replenishment prioritization of highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine  

E-print Network

Serving customers in a nuclear medicine supply chain requires frequent and responsive replenishments. Nuclear medicine is a special category of perishable goods that is subject to rapid, but predictable radioactive decay. ...

Yea, Young-bai Michael

2007-01-01

82

High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

Majewski, Stan

2006-04-01

83

Discharges of nuclear medicine radioisotopes in Spanish hospitals.  

PubMed

Given the increasing use of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine, the aim of this paper is to determine radioactivity levels in the effluents of hospitals with Nuclear Medicine Departments. The radiological study of hospital discharges was carried out by gamma spectrometry, and liquid scintillation spectrometry to determine (14)C and (3)H contents. On March 9th and April 19th, 2010, daily radioactivity levels were monitored from 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. Each sample was collected at a specific control point of two major public hospitals in Granada (Spain). The analytical results show the presence of radionuclides such as (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, and (111)In.They are frequently used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. This study shows the differences between direct and after-storage discharges and also justifies the need of storage tanks in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. Moreover, monitoring of (99m)Tc released at hospital control points can be a useful tool for optimizing the safety conditions of storage tanks and discharge of radionuclides. PMID:23103581

Krawczyk, E; Piñero-García, F; Ferro-García, M A

2013-02-01

84

Three years' experience with an all-digital nuclear medicine department.  

PubMed

We describe our all-digital, filmless, department of nuclear medicine, which has been fully operational for 3 years. The approach to the design and implementation of a nuclear medicine picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is discussed, as well as enhancements found to be necessary or desirable during our 3 years of experience using the system. Studies are initially viewed on remote monitors in the reading room, and transferred from multiple vendor's computers to the PACS by floppy disc network. Scans are analyzed on networked image workstations using a variety of software imaging tools. Reports are dictated into a digital voice storage system, allowing the referring physician immediate telephone access. The dictated report is typed into a computer, electronically edited, reviewed, billed, and printed for appropriate distribution on an integrated medical information system. The final report is stored on the PACS, along with the scan image and other patient information on 1-gigabyte removable optical discs. Two networked optical disc drives allow us to have approximately 3 years of our department's studies available instantly, allowing recall of previous studies for comparison with the current scan. Emergency night and weekend studies are sent via modern over normal phone lines to the on-call physician, who has a similar image workstation at home. Digital image storage allows for easy manipulation of the data, such as gray scale manipulation and cine (movie) display. Cost analysis shows significant savings compared with a film-based department. We conclude that an all-digital nuclear medicine department is practical, cost effective, and beneficial to both patients and staff. PMID:2367870

Cohen, A M; Parker, J A; Donohoe, K; Jansons, D; Kolodny, G M

1990-07-01

85

Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

86

Automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions with wide-angle acceptance for nuclear fragment detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsion, a tracking detector with sub-micron position resolution, has played a successful role in the field of particle physics and the analysis speed has been substantially improved by the development of automated scanning systems. This paper describes a newly developed automated scanning system and its application to the analysis of nuclear fragments emitted almost isotropically in nuclear evaporation. This system is able to recognize tracks of nuclear fragments up to |tan ?| < 3.0 (where ? is the track angle with respect to the perpendicular to the emulsion film), while existing systems have an angular acceptance limited to |tan ?| < 0.6. The automatic scanning for such a large angle track in nuclear emulsion is the first trial. Furthermore the track recognition algorithm is performed by a powerful Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for the first time. This GPU has a sufficient computing power to process large area scanning data with a wide angular acceptance and enough flexibility to allow the tuning of the recognition algorithm. This new system will in particular be applied in the framework of the OPERA experiment: the background in the sample of ? decay candidates due to hadronic interactions will be reduced by a better detection of the emitted nuclear fragments.

Fukuda, T.; Fukunaga, S.; Ishida, H.; Kodama, K.; Matsuo, T.; Mikado, S.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Sudo, J.

2013-01-01

87

Source book of educational materials for nuclear medicine. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Source Book has been divided into 22 sections. Each section corresponds to subject areas included in a compilation of curricula for nuclear medicine technology. Each section is subdivided into subsections entitled 'Publications' and in some chapters, 'Audiovisuals', and 'Training Aids'. Entries include title, author, producer, or publisher, data, ordering number if available, price, and when possible, a brief description. Publishers', producers' and manufacturers' addresses are found in Section 22 - Parts, A, B, and C. Section 22 - Part D lists periodicals of special interest to individuals involved in nuclear medicine. This list of resource materials is not exhaustive but in the opinion of the compilers is a representative sample of the material available in the field.

Pijar, M.L.; Lewis, J.T.

1981-08-01

88

[Hodgkin's lymphoma in nuclear medicine: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects].  

PubMed

Today, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with positron emission tomography and radioimmunotherapy include state-of-the-art nuclear medicine which require the cooperation between oncology and nuclear medicine. The benefit of FDG-PET in HL patients with residual tumor masses consists of its high negative predictive value in the therapy control of the disease. The concept of waitful watching in patients with PET-negative residual masses after BEACOPP-chemotherapy will be evaluated in a large multicenter trial of the GHSG (German Hodgkin Study Group). Radioimmunotherapy has been performed in patients with CD20-positive Non-Hodgkin lymphoma for 10 years with promising results. HL is also an excellent target for immunotherapy due to the expression of antigens such as CD25 and CD30. Thus, a new radioimmunoconstruct consisting of the murine anti-CD30 antibody Ki-4 labeled with iodine-131 was developed for patients with relapsed or refractory HL. PMID:12601450

Staak, J O; Dietlein, M; Engert, A; Weihrauch, M R; Schomäcker, K; Fischer, Th; Eschner, W; Borchmann, P; Diehl, V; Schicha, H; Schnell, R

2003-02-01

89

Nuclear Emulsion Scanning in Opera:. Methods and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of the OPERA experiment was also motivated and justified by the revival of nuclear emulsion handling and scanning in a modem, automatic fashion, as it took previously place, although at a smaller scale, for the CHORUS experiment. Nuclear emulsions are still the only detector to allow a very detailed topological study of an interaction/decay vertex at the sub-micrometer level. They are most suitable in experiments where topology is a non-ambiguous signature of a certain class of events. This is for instance the case of neutrino oscillation detection and measurement by the study of a tau-appearance signal. The design and performance of the two different scanning systems used in OPERA (ESS and S-UTS) are discussed. Their unique features in terms of speed, precision, background suppression, particle identification, and kinematical reconstruction are shown in close connection with the technical details that make them possible. Unequalled precision, almost vanishing background, and a wealth of information about each single event are the results presented.

Bozza, Cristiano

2008-06-01

90

American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

NONE

1991-12-31

91

Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2005-05-04

92

Understanding appropriate use criteria in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

There has been a significant increase in cardiac radionuclide imaging over the past decade, leading to a corresponding increase in scrutiny from Federal and private health plans questioning the necessity of these tests. In response to efforts by third-party payers to limit all types of cardiovascular imaging studies, the American College of Cardiology Foundation, in conjunction with other professional societies, developed appropriate use criteria. The goal of this article is to explain how the criteria were created and define the 3 categories of indications: appropriate, inappropriate, and uncertain. Tips for using appropriate use criteria and tables, including a definition of several key terms technologists should be familiar with, will be provided. In addition, reimbursement, benchmark data, and practical considerations for implementation will be discussed. Finally, several tools to aid in calculating appropriateness are suggested. With a basic understanding, the appropriate use criteria are relatively easy to apply. It is important for facilities to begin to voluntarily incorporate them into their practice and document levels of appropriateness now as payers are developing 2 trends that are not favorable for nuclear cardiology: preauthorization and denial of payment for inappropriate studies. PMID:22553087

Farrell, Mary Beth; Cerqueira, Manuel D

2012-06-01

93

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

94

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

95

Value of the nuclear medical scan in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disease  

SciTech Connect

A total of 125 patients with temporomandibular joint complaints underwent nuclear medical scans of their joints as part of their diagnostic work-ups. The scan results were compared with the radiographic and arthrogram findings of these patients. The results suggest that the nuclear medical scan is not a highly reliable diagnostic aid for the majority of temporomandibular joint patients.

Craemer, T.D.; Ficara, A.J.

1984-10-01

96

The role of commercial nuclear pharmacy in the future practice of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

It has been estimated that today 70% to 80% of all radiopharmaceutical doses are dispensed through commercial nuclear pharmacy channels. These services are provided by the approximately 250 facilities in the United States, with some multisite corporations dispensing in excess of 20,000 unit-dose prescriptions per day. As pressures mount within health care institutions to reduce manpower, increase cost-effectiveness, increase participation in managed care contracts, and to seek outside vendors for many services that were previously provided in-house, the future role of the commercial nuclear pharmacy in the practice of nuclear medicine will only continue to increase. The essence of nuclear pharmacy practice is the dispensing of a full range of high quality radiopharmaceuticals in patient-specific unit doses. These doses must be delivered in a timely and cost effective manner, without compromising quality or patient safety. Commercial nuclear pharmacies have expanded to provide such varied functions as radiation safety and waste management, as well as consultative and marketing activities directed towards clinicians within a nuclear medicine practitioners own facility. In-service continuing education programs directed towards physicians and technologists are frequently offered by many commercial nuclear pharmacies. Changes in health care economics, merging and down-sizing in the hospital industry, and the overall impact of managed care on the viability of hospitals in general has resulted in slow growth, or even a small decline in the number of institutionally based nuclear pharmacists. As a result, nuclear medicine practitioners will be looking to the commercial nuclear pharmacies to meet a larger portion of their radiopharmaceutical needs, as well as to value added services, such as education and research and development. Specialized practice settings, such as nuclear cardiology and free-standing nuclear medicine clinics, are especially well suited to the services provided by commercial nuclear pharmacies. Involvement in the distribution of positron-emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals will continue to increase regardless of the results of current regulatory debates on this issue. In the future, nuclear medicine practitioners will look to the commercial nuclear pharmacies for an increasing portion of their radiopharmaceutical needs and the industry should be ready and able to meet these demands in a safe, timely, and cost efficient manner. PMID:8723502

Callahan, R J

1996-04-01

97

An integrated system for large scale scanning of nuclear emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Scanning System, developed to analyse nuclear emulsions at high speed, has been completed with the development of a high level software infrastructure to automate and support large-scale emulsion scanning. In one year, an average installation is capable of performing data-taking and online analysis on a total surface ranging from few m2 to tens of m2, acquiring many billions of tracks, corresponding to several TB. This paper focuses on the procedures that have been implemented and on their impact on physics measurements. The system proved robust, reliable, fault-tolerant and user-friendly, and seldom needs assistance. A dedicated relational Data Base system is the backbone of the whole infrastructure, storing data themselves and not only catalogues of data files, as in common practice, being a unique case in high-energy physics DAQ systems. The logical organisation of the system is described and a summary is given of the physics measurement that are readily available by automated processing.

Bozza, Cristiano; D'Ambrosio, Nicola; De Lellis, Giovanni; De Serio, Marilisa; Di Capua, Francesco; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Di Ferdinando, Donato; Di Marco, Natalia; Esposito, Luigi Salvatore; Fini, Rosa Anna; Giacomelli, Giorgio; Grella, Giuseppe; Ieva, Michela; Kose, Umut; Longhin, Andrea; Mauri, Nicoletta; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Monacelli, Piero; Muciaccia, Maria Teresa; Pastore, Alessandra; Patrizii, Laura; Pozzato, Michele; Pupilli, Fabio; Rescigno, Regina; Romano, Giorgio; Rosa, Giovanni; Ruggieri, Alessandro; Russo, Andrea; Simone, Saverio; Sirignano, Chiara; Sirri, Gabriele; Stellacci, Simona Maria; Tenti, Matteo; Tioukov, Valeri; Togo, Vincent; Valieri, Claudia

2013-03-01

98

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging  

PubMed Central

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

99

Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation  

PubMed Central

The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

2013-01-01

100

Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation.  

PubMed

The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

2013-10-01

101

Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting  

PubMed Central

The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography?computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography?CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated. PMID:18697524

Williams, Lawrence E.

2008-01-01

102

Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

Mark Smith

2007-01-11

103

Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine  

E-print Network

The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

104

Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update  

PubMed Central

Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE.

Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

2015-01-01

105

Collaborating for a "Perfect" Scan of Nuclear Matter ON THE COVER  

E-print Network

FALL 2008 Collaborating for a "Perfect" Scan of Nuclear Matter #12;ON THE COVER With just and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded.com ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF #12;2 Collaborating for a "Perfect" Scan of nuclear Matter 6 basic research

106

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

Kotz, D.

1995-08-01

107

Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 ?Sv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 ?Sv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled therapeutic 131I (2.5 mSv). In conclusion, the maximum expected annual dose to extremities is less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y).

Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

108

Extended roles of radiographers working in nuclear medicine: A survey of current practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of years it has been recognised that nuclear medicine radiographers have been developing their professional responsibilities in areas in which they have had no formal preparation. To investigate the scope of practice, a survey was undertaken using a convenience sample of 50 nuclear medicine departments in England and Wales.The results confirmed that a number of ‘extended’ roles

Peter Hogg; Patricia Williams; Susan Norton

1997-01-01

109

A modular scintillation camera for use in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

A ''modular'' scintillation camera is discussed as an alternative to using Anger cameras for gamma-ray imaging in nuclear medicine. Each module is an independent gamma camera and consists of a scintillation crystal, light pipe and mask plane, PMT's, and processing electronics. Groups of modules efficiently image radionuclide distributions by effectively utilizing crystal area. Performance of each module is maximized by using Monte-Carlo computer simulations to determine the optical design of the camera, optimizing the signal processing of the PMT signals using maximum-likelihood (ML) estimators, and incorporating digital lookup tables. Each event is completely processed in 2 ..mu..sec, and FWHM of the PSF over the crystal area is expected to be 3 mm. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional prototypes are tested for spatial and energy resolution

Milster, T.D.; Arendt, J.; Barrett, H.H.; Easton, R.L.; Rossi, G.R.; Selberg, L.A.; Simpson, R.G.

1984-02-01

110

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

1996-12-10

111

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Packer, Samuel (Great Neck, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY)

1996-12-10

112

Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

2014-02-01

113

Physics of Nuclear Medicine Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201  

E-print Network

Physics of Nuclear Medicine Yao Wang Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L are from the textbook. #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture Outline of decay · Radiotracers #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 3 What is Nuclear

Suel, Torsten

114

[Investigation of radiation safety management of nuclear medicine facilities in Japan; contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system. A Working Group of Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine for the Guidelines of Nuclear Medicine Therapy].  

PubMed

Radiation safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities were investigated by the questionnaire method. The first questionnaire was asked in all Japanese 1,401 Nuclear Medicine facilities. Answers from 624 institutes (44.5%) were received and analyzed. The radiation-safety management in nuclear medicine institutes was considered to be very well performed everyday. Opinion for the present legal control of nuclear medicine institutes was that the regulation in Japan was too strict for the clinical use of radionuclides. The current regulation is based on the assumption that 1% of all radioactivity used in nuclear medicine institutes contaminates into the draining-water system. The second questionnaire detailing the contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system was sent to 128 institutes, and 64 answers were received. Of them, 42 institutes were considered to be enough to evaluate the contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system. There was no difference between 624 institutes answered to the first questionnaire and 42 institutes, where the radioactivity in the draining-water system was measured, in the distribution of the institute size, draining-water system equipment and the radioactivity measuring method, and these 42 institutes seemed to be representative of Japanese nuclear medicine institutes. Contamination rate of radioactivity into the draining system was calculated by the value of radioactivity in the collecting tank divided by the amount of radionuclides used daily in each institute. The institutes were divided into two categories on the basis of nuclear medicine practice pattern; type A: in-vivo use only and type B: both in-vivo and in-vitro use. The contamination rate in 27 type A institutes did not exceed 0.01%, whereas in 15 type B institutes the contamination rate distributed widely from undetectable to above 1%. These results indicated that the present regulation for the draining-water system, which assumed that 1% of all radioactivity used in nuclear medicine institutes contaminated into draining-water system, should be reconsidered in nuclear medicine facilities where radionuclides are used only in in-vivo studies. PMID:10659587

Endo, K; Koizumi, M; Kinoshita, F; Nakazawa, K

1999-12-01

115

* DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease. It is a multi-  

E-print Network

to be examined for certification by the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board and/or American Registry and will be eligible for examination by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists and/or the Nuclear Medicine of Colleges and Schools. The UMDNJ-SHRP Nuclear Medicine Program is currently granted accreditation by Joint

Cheng, Mei-Fang

116

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

117

Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ? 3mm.

Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

2014-03-01

118

[Differential diagnostics of Parkinson's disease with nuclear medicine procedures].  

PubMed

Early differential diagnosis of parkinsonism is of paramount therapeutic and prognostic importance. In the present review, the diagnostic value of routinely used nuclear medicine procedures is presented and critically discussed. The [(123)I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the method of choice for differentiation between neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative parkinsonism. The [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([(18)F]FDG-PET) method provides a very high diagnostic accuracy for differentiating between Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical Parkinsonian syndromes (APS), which is clearly superior to the accuracy of [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT, [(123)I]IBZM SPECT and [(123)I]MIBG scintigraphy. Furthermore, [(18)F]FDG-PET is the only of the aforementioned techniques that also allows a reliable differentiation between APS subgroups (e.g., multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration). Current studies are investigating the probable value of [(18)F]FDG-PET for risk stratification of dementia in PD. PMID:24821290

Meyer, P T; Amtage, F; Hellwig, S

2014-06-01

119

Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

2011-09-01

120

New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.  

PubMed

In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

2013-12-01

121

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects  

PubMed Central

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-01-01

122

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-01-01

123

Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.  

PubMed

Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

2014-10-01

124

Simulation and Optimization Models for Scheduling Multi-step Sequential Procedures in Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

with little research attention. In this work we present simulation and optimization models for improving patient and resource scheduling in health care specialty clinics such as nuclear medicine departments. We rst derive a discrete event system speci cation...

Perez Roman, Eduardo

2011-08-08

125

4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

126

Monte Carlo simulation of the dose to nuclear medicine staff wearing protective garments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature contains both endorsements of, and advice against, the use of protective apparel in nuclear medicine procedures.\\u000a The main issues usually centre around: Whether the shielding which can be provided by a protective garment light enough to\\u000a wear (0 to 0.6 mm lead equivalent at the gamma energies commonly encountered in nuclear medicine) is enough to warrant its\\u000a use;

L. S. Fog; P. Collins

2008-01-01

127

Role of nuclear medicine in pulmonary neoplastic processes  

SciTech Connect

It has been demonstrated that the single most important factor in determining survival in patients with bronchogenic carcinoma is the extent of spread of metastasis from the primary lesion. This explains the extensive efforts in developing accurate staging tests for pulmonary tumors, both primary and metastatic, with special emphasis on the determination of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal spread of disease. Continued improvements in nuclear medicine instrumentation along with the development of tumor specific radiopharmaceuticals, as well as agents that have the capability of tracking tumor viability, have changed the orientation of scintigraphic techniques in the evaluation of pulmonary neoplastic processes. Gallium scintigraphy is no longer considered as a primary imaging modality in the staging of pulmonary tumors, and in most institutions has been replaced by computed tomography (CT) for this purpose. It has been demonstrated that gallium, relative to other imaging modalities, is a sensitive indicator of hilar spread of tumor. However, because of the normally high background activity within the sternum and spine, mediastinal abnormalities are poorly detected. Since most pulmonary tumors metastasize via regional nodes to the pulmonary hilum and then to the mediastinum, the high sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar abnormalities and the high specificity for mediastinal lesion detection suggest that gallium scintigraphy is a valuable adjunctive test when used appropriately. Thallium 201 as a tumor agent is being studied by several institutions. Preliminary results indicate a high degree of sensitivity for the detection of pulmonary hilar and mediastinal lesions and there are early indications that thallium is a promising agent to evaluate tumor viability. 52 references.

Waxman, A.D.

1986-10-01

128

Dosimetry of transmission measurements in nuclear medicine: a study using anthropomorphic phantoms and thermoluminescent dosimeters.  

PubMed

Quantification in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomographic (SPET) relies on attenuation correction which is generally obtained with an additional transmission measurement. Therefore, the evaluation of the radiation doses received by patients needs to include the contribution of transmission procedures in SPET (SPET-TM) and PET (PET-TM). In this work we have measured these doses for both PET-TM and SPET-TM. PET-TM was performed on an ECAT EXACT HR+ (CTI/Siemens) equipped with three rod sources of germanium-68 (380 MBq total) and extended septa. SPET-TM was performed on a DST (SMV) equipped with two collimated line sources of gadolinium-153 (4 GBq total). Two anthropomorphic phantoms representing a human head and a human torso, were used to estimate the doses absorbed in typical cardiac and brain transmission studies. Measurements were made with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs, consisting of lithium fluoride) having characteristics suitable for dosimetry investigations in nuclear medicine. Sets of TLDs were placed inside small plastic bags and then attached to different organs of the phantoms (at least two TLDs were assigned to a given organ). Before and after irradiation the TLDs were placed in a 2.5-cm-thick lead container to prevent exposure from occasional sources. Ambient radiation was monitored and taken into account in calculations. Transmission scans were performed for more than 12 h in each case to decrease statistical noise fluctuations. The doses absorbed by each organ were calculated by averaging the values obtained for each corresponding TLD. These values were used to evaluate the effective dose (ED) following guidelines described in ICRP report number 60. The estimated ED values for cardiac acquisitions were 7.7 x 10(-4) +/- 0.4 x 10(-4) mSv/MBq.h and 1.9 x 10(-6) +/- 0.4 x 10(-6) mSv/MBq.h for PET-TM and SPET-TM, respectively. For brain scans, the values of ED were calculated as 2.7 x 10(-4) +/- 0.2 x 10(-4) mSv/MBq.h for PET-TM and 5.2 x 10(-7) +/- 2.3 x 10(-7) mSv/MBq.h for SPET-TM. In our institution, PET-TM is usually performed for 15 min prior to emission. SPET-TM is performed simultaneously with emission and usually lasts 30 and 15 min for brain and cardiac acquisitions respectively. Under these conditions ED values, estimated for typical source activities at delivery time (22,000 MBq in SPET and 555 MBq for PET), were 1.1 x 10(-1) +/- 0.1 x 10(-1) mSv and 1.1 x 10(-2) +/- 0.2 x 10(-2) mSv for cardiac PET-TM and SPET-TM respectively. For brain acquisitions, the ED values obtained under the same conditions were 3.7 x 10(-2) +/- 0.3 x 10(-2) mSv and 5.8 x 10(-3) +/- 2.6 x 10(-3) mSv for PET-TM and SPET-TM respectively. These measurements show that the dose received by a patient during a transmission scan adds little to the typical dose received in a routine nuclear medicine procedure. Radiation dose, therefore, does not represent a limit to the generalised use of transmission measurements in clinical SPET or PET. PMID:9818285

Almeida, P; Bendriem, B; de Dreuille, O; Peltier, A; Perrot, C; Brulon, V

1998-10-01

129

Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

2014-11-01

130

A novel approach for fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with continuous motion of the microscope stage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear emulsions have been used in particle physics experiments for many decades because of their unique spatial resolution. The use of nuclear emulsions as precise tracking detectors in large experiments has recently been made possible due to advances in the production of emulsion films and to the development of very fast automatic scanning devices. The present scanning speed of the European Scanning System (ESS), which has been developed within the OPERA Collaboration, is about 20 cm2/h. In addition to the scanning of OPERA films, the ESS is used for other applications with ever-growing demands for scanning speed, such as the muon radiography of volcanoes. In order to further increase the scanning speed of the ESS, we are testing a novel approach different from the standard stop-and-go motion of the microscope stage in the horizontal plane. Indeed we perform data acquisition with the stage moving at constant speed, using an objective lens with wide field of view. Unlike the implementation realized in Japan where the movement of objective lens and stage are synchronized to pile up images of the same view in a vertical stack, in this approach only the stage is moving horizontally. Thus images at different depths are not fully overlapped and special care is needed in the reconstruction. This approach can give a substantial increase in the scanning speed, especially for thin emulsion layers and wide field of view. In this paper we demonstrate that, after applying special corrections, the emulsion data quality can be as good as with the standard stop-and-go approach. This technique allows to double the scanning speed of the ESS, bringing it to 40 cm2/h without any hardware modification.

Aleksandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.

2013-08-01

131

The Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe and its Applications in Biology and Environmental Science  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear microscopy is one of the most powerful tools which are able to determine quantitative trace element distributions in complex samples on a microscopic scale. The advantage of nuclear microprobes are that different ion beam analytical techniques, like PIXE, RBS, STIM and NRA can be applied at the same time allowing the determination of the sample structure, major, minor and trace element distribution simultaneously.In this paper a nuclear microprobe setup developed for the microanalysis of thin complex samples of organic matrix at the Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility is presented. The application of nuclear microscopy in life sciences is shown through an example, the study of penetration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of bodycare cosmetics in skin layers.

Kertesz, Zsofia [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

2007-11-26

132

The Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe and its Applications in Biology and Environmental Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear microscopy is one of the most powerful tools which are able to determine quantitative trace element distributions in complex samples on a microscopic scale. The advantage of nuclear microprobes are that different ion beam analytical techniques, like PIXE, RBS, STIM and NRA can be applied at the same time allowing the determination of the sample structure, major, minor and trace element distribution simultaneously. In this paper a nuclear microprobe setup developed for the microanalysis of thin complex samples of organic matrix at the Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility is presented. The application of nuclear microscopy in life sciences is shown through an example, the study of penetration of TiO2 nanoparticles of bodycare cosmetics in skin layers.

Kertész, Zsófia

2007-11-01

133

[Current problems of data processing in clinical nuclear medicine. Symposium of Rhine-Westphalian Society for Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, Dezember 7, 1974].  

PubMed

Practical aspects of the use of computer systems in Nuclear Medicine were discussed in a symposium sponsored by the "Rheinisch-Westfälische Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin" which was held at Bonn in December '74. In the opening session the president of the Society, Prof. Winkler (Bonn), gave a brief survey upon the development of data processing procedures for radionuclide diagnostics. He pointed out that at present computer application is not only of essential significance for camera scintigraphy but also for most of the other test methods as well as for the solution of organizing problems when running departments of Nuclear Medicine. For the performance of all these tasks and also for scientific purposes a special process control computer system has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn. A detailed description of this system was given by R. Knopp (Bonn). He emphasized in his paper that the rather bulky Bonn System, which consists of a dual computer (Siemens 305/306) and an extensive operating system, can not be regarded as a standard device for routine use in hospitals. However, on the basis of experiences which have been gathered on hand of the research system in Bonn efforts are in full activity for developing a compact Nuclear Medicine Computer system (CNMCS) suitable for the application within departments of any size. The CNMCS (which will be commercially available in the near future) is based on a 64 K, 16 bit central unit with a highly flexible operating system which permits a simultaneous multi user application of the computer. For CNMCS a comprehensive user software package will be at the clinician's disposal which can be easily handled. PMID:1101220

Biersack, H J

1975-06-30

134

Biological dose assessment after low-dose overexposures in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the application of dicentric chromosome assay biodosimetry in cases of low-dose overexposures to professionals working in nuclear medicine and discusses how to present the results and associated uncertainties, to make possible a better understanding of biodosimetric reports. Five examples are presented of low or possibly zero exposure dose that are illustrative of typical problems that arise in occupational settings, in this instance in nuclear medicine departments. This is a scenario of minor concern in terms of health consequences but it is relevant in legal terms. They pose dilemmas for investigators but biological dosimetry can make a valuable contribution to resolving the cases. PMID:24225496

Pinto, Marcela; Amaral, Ademir

2014-12-01

135

Diversity of foliar endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Sapindus saponaria L. and their localization by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Endophytic fungi inhabit vegetable tissues or organs, without causing them any harm. Endophytes can co-evolve with plant hosts and possess species-specific interactions. They can protect the plant from insect attacks and diseases, and are also able to produce substances of biotechnological interest. In folk medicine, the bark, roots and fruits of Sapindus saponaria is used to produce substances with anxiolytic, astringent, diuretic and expectorant properties, as well as tonics, blood depuratives and cough medicine. This study evaluated the diversity of endophytic fungi present in the leaves of S. saponaria L. and observed the colonization of host plants by endophytes, using light and scanning electron microscopy. We verified that these fungi are found in intercellular and intracellular spaces. The genera of some isolates of S. saponaria were identified mainly by sequencing of ITS region of rDNA and, when possible, also by their microscopic features, as follows: Cochliobolus, Alternaria, Curvularia, Phomopsis, Diaporthe and Phoma. Phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of genetic variability of the genera Phomopsis and Diaporthe and interspecific variation among the Curvularia, Alternaria and Phoma, belonging to family Pleosporaceae. PMID:23096358

García, Adriana; Rhoden, Sandro A; Rubin Filho, Celso J; Nakamura, Celso V; Pamphile, João A

2012-01-01

136

Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities  

PubMed Central

The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the U.S., currently lags behind x-ray based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This paper discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying monitoring and reporting strategies used in x-ray based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M.; Einstein, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

137

Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields  

PubMed Central

Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

2014-01-01

138

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

139

Liposomes: A Novel Option in Nuclear Medicine for Diagnostic Imaging and Internal Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we review some of the more relevant characteristics that are required for the use of liposomes as carriers of radionuclides in nuclear medicine for diagnostic imaging and internal therapy. We also present a general description of the dosimetric methodology required for the use of liposomes as carriers of charge-particle-emitting radionuclides for radiotherapeutic purposes.

Medina, Luis A.; Goins, Beth

2002-08-01

140

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the

Wahner

1985-01-01

141

Estimated collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine examinations in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background A national survey of patient exposure from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures was performed by Slovenian Radiation Protection Administration in order to estimate their contribution to the collective effective dose to the population of Slovenia. Methods A set of 36 examinations with the highest contributions to the collective effective dose was identified. Data about frequencies and average administered activities of radioisotopes used for those examinations were collected from all nuclear medicine departments in Slovenia. A collective effective dose to the population and an effective dose per capita were estimated from the collected data using dose conversion factors. Results The total collective effective dose to the population from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in 2011 was estimated to 102 manSv, giving an effective dose per capita of 0.05 mSv. Conclusions The comparison of results of this study with studies performed in other countries indicates that the nuclear medicine providers in Slovenia are well aware of the importance of patient protection measures and of optimisation of procedures. PMID:24133396

Skrk, Damijan; Zontar, Dejan

2013-01-01

142

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMHO] Regional College Catalog Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

143

Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region.  

PubMed

The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, (201)Tl and (57)Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm. PMID:23948309

de Farias Fragoso, Maria da Conceição; de Albuquerque, Antônio Morais; de Oliveira, Mércia L; de Lima, Fabiana Farias; Barreto, Flávio Chiappetta Paes; de Andrade Lima, Ricardo

2013-12-01

144

Evaluation of bi-level image converting methods for nuclear medicine image database stored in the IS&C magneto-optical disk.  

PubMed

1. INTRODUCTION. We have developed a report and imaging management system for nuclear medicine. The report and image data are stored in the IS&C magneto-optical disk (IS&C MOD). Nuclear medicine image data are relatively small, but they are large enough to create problems when being transported over a low-speed Hospital Information System (HIS) network. Moreover, gray scale image output devices (i.e., high-resolution displays, sonoprinters) are expensive. If high quality bi-level (black and white) images were available, images could be transferred through low-speed network with inexpensive bi-level terminals or conventional page-printers. We examined images using several bi-level image conversion techniques [1, 2] in order to determine how useful the bi-level images are and to assess their suitability for use in nuclear medicine. The images were compared with original film images by ROC analysis. The modified minimized average error method was found to be superior to other methods in bone and gallium images. Its A-values are 0.83 in gallium scan and 0.85 in bone scan. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Our system consists of three digital gamma cameras, a nuclear medicine data processing unit, two UNIX stations, and two personal computers. The computers and the data processing unit are connected via Ethernet and each computer has an IS&C MOD unit. Image and report data are stored in the IS&C MOD. The computers are also connected off-line through the IS&C MOD. To evaluate image quality, bone scan images and gallium scan images (1024x512, 2048x1024 pixels and 16 bits depth) were converted to bi-level images (same pixels and one bit depth) using four methods: dither method, minimized average error method (MAE)[1], modified regional adaptation method, and constrained average method. For the dither methods, three sets of dither matrix (Fatting's, Bayer's and our original matrix) were employed. The computer images were compared with original film images by ROC analysis. 3. RESULTS. The converted bi-level images were 1/16 the size of the originals. They were transferred via Ethernet, displayed on the monochrome display, and printed using a conventional page-printer (240 dpi or 300 dpi). The A-values of the original gallium and bone images on the films were 0.89 and 0.94. Modified MAE method gave better results than other methods tested, with the gallium image using this technique reading 0.83 on the A-scale; and the bone images were 0.85. 4. DISCUSSION. Generally, nuclear medicine images require lower spatial and gray level resolution than other computer imaging techniques. We compared four bi-level image conversion methods in order to know which methods are suitable to nuclear medicine images. The ROC analysis was employed to evaluate these image qualities. The MAE methods made particular texture pattern as artifacts in the intermediate gray level area. But it can express homogeneity the neutral level. The dither method images are coarse texture. It affects detectabilities of subtle abnormal findings. 5. CONCLUSIONS. The A-z values of the modified MAE images were comparable to those of original film images. Although bone images give slightly lower values, many abnormal findings can be ascertained on bi-level images. High quality bi-level image techniques are considered to be useful for nuclear medicine image database systems. PMID:8591224

Tsukamoto, N; Ando, Y; Kunieda, E; Kawaguchi, O; Shigematsu, N; Kubo, A; Arai, Y

1995-01-01

145

Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner  

SciTech Connect

In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

Yalow, R.S.

1995-12-01

146

Three new renal simulators for use in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal scintigraphy is useful to provide both functional and anatomic information of renal flow of cortical functions and evaluation of pathological collecting system. The objective of this study was develop and evaluate the performance of three renal phantoms: Two anthropomorphic static and another dynamic. The static images of the anthropomorphic phantoms were used for comparison with static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA in different concentrations. These static phantoms were manufactured in two ways: one was made of acrylic using as mold a human kidney preserved in formaldehyde and the second was built with ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) in a 3D printer. The dynamic renal phantom was constructed of acrylic to simulate renal dynamics in scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA. These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. Using these phantoms it is possible to acquire similar renal images as in the clinical scintigraphy. Therefore, these new renal phantoms can be very effective for use in the quality control of renal scintigraphy, and image processing systems.

Dullius, Marcos; Fonseca, Mateus; Botelho, Marcelo; Cunha, Clêdison; Souza, Divanízia

2014-03-01

147

Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy. PMID:25002876

Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

2014-01-01

148

Nuclear medicine in urological cancers: what is new?  

PubMed

The diffusion of PET/computed tomography has opened up a new role for nuclear imaging in urological oncology. Prostate cancer is evaluated with choline ((11)C or (18)F) PET due to a lack of sensitivity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). However, many new tracers, such as (18)F-fluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid and (68)Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen, are under investigation, offering promising results in the particular setting of radically treated patients with biochemical relapse. The performance of (18)F-FDG depends on the histological type; indeed, renal cell cancer may present variable metabolic uptake. In this field, mainly antibodies labeled with positron emitters are under clinical evaluation. Finally, (18)F-FDG PET/computed tomography has been proven to show good accuracy in detecting metastatic testicular and bladder cancers, despite not having valid results in detecting local disease. The urological cancer diagnostic process is currently under continuous development. PMID:25396777

Nanni, Cristina; Zanoni, Lucia; Fanti, Stefano

2014-10-01

149

Physical dosimetry and mathematical dose calculation in nuclear medicine: A comparative study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This paper addresses a comparison between physical dosimetry and mathematical dose calculation in nuclear medicine. Materials and Methods: Dose rate was calculated by mathematical external dose calculation formula and by physical dosimetry from the surface of 38 adult patients’ body referred to nuclear medicine department. Results of the methods were compared and correlation and regression tests were also performed. Results: Although the physical dosimetry data in this study are in good consistency with other researches, they are much lower than the results of mathematical dose calculation formula. The correlation coefficient between measured dose rate with calculated values derived by mathematical formula was found to be 0.852 (P value=0.148). Conclusion: It seems that physical dosimetry data are more accurate than the results of mathematical dose calculation. In case of using mathematical dose calculation formula, other correction factors should be considered and applied for getting reliable data. PMID:20844662

Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Amiri, Mehrangiz

2010-01-01

150

Accurate modeling of nuclear-medicine collimators in Monte Carlo simulation of high-energy photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of nuclear medicine imaging is more difficult for procedures employing 131I than for those using 99mTc because of the higher probability of collimator penetration for the higher-energy 131I gamma. Additionally, an accurate model of the imaging camera must also simulate the scattering and penetration of photons emitted above the 364 keV photo peak (637 keV (6.5%) and 723 keV (1.7%)). Most MC codes used in nuclear medicine either employ severe approximations of the collimator interactions or have not been extended to higher energies. The MC program SKEPTIC, which has previously been used to simulate slit aperture penetration of 511 keV gammas, has been modified to permit modeling of parallel hole collimators. We present here a comparison of measured and simulated energy spectra and point spread functions for 131I.

Wilderman, S. J.; Dewaraja, Y.; Koral, K. F.

1999-02-01

151

Experience In The Integration Of A Nuclear Medicine PACS Into A PACS Radiology System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A local Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has been operational in the Division of Nuclear Medicine at Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital for the past five years. Recently, it has been interfaced to a total PACS which is based on different hardware and software. Using this hybrid system, we describe our initial efforts to facilitate the short and long term archiving of NM studies and the use of combined image displays for correlative image analysis.

Tobes, Michael C.; Stahl, Theodore J.; Dasika, Rao

1988-06-01

152

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects induced by stannous chloride associated to nuclear medicine kits  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, more than 75% of routine nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures use technetium-99m (99mTc). The binding between 99mTc and the drug to obtain the radiopharmaceutical needs a reducing agent, with stannous chloride (SnCl2) being one of the most used. There are controversies about the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of SnCl2 in the literature. Thus, the approaches below were used

Anderson P. Guedes; Valbert N. Cardoso; Jose C. P. De Mattos; Flavio J. S. Dantas; Vanessa C. Matos; Josiane C. F. Silva; Roberto J. A. C. Bezerra; Adriano Caldeira-de-Araujo

2006-01-01

153

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1997-03-20

154

Measurements of finger doses in x-ray guided surgery, nuclear medicine and research.  

PubMed

The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has performed measurements of finger doses to nuclear medicine staff exposed to 99Tc(m), researchers handling 32P, surgeons performing X-ray guided orthopaedic surgery and surgeons and radiologists performing X-ray guided endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Calibrations were done with X-ray qualities N-40, N-60 and N-300 and with the beta source 90Sr + 90Y. Annual doses were estimated for the nuclear medicine staff and the orthopaedic surgeons. The mean annual finger dose to nuclear medicine staff exposed to 99Tc(m) was estimated to be 18.8 mSv, and the mean annual finger dose to surgeons performing X-ray guided orthopaedic surgery was 13.7 mSv. The surgeons and radiologists performing X-ray guided endovascular treatment of AAA received a mean finger dose of 0.35 mSv per treatment. The majority of researchers handling 32P received no finger dose at all, and the maximum reading was 1.65 mSv. All occupational groups received finger doses well below the annual finger dose limit of 500 mSv. PMID:15817576

Saether, H K; Davidson, T-M; Widmark, A; Wøhni, T

2005-01-01

155

Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point source and S values of ORNL phantom are 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, SimDOSE is an efficient and accurate toolkit to generate patient-specific dose distribution in clinical PET application.

Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

2014-11-01

156

Nuclear medicine dynamic investigations in the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the hepatic hemodynamics in the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) using per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) and liver angioscintigraphy (LAS). METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients with BCS were evaluated by PRPS between 2003 and 2012. Ten of them underwent LAS and liver scan (LS) with Tc-99m colloid. Eleven patients had clinical manifestations and three were asymptomatic, incidentally diagnosed at PRPS. The control group included 15 healthy subjects. We used new parameters at PRPS, the liver transit time of portal inflow and the blood circulation time between the right heart and liver. PRPS offered information on the hepatic areas missing venous outflow or portal inflow, length and extent of the lesions, open portosystemic shunts (PSS), involvement of the caudate lobe (CL) as an intrahepatic shunt and flow reversal in the splenic vein. LAS was useful in the differential diagnosis between the BCS and portal obstructions, highlighting the hepatic artery buffer response and reversed portal flow. LS offered complementary data, especially on the CL. RESULTS: We described three hemodynamic categories of the BCS with several subtypes and stages, based on the finding that perfusion changes depend on the initial number and succession in time of the hepatic veins (HVs) obstructions. Obstruction of one hepatic vein (HV) did not cause opening of PSS. The BCS debuted by common obstruction of two HVs had different hemodynamic aspects in acute and chronic stages after subsequent obstruction of the third HV. In chronic stages, obstruction of two HVs resulted in opening of PSS. The BCS, determined by thrombosis of the terminal part of the inferior vena cava, presented in the acute stage with open PSS with low speed flow. At least several weeks are required in the obstructions of two or three HVs for the spontaneous opening of dynamically efficient PSS. The CL seems to have only a transient important role of intrahepatic shunt in several types of the BCS. CONCLUSION: Dynamic nuclear medicine investigations assess the extent and length of hepatic venous obstructions, open collaterals, areas without portal inflow, hemodynamic function of the CL and reverse venous flow. PMID:24799994

Dragoteanu, Mircea; Balea, Ioan-Adrian; Piglesan, Cecilia-Diana

2014-01-01

157

PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (Y????/?Y????/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their research and results to more than 150 participants from 14 countries. During the conference, exhibitors presented medical equipment used in nuclear medicine. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, the European Regional Development Fund and the Cyprus Biomedical Research Foundation. Also, we appreciate the support of the various local sponsors listed in the conference programme. We would like to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to the organising committee, the scientific committee and the supporting professional organizations for the success of the conference. We also thank all of speakers for their excellent contributions, all the participants for their input, and the exhibitors for their valuable presentations. Special thanks go to Demetris Kaolis, Maria Christofidou, Isabelle Chrysanthou, Charalambos Yiannakkaras, Ourania Demetriadou, and Elena Christofidou for their invaluable contribution to the conference. The conference volume consists of 26 selected proceedings papers. We would like to thank all of the authors for their time and genuine efforts and the reviewers for their fruitful comments. The Conference Chairpersons Stelios Christofides and Yiannis Parpottas

Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

2011-09-01

158

Freeze fracture through the cytoskeleton, nucleus and nuclear matrix of lymphocytes studied by scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The technique of delaying fixation until after freeze-fracture and thawing, described in an earlier paper (Haggis & Bond, 1979), has been developed further for study of cells in culture, principally mouse lymphocytes stimulated by concanavalin A. Using a thin layer of cells, a cryoprotectant concentration of either 10% glycerol or dimethylsulphoxide, is sufficient to give good structural preservation after rapid freezing and thawing. Nuclear matrices and Triton-permeabilized cells have been prepared from stimulated lymphocytes for comparative study. Polylysine-coated fibrin support films have been found to provide a convenient means of handling cells and subcellular preparations during freeze fracture, critical point drying and mounting for high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. PMID:6685772

Haggis, G H; Schweitzer, I; Hall, R; Bladon, T

1983-11-01

159

Monte Carlo simulation of the dose to nuclear medicine staff wearing protective garments.  

PubMed

The literature contains both endorsements of, and advice against, the use of protective apparel in nuclear medicine procedures. The main issues usually centre around: Whether the shielding which can be provided by a protective garment light enough to wear (0 to 0.6 mm lead equivalent at the gamma energies commonly encountered in nuclear medicine) is enough to warrant its use; and (more recently); Whether the dose enhancement behind the protective garment from electron scatter in lead is sufficient to be of concern. In this work, the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc was used to investigate the effectiveness of lead of thicknesses of 0 to 0.6 mm, in shielding staff from photons of energies of 140 and 511 keV. Furthermore, dose escalation behind the lead was investigated. Reasonable dose reductions are obtained at 140 keV with protective garments of 0.5 mm lead equivalence. This perhaps warrants their use, in certain circumstances. At 511 keV, the reduction in dose is less than 10%, and their use is probably not justified (given the weight that has to be carried) from an ALARA point of view. It should be noted here that protective garments designed for X-ray shielding will generally not have the same lead equivalence at the gamma energies used in nuclear medicine. It should also be noted that protective garments which do not contain lead do not always attenuate as much as their stated lead equivalence claims. Dose escalation does occur, but the depth of penetration of the scattered electrons beyond the exit side of the lead shielding is such that it is highly unlikely that a significant dose would be delivered to viable tissue in wearers of protective garments. PMID:19239057

Fog, L S; Collins, P

2008-12-01

160

A strategy for intensive production of molybdenum-99 isotopes for nuclear medicine using CANDU reactors.  

PubMed

Technetium-99m is an important medical isotope utilized worldwide in nuclear medicine and is produced from the decay of its parent isotope, molybdenum-99. The online fueling capability and compact fuel of the CANDU(®)(1) reactor allows for the potential production of large quantities of (99)Mo. This paper proposes (99)Mo production strategies using modified target fuel bundles loaded into CANDU fuel channels. Using a small group of channels a yield of 89-113% of the weekly world demand for (99)Mo can be obtained. PMID:21816619

Morreale, A C; Novog, D R; Luxat, J C

2012-01-01

161

Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.  

PubMed

A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist in improving the accuracy and tractability of dose and shielding calculations for nuclear medicine facility design. PMID:24849904

Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

2014-07-01

162

Depicting Medullary Thyroid Cancer Recurrence: The Past and the Future of Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

PubMed Central

Context: Inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon and medically challenging malignancy. Even if the extent of initial surgery is deemed adequate, the recurrence rate remains high, up to 50% in most series. Measurement of serum calcitonin is important in the follow-up of patients with MTC, and reliably reflects the existence of the disease. Evidence Acquisition: There is no single sensitive diagnostic imaging method to reveal all MTC recurrences or metastases. Conventional morphologic imaging methods (U/S, CT, and MRI) and several methods of nuclear medicine have been used for this purpose with variable accuracy. Results: The main role of nuclear medicine imaging is the detection of residual or recurrent tumor in the postoperative follow-up. In this review we present the radiopharmaceuticals used in the diagnosis of MTC recurrence, and comparison among them. Conclusions: The most used radiopharmaceuticals labelled with ? emitters are: Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), labelled with 131I or 123I, 111In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan), 99mTc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA), and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide ( Tektrotyd). The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with a positron-emitting radionuclide (?+), suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA), and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTATATE or DOTATOC). PMID:24719630

Skoura, Evangelia

2013-01-01

163

Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals.  

PubMed

Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

Bomanji, Jamshed B; Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

2014-10-01

164

Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

2008-03-01

165

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

166

An iterative particle filter approach for respiratory motion estimation in nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners has made accurate compensation of patient motion increasingly important. A major source of corrupting motion in NM acquisition is due to respiration. Therefore a particle filter (PF) approach has been proposed as a powerful method for motion correction in NM. The probabilistic view of the system in the PF is seen as an advantage that considers the complexity and uncertainties in estimating respiratory motion. Previous tests using XCAT has shown the possibility of estimating unseen organ configuration using training data that only consist of a single respiratory cycle. This paper augments application specific adaptation methods that have been implemented for better PF estimates with an iterative model update step. Results show that errors are further reduced to an extent up to a small number of iterations and such improvements will be advantageous for the PF to cope with more realistic and complex applications.

Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Wells, Kevin; Lewis, Emma; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

2011-03-01

167

One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

1991-07-01

168

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

169

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

170

The patient as a radioactive source: an intercomparison of survey meters for measurements in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

In this work, the radiation exposure in nuclear medicine is evaluated by measuring dose rates in the proximity of patients and those in close contact to sources like capsules and syringes. A huge number of different survey meters (SMs) are offered commercially. This topic has recently gained interest since dosemeters and active personal dosemeters (APD) for the new dose quantities (ambient and directional dose equivalent) have become available. One main concern is the practical use of SMs and APD in daily clinical routines. Therefore, the radiation field of four common radiopharmaceuticals containing (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc and (131)I in radioactive sources or after application to the patient was determined. Measurements were carried out with different SMs and for several distances. Dose rates decline significantly with the distance to the patient, and with some restrictions, APD can be used as SMs. PMID:25071244

Uhrhan, K; Drzezga, A; Sudbrock, F

2014-11-01

171

Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used to validate the accuracy of this system. The S values for {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 18}F and {sup 131}I obtained by the system were compared to those from the MCNP4C code and OLINDA. The ratios of S values computed by this system to those obtained with OLINDA for various organs were ranged from 0.93 to 1.18, which are comparable to that obtained from MCNP4C code (0.94 to 1.20). The average ratios of S value were 0.99{+-}0.04, 1.03{+-}0.05, and 1.00{+-}0.07 for isotopes {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, and {sup 99m}Tc, respectively. The simulation time of SimSET was two times faster than MCNP4C's for various isotopes. A 3D dose calculation was also performed on a patient data set with PET/CT examination using this system. Results from the patient data showed that the estimated S values using this system differed slightly from those of OLINDA for ORNL phantom. In conclusion, this system can generate patient-specific dose distribution and display the isodose curves on top of the anatomic structure through a friendly graphic user interface. It may also provide a useful tool to establish an appropriate dose-reduction strategy to patients in nuclear medicine environments. (authors)

Lin, H. H.; Dong, S. L.; Yang, H. J. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chen, S. [Dept. of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical Univ., Taiwan (China); Shih, C. T. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Chuang, K. S. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Lin, C. H. [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing-Hua Univ., Taiwan (China); Yao, W. J. [PET Center, National Cheng Kung Univ. Hospital, Taiwan (China); Jan, M. L. [Physics Div., Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-01

172

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

173

Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable. PMID:21430859

Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Jp

2011-01-01

174

The effects of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine on diagnostic radioimmunoassay testing. Is there any significant interference  

SciTech Connect

The administration of radioisotopes for diagnostic nuclear medicine scans and therapeutic procedures is quite prevalent today. A period of interference with the counting of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) test may occur with the serum of a patient receiving an in vivo radionuclide that decays by gamma emission. Because the logistics of precounting all specimens may be cumbersome and prohibitive, it is important to determine the degree of this interference. In this study, the authors evaluate the potential interference of the most commonly used radioisotopes with RIA studies. For two months (March and August 1988) 10,650 patient serum specimens were counted for significant background gamma radiation before RIA testing. Forty-three patients, on whom 105 RIA tests were performed, were identified as having preassay gamma radiation in their serum. With the use of selective energy windows for each different interfering radionuclide, proportional determinations were made as to the amount of interfering gamma radiation spilling into the iodine 125 test marker window. It was shown that initial whole serum pretest gamma counts as high as 111,000 counts/minute did not significantly affect the results of the RIA. Because of the meticulous washing and decanting procedures required in modern RIA and the monoclonal nature of most antibodies used currently, it appears the degree of nonspecific binding of this potentially interfering radiation is minuscule. The energy level of cobalt 57, however, and many of the other commonly used radioisotopes, overlaps so closely that it is difficult to window for this interference. It is possible, therefore, that this distinction cannot be made and folate and vitamin B12 test systems using cobalt 57 markers may have to be routinely prescreened.

Riccio, J.A.; Maturani, D.; Wright, J.; Fleetwood, M.K. (Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA (USA))

1990-11-01

175

Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue.

Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Eberlein, U.; Lassmann, M.

2014-03-01

176

The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

Not Available

1992-02-01

177

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

178

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

179

Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.  

PubMed

Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these technologies over PMT's is their insensitivity to magnetic fields which makes their use in co-axial multi-modality nuclear medicine/magnetic resonance instrumentation possible. PMID:16866565

Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

2006-08-01

180

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator  

PubMed Central

Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N?,N?,N??-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. PMID:22174513

Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

2011-01-01

181

Design, development, and analysis of semiconductor-based instrumentation for nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine imaging using a gamma camera is a sensitive tool for mapping various physiological and biological processes in vivo. In some respects, the instrumentation for gamma-ray imaging is highly developed. Nevertheless, current technology in nuclear medicine has some significant limitations in the area of spatial resolution. Scintillator-based imaging systems most likely have reached their limits of spatial resolution. Achieving higher spatial resolution will require the use of semiconductor detectors. The first part and major focus of this dissertation is the development of a prototype imaging system based on modular CdZnTe semiconductor arrays. Each modular array is approximately 1.5 mm thick, and is patterned on one surface into a 64 x 64 array of pixels with 380-micron pitch. We present details of the design, the electronics, and system performance. The second part of this dissertation presents results on a coincidence-type surgical probe. The sensitivity of a surgical probe for tumor detection is often limited by spatial variations in radiotracer uptake in normal tissue. We are developing a probe for use with 111In that uses coincidences between the 171 keV and 245 keV gamma rays for background suppression. The performance of a coincidence probe was compared to that of single-gamma probe for the task of detecting radiolabeled tumor models in a water phantom containing an inhomogeneous background. A single-element NaI(Tl) probe was placed in random locations throughout the tank; the tumor was attached to the probe in half of the trials. Count data were recorded in three channels: 171 keV, 245 keV, and 416 keV. A linear discriminant was calculated from the data. The detectability index, d', was derived from the data and used to compare the optimal linear discriminant against the single-gamma energy peaks for counting times up to 30s. For a realistic 15s exposure time, d' for the linear discriminant attains a near-perfect value of 3. In contrast, the single-photon channel d' is always near zero, so this channel is worthless for background discrimination. Coincidence detection using linear discriminants shows promise for in vivo tumor localization with 111In-labelled radiopharmaceuticals.

Matherson, Kevin James

2003-10-01

182

“Pseudo-thyroid lobe”: A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature. PMID:25589815

Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

2015-01-01

183

Soraya Boudia, Radioisotopes "economy of promises : On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqu et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine  

E-print Network

at "redeeming" the act of having used the nuclear bomb.2 This desire for redemption made it possible in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqué et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine": On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities Soraya Boudia 7 rue de l

Boyer, Edmond

184

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

185

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

SciTech Connect

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)

2012-10-23

186

An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.  

PubMed

Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

2011-04-01

187

Development of a particle filter framework for respiratory motion correction in nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research aims to develop a methodological framework based on a data driven approach known as particle filters, often found in computer vision methods, to correct the effect of respiratory motion on Nuclear Medicine imaging data. Particles filters are a popular class of numerical methods for solving optimal estimation problems and we wish to use their flexibility to make an adaptive framework. In this work we use the particle filter for estimating the deformation of the internal organs of the human torso, represented by X, over a discrete time index k. The particle filter approximates the distribution of the deformation of internal organs by generating many propositions, called particles. The posterior estimate is inferred from an observation Zk of the external torso surface. We demonstrate two preliminary approaches in tracking organ deformation. In the first approach, Xk represent a small set of organ surface points. In the second approach, Xk represent a set of affine organ registration parameters to a reference time index r. Both approaches are contrasted to a comparable technique using direct mapping to infer Xk from the observation Zk. Simulations of both approaches using the XCAT phantom suggest that the particle filter-based approaches, on average performs, better.

Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Lewis, Emma; Wells, Kevin; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

2010-03-01

188

Clinical use of differential nuclear medicine modalities in patients with ATTR amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Histological proof remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of amyloidosis. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are able to determine the amyloid load in the body. Currently, the best imaging modality is (123)I-SAP scintigraphy. This modality has high sensitivity for detecting amyloid deposits in all amyloid subtypes. Involvement of liver and spleen can be visualized before clinical signs are present. The addition of single photon emission computed tomography improves the differentiation of overlying organs. However, (123)I-SAP is not FDA approved. Its availability is limited to two centres in Europe. Furthermore, it is not suitable for imaging cardiac involvement of amyloidosis, due to movement, blood-pool content and lack of fenestrated endothelial in the myocardium. Phosphate derivates labelled with (99m)Tc, are able to detect calcium compounds in cardiac amyloidosis. Finally, (123)I-MIBG, an analogue of norepinephrine, can detect cardiac sympathetic innervation abnormalities as a consequence of amyloid deposits. Both these last techniques seem to be able to detect cardiac involvement before echocardiographic parameters are present. We illustrate the clinical use of these modalities with two patients with ATTR type amyloidosis. PMID:22913327

Noordzij, Walter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Slart, Riemer H J A; Dierckx, Rudi A; Hazenberg, Bouke P C

2012-12-01

189

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 ?Sv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 ?Sv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 ?Sv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 ?Sv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %. PMID:24464817

Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

2014-12-01

190

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

191

Lanthanides in Nuclear Medicine. The Production of Terbium-149 by Heavy Ion Beams  

E-print Network

Among radioactive isotopes of lanthanide series elements, finding the increasing using in nuclear medicine, alpha-emitter {149}Tb (T_{1/2} = 4.118 h; EC 76.2 %; beta^+ 7.1 %; alpha 16.7 %) is considered as a perspective radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy. The aim of the present work is to study experimental conditions of the {149}Tb production in reactions Nd({12}C, xn){149}Dy (4.23 min; beta^+, EC)\\to {149}Tb when the Nd targets have been irradiated by heavy ions of carbon. On the basis of results of formation and decay of {149}Dy\\to{149}Tb evaluation of the {149}Tb activity, is made which can be received under optimum conditions (enriched {142}Nd target, {12}C ions with the energy 120 MeV and up to current 100 mu A, time of irradiating 8-10 hours). Under these conditions {149}Tb can be obtained up to 30 GBq (up to 0.8 Ci).

Dmitriev, S N; Zaitseva, N G; Maslov, O D; Molokanova, L G; Starodub, G Ya; Shishkin, S V; Shishkina, T V

2001-01-01

192

Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall. PMID:23816980

Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

2013-12-01

193

Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services.  

PubMed

This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131I and 99mTc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed. PMID:11214886

Iwahara, A; De Oliveira, A E; Tauhata, L; da Silva, C J; Lopes, R T

2001-03-01

194

Implementation of a national metrology network of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) in Brazil routinely use dose calibrators to measure the activity of solutions containing radiopharmaceuticals. These solutions are administered to patients with the intention to diagnose or treat illnesses. However, for optimal results, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined as accurately as possible. The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) led, since 1998, a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in the NMS with the purpose promoting quality control. This program has been carried out successfully in Rio de Janeiro, but there is a need to implement it around the country. This can be resolved through the implementation of a network of regional laboratories at various locations throughout the national territory. Currently, such a network is active at a second site, located in Brasília, covering the needs of the Center-West Region, and at a third site, located in Porto Alegre, in the South Region. This work presents the results of comparisons for the radiopharmaceuticals nuclides 131I and 99Tcm and proves that the implementation of a radionuclide metrology network is feasible and viable. PMID:16549360

dos Santos, Joyra A; Iwahara, Akira; Nícoli, Iêda G; Corrêa, Rosângela S; Alabarse, Frederico G; dos Santos, Carlos E L; Xavier, Ana M; Garcia, Eloy J; Tauhata, Luiz; Lopes, Ricardo T

2006-01-01

195

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Processing of enriched tungsten-186 oxide targets after long irradiations (> 2 cycles) in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has resulted in specific activities significantly lower than the theoretical values, with the concomitant formation of varying amounts of highly radioactive black insoluble material to total tungsten-188 yield, 5% sodium hypochlorite solution has been found to dissolve this black material. Yields for longer irradiation periods (> 2 cycles) have nearly doubled. As an alternative, more simple approach, enriched tungsten-186 metallic targets have also now been irradiated. Following irradiation, these targets were dissolved in hydrogen peroxide/NaOH solution with no evidence of any residual black insoluble material remaining. Yields for a 2-cycle (e.g. 42 days) HFIR irradiation have thus now significantly increased, for example, from 5--6 mCi {sup 188}W/mg of {sup 186}W, to 10 mCi/mg (43 days) and 12.9 mCi/mg (53 days). Large clinical scale (< 1 Ci) generators fabricated from tungsten-188 prepared from such metal targets have exhibited the expected high {sup 188}Re yield and low {sup 188}W breakthrough. Also during this period, a systematic evaluation of the production yields of a number of radioisotopes of current interest in nuclear medicine were evaluated by irradiation of targets in the Hydraulic Tube Facility (HT) of the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Small samples were irradiated for short periods, and the radioactive contents of the sealed sources then analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.; Hsieh, B.T.

1994-01-01

196

Scene setting: criteria for acceptability and suspension levels in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The EC (European Commission) Directive on radiation protection of patients requires that Criteria for Acceptability of Equipment in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy be established throughout the member states. This paper reviews the background to this requirement and to its implementation in practice. It notes parallel requirements in the EC medical devices directive and International Electrotechnical Commission standards. It is also important to be aware and that both sets of requirements should ideally be harmonised due to the global nature of the equipment industry. The paper further reviews the type of criteria that can be well applied for the above purposes, and defines qualitative criteria and suspension levels suitable for application. Both are defined and relationships with other acceptance processes are considered (including acceptance testing at the time of purchase, commissioning and the issue of second-hand equipment). Suspension levels are divided into four types, A, B, C and D, depending on the quality of evidence and consensus on which they are based. Exceptional situations involving, for example, new or rapidly evolving technology are also considered. The publication and paper focuses on the role of the holder of the equipment and related staff, particularly the medical physics expert and the practitioner. Advice on how the criteria should be created and implemented and how this might be coordinated with the supplier is provided for these groups. Additional advice on the role of the regulator is provided. PMID:23173218

Malone, Jim; Faulkner, Keith; Christofides, Stelios; Lillicrap, Stephen; Horton, Patrick

2013-02-01

197

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-07-01

198

High resolution scanning electron microscopy of the nuclear envelope: demonstration of a new, regular, fibrous lattice attached to the baskets of the nucleoplasmic face of the nuclear pores  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope (NE) of amphibian oocytes can be readily isolated in relatively structurally intact and pure form and has been used extensively for structural studies. Using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), both surfaces of the NE can be visualized in detail. Here, we demonstrate the use of HRSEM to obtain high resolution information of NE structure, confirming previous data and providing some new information. NEs, manually isolated from Triturus cristatus oocytes, have been mounted on conductive silicon chips, fixed, critical point dried and coated with a thin, continuous film of chromium or tantalum and viewed at relatively high accelerating voltage in a field emission scanning electron microscope with the sample within the objective lens. Both nucleoplasmic and cytoplasmic surfaces of the nuclear pore complexes (NPC) have been visualized, revealing the cytoplasmic coaxial ring, associated particles, central plug/transporter and spokes. The nucleoplasmic face is dominated by the previously described basketlike structure attached to the nucleoplasmic coaxial ring. In Triturus, a novel, highly regular flat sheet of fibers, termed the NE lattice (NEL) has been observed attached to the distal ring of the NPC basket. The NEL appears to be distinct from the nuclear lamina. Evidence for the NEL is also presented in thin TEM sections from Triturus oocytes and GVs and in spread NEs from Xenopus. A model is presented for NEL structure and its interaction with the NPCs is discussed. PMID:1469043

1992-01-01

199

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1995-12-31

200

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

201

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

202

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 ± 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 ± 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 ± 1.53 and 4.18 ± 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

2012-10-01

203

Knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the Nuclear Medicine Department: A questionnaire-based study among health-care professionals  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the knowledge about the availability of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department among health-care professionals through a prospective cohort study. Methods: A total of 741 health-care professionals participated in the study by answering 10 simple questions about the role of the pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department and the availability of pharmacist in the nuclear medicine department. An online questionnaire system was used to conduct the study, and participants were invited to participate through personal communications and by promoting the study through social websites including Facebook, LinkedIn and Google (including Gmail and Google+). The study was conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 using the http://www.freeonlinesurveys.com/Webserver. Finally, the data provided by 621 participants was analyzed. Group frequency analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 (SPSS Inc. USA). Results: The participants were from Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, UAE and Nepal. In total, 312 (50.2%) female health-care professionals and 309 (49.8%) male health-care professionals participated in the study. Of the 621 participants, 390 were working in hospitals, and 231 were not working in hospitals. Of the participants who were working in hospitals, 57.6% were pharmacists. The proportion of study participants who were aware of nuclear pharmacists was 55.39%. Awareness about the role of the pharmacist in nuclear medicine was poor. Conclusion: The role of the pharmacist in a nuclear medicine unit needs to be highlighted and promoted among health-care professionals and hence that the nuclear medicine team can provide better pharmaceutical care.

Parasuraman, Subramani; Mueen Ahmed, K.K.; Bin Hashim, Tin Soe @ Saifullah; Muralidharan, Selvadurai; Kumar, Kalaimani Jayaraja; Ping, Wu Yet; Syamittra, Balakrishnan; Dhanaraj, Sokkalingam Arumugam

2014-01-01

204

Occupational exposure at the Department of Nuclear Medicine as a work environment: A 19-year follow-up  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: This study assessed the radiation safety at Nuclear Medicine Department being a work environment. Ionizing radiation exposure of the employees in the last 19 years and the effects of legislative changes in radiological protection were analyzed. Material/Methods: All employees of the investigated department were regularly and individually monitored using chest badges equipped with Kodak film type 2. Overall, 629 annual doses of the employees of nuclear medicine department, registered in the period 1991–2009, were analyzed statistically. Results: Technicians were found to be the largest exposed professional group, whereas nurses received the highest annual doses. Physicians received an average annual dose at the border detection methods. Ancillary and administration staff occasionally received doses above the method detection limit (MDL). The average annual dose for all dosimetry records was 0.7 mSv, and that for dosimetry records equal and higher than MDL was 2.2 mSv. Conclusions: There was no case of an exceeded dose limit for a worker. Furthermore, improvement of radiological protection had a significant impact on the reduction of doses for the most exposed employees. PMID:22802825

Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bo?ena; Gwardy?, Aleksandra; Supi?ska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H.; Elbl, Bogumi?a; Cicho?-Ba?kowska, Katarzyna

2011-01-01

205

Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

2010-01-01

206

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

New methods based on reactive organometallic precursors containing organic functional groups that are generally responsible for physiologic responses are being exploited for preparation of radiopharmaceutials. This program focuses on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceutical. The new technology which is often based on organoborane chemistry is then utilized in nuclear medicine research at the UT Biomedical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE. facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New radiopharmaceutical are evaluated preclinically by colleagues at UT, Emory University and The University of Pennsylvania, and by Nova Screen.

Kabalka, G.W.

1994-02-01

207

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90}, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution. Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)

2011-07-15

208

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9·X90, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution.Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G

2011-06-01

209

Design and manufacturing of anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom for use in nuclear medicine centres in Chile.  

PubMed

Anthropomorphic phantoms are used in nuclear medicine for imaging quality control, calibration of gamma spectrometry system for the study of internal contamination with radionuclides and for internal dosimetric studies. These are constructed of materials that have radiation attenuation coefficients similar to those of the different organs and tissues of the human body. The material usually used for the manufacture of phantoms is polymethyl methacrylate. Other materials used for this purpose are polyethylene, polystyrene and epoxy resin. This project presents the design and manufacture of an anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom that includes the cervical spine, trachea and oesophagus, using a polyester resin (? = 1.1 g cm(-3)). Its linear and mass attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined and simulated by means of XCOM software, finding that this material reproduces the soft tissue ICRU-44 in a range of energies between 80 keV and 11 MeV, with less than a 5 % difference. PMID:24567500

Hermosilla, A; Díaz Londoño, G; García, M; Ruíz, F; Andrade, P; Pérez, A

2014-12-01

210

Feasibility and Merits of Performing Preclinical Imaging on Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Systems  

PubMed Central

Aim. Researchers have limited access to systems dedicated to imaging small laboratory animals. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility and merits of performing preclinical imaging on clinical systems. Materials and Methods. Scans were performed on rat and mouse models of diseases or injuries on four radiology systems, tomosynthesis, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), based on the availability at the author's institute. Results. Tomosysthesis delineated soft tissue anatomy and hard tissue structure with superb contrast and spatial resolution at minimal scan time and effort. CT allowed high resolution volumetric visualization of bones. Molecular imaging with PET was useful for detecting cancerous tissue in mouse but at the expense of poor resolution. MRI depicted abnormal or intervened tissue at quality and resolution sufficient for experimental studies. The paper discussed limitations of the clinical systems in preclinical imaging as well as challenges regarding the need of additional gadgets, modifications, or upgrades required for longitudinally scanning animals under anesthesia while monitoring their vital signs. Conclusion. Clinical imaging technologies can potentially make cost-effective and efficient contributions to preclinical efforts in obtaining anatomical, structural, and functional information from the underlying tissue while minimally compromising the data quality in certain situations. PMID:24490068

Bilgen, Mehmet

2013-01-01

211

Nuclear war in the Middle East: where is the voice of medicine and public health.  

PubMed

Once again, the politically volatile Middle East and accompanying rhetoric has escalated the risk of a major nuclear exchange. Diplomatic efforts have failed to make the medical consequences of such an exchange a leading element in negotiations. The medical and academic communities share this denial. Without exaggeration, the harsh reality of the enormous consequences of an imminently conceivable nuclear war between Iran and Israel will encompass an unprecedented millions of dead and an unavoidable decline in public health and environmental devastation that would impact major populations in the Middle East for decades to come. Nuclear deterrence and the uncomfortable but real medical and public health consequences must become an integral part of a broader global health diplomacy that emphasizes health security along with poverty reduction and good governance. PMID:22509536

Dallas, Cham E; Burkle, Frederick M

2011-10-01

212

Population radiation dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the Tehran population in 1999-2003: striking changes in only one decade.  

PubMed

Use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals in Iran's nuclear medicine centers has expanded rapidly in the last decade. As part of a nationwide survey, this study was undertaken to estimate the radiation risk due to the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed in Tehran in 1999-2003. During the five years of the study, the data of 101,540 yearly examinations of diagnostic nuclear medicine were obtained for 34 (out of 40) active nuclear medicine centers in Tehran. The patients studied were aged 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, and adults (>15 y). Compared to an earlier investigation in 1989 (which was published in 1995), striking changes were found to be occurring in the trends of nuclear medicine in Tehran in a matter of a decade. The frequency of cardiac examinations increased from less than 1% in 1989 to 43.2% (mean of 5 y) in 2003; thyroid examinations, with the relative frequency of higher than 80% in 1989, decreased to 26.7% in the current investigation (averaged for 2001); and the number of overall examinations per 1,000 population of Tehran increased from 1.9 in 1989 to 8.8 in this study (about fourfold). The decrease in relative frequency of thyroid examinations could be attributed to the lower referral policy (mainly by specialists), decreased incidence of goiter due to implementation of programs for iodine enrichment diets, introduction of fine needle aspiration (FNA), and sonography techniques for diagnosis of thyroid disease. The large increase in relative frequency of cardiac examinations could be due to the increase in the number of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) systems in recent years as compared to 1989 in Tehran. The collective effective dose increased from 400 (person-Sv) in 1999 to 529 (person-Sv) in 2003, and the effective dose per capita increased from 34.80 ?Sv in 1999 to 44.06 ?Sv in 2003 (average, 35.60 ?Sv). PMID:23274814

Tabeie, Faraj; Mohammadi, Hooshang; Asli, Isa Neshandar

2013-02-01

213

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

214

Radiopharmaceuticals 1994. Nil desperandum. European Association of Nuclear Medicine Committees on Radiopharmaceuticals and Positron Emission Tomography.  

PubMed

On the basis of the discussions at a symposium held in Düsseldorf and attended by representatives of various interested bodies, European legislation as it affects radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed. Due consideration is given to the new, centralised and decentralised, registration procedures, effective since 1 January 1995. The dossier required to support an application for marketing authorisation is discussed, separate consideration being given to single-photon emitters, therapeutic radio-nuclides and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The role of the European Pharmacopoiea is also considered. It is concluded that the new, modified procedures for the registration of medicinal products in the European Union may actually inhibit free availability of radio-pharmaceuticals within the Community, and that there is a strong case for modification of the European Directives so that radiopharmaceuticals are placed in a separate category to therapeutic drugs, with less stringent registration requirements. PMID:7556305

Cox, P H; Meyer, G J

1995-06-01

215

Computer-assisted diagnosis in renal nuclear medicine: rationale, methodology, and interpretative criteria for diuretic renography.  

PubMed

The goal of artificial intelligence, expert systems, decision support systems, and computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) in imaging is the development and implementation of software to assist in the detection and evaluation of abnormalities, to alert physicians to cognitive biases, to reduce intraobserver and interobserver variability, and to facilitate the interpretation of studies at a faster rate and with a higher level of accuracy. These developments are needed to meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the volume of diagnostic imaging studies coupled with a concurrent increase in the number and complexity of images in each patient data. The convergence of an expanding knowledge base and escalating time constraints increases the likelihood of physician errors. Errors are even more likely when physicians interpret low-volume studies such as technetium-99m-mercaptoacetyltriglycine diuretic scans where imagers may have had limited training or experience. Decision support systems include neural networks, case-based reasoning, expert systems, and statistical systems. iRENEX (renal expert) is an expert system for diuretic renography that uses a set of rules obtained from human experts to analyze a knowledge base of both clinical parameters and quantitative parameters derived from the renogram. Initial studies have shown that the interpretations provided by iRENEX are comparable to the interpretations of a panel of experts. iRENEX provides immediate patient-specific feedback at the time of scan interpretation, can be queried to provide the reasons for its conclusions, and can be used as an educational tool to teach trainees to better interpret renal scans. It also has the capacity to populate a structured reporting module and generate a clear and concise impression based on the elements contained in the report; adherence to the procedural and data entry components of the structured reporting module ensures and documents procedural competency. Finally, although the focus is CAD applied to diuretic renography, this review offers a window into the rationale, methodology, and broader applications of computer-assisted diagnosis in medical imaging. PMID:24484751

Taylor, Andrew T; Garcia, Ernest V

2014-03-01

216

A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR  

PubMed Central

Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

2004-01-01

217

Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

Jin, Yutaka

2008-01-01

218

Variable-pitch rectangular cross-section radiofrequency coils for the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance investigation of sealed medicines packets.  

PubMed

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S

2012-11-01

219

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

In this report the excitation functions for production of gallium-66 via {alpha}-induced nuclear reactions on enriched zinc-66 have been measured with E{sub {alpha}}{le}27.3 Mev and E{sub {alpha}}{le}43.7 MeV employing the stack thin-target technique. In addition, the induced activity of gallium-67 in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. These preliminary studies have demonstrated that sufficient levels of gallium-66 can be produced by {alpha}-induced reactions on enriched zinc targets. A series of radioiodinated analogues of 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}, {alpha}-diphenylacetate (QNB) have been prepared. These new analogues include 1-azabicyclo-(2.2.2)oct-3-yl{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(4-iodophenyl)-{alpha}-methylacetate(2,I-WNA), 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl (3-iodo)-xanthene-9-carboxylate (3,I-QNX), and 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(E-1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (4,I-QNP), which have also been radiolabeled with iodine-125 with high specific activity. The biodistribution, brain uptake, and receptor specificity of these new analogues are currently being studied. Shipments of radioactive agents made to collaborators during this period included. One shipment of iodine-125-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1991-09-01

220

Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-07-15

221

Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010, with a maximum time interval of ± 9 months between the two types of medical exams. For 51 patients, the indication was the detection of CAD. For 45 patients, the indication was to assess viability and/or ischemia after MI, PCI or CABG. Out of 84 patients with CAD confirmed by angiography, 80 patients resulted in abnormal MPI (sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 98%). Out of 12 patients with normal coronaries, 10 patients resulted in normal MPI (specificity of 83% and negative predictive value of 71%).In conclusion, for the patients with abnormal MPI and confirmed CAD, MPI was a useful aid for further therapy management.

Koumna, S.; Yiannakkaras, Ch; Avraamides, P.; Demetriadou, O.

2011-09-01

222

Multivendor nuclear medicine PACS provide fully digital clinical operation at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve patient care while considering cost-effectiveness, we developed a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), which combines imaging cameras, computers and other peripheral equipment from multiple nuclear medicine vectors. The PACS provides fully-digital clinical operation which includes acquisition and automatic organization of patient data, distribution of the data to all networked units inside the department and other remote locations, digital analysis and quantitation of images, digital diagnostic reading of image studies and permanent data archival with the ability for fast retrieval. The PACS enabled us to significantly reduce the amount of film used, and we are currently proceeding with implementing a film-less laboratory. Hard copies are produced on paper or transparent sheets for non-digitally connected parts of the hospital. The PACS provides full-digital operation which is faster, more reliable, better organized and managed, and overall more efficient than a conventional film-based operation. In this paper, the integration of the various PACS components from multiple vendors is reviewed, and the impact of PACS, with its advantages and limitations on our clinical operation is analyzed.

Georgiou, Mike F.; Sfakianakis, George N.; Johnson, Gary; Douligeris, Christos; Scandar, Silvia; Eisler, E.; Binkley, B.

1994-05-01

223

Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

Not Available

1994-04-01

224

Molecular authentication of the medicinal herb Ruta graveolens (Rutaceae) and an adulterant using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers.  

PubMed

Dried parts of different plant species often look alike, especially in powdered form, making them very difficult to identify. Ruta graveolens, sold as a dried medicinal herb, can be adulterated with Euphorbia dracunculoides. The genomic DNA was isolated from the leaf powder (100 mg each) using the modified CTAB method. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA-ITS), and chloroplast spacer sequences (rpoB and rpoC1) are regarded as potential genes for plant DNA barcoding. We amplified and sequenced these spacer sequences and confirmed the sequences with a BLAST search. Sequence alignment was performed using ClustalX to look for differences in the sequences. A DNA marker was developed based on rpoB and rpoC1 of the nrDNA-ITS for the identification of the adulterant E. dracunculoides in samples of R. graveolens that are sold in local herbal markets. Sequence-characterized amplified region markers of 289 and 264 bp for R. graveolens and 424 bp for E. dracunculoides were developed from dissimilar sequences of this nrDNA-ITS to speed up the authentication process. This marker successfully distinguished these species in extracted samples with as little as 5 ng DNA/?L extract. PMID:22095605

Al-Qurainy, F; Khan, S; Tarroum, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Ali, M A

2011-01-01

225

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

2006-09-01

226

Radiation dose to technicians per nuclear medicine procedure: comparison between technetium-99m, gallium-67, and iodine-131 radiotracers and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The aim of this study was to determine the non-extremity gamma dose received by a technician while performing an ordinary\\u000a nuclear medicine procedure or a static (i.e. without blood sampling) fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission\\u000a tomography (PET) study. The dose per patient was measured by means of a commercial electronic pocket Geiger Mueller dosimeter,\\u000a worn in the upper left

C. Chiesa; V. De Sanctis; F. Crippa; M. Schiavini; C. E. Fraigola; A. Bogni; C. Pascali; D. Decise; R. Marchesini; E. Bombardieri

1997-01-01

227

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

228

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

229

Modeling the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of lung: from electrical engineering to critical care medicine.  

PubMed

The present article reviews the basic principles of a new approach to the characterization of pulmonary disease. This approach is based on the unique nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of the lung and combines experimental measurements (using specially developed NMR techniques) with theoretical simulations. The NMR signal from inflated lungs decays very rapidly compared with the signal from completely collapsed (airless) lungs. This phenomenon is due to the presence of internal magnetic field inhomogeneity produced by the alveolar air-tissue interface (because air and water have different magnetic susceptibilities). The air-tissue interface effects can be detected and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques using temporally symmetric and asymmetric spin-echo sequences. Theoretical models developed to explain the internal (tissue-induced) magnetic field inhomogeneity in aerated lungs predict the NMR lung behavior as a function of various technical and physiological factors (e.g., the level of lung inflation) and simulate the effects of various lung disorders (in particular, pulmonary edema) on this behavior. Good agreement has been observed between the predictions obtained from the mathematical models and the results of experimental NMR measurements in normal and diseased lungs. Our theoretical and experimental data have important pathophysiological and clinical implications, especially with respect to the characterization of acute lung disease (e.g., pulmonary edema) and the management of critically ill patients. PMID:10334720

Cutillo, A G; Ailion, D C

1999-01-01

230

The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France, pp. PM1-4, 2003 1 Abstract--Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths  

E-print Network

The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631- 444-7837; fax: 631, WI 53201, USA. Wang is with the Department of Radiology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa

231

Study of the cost-savings potential of the Military - Civilian Health Services Partnership Program in the nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay services at Ireland Army Community Hospital, Fort Knox, Kentucky. Master's thesis, July 1987-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

Using workload data for Calendar Year 1987, a cost savings analysis was performed on the following three options (involving the Nuclear Medicine Department at Ireland Army Community Hospital); (1) Elimination of Radioimmunoassay Internal Service, (2) Civilian Military Health Service Partnership Program and (3) Fixed price contract for Nuclear Medicine Services. This study revealed the Civilian-Military Health Services Partnership Program would potentially generate the greatest cost savings and recommended that it be implemented in other areas throughout the Army Medical Department.

Amon, T.M.

1989-01-01

232

Study of a New Design of P-N Semiconductor Detector Array for Nuclear Medicine Imaging by Monte Carlo Simulation Codes  

PubMed Central

Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc99_m activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

Hajizadeh-Safar, M.; Ghorbani, M.; Khoshkharam, S.; Ashrafi, Z.

2014-01-01

233

Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.  

PubMed

Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

2014-07-01

234

Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1994-06-01

235

Nuclear ventriculography  

MedlinePLUS

... imaging; Heart scan - nuclear; Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology ... in the coronary arteries ( coronary artery disease ) Heart valve disease Other cardiac disorders that weaken the heart ...

236

Nuclear surface complex as observed with the high resolution scanning electron microscope. Visualization of the membrane surfaces of the neclear envelope and the nuclear cortex from Xenopus laevis oocytes  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope and associated structures from Xenopus laevis oocytes (stage VI) have been examined with the high resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The features of the inner and outer surfaces of the nuclear surface complex were revealed by manual isolation , whereas the membranes facing the perinuclear space (the space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes) were observed by fracturing the nuclear envelope in this plane and splaying the corresponding regions apart. Pore complexes were observed on all four membrane surfaces of this double-membraned structure. The densely packed pore complexes (55/micron2) are often clustered into triplets with shared walls (outer diameter = 90 nm; inner diameter = 25 nm; wall thickness = aproximately 30 nm), and project aproximately 20 nm above each membrane except where they are flush with the innermost surface. The pore complex appears to be an aggregate of four 30-nm subunits. The nuclear cortex, a fibrous layer (300 nm thickness) associated with the inner surface of the nuclear envelope, has been revealed by rapid fixation. This cortical layer is interrupted by funnel-shaped intranuclear channels (120-640 nm diam) which narrow towards the pore complexes. Chains of particles, arranged in spirals, are inserted into these intranuclear channels. The fibers associated with the innermost face of the nuclear envelope can be extraced with 0.6 MKI to reveal the pore complexes. A model of the nuclear surface complex, compiled from the visualization of all the membrane faces and the nuclear cortex, demonstrates relations between the intranuclear channels (3.2/micron2) and the numerous pore complexes, and the possibility of their role in nucleocytoplasmic interactions. PMID:649659

1978-01-01

237

Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... also very helpful. Often, a television with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... not all—imaging procedures are covered by insurance. Web page review process: Reviewed regularly by physicians with ...

238

RadNuc: A graphical user interface to deliver dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine with a 137Cs irradiator  

PubMed Central

The temporal variations in absorbed dose rates to organs and tissues in the body are very large in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The response of biological endpoints of relevance to radiation safety and therapeutic efficacy are generally modulated by dose rate. Therefore, it is important to understand how the complex dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine impact relevant biological responses. Accordingly, a graphical user interface (GUI) was created to control a cesium-137 irradiator to deliver such dose rate patterns. Methods Visual Basic 6.0 was used to create a user-friendly GUI to control the dose rate by varying the thickness of a mercury attenuator. The GUI facilitates the delivery of a number of dose rate patterns including constant, exponential increase or decrease, and multi-component exponential. Extensive visual feedback is provided by the GUI during both the planning and delivery stages. Results The GUI controlled irradiator can achieve a maximum dose rate of 40 cGy/hr and a minimum dose rate of 0.01 cGy/hr. Addition of machined lead blocks can be used to further reduce the minimum dose rate to 0.0001 cGy/hr. Measured dose rate patterns differed from programmed dose rate patterns in total dose by 3.2% to 8.4%. Conclusion The GUI controlled irradiator is able to accurately create dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine and other related fields. This makes it an invaluable tool for studying the effects of chronic constant and variable low dose rates on biological tissues in the contexts of both radiation protection and clinical administration of internal radionuclides. PMID:23265668

Pasternack, Jordan B.; Howell, Roger W.

2012-01-01

239

Implementation of a personal computer (PC) as a graphic station into the system MicroDELTA-MaxDELTA for processing of nuclear medicine images.  

PubMed

One of the possibilities to integrate PC into the system "MicroDELTA-MaxDELTA" for acquisition and nuclear medicine image processing is introduced. A 386 IBM compatible personal computer is connected into the local area network with MicroVAX II, which is the part of a "MicroDELTA-MaxDELTA" system. "NuMed" application, which enables simple and efficient manipulation of patient studies and also their archiving, processing and generating reports, is developed in WINDOWS environment. Considering the fact that existing system fully satisfies the acquisition requirements, the whole conception has the aim to upgrade the digital image processing, and initiate further development of the whole system. PMID:8569590

Markovi?, D; Muratovi?, I; Veljovi?, M; Bosnjakovi?, V

1993-01-01

240

Carbon fiber composite targets for nuclear fusion technology: a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope investigation.  

PubMed

Carbon fiber composite (CFC) targets are investigated by a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) in a joint project aiming at the development of robust divertors in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These mockups are exposed to a plasma that simulates the off-normal thermal loads foreseen for ITER and display a rich, puzzling impact scenario. Morphological elements are identified at the exposed surface and beneath it, and are examined in order to point out the relevant processes involved. Each technique adopted is discussed and evaluated. PMID:18200678

Ghezzi, F; Magni, S; Milani, M; Tatti, F

2007-01-01

241

A New Approach for Heparin Standardization: Combination of Scanning UV Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

The year 2007 was marked by widespread adverse clinical responses to heparin use, leading to a global recall of potentially affected heparin batches in 2008. Several analytical methods have since been developed to detect impurities in heparin preparations; however, many are costly and dependent on instrumentation with only limited accessibility. A method based on a simple UV-scanning assay, combined with principal component analysis (PCA), was developed to detect impurities, such as glycosaminoglycans, other complex polysaccharides and aromatic compounds, in heparin preparations. Results were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. This approach provides an additional, sensitive tool to determine heparin purity and safety, even when NMR spectroscopy failed, requiring only standard laboratory equipment and computing facilities. PMID:21267460

Lima, Marcelo A.; Rudd, Timothy R.; de Farias, Eduardo H. C.; Ebner, Lyvia F.; Gesteira, Tarsis F.; de Souza, Lauro M.; Mendes, Aline; Córdula, Carolina R.; Martins, João R. M.; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Yates, Edwin A.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Nader, Helena B.

2011-01-01

242

Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography. Literature scanned from April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985. First edition, Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

The literature cited cover data on collisions in which the incident particle energy has a minimum energy of less than 100 MeV in the laboratory system, the data including excitation functions, or thick target or product yields leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state. Such quantities are included as fission yields, isomeric ratios, and excitation functions for specific particle groups where such data readily yield information on the excitation functions or thick target yields for the ground or metastable state. Selected compilations, evaluations, and reviews of charged-particle nuclear data are also listed. The bibliography is indexed by target and by residuals. (LEW)

Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1985-04-01

243

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

244

Promising role of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography in Meckel's scan.  

PubMed

Meckel's scan is a common procedure performed in nuclear medicine. Single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in a suspected case of heterotopic location of gastric mucosa can increase the accuracy of its anatomic localization. We present two suspected cases of Meckel's diverticulum in, which SPECT/CT co-registration has helped in better localization of the pathology. PMID:23919078

Jain, Anurag; Chauhan, Ms; Pandit, Ag; Kumar, Rajeev; Sharma, Amit

2012-07-01

245

Single-copy nuclear gene primers for Streptanthus and other Brassicaceae from genomic scans, published data, and ESTs1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: We report 11 primer sets for nine single-copy nuclear genes in Streptanthus and other Thelypodieae (Brassicaceae) and their utility at tribal-level and species-level phylogenetics in this poorly resolved group. • Methods and Results: We selected regions based on a cross-referenced matrix of previous studies and public Brassica expressed sequence tags. To design primers, we used alignments of low-depth-coverage Illumina sequencing of genomic DNA for two species of Brassica mapped onto Arabidopsis thaliana. We report several primer combinations for five regions that consistently amplified a single band and yielded high-quality sequences for at least 70% of the species assayed, and for four additional regions whose utility might be clade specific. • Conclusions: Our primers will be useful in improving resolution at shallow depths across the Thelypodieae, and likely in other Brassicaceae. PMID:25202560

Cacho, N. Ivalú; Strauss, Sharon Y.

2013-01-01

246

Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)  

SciTech Connect

For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); ; Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States);

2013-12-03

247

The proton (nuclear) microprobe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning proton microprobe (SPMP) is closely related to the scanning electron microprobe (SEMP) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray detector. Though the much greater elemental sensitivity of the SPMP is inherent in the physics, the generally inferior spatial resolution of the SPMP is not inherent and big improvements are possible, As its alternative name would imply, the SPMP is often used with heavier particle beams and with nuclear rather than atomic reactions. Its versatility and quantitative accuracy have justified greater instrumentation and computer power than that associated with other microprobes. It is fast becoming an industrially and commercially important instrument and there are few fields of scientific research in which it has not played a part. Notable contributions have been made in biology, medicine, agriculture, semiconductors, geology, mineralogy, extractive metallurgy, new materials, archaeology, forensic science, catalysis, industrial problems and reactor technology.

Legge, G. J. F.

1989-04-01

248

Bone scan  

MedlinePLUS

A bone scan is an imaging test that shows areas of increased or decreased bone turnover ( metabolism ). ... have taken up less of the radioactive material. Bone scan findings must be compared with other imaging studies, in addition to clinical information. Your health ...

249

Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil.  

PubMed

Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors. PMID:18346902

Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria

2008-01-01

250

Laser Scanning In Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a review of the applications of laser scanning in inspection. The reasons for the choice of a laser in flying spot scanning and the optical properties of a laser beam which are of value in a scanning instrument will be given. The many methods of scanning laser beams in both one and two dimensions will be described. The use of one dimensional laser scanners for automatic surface inspection for transmitting and reflective products will be covered in detail, with particular emphasis on light collection techniques. On-line inspection applications which will be mentioned include: photographic film web, metal strip products, paper web, glass sheet, car body paint surfaces and internal cylinder bores. Two dimensional laser scanning is employed in applications where increased resolution, increased depth of focus, and better contrast are required compared with conventional vidicon TV or solid state array cameras. Such examples as special microscope laser scanning systems and a TV compatible system for use in restricted areas of a nuclear reactor will be described. The technical and economic benefits and limitations of laser scanning video systems will be compared with conventional TV and CCD array devices.

West, Patricia; Baker, Lionel R.

1989-03-01

251

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau, Germany, July 9-13, 2007 Abstract--Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau is with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (e-mail: jingwang@mil.sunysb.edu). H. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

252

SCANNING THE TECHNOLOGY Scanning Advanced  

E-print Network

, the automobile. Automobile manufacturers have begun replacing bulky hydraulic or mechanical parts with electronicSCANNING THE TECHNOLOGY Scanning Advanced Automobile Technology BY HAMID GHARAVI National Institute of electrical, electronics, software, and other relevant technologies that shape the modern automobile. Some

253

STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA  

E-print Network

, a proton beam extracted from C-80 will be used for eyes therapy (high precision 80 MeV beam with low Since 1975, a Center of Stereotaxic Proton Therapy (CSPT) is operating at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) exploiting a 1000 MeV proton beam from the PNPI synchro- cyclotron. The center

Titov, Anatoly

254

Thyroid scan  

MedlinePLUS

... health care provider if you are taking any medicines, including thyroid drugs and anything with iodine in it. The dosage of these drugs may need to be changed. Remove jewelry, dentures, or other metals because they may interfere with the image.

255

COPD Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... 5654 ) You are here: Health Information > Medications > COPD COPD Medicine Your doctor may prescribe medicine to control ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for ...

256

Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

257

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

258

A Norwegian nationwide quality assurance project in nuclear medicine: total performance in bone scintigraphy measured with a new transmission phantom.  

PubMed

A prototype version of a recently developed transmission phantom for simulation of radionuclide bone studies was used in a Norwegian nationwide quality assurance project. The design of the phantom made it possible to perform a receiver operation characteristic (ROC) examination with respect to the detection of radionuclide accumulation in the ribs. The participants were also asked to report accumulation in the spinal column. Images obtained by means of a uniform source and a four-quadrant bar pattern were used to judge resolution and homogeneity with the collimator used in the bone studies. The overall performance of the laboratories was satisfactory, but considerable variations were found. There was a marked correlation between the physician's performance and the resolution and homogeneity of the camera. Reports from stationary imaging were generally better than those that were based on whole-body scans. PMID:2083538

Skretting, A; Strandmyr, E; Lindegaard, M W

1990-01-01

259

Osteopathic Medicine: About Osteopathic Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Us A A A Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside the AOA ... of four years of academic study. Reflecting osteopathic philosophy, the curriculum emphasizes preventive medicine and comprehensive patient ...

260

BioChroma – A New and Patented Technology for Processing Radioactive Wastewater from Nuclear Medicine Therapy Facilities in Hospitals and Clinics  

PubMed Central

After undergoing radionuclide therapy, patients generate wastewater with a considerable amount of radioactivity, which can reach levels of as much as 90% of the administered dose. Due to the risk of accumulation after discharge into the sewer, it is advisable to collect this effluent for its treatment prior to final discharge. Delay and decay (natural decomposition of the isotope) is the most commonly used technical method of abating radioactive iodine, but it is frequently criticized as being complex and very expensive. BioChroma is a technology that has been developed as an alternative to these complicated and expensive systems. This paper describes this new technology and presents, as an example, a system that was installed and successfully commissioned in the middle of 2008 in a nuclear medicine ward with 12 beds in Stuttgart (Germany). Based on existing legislation, the responsible authorities and the company that operated the hospital agreed on a maximum activity level of 5 Bq/l. If a typical delay and decay system would have been installed, the 180 m3 treatment plant that was already available in the hospital cellar would have to be extended by additional 150 m3. By implementing the patented BioChroma process, the space requirements were reduced by 75%. For instance, since the new system was integrated into the existing installation, tanks accounting for 120 m³ could be used as buffering volume in the new wastewater treatment plant. The operation of the referred plant is currently producing very good results with values below the specified limit of 5 Bq/l for the isotope 131I. In addition, 90Y has been reported to be eliminated at the same time. Over the past 2 years of operation, the wastewater treatment plant has been able to achieve a maximum processing capacity of more than 2,000 l/day, which equates to a nuclear medicine ward with approx. 20 beds. The highest level recorded during the test period (of 180 days after start-up) was a peak of nearly 2,800 l/day. PMID:22942776

Rodríguez, José Canga

2012-01-01

261

Cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on enriched 111Cd and 112Cd for the production of 111In for use in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Proton induced nuclear reactions on enriched 111Cd and 112Cd have been studied up to 30 MeV in the context of routine production of the medically used isotope 111In with low and medium energy cyclotrons. The excitation functions of 111Cd(p,n)111m,gIn and 112Cd(p,2n)111m,gIn as production reactions and 111Cd(p,2n)110mIn, 111Cd(p,2n)110In, 111Cd(p,3n)109ml,m2,In, 112Cd(p,3n)110mIn, 112Cd(p,3n)110gIn as competing processes have been measured using the activation method involving the stacked-foil technique. The deduced thick target yields are compared with those obtained experimentally. PMID:8312883

Tárkányi, F; Szelecsényi, F; Kopecký, P; Molnár, T; Andó, L; Mikecz, P; Tóth, G Y; Rydl, A

1994-02-01

262

Automatic classification of DMSA scans using an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DMSA imaging is carried out in nuclear medicine to assess the level of functional renal tissue in patients. This study investigated the use of an artificial neural network to perform diagnostic classification of these scans. Using the radiological report as the gold standard, the network was trained to classify DMSA scans as positive or negative for defects using a representative sample of 257 previously reported images. The trained network was then independently tested using a further 193 scans and achieved a binary classification accuracy of 95.9%. The performance of the network was compared with three qualified expert observers who were asked to grade each scan in the 193 image testing set on a six point defect scale, from ‘definitely normal’ to ‘definitely abnormal’. A receiver operating characteristic analysis comparison between a consensus operator, generated from the scores of the three expert observers, and the network revealed a statistically significant increase (? < 0.05) in performance between the network and operators. A further result from this work was that when suitably optimized, a negative predictive value of 100% for renal defects was achieved by the network, while still managing to identify 93% of the negative cases in the dataset. These results are encouraging for application of such a network as a screening tool or quality assurance assistant in clinical practice.

Wright, J. W.; Duguid, R.; Mckiddie, F.; Staff, R. T.

2014-04-01

263

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project

2004-01-01

264

Vulnerable Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

Bochner, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

265

Behavioral Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…

Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

1982-01-01

266

Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.  

PubMed

Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

2013-05-01

267

Wilderness medicine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:25215140

Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

2014-01-01

268

Complementary medicine.  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care. PMID:9584661

Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

1998-01-01

269

Future of Thoracic PET Scanning.  

PubMed

The advances in PET scanning for thoracic diseases that are deemed most likely to have clinical impact in the near-term future are highlighted in this article. We predict that the current practice of medicine will continue to embrace the power of molecular imaging and specifically PET scanning. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scanning will continue to evolve and will expand into imaging of inflammatory disorders. New clinically available PET scan radiotracers, such as PET scan versions of octreotide and amyloid imaging agents, will expand PET imaging into different disease processes. Major improvements in thoracic PET/CT imaging technology will become available, including fully digital silicone photomultipliers and Bayesian penalized likelihood image reconstruction. These will result in significant improvements in image quality, improving the evaluation of smaller lung nodules and metastases and allowing better prediction of prognosis. The birth of clinical PET/MRI scan will add new imaging opportunities, such as better PET imaging of pleural diseases currently obscured by complex patient motion. PMID:25560859

Johnson, Geoffrey B; Peller, Patrick J; Kemp, Bradley J; Ryu, Jay H

2015-01-01

270

ADHD Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Learning & Emotional Problems > ... and the Mind How Therapy Can Help About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

271

Plasma medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different aspects of plasma medicine, the new branch interdisciplinary between plasma chemistry and medicine, are considered.\\u000a It was shown that complex biological processes in living tissues and bodies can be controlled, stimulated, catalyzed, and\\u000a diagnosed with the use of low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure air plasma. It was found that discharge plasma can produce\\u000a the desired therapeutic effect in wound sterilization and healing,

V. N. Vasilets; A. Gutsol; A. B. Shekhter; A. Fridman

2009-01-01

272

Medicine and Madison Avenue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the National Humanities Center, the Digital Scriptorium, and Duke University, this online exhibit examines "the complex relationship between modern medicine and modern advertising." Containing over 600 documents dating from 1913 to 1963, the collection contains different printed advertisements organized around categories such as personal and oral hygiene and household products. Perhaps the most compelling of these categories are the supplementary documents that include scanned images of internal reports from different marketing companies, along with editorials and articles from medical journals during the period. The site is rounded out with some suggestions on using these primary documents in the classroom, including materials for both teachers and students.

2002-01-01

273

(Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-01-01

274

Thyroid Function Tests  

MedlinePLUS

... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid include a thyroid ... scan. A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. Nuclear medicine uses small amounts of ...

275

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive  

E-print Network

linkage analysis; simulation; age of onset Introduction Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (MIM 164230ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Murphy, Dennis L.

276

Travel medicine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

2014-01-01

277

Medicine Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

278

Medicine Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

279

[Osteopathic medicine].  

PubMed

Osteopathy is originated in the 19th century in the United States. Andrew Taylor Still seek for an alternative medical system to the orthodox medicine largely empirical and advocating bloodletting, calomel, etc., all of which was resumed with terms like" heroic medicine". Osteopathy as other alternative medical practices (homeopathy, eclecticism, etc.) based on rational and metaphysical postulates as vitalism or the fact that man is a divinely ordained machine. Still's approach was essentially manual and based on manipulation of the joints. Today osteopaths challenge these dogmas and seek to agree their practice within scientific biomedical standards. Even if strong randomized clinical trials are lacking, several surveys report how osteopathy gained public notoriety. Several recent meta-analyses pinpoint the benefit of the spinal manipulative treatment and even if there is no evidence that such an approach is superior to other advocated therapies there is no evidence that these therapies are more effective than the first one. The major indications for such a treatment are cervical and low back pain, either chronic or acute. The quality of the relationship between the practitioner and patient together with the placebo effect are important components of a treatment effect. Osteopathic education is an important aspect and only higher education institutions, i.e. universities can achieve and maintain adequate standards. Materia medica and surgery represent the two major therapeutic mainstreams in medicine; osteopathy considered as manual medicine could be the third one. PMID:22034767

Klein, P; Lepers, Y; Salem, W

2011-09-01

280

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

281

Scanning type scintillation camera  

SciTech Connect

The effective area of observation of a scanning-type scintillation camera is expanded relative to the actual area scanned by shifting the position of a spatial window back and forth in the direction of scanning so that the sum of the window velocity and the velocity of actual scanning represents a predetermined scanning velocity.

Nagasawa, Y.

1981-06-16

282

Pregnancy and Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

283

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

284

Wilderness medicine.  

PubMed

Wilderness medicine is not a single entity. It encompasses clinical practice, instruction, and research as they pertain to wilderness settings. Clinical practice often takes place in removed settings far from traditional medical resources and facilities. Many of the conditions treated are unique to wilderness medicine. Decisions commonly are based on limited information. Practitioners of wilderness medicine must combine specialized training, resourcefulness, and improvisation. Instruction and research in wilderness medicine often are directed at clinical practice, with the focus on maximizing patient outcome. Preparation and planning are the best methods of reducing illness and injury; these involve conditioning and choosing clothing and equipment, including the medical kit. Conditioning should mimic the type of trip or activity, because choice will depend on the type, complexity, and duration of the trip, the anticipated environmental conditions, and specific needs of the group. Equipment should be designed for the type of activity, in good working condition, and familiar to the members of the group. The medical kit should include basic medical supplies, with additional supplies and equipment depending on the specific trip, the anticipated needs of the group, and their level of medical training and expertise. Once in the wilderness, the focus shifts from preparation and planning to prevention of illness and injury. This includes the use of safety equipment, appropriate shelter, water treatment, and location knowledge. The most common methods of water treatment are mechanical filters, chemicals, and heat. When an injury or illness does occur in the wilderness, proper assessment of the patient is essential to determine both the appropriate treatment and the need for evacuation to definitive care. This is best accomplished with an organized, systematic approach. The decision of what treatment should be initiated and if the patient requires evacuation to definitive care often is difficult. There are four phases of an SAR event: location, access, stabilization, and evacuation. Evacuation may require the assistance of organized search and rescue services. PMID:12687905

Townes, David Andrew

2002-12-01

285

Transfusion medicine  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

1986-01-01

286

Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians and scientists should be actively engaged in fundamental and applied research designed to ensure that it is safe for humans to routinely and repeatedly stay and work in the microgravity environment of space.

Pool, Sam L.

2000-01-01

287

Atlas of duplex scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents the first atlas devoted entirely to duplex scanning. It details the uses of this important ''up-and-coming'' diagnostic tool for vascular and general surgeons and radiologists. It also covers scanning of the extremities, as well as the carotoids. The topics also covered are correlative line drawings elaborate and clarify the excellent scan images; the principles of duplex scanning

J. J. Cranley; W. S. Karkow

1987-01-01

288

Herbal Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.

Powers, Cheryl

2009-01-01

289

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

290

Paralympic medicine.  

PubMed

Paralympic medicine describes the health-care issues of those 4500 or so athletes who gather every 4 years to compete in 20 sports at the Summer Paralympic Games and in five sports at the Winter Paralympic Games. Paralympic athletes compete within six impairment groups: amputation or limb deficiencies, cerebral palsy, spinal cord-related disability, visual impairment, intellectual impairment, or a range of physically impairing disorders that do not fall into the other classification categories, known as les autres. The variety of impairments, many of which are severe, fluctuating, or progressive disorders (and are sometimes rare), makes maintenance of health in thousands of Paralympians while they undertake elite competition an unusual demand on health-care resources. The increased physical fitness of athletes with disabilities has important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction in a population for whom the prevalence of risk factors can be high. PMID:22770458

Webborn, Nick; Van de Vliet, Peter

2012-07-01

291

Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

2012-05-01

292

Preventing HIV with Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

293

National Farm Medicine Center  

MedlinePLUS

Farm Medicine, Rural Health & Safety National Farm Medicine Center Established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic, the National Farm Medicine Center ...

294

Managing Your Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Apr 22,2014 If you have heart ... Tools & Resources NEW from Heart Insight: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

295

Storing medicine safely  

MedlinePLUS

Medicine storage ... actually one of the worst places to keep medicine. Bathroom cabinets tend to be warm and humid, ... Being exposed to heat and moisture can make medicines less potent before their expiration date. For example, ...

296

Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

297

school of medicine school of medicine  

E-print Network

model in medical education. #12;school of medicine "Ultrasound technology is changing the future of medicine. The School of Medicine is a global leader in introducing ultrasound training into the medical in the nation to incorporate ultrasound training into all four years of medical education. Our partnership

Almor, Amit

298

Scanning the Conservation Horizon  

E-print Network

.S. Geological Survey Fundamental Science Practices. Scanning the Conservation Horizon is available online at Sciences Evan Girvetz, The Nature Conservancy Patty Glick, National Wildlife Federation John GrossScanning the Conservation Horizon A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment #12;Scanning

299

Electrooptical scanning of film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scan-in scan-out flying spot scanning system recognizes three different levels of transmissivity within a frame. It selectively acts on these levels either to intensify the illumination or to extend the duration of the illuminating spot to any picture element. Thus it improves the ratio of signal to tube noise in the cameras output.

Billingsley, F. C.; Volkoff, J. J.

1969-01-01

300

Magnetism in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing the weak magnetic fields generated by brain and cardiac activity, are currently under investigation.

Schenck, John

2000-03-01

301

Dance Medicine: Current Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dance medicine has grown exponentially over the past 10 to 15 years and continues to grow every year as more former professional dancers and stu- dents of dance enter into the field of medicine. Dance medicine is part of the field of performing arts medicine, which specializes in evaluating and treat- ing performing artists such as musicians, dancers, actors\\/actresses, and

Clay Miller

2006-01-01

302

Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy as the cause of a super scan of the bone in a patient with prostate cancer: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prostate cancer is known to have a tendency to metastasize to bone. Skeletal scintigraphy can be used to show multiple lesions. Diffuse metastasis, which is not infrequent in prostate cancer, can also be suspected on the basis of a 'super scan'. However, this phenomenon in nuclear medicine has several other causes that need to be considered. Case presentation A patient with a history of prostate cancer presented with pleural fluid, peripheral edema and bone pain. A super scan of the bone was found which suggested diffuse skeletal metastasis of the prostate cancer but the patient also had a prostate specific antigen level which was not compatible with this diagnosis. Further investigations revealed the paraneoplastic phenomenon of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, related to an incurable carcinoma of the lung, to be the cause of the super scan. Conclusion A super scan is characterized by a high bone to soft tissue ratio on skeletal scintigraphy, with a uniform symmetrical increase in bone uptake and diminished to absent renal visualization ('absent kidney sign'). It can be seen in a variety of diseases in which there is a diffusely increased bone turnover. Diffuse skeletal metastasis of a well-differentiated prostate carcinoma is unlikely to be the cause of a super scan when the prostate specific antigen level is not elevated. This is the first report of a super scan due to pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy which can be seen in lung carcinoma and other pulmonary diseases. PMID:18394199

Kanen, Boris LJ; Loffeld, Ruud JLF

2008-01-01

303

Structural MRI scan Functional MRI scan  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL IMAGING LABORATORY www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk MRI INFORMATION #12;MRI is short for Magnetic Resonance scans take place in a strong magnetic field. Therefore no metallic items can be taken into the scanner and credit cards in the lockers provided. Clothing should be loose and comfortable (not sports or `technical

Zeki, Semir

304

A study on evaluation of the dependences of the function and the shape in a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan on the difference in acquisition count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a nuclear medicine examination, methods to acquire a static image include the preset count method and the preset time method. The preset count method is used mainly in a static renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA (dimoercaptosuccinic acid) whereas the preset time method is used occasionally. When the preset count method is used, the same number of acquisition counts is acquired for each time, but the scan time varies. When the preset time method is used, the scan time is constant, but the number of counts acquired is not the same. Therefore, this study examined the dependence of the difference in information on the function and the shape of both sides of the kidneys on the counts acquired during a renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA. The study involved patients who had 40-60% relative function of one kidney among patients who underwent a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan in the Nuclear Medicine Department during the period from January 11 to March 31, 2012. A gamma camera was used to obtain the acquisition count continuously using 100,000 counts and 300,000 counts, and an acquisition time of 7 minutes (exceeding 300,000 counts). The function and the shape of the kidney were evaluated by measuring the relative function of both sides of the kidneys, the geometric mean, and the size of kidney before comparative analysis. According to the study results, neither the relative function nor the geometric mean of both sides of the kidneys varied significantly with the acquisition count. On the other hand, the size of the kidney tended to be larger with increasing acquisition count.

Dong, Kyung-Rae; Shim, Dong-Oh; Kim, Ho-Sung; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

2013-02-01

305

Nuclear analytical chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

1984-01-01

306

Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).  

PubMed

Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark; Garcia, Ernest V

2014-08-01

307

Modelling of the relationship between cell dimensions and mean electron dose delivered to the cell nucleus: application to five radionuclides used in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The mean dose delivered to the cell nucleus by electron emissions of 99Tcm, 123I, 111In, 67Ga and 201Tl was evaluated at the subcellular level. Models were applied assuming uniform distributions of radioactivity throughout the nucleus, the cytoplasm or the cell membrane, allowing computation of the total absorbed fraction, phi and S-values to the cell nucleus as a function of cell dimensions. The graphs of phi plotted according to cell dimensions show that the dose to the cell nucleus strongly depends on the subcellular distribution of radioactivity, the nucleus radius Rnucl and the cytoplasmic thickness e. For a nuclear distribution, phi ranges from 0.1 to 0.35 for the radionuclides studied and S from 0.049 cGy Bq-1 s-1 to 5.503 cGy Bq-1 s-1. In the case of a cell membrane localization, the maximum is obtained for 123I (phi = 0.016). For a cytoplasmic distribution, the maximum is obtained for 201Tl with a value of 0.036. To ease future calculations, third-degree polynomials have been separately fitted to the relationship between the mean absorbed dose to the nucleus for activity accumulated in the nucleus, cytoplasm or surface of the cell membrane. We found a good agreement between our computations and the values obtained by the polynomials. The relative difference between the two methods is always less than 0.7%, 2.8% and 4.5% respectively for nuclear, cell membrane and cytoplasmic distributions. PMID:7659726

Gardin, I; Faraggi, M; Huc, E; Bok, B D

1995-06-01

308

Scan Software 1 Introduction  

E-print Network

manual. Run the instruction daqhwinfo('nidaq') from the command line to check if Matlab recognizesScan Software 1 Introduction Scan is a graphical user interface designed to control a confocal of the manual, Section 2 to 4, gives general information about the software. Any general user should read

Alford, Simon

309

Side Scan Sonar  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A view of the Klein  side scan sonar instrument.  Side scan sonar is a type of technology used to interpret seabed features, material, and textures from acoustic backscatter response intensity. In this application the instrument (towfish) is towed by a cable aft of the vessel. Once activa...

310

Optical Scanning Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

Wagner, Hans

311

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

SEM (Scanning electron Microscope) image of a vesicular ash particle erupted by Augustine volcano on January 13, 2006. The ash sample was collected during the ashfall in Homer, Alaska by John Paskievitch, AVO. The image was acquired by Pavel Izbekov using ISI-40 Scanning Electron Microscope at the A...

312

NMR Imaging in Medicine: History, Principles and Prospects  

PubMed Central

The history of applications of nuclear magnetic resonance to biology and medicine is reviewed, with emphasis on medical imaging. The basic principles are presented, along with some notes on possible future developments.

Lauterbur, Paul C.

1983-01-01

313

Alternative and Integrative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on ... organization does he/she represent? (A business? A college or university? A nonprofit organization?) What is his/ ...

314

Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... are not part of conventional medical training — like acupuncture, massage therapy, or herbal medicine. People used to ... their treatments. For example, the TCM practice of acupuncture may be combined with herbal medicine (a biologically ...

315

Using Medicines Wisely  

MedlinePLUS

... Braille Printers and Refreshable Braille (DOCX - 20KB) Use Medicines Wisely Print and Share (PDF 2.43MB) En ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...

316

Society for Vascular Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... 31- Jan2. Updated! Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine December 2014 Carotid artery disease More info for ... Learn more. Trending Now: Hot Topics in Vascular Medicine Video Series! Fibromuscular Dysplasia (FMD) with Drs. Jeffrey ...

317

HIV/AIDS Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

318

Chronic Pain Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Chronic Pain | Chronic Pain Medicines How is chronic pain treated? Treatment of chronic ... or she tells you how to use your pain medicine. If you have questions about side effects or ...

319

Medicines for osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density measures the amount of bone tissue ...

320

Medicines: Use Them Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... and the way it should be used. Generic drugs usually cost less. If you want a generic drug, ask ... choices or special programs to help with the cost of certain drugs. Avoid mixing alcohol and medicine. Some medicines may ...

321

Resonant scanning mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. developed a Resonant Scanning Mechanism (RSM) capable of combining a 250- Hz resonant scan about one axis with a two-hertz triangular scan about the orthogonal axis. The RSM enables a rapid, high-density scan over a significant field of regard (FOR) while minimizing size, weight, and power requirements. The azimuth scan axis is bearing mounted allowing for 30° of mechanical travel, while the resonant elevation axis is flexure and spring mounted with five degrees of mechanical travel. Pointing-knowledge error during quiescent static pointing at room temperature across the full range is better than 100 ?rad RMS per axis. The compact design of the RSM, roughly the size of a soda can, makes it an ideal mechanism for use on low-altitude aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles. Unique aspects of the opto-mechanical design include i) resonant springs which allow for a high-frequency scan axis with low power consumption; and ii) an independent lower-frequency scan axis allowing for a wide FOR. The pointing control system operates each axis independently and employs i) a position loop for the azimuth axis; and ii) a unique combination of parallel frequency and amplitude control loops for the elevation axis. All control and pointing algorithms are hosted on a 200-MHz microcontroller with 516 KB of RAM on a compact 3"×4" digital controller, also of Ball design.

Wallace, John; Newman, Mike; Gutierrez, Homero; Hoffman, Charlie; Quakenbush, Tim; Waldeck, Dan; Leone, Christopher; Ostaszewski, Miro

2014-10-01

322

A MARTINGALE APPROACH TO SCAN STATISTICS VLADIMIR POZDNYAKOV, JOSEPH GLAZ,  

E-print Network

A MARTINGALE APPROACH TO SCAN STATISTICS VLADIMIR POZDNYAKOV, JOSEPH GLAZ, MARTIN KULLDORFF, AND J medicine (Ene- mark et al. (2002)), forestry (Coulston and Riitters (2003)), crime hot-spot analysis Joseph and Sankoff (2003), Goldstein and Waterman (1992), Karlin and Brendel (1992), Naus and Sheng (1997), and Sheng

Steele, J. Michael

323

The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society  

E-print Network

The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society A free, four-day short course on nuclear physics and public policy for anyone who wants to better understand nuclear power nuclear weapons P.M. Applications of Nuclear Physics on Earth: Nuclear power, weapons, and nuclear medicine. Topics

Gilfoyle, Jerry

324

Scanning Probe Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, this hour-long activity has students "simulate the function of a scanning probe microscope" by creating their own scanning probe microscope (SPM) boxes. The Teacher's Guide contains everything the instructor needs to carry out the lesson: goals and objectives, advanced preparation notes, safety considerations, materials, questions, and even variations for different classrooms. The Student Worksheet walks students through the activity by having them begin by making a prediction, giving the procedures, providing space to record observations, and asking open questions for students to respond to. This is a ready-to-use activity for classrooms looking to explore nanotechnology and scanning probe microscopes.

2009-04-14

325

Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry  

E-print Network

#12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation

Thomas, David D.

326

Behavioral sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the knowledge base in sleep disorders medicine has broadened, a subspecialty that we will refer to as “behavioral sleep medicine” area is emerging. This article will define this subspecialty area, provide some historical context for its emergence, review issues related to specialty training and clinical practice, and suggest needs for future research.The term “behavioral sleep medicine” was selected because

Edward J Stepanski; Michael L Perlis

2000-01-01

327

Performing Narrative Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

Langellier, Kristin M.

2009-01-01

328

Medicines By Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication discusses the many different ways medicines work in the body and how this information guides the hunt for drugs of the future. The science of pharmacology--understanding the basics of how our bodies react to medicines and how medicines affect our bodies--is already a vital part of 21st-century research. Pharmacology is a broad…

Davis, Alison

2006-01-01

329

Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy  

DOEpatents

Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

2006-07-11

330

Breast PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

Breast positron emission tomography; PET - breast; PET - tumor imaging - breast ... M, Osman S, Marano G, Abraham J. Role of positron-emission tomography scan in the diagnosis and management of breast ...

331

Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

2010-01-01

332

Scanning thermal plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C\\/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots

F. L. Scarpace; R. P. Madding; T. Green

1975-01-01

333

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use a virtual scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to observe electron behavior in an atomic-scale world. Walk through the principles of this technology step-by-step. First learn how the STM works. Then try it yourself! Use a virtual STM to manipulate individual atoms by scanning for, picking up, and moving electrons. Finally, explore the advantages and disadvantages of the two modes of an STM: the constant-height mode and the constant-current mode.

2012-07-19

334

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a general technique which combines the temporal resolution of ultrafast laser spectroscopy with the spatial resolution of scanned probe microscopy (SPM). Using this technique with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), they have obtained simultaneous 2 ps time resolution and 50 {angstrom} spatial resolution. This improves the time resolution currently attainable with STM by nine orders of magnitude. The potential of this powerful technique for studying ultrafast dynamical phenomena on surfaces with atomic resolution is discussed.

Botkin, D.; Weiss, S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Salmeron, M.; Chemla, D.S.

1994-01-01

335

Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.  

PubMed

Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

1994-01-01

336

Essential medicines for children.  

PubMed

Millions of children die every year before they reach the age of 5?years, of conditions largely treatable with existing medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was launched in 1977 to make the most necessary drugs available to populations whose basic health needs could not be met by the existing supply system. During the first 30?years of the Model List of Essential Medicines, children's needs were not systematically considered. After adoption of the 'Better medicines for children' resolution by the World Health Assembly, things changed. The first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was drawn up by a Paediatric Expert Subcommittee and adopted in October 2007. The most recent, 4th Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was adopted in 2013. Data from country surveys show that access to essential medicines for children is still generally poor; much more work is needed. PMID:25613966

Hoppu, Kalle; Sri Ranganathan, Shalini

2015-02-01

337

Medicine: science or art?  

PubMed

Debate over the status of medicine as an Art or Science continues. The aim of this paper is to discuss the meaning of Art and Science in terms of medicine, and to find out to what extent they have their roots in the field of medical practice. What is analysed is whether medicine is an "art based on science"; or, the "art of medicine" has lost its sheen (what with the rapid advancements of science in course of time, which has made present day medicine more sophisticated). What is also analysed is whether the "science of medicine" is a pure one, or merely applied science; or the element of science in it is full of uncertainty, simply because what is accepted as "scientific" today is discarded by medical practitioners tomorrow in the light of newer evidence. The paper also briefly touches upon how, in the field of present medical education, the introduction of medical humanities or humanistic education has the potential to swing the pendulum of medicine more towards the lost "art of medicine".The paper concludes by saying that the art and science of medicine are complementary. For successful practice, a doctor has to be an artist armed with basic scientific knowledge in medicine. PMID:22013337

Panda, S C

2006-01-01

338

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

339

Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

1998-11-01

340

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1988-02-05

341

Scanning computed confocal imager  

DOEpatents

There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

George, John S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-03-14

342

Scanning Hall probe microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the implementation of a scanning Hall probe microscope of outstanding magnetic field sensitivity (˜0.1 G) and unprecedented spatial resolution (˜0.35 ?m) to detect surface magnetic fields at close proximity to a sample. Our microscope combines the advantages of a submicron Hall probe fabricated on a GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructure chip and the scanning tunneling microscopy technique for precise positioning. We demonstrate its usefulness by imaging individual vortices in high Tc La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 films and superconducting networks, and magnetic bubble domains.

Chang, A. M.; Hallen, H. D.; Harriott, L.; Hess, H. F.; Kao, H. L.; Kwo, J.; Miller, R. E.; Wolfe, R.; van der Ziel, J.; Chang, T. Y.

1992-10-01

343

Ethics in sports medicine.  

PubMed

Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

2007-05-01

344

Clinical Space Medicine Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

345

THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN  

E-print Network

consults, primary care, acupuncture, naturopathic medicine, nutrition counseling, health psychologyTHE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE NORTHWESTERN INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

Contractor, Anis

346

Medicine, Technology and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medical science is intimately tied to our view of ourselves and our bodies. Traditional Chinese medicine is based upon a different world view than is Western medicine. Yet, ancient Chinese techniques such as acupunture, meditation and the use of herbal medications are influencing health care in contemporary America. How are we to understand and evaluate these alternative approaches to healing? In this unit students are asked to compare and contrast traditional Chinese and contemporary Western approaches to medicine, to bring a rational and scientific approach to the evaluation of alternative medicines, and to develop a view of medical practices as technologies with historical and cultural, as well as scientific, components.

David Form (Minuteman Tech. REV)

1994-07-30

347

Glimpses of Islamic medicine.  

PubMed

The fall of the Roman Empire during the fifth century A.D. Ushered in the beginning of the Dark Ages. After this, in Europe further progress of Greco-Roman medicine originated from Hippocrates was halted. The ideas about medicine and hygiene were kept alive in monasteries only. The Arabs made advances in medicine at a time when the rest of Europe was in the Dark Ages. Islamic system or the rulers of the day actively encouraged scholarship and growth of knowledge. The Islamic gift of the day to the world of medicine was simply unique. PMID:12572570

Majumdar, S K

1997-07-01

348

Traditional medicine and genomics  

PubMed Central

‘Omics’ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics. PMID:21829298

Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

2010-01-01

349

Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans  

SciTech Connect

Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The overall sensitivity in the detection of interval changes, including both hot and cold lesions evaluated by use of the resubstitution and the leave-one-case-out methods, were 95.3%, with 5.97 false positives per view, and 83.2% with 6.02, respectively. The temporal subtraction image for successive whole-body bone scans has the potential to enhance the interval changes between two images, which also can be quantified. Furthermore, the CAD scheme for the detection of interval changes by use of temporal subtraction images would be useful in assisting radiologists' interpretation on successive bone scan images.

Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-01-15

350

Stroboscopic scanning electron microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

High frequency cyclic voltages on a specimen surface have been studied pictorially, in the scanning electron microscope, by applying the principle of the sampling oscilloscope. The electron beam in the microscope column is pulsed, and the phase varied with respect to that of the waveform on the specimen. With 10 ns electron probe pulse length, a microcircuit voltage distribution, which

G S Plows; W C Nixon

1968-01-01

351

Virtual Scanning Electron Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Florida State University features an interactive Java tutorial that explores various aspects of virtual scanning electron microscopy. Users can see how specimens appear when magnified in the virtual SEM. The site also features an image gallery and extensive information about different types of microscopy.

Michael W. Davidson

352

Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy  

DOEpatents

An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

1995-05-16

353

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Physics Department at Davidson College presents an overview of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) as well as the results of an experiment conducted by the authors. They discuss the construction of two different types of probe tips and their use for imaging graphite and molybdenum disulfide. A section of images they obtained using the STM is also included.

John A. Cowan Jr.

354

Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a ... that measures air and blood flow in your lungs. A VQ scan most often is used to ...

355

(New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

We continue to use and maintain PCR-I, the single-slice high- resolution high-sensitivity positron emission tomograph, while development proceeds on PCR-II, a three-dimensional PET system. A two-dimensional BGO scintillation detector has been designed and we are nearing completion of the detector, including the light guide, crystals and phototube assembly, and the gantry electronics. We are currently exploring techniques for a very high resolution (sub-mm) PET imaging system. We are using the current PCR-I system to assess changes in presynaptic dopamine receptors and glucose utilization in current biological models of Huntington's disease. Our preliminary studies support the use of the primate (Cynomolgus monkey) model of Huntington's disease to monitor in vivo functional changes. We are planning to extend this study to examine the MPTP model of Parkinson disease, and to assess the therapeutic value of D{sub 1} dopamine receptor agonists for treatment of MPTP-induced neurological defects. 13 refs., 5 figs. (MHB)

Not Available

1991-01-01

356

[Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].  

PubMed

This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. PMID:25242173

Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

2014-01-01

357

(New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

Further progress has been made on improving the uniformity and stability of PCR-I, the single ring analog coded tomograph. This camera has been employed in a wide range of animal studies described below. Data from PCR-I have been used in various image processing procedures. These include motion pictures of dog heart, comparison of PET and MRI image in dog heart and rat brain and quantitation of tumor metabolism in the nude mouse using blood data from heart images. A SUN workstation with TAAC board has been used to produce gated three-dimensional images of the dog heart. The ANALYZE program from the Mayo Clinic has also been mounted on a SUN workstation for comparison of images and image processing. 15 refs., 6 figs.

Not Available

1990-01-01

358

Nuclear medicine and the infected joint replacement.  

PubMed

Nearly 700,000 hip and knee arthroplasties are performed annually in the United States. Although the results in most cases are excellent, implants do fail. Complications like heterotopic ossification, fracture, and dislocation are now relatively rare and easily diagnosed. Differentiating aseptic loosening, the most common cause of prosthetic joint failure, from infection, is important because their treatments are very different. Unfortunately, differentiating between these 2 entities can be challenging. Clinical signs of infection often are absent. Increased peripheral blood leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels are neither sensitive nor specific for infection. Joint aspiration with Gram stain and culture is the definitive diagnostic test. Its specificity is in excess of 90%; its sensitivity is variable, however, ranging from 28% to 92%. Plain radiographs are neither sensitive nor specific and cross-sectional imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, can be limited by hardware-induced artifacts. Radionuclide imaging is not affected by orthopedic hardware and is the current imaging modality of choice for suspected joint replacement infection. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive for identifying the failed joint replacement, but cannot be used to determine the cause of failure. Neither periprosthetic uptake patterns nor performing the test as a 3-phase study significantly improve accuracy, which is only about 50-70%. Thus, bone scintigraphy typically is used as a screening test or in conjunction with other radionuclide studies. Combined bone gallium imaging, with an accuracy of 65-80%, offers only modest improvement over bone scintigraphy alone. Presently, combined leukocyte/marrow imaging, with approximately 90% accuracy, is the radionuclide imaging procedure of choice for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection. In vivo leukocyte labeling techniques have shown promise for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection; their role in prosthetic joint infection has not been established. (111)In-labeled polyclonal immunoglobulin lacks specificity. (99m)Tc-ciprofloaxicin does not consistently differentiate infection from aseptic inflammation. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has been extensively investigated; its value in the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection is debatable. PMID:19038601

Love, Charito; Marwin, Scott E; Palestro, Christopher J

2009-01-01

359

Research Directions in Emergency Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the Research Directions Conference, Atlanta, January 1995. This Consensus document is being published simultaneously in Academic Emergency Medicine, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Annals of Emergency Medicine, and Journal of Emergency Medicine.[Research Directions Conference: Research directions in emergency medicine. Ann Emerg Med March 1996;27:339-342.

Richard V Aghababian; William G Barsan; William H Bickell; Michelle H Biros; Charles G Brown; Charles B Cairns; Michael L Callaham; Donna L Carden; William H Cordell; Richard C Dart; Steven C Dronen; Herbert G Garrison; Lewis R Goldfrank; Jerris R Hedges; Gabor D Kelen; Arthur L Kellermann; Lawrence M Lewis; Robert J Lewis; Louis J Ling; John A Marx; John B McCabe; Arthur B Sanders; David L Schriger; David P Sklar; Terrence D Valenzuela; Joseph F Waeckerle; Robert L Wears; J. Douglas White; Robert J Zalenski

1996-01-01

360

A simple way to distinguish bed clothing contamination in a whole body bone scan: a case report  

PubMed Central

Whole body bone scan with Technetium-99m MDP (methylene diphosphate) can detect bony lesions due to altered osteoblastic activity. Non-physiologic or increased radiotracer uptake in the bony structures of patients with a history of malignant diseases is usually interpreted as being suspicious of bone metastasis. It is extremely important to properly distinguish false positive sites of Tc-99m MDP localization. We present three patients with the same pattern of Tc-99m MDP abnormality in different locations. These scans were all performed on the same day to evaluate possible bone metastases in three patients with breast carcinoma. After careful examination, repeated images revealed bed clothing contamination. This is different from bed contamination by displacement among different patients. It is also different from detector contamination by limited area of involvement where detector contamination appears as a line throughout the total body projection. It can be helpful if a nuclear medicine specialist has a brief look at all scans prior to reporting them. In cases where the same pattern of abnormality is repeated in all images, the possibility of technical error such as bed clothing contamination rather than a pathological abnormality should be borne in mind. PMID:18053241

Assadi, Majid; Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Ahari, Mojgan Nazar; Nabipour, Iraj; Gheisari, Farshid; Shahbaz, Shabnam; Baghaei, Reza; Assadi, Sakineh

2007-01-01

361

MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556743

Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V.V.; Pal, R.S.; Mishra, R.N.

1996-01-01

362

Muthi to medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited commercial opportunity for bioprospecting for isolated pure natural compounds or their derivatives from plants for novel pharmaceuticals is discussed. A broad overview of the key research inputs involved in the commercialisation of indigenous medicinal plants as botanical medicines is given to assist young researchers in contextualising research from an industry perspective, and to encourage university–industry collaboration. Compliance with

N. Gericke

363

Az-Tech Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created in 1552 as a gift for Spain's king, the Badianus Manuscript is a repository of Aztec traditional medicinal knowledge and contains the earliest surviving illustrations of New World plants. At the College of Santa Cruz (Mexico City) for Aztec nobility, an Aztec healer who became the college physician compiled plant descriptions and medicinal

Nicholson, Rob

2000-01-01

364

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25359743

2014-11-01

365

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25081876

2014-08-01

366

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic Pathology November 21st MDCL ­ 3020 2:00 ­ 3:00 pm Dr. J. Waye McMaster University CSI Pathology: Confirmation

Haykin, Simon

367

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25655541

2015-02-01

368

[Medicine on demand?].  

PubMed

Modern medicine has left its central purpose to heal patients and has developed into a mere instrumental discipline which sees its central aim as fulfilling wishes instead of relieving suffering or treating illness. Aesthetic surgery is one of the many examples of such a transformation of modern medicine. This paper starts from the concept of medicine as a promise to help people who are suffering and who are in need of help. This aim of helping defines medicine. When it abandons this aim and merely fulfills wishes, medicine becomes a mere enterprise. Such a transformation is not illegal, but it will lose the notion of medicine as a moral institution based on trust. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Acting ethically means above all acting in the interest of the patient. One must therefore ask whether offering aesthetic interventions is really acting in the interest of the patient. Many arguments are presented to show that the interest of the patient and the moral integrity of medicine are in danger if medicine makes wish-fulfilling and aesthetics into one of its main tasks. PMID:17940934

Maio, G

2007-10-01

369

Preventive Medicine Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

Moore, George

1981-01-01

370

Medicines from Marine Invertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

Davies-Coleman, Mike

2011-01-01

371

Handheld Computing in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use

Sandra Fischer; Thomas E Stewart; Sangeeta Mehta; Randy Wax; Stephen E Lapinsky

2003-01-01

372

Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the six issues of the "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" issued during 1995. The newsletter addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Issues typically include feature articles, interviews with doctors in the field of wilderness medicine, product reviews, notices of…

Weber, Holly, Ed.; Thompson, Ken, Ed.

1995-01-01

373

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25573870

2015-01-10

374

Bioprospecting: Medicine Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The thought provoking interview reflects on how it is crucial to protect biodiversity because nature can provide: medicines from natural products, new antiobiotics and organisms that fight antiobiotic resistance, models for medical research, and knowledge about how all living things depend on each other.The interview is accompanied by excerpts from Dr. Plotkin's book, Medicine Quest: In Search of Nature's Healing Secrets.

Mark Plotkin (Amazon Conservation Team;)

2000-10-01

375

TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807

Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

1997-01-01

376

Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Sold Diabetes Treatments Women's Health Publications Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Diabetes can make it hard to control ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

377

The Scanning Photogrammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proposes a new photogrammetry method, the scanning photogrammetry, to solve the problem that large targets can hardly be processed as a whole one in close-range photogrammetry. The method enlarges the view angle and intersection angle effectively by rotating camera in horizontal and vertical direction when photographing large targets. Meanwhile, it is a kind of multi-baseline photogrammetry which increases matching reliability and improves the quality and quantity of observations. Besides, in order to acquire images automatically, we develop the photograph scanner which ensures the efficiency and quality of photography. And the scanning photogrammetry system has been successfully used in deformation monitoring of Wumen Circumvallation in the Forbidden City. In the experiments, data is processed automatically by classical triangulation and self-calibration bundle adjustment. The result proves that the precision can meet with the deformation monitoring requirements and data processing efficiency accomplishes to engineering measurement applications.

Ke, T.; Zhang, Z. X.; Huang, S.

2012-07-01

378

Scanning electrochemical microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H+\\/H2 redox couple was investigated as a mediator system for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with proton reduction from a 0.01 M HClO4 solution at a Pt tip. The feedback behavior of the mediator was examined at different substrates (Pt, Au). Unlike the one-electron outer-sphere redox couples usually used as mediators in SECM, this mediator system is sensitive to the

Junfeng Zhou; Yanbing Zu; Allen J Bard

2000-01-01

379

College of Medicine MED Internal Medicine  

E-print Network

GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE, UK AND VAH MED 852 DERMATOLOGY-SECTION 1 MED 856 NEPHROLOGY, BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM and Promotions Committee. Approved electives: MED 850 CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM, ADULT MED 851 MED 857 PULMONARY MEDICINE MED 858 CARDIOLOGY-UK MED 860 INFECTIOUS DISEASES MED 862 CARDIOLOGY

MacAdam, Keith

380

Bone scans in neuroblastoma.  

PubMed

Eighty-Six patients of neuroblastoma ranging in age from four months to 15 years were studied with 99m Tc-MDP for total skeletal survey over a period of seven years (1983-1990). The diagnosis of neuroblastoma was based on bone marrow examination, FNAC, lymph node biopsy, histopathology. Bone imaging was performed three hrs. after intravenous administration of 99m Tc-MDP. Out of 86 patients, 45 patients had positive bone scan showing osseous concentration in 122 sites and extraosseous concentration in 34 sites. Seven patients had liver metastases. None of these liver metastases showed concentration of MDP. Fourteen patients underwent surgery for the primary tumour at the time of bone scanning. Ten patients were studied at the time of follow up, of which four patients showed good response as bony metastases were not demonstrated on bone scintigraphy and X-rays. In conclusion, bone scan is an useful test in neuroblastoma in delineating the bony metastases and also in assessing the efficacy of chemotherapy in these patients. PMID:8500809

Bhogate, B M; Samuel, A M; Ramanathan, P

1993-03-01

381

Scanning holographic lidar telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

1993-01-01

382

Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

Keeley, R. H.

1983-03-01

383

[Evidence-based medicine].  

PubMed

Evidence-based medicine has been described as a new approach to teaching and practicing clinical medicine. Although the search for evidence is an established practice among physicians, what is being proposed is the systematic gathering and critical interpretation of data, which can then be used in the appropriate context. The main objective is to provide better care for patients. This is accomplished by transforming clinical problems in specific questions to be answered by searching the literature for the levels of evidence favoring the possible interventions for one particular case. This has to be done in a systematic and conscientious fashion. Through its method, evidence-based medicine places less value on clinical experience, the study understanding of pathophysiology, and common sense; instead, it emphasizes observation, levels of evidence, and critical interpretation of original literature. In this manner, evidence-based medicine may be seen by the authoritarian physician as a threat. Other obstacles to the acceptance of the method include lack of time and lack of familiarity with computers. One important limitation of evidence-based medicine is the incomplete or contradictory evidence available in many areas of clinical medicine, or the so-called "grey zones". We outline the main aspects of evidence-based medicine, expecting a growing interest among brazilian physicians for this useful clinical tool. PMID:8762653

Saad, E D; Grunspun, H

1996-01-01

384

Introduction to nuclear physics.  

PubMed

Photons for counting or imaging applications in nuclear medicine result from several processes. Gamma rays are produced from excited state transitions after beta decay and electron capture. Annihilation photons result from positron decay. The de-excitation of the atom after electron capture results in the production of characteristic x rays or Auger electrons. Metastable state transitions result in gamma ray emission or internal conversion electrons. All radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine applications are tagged with radionuclides that emit photons as a result of one of these processes. PMID:9672982

Patton, J A

1998-01-01

385

Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

Clagett, Craig A.

386

MedicineNet.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MedicineNet, Inc., a Web-based healthcare publishing company, offers "easy-to-read, in-depth, authoritative medical information for consumers via its robust, user-friendly, interactive website." MedicineNet.com is similar to other online resources like WebMD and MEDLINEplus, designed to help readers make informed decisions about their health. In addition to basic background information on everything from allergies to urology, MedicineNet.com offers the latest health-related news, physicians" views on various topics, timely and relevant health facts (e.g. flu vaccination information), and much more.

387

Individualized pain medicine  

PubMed Central

Since the first draft of the human genome was published 10 years ago, scientists have tried to develop new treatment strategies for various types of diseases based on individual genomes. It is called personalized (or individualized) medicine and is expected to increase efficacy and reduce adverse reactions of drugs. Much progress has been made with newly developed technologies, though individualized pain medicine is still far from realization. Efforts on the integrative genomic analyses along with understandings of interactions between other related factors such as environment will eventually translate complex genomic information into individualized pain medicine. PMID:21399745

Kim, Hyungsuk; Dionne, Raymond A.

2010-01-01

388

American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine  

E-print Network

© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine The following product has been developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Copyright © 2003 American Academy of Sleep: (708) 492-0943 Visit Us at www.aasmnet.org #12;© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy

Goldman, Steven A.

389

Veterinary Medicine 2 | Veterinary Medicine University of Saskatchewan  

E-print Network

Veterinary Medicine #12;2 | Veterinary Medicine University of Saskatchewan The Western College notices Mid-June #12;University of Saskatchewan Veterinary Medicine | 3 WHY VETERINARY MEDICINE of Saskatchewan -- the only Canadian university with a full complement of health sciences colleges and schools

Saskatchewan, University of

390

College of Medicine, Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry  

E-print Network

College of Medicine, Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry Present 46th Annual Family Medicine Review Course and the 7th Family Medicine/Psychiatry CME Conference SPEAKING THE SAME LANGUAGE: Physicians in Family Practice and Psychiatry; Nurses and Nurse Practitioners serving patients in the same

Cui, Yan

391

College of Medicine RBM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation  

E-print Network

medicine and rehabilitation that encompasses primarily musculoskeletal disorders such as low back pain, chronic pain, sports medicine and amputee clinic. In addition, the medical student will be exposedCollege of Medicine RBM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation KEY: # = new course * = course changed

MacAdam, Keith

392

Global TechnoScan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global TechnoScan is a weekly online magazine that keeps track of new technologies, research and development breakthroughs, and "science and technology policy." The publication does not have a central theme or focus; rather, it takes some of the most interesting, cutting edge issues from a variety of disciplines and groups them together for quick reference. Each issue contains roughly 40 articles, many of which deal with low-key research that would likely not be widely publicized. Both industry and academia are represented.

393

Scanning Electron Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Science Learning Network, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Web site explores what an SEM is, how it's used, and what images it can produce. The How It Works section has a self-paced tutorial and an interesting movie describing how it functions as well. The other section for students is the image gallery, which has the Animal, Vegetable, Mineral game. Individual images from a SEM are shown, and users get to guess which of the three substances is shown. It isn't as easy as it sounds, but it is fun.

1998-01-01

394

Infrared zone-scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Challenges encountered in designing an infrared viewing optical system that uses a small linear detector array based on a zone-scanning approach are discussed. Scanning is performed by a rotating refractive polygon prism with tilted facets, which, along with high-speed line scanning, makes the scanning gear as simple as possible. A method of calculation of a practical optical system to compensate for aberrations during prism rotation is described.

Belousov, Aleksandr; Popov, Gennady

2006-03-01

395

Nanotechnology: The Future Medicine  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology is an exciting new area in science, with many possible applications in medicine. This article seeks to outline the role of different areas such as diagnosis of diseases, drug delivery, imaging, and so on. PMID:20606992

Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

2010-01-01

396

Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... products contained levels of lead, mercury, and/or arsenic that exceeded the standards for acceptable daily intake. ... SN, Paquin J, et al. Lead, mercury, and arsenic in U.S.- and Indian-manufactured Ayurvedic medicines sold ...

397

Darwin, medicine and cancer.  

PubMed

'Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'! So said Theodore Dobzhansky. It is extraordinary how little Darwinism and post-Darwinian evolutionary science has penetrated medicine despite the fact that all biology is built upon its foundations. Randy Nesse, one of the fathers of Darwinian medicine, recently observed that doctors 'know the facts but not the origins'. Clearly, then, in this auspicious year-200 years since Charles Darwin's birth and 150 years since the first edition of the Origin of Species-it is time to reconsider Darwin's legacy to medicine and to invite evolution back into the biomedical fold. Here, we consider the legacy of Darwin and the contribution of the other great evolutionists such as Ernst Mayr to cancer and medicine. PMID:19940013

Purushotham, A D; Sullivan, R

2010-02-01

398

Is Marijuana Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... or smoking marijuana leaves. Are “Medical” and “Street” Marijuana Different? In principle, no. Most marijuana sold in ... seizures in their children. Why Isn’t the Marijuana Plant an FDA-Approved Medicine? The FDA requires ...

399

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine  

E-print Network

of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing Sh New Faces News Bites News · UTHSC Receives NIH Funding · UTMG to Grow under Dr. Schwab · Working

Cui, Yan

400

Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

401

Women in Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature written since 1973 about the individual woman physician and the situation of United States women in medicine is examined and reviewed. Discrimination problems, identity conflicts, and a "typical" personality profile are some of the issues addressed. (Author/ KR)

Mandelbaum, Dorothy Rosenthal

1978-01-01

402

MEDICINAL PLANT DISEASE LIST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The book covers the history, production, uses, and marketing of fourteen forest medicinals: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius), bethroot (Trillium erectum), black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis), blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides), false unicorn (Chamaelirium ...

403

Medicines for ADHD  

MedlinePLUS

ADHD is a problem that most often affects children. People with ADHD may have problems with: Being able to focus ... control behavior Medicines can help improve symptoms of ADHD. Talk or behavioral therapy can also help.You ...

404

Science in Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines work of the past decade that has elucidated the place, function, and nature of science in American medicine and on the need and means to develop a more ample and balanced history of the meanings of that science. (JN)

Warner, John Harley

1985-01-01

405

3-D Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine that links the print library of functional-physiological knowledge with the image library of structural-anatomical knowledge into one unified resource. (JOW)

Reese, Susan

2001-01-01

406

Challenges in sexual medicine.  

PubMed

The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field, in an effort to improve the lives of our patients, who wait for effective therapies. PMID:22777290

Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

2012-09-01

407

Medicines for Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... a kid also eats healthy and exercises regularly. Glucagon Insulin and other diabetes medicines help to keep ... has really low blood sugar might need a glucagon shot. Glucagon (say: GLOO-kuh-gon) is a ...

408

Environmental scanning on the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the important organizational task of environmental scanning in an Internet context. A theoretical model relating potential causal factors to effectiveness of environmental scanning was formulated based on a synthesis of environmental scanning literature that took into consideration the Internet context. A questionnaire was developed for data collection. Responses from 105 organizations were tested for convergent and discriminant

Sharon S. L. Tan; Hock-Hai Teo; Bernard C. Y. Tan; Kwok-Kee Wei

1998-01-01

409

THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN  

E-print Network

care, acupuncture, naturopathic medicine, nutrition counseling, health psychology, bodywork, energyTHE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE OSHER CENTER FOR INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE AT NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY #12;THE INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE INNOVATION ENGINES

Engman, David M.

410

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the completion of the human genome project, pharmacogenomics is regarded as part of genomic medicine and personalized\\u000a medicine. While pharmacogenomics is concerned with the whole genome effect on drug metabolism and efficacy, pharmacogenetics\\u000a is readily defined as the study of the genetic effect, for example, single-nucleotide polymorphism, on an individual’s ability\\u000a to metabolize a drug or compound. Pharmacogenomic biomarkers,

Steven H. Y. Wong

411

Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-09-01

412

Free Motion Scanning System  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner and method for the imaging of a part surface, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface including at least two tracking signals for emitting electromagnetic radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of said waves to be reflected from the surface, at least one detector for receiving the electromagnetic radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive said radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzing means for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on said emitted electromagnetic radiation, a differential conversion means for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a means for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe-over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

Sword, Charles K.

1998-06-18

413

School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin  

E-print Network

School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin 2009-2010 #12;2 School of Veterinary Medicine About at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, March 28-April 26, 2009. #12;2009­2010 Bulletin of address, undeliverable copies, and other mail sent to­School of Veterinary Medicine, LSU, Baton Rouge

414

Emergency medicine in the United States: a systemic review  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Fifty years of our history in developing and advancing emergency medicine into an independent medical specialty will surely provide emergency medicine colleagues from all over the world with valuable suggestions and guidance. DATA SOURCES: This systemic review is based on the author’s extensive experience through active involvement in the national and international development of emergency medicine. RESULTS: Emergency physicians in the U.S. emergency departments and sometimes other settings provide urgent and emergency care to patients of all ages, including definitive diagnosis of emergent conditions, prolonged stabilization of patients when necessary, airway management, and life-saving procedures using rapid sequence intubation and sedation. They use a multitude of diagnostic technologies including laboratory studies, bedside ultrasound and other sophisticated radiology, such as CT scan, and MRI. CONCLUSION: In the U.S., emergency medicine fits extremely well into the overall medical system, and is clearly the most efficient way to provide emergency patient care. PMID:25215031

Suter, Robert E.

2012-01-01

415

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry  

E-print Network

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry APPLICATION Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry 1. Personal Information I Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry Present Position

MacMillan, Andrew

416

A Scanning Cavity Microscope  

E-print Network

Imaging of the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1700-fold signal enhancement compared to diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity below 1 nm2, we show a method to improve spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for opt...

Mader, Matthias; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

2014-01-01

417

Scanning the periphery.  

PubMed

Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision. PMID:16299966

Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

2005-11-01

418

Rapid scanning mass spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometers and residual gas analyzers (RGA) are used in a variety of applications for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile materials. Analysis is performed by detecting fragments of gas molecules, based on their mass to charge ratio, which are generated in the mass spectrometer. When used as a detector for a gas chromatograph, they function as a means to quantitatively identify isolated volatile species which have been separated from other species via the gas chromatograph. Vacuum Technology, Inc., (VTI) produces a magnetic sector mass spectrometer/RGA which is used in many industrial and laboratory environments. In order to increase the utility of this instrument, it is desirable to increase the mass scanning speed, thereby increasing the number of applications for which it is suited. This project performed the following three upgrades on the computer interface. (1) A new electrometer was designed and built to process the signal from the detector. This new electrometer is more sensitive, over 10 times faster, and over 100 times more stable than the electrometer it will replace. (2) The controller EPROM was reprogrammed with new firmware. This firmware acts as an operating system for the interface and is used to shuttle communications between the PC and the AEROVAC mass spectrometer. (3) The voltage regulator which causes the ion selector voltage to ramp to allow ions of selected mass to be sequentially detected was redesigned and prototyped. The redesigned voltage regulator can be ramped up or down more than 100 times faster than the existing regulator. These changes were incorporated into a prototype unit and preliminary performance testing conducted. Results indicated that scanning speed was significantly increased over the unmodified version.

Leckey, J.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boeckmann, M.D. [Vacuum Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1996-11-25

419

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AT THE YALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE*  

E-print Network

division of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, has been established on the principle that preventive medicine is part of clinical medicine. This calls for a broad use of the term clinical medicine. It implies that clinical medicine means more than the practice of the technics of diagnosis and therapeutics, for, although it deals primarily with the care of the sick individual, it is also concerned with the whole subject of disease in living people. In other words, clinical medicine is not a specialty; it is the mother of the clinical specialties, such as internal medicine and surgery, and their subdivisions. As the aims of preventive medicine are (according to our definition) also concerned with the whole subject of disease in living people and particularly with the potentially sick individual, we find in this fact the justification for placing the new division in the midst of the clinical activities of the school. This assignment is by no

John R

420

Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?  

PubMed

The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines. PMID:10890333

Federspil, G; Vettor, R

2000-06-01

421

Is garlic alternative medicine?  

PubMed

Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans. PMID:16484549

Rivlin, Richard S

2006-03-01

422

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

423

Medicinal Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Metal Radiopharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal complexes have been used as medicinal compounds. Metals have advantageous features over organic compounds. Significant applications of metal complexes are in the field of nuclear medicine. Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs containing radioisotopes used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The generalized targeting strategy for molecular imaging probe consists of three essential parts: (i) reporter unit or payload, (ii) carrier, and (iii) targeting system. Medicinal radiopharmaceutical chemistry pays special consideration to radioisotopes, as a reporter unit for diagnostic application or as a payload for therapeutic application. Targeting is achieved by a few approaches but the most common is the bifunctional chelator approach. While designing a radiopharmaceutical, a range of issues needs to be considered including properties of metal radioisotopes, bifunctional chelators, linkers, and targeting molecules. Designing radiopharmaceuticals requires consideration of two key words: "compounds of biological interest" and "fit for intended use." The ultimate goal is the development of new diagnostic methods and treatment. Diagnostic metal radiopharmaceuticals are used for SPECT and PET applications. Technetium chemistry constitutes a major portion of SPECT and gallium chemistry constitutes a major portion of PET. Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can be constructed by using alpha-, beta minus-, or Auger electron-emitting radiometals. Special uses of medicinal radiopharmaceuticals include internal radiation therapy, brachytherapy, immunoPET, radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide imaging and therapy.

Saw, Maung Maung

2012-06-01

424

Translational CNS medicines research.  

PubMed

The major imperative of the pharmaceutical industry is to effectively translate insights gained from basic research into new medicines. This task is toughest for CNS disorders. Compared with non-CNS drugs, CNS drugs take longer to get to market and their attrition rate is greater. This is principally because of the complexity of the human brain (the cause of many brain disorders remains unknown), the liability of CNS drugs to cause CNS side effects (which limits their use) and the requirement of CNS medicines to cross the blood-CNS barrier (BCNSB) (which restricts their ability to interact with their CNS target). In this review we consider the factors that are important in translating neuroscience research into CNS medicines. PMID:22580061

Palmer, Alan M; Alavijeh, Mohammad S

2012-10-01

425

Medicinal chemistry for 2020  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

2011-01-01

426

Genomic medicine and neurology.  

PubMed

The application of genetics to the understanding of neurology has been highly successful over the past several decades. During the past 10 years, tools were developed to begin genetic investigations into more common disorders such as Alzheimer disease, multiple sclerosis, autism, and Parkinson disease. The era of genomic medicine now has begun and will have an increasing effect on the daily care of common neurologic diseases. Thus it is important for neurologists to have a basic understanding of genomic medicine and how it differs from the traditional clinical genetics of the past. This article provides some basic information about genomic medicine and pharmacogenetics in neurology to help neurologists to begin to adopt these principles into their practice. PMID:22810818

Vance, Jeffery M; Tekin, Demet

2011-04-01

427

Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy.  

PubMed

Multiparticle tracking with scanning confocal and multiphoton fluorescence imaging is increasingly important for elucidating biological function, as in the transport of intracellular cargo-carrying vesicles. We demonstrate a simple rapid-sampling stochastic scanning multifocal multiphoton microscopy (SS-MMM) fluorescence imaging technique that enables multiparticle tracking without specialized hardware at rates 1,000 times greater than conventional single point raster scanning. Stochastic scanning of a diffractive optic generated 10x10 hexagonal array of foci with a white noise driven galvanometer yields a scan pattern that is random yet space-filling. SS-MMM creates a more uniformly sampled image with fewer spatio-temporal artifacts than obtained by conventional or multibeam raster scanning. SS-MMM is verified by simulation and experimentally demonstrated by tracking microsphere diffusion in solution. PMID:19516485

Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

2006-04-17

428

[Can medicine move mountains?].  

PubMed

For the author involvement with Paracelsus demands consideration of both, socio-cultural as well as historico-cultural aspects. Each generation has obtained a different picture of this famous physician from Einsiedeln. Around 1941 the progress initiated by Paracelsus has been emphasized, such as the assumed foundation of chemistry, chemotherapy, and the renewal of surgery, occupational medicine, balneology and many more. For the year 1941 (= 400th anniversary of Paracelsus death) a nationalistic perception of Paracelsus was typical. For National-Socialistic Germany, Paracelsus was the founder of a "German medicine" as a contrast to medicine oriented towards France and Jewish-Arabia. Paracelsus also was seen as a pioneer of the experiment and as opponent of medical dilettantism in a popular direction. The perception of Paracelsus of 1993 is completely different. Today Theophrastus from Hohenheim is seen in a post-modern perspective, not as the man of progress, but as one, who opposed to the medicine of his age a partial ancient natural medicine, including the arts of gypsies, witches and midwives. The magic and psychosomatic informations of Paracelsus are seen as precious compensation for losses that we had to accept in the progress of modern medicine. As a psychiatrist Paracelsus was involved with diseases that originated from a "misuse of credo". He reports about collective psychoses, for example those appearing in the group of anabaptists in St. Gallen. Misuse of credo derives from intended provocation of martyrium. To move mountains with one's faith is another pathologic imagination. A therapy should aim at the restitution of such a "mountain" moved by the ill patient. Paracelsus demands the greatest mercy in dealing with mentally ill patients. This disease is also a challenge for theology: "What gives harm to the body destroys the house of the eternal".(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191181

Meier, P

1993-12-21

429

Thermocouple homogeneity scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhomogeneities within a thermocouple influence the measured temperature and contribute the largest component to uncertainty. Currently there is no accepted best practice for measuring the inhomogeneities or for forecasting their effects on real-world measurements. The aim of this paper is to provide guidance on the design and performance assessment of thermocouple inhomogeneity scanners by characterizing the qualitative performance of the various designs reported in the literature, and developing a quantitative measure of scanner resolution. Numerical simulations incorporating Fourier transforms and convolutions are used to gauge the levels of attenuation and distortion present in single- and double-gradient scanners. Single-gradient scanners are found to be far superior to double-gradient scanners, which are unsuitable for quantitative measurements due to their blindness to inhomogeneities at many spatial frequencies and severe attenuation of signals at other frequencies. It is recommended that the standard deviation of the temperature gradient within the scanner is used as a measure of the scanner resolution and spatial bandwidth. Recommendations for the design of scanners are presented, and include advice on the basic design of scanners, the media employed, operating temperature, scan rates, construction of survey probes, data processing, gradient symmetry, and the spatial resolution required for research and calibration applications.

Webster, E.; White, D. R.

2015-02-01

430

Scanning Electron Microscope Room  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This instrument uses a highly-focused beam of electrons to provide visual images of the surface of materials at magnifications up to 20,000X or more. These high magnification images allow the researcher to identify details about the material's microstructure, such as the types and sizes of microscopic particles present. The beam of electrons can also be used to examine volumes (as small as 1 micrometer in diameter) of the material being analyzed to provide information about the chemistry. This information can be used to determine chemical variations as a function of location within the material's microstructure, as well as the chemical composition of individual particles. In addition, the SEM is equipped with sophisticated instrumentation that can determine the crystal structure of individual grains and how each grain is oriented with respect to neighboring grains within the material. The chemistry and crystal structure information can be related to fracture behavior and used to modify the manufacturing processes used to produce the material in order to improve its properties.

1996-01-01

431

[Neurosurgery in antique medicine].  

PubMed

Trepanation and craniotomy are two of the oldest surgical procedures known, and extensive archaeological evidence of trepanation exists in ancient cultures. However, the first descriptions of the surgical techniques are from Greek and Roman medicine, where cranial surgery was used to treat head trauma. This article concerns neurosurgery in ancient medicine, with an emphasis on "De Medicina" by Aulus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC-50 AD) and the Corpus Hippocraticum (about 400 BC). These texts are further considered in the light of excavated surgical instruments from Pompeii. PMID:16357902

Lindekleiv, Haakon

2005-12-15

432

On medicine and politics.  

PubMed Central

This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

Krakauer, E.

1992-01-01

433

[Intensive medicine in Spain].  

PubMed

Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. PMID:21371787

2011-03-01

434

Adventures in Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human space flight experience has demonstrated a variety of hazards and risks to health and performance. In developing ways to help respond to these issues, the field of space medicine has developed a comprehensive program of space flight health risk management that has resulted in positive contributions to medicine and society in general. Examples include accelerated focus on critical health issues such as aging and osteoporosis, and development of new technologies such as non-invasive diagnostic testing for diabetics. The role of health care professionals in human space exploration represents a fulfillment of new adventures and expanding frontiers.

Billica, Roger D.

1999-01-01

435

Molecular Medicine in Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Molecular Medicine in Action program at the Indiana University School of Medicine is a selective "hands-on program for high school students to experience the methods scientists use for unlocking and modifying the genetic codes of diseases." Students don't have to be admitted to the program to make use of the excellent online materials available online from MMIA. This particular Web site offers high-quality animations to supplement related lectures or readings. Topics covered include cytogenetics, DNA isolation, fluorescence microscopy, flow, gel electrophoresis, gene therapy, infecting cells, PCR, vector production, and viral vectors.

2007-07-10

436

Evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed Central

Clinical practice guidelines are an important product of the National Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT). Recent guidelines have been published on the guiding principles for clinical practice guidelines. The ninth principle states: "Clinical practice guidelines should: (a) cite the specific evidence bearing upon the conclusion, (b) indicate the strength of the evidence [and] (c) specify the date of the most recent evidence considered." The following is CATMAT's statement on evidence-based medicine and the scales used to grade its recommendations. PMID:7820803

MacPherson, D W

1995-01-01

437

Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... Test Blood Tests: Blood Studies Bone Marrow Aspirate Bone Marrow Biopsy Imaging Tests: CT Scan Echocardiogram MRI SPECT Scan Ultrasound Nuclear Medicine Scans: Bone Scan PET Scan Gallium Scan MIBG Scan http:// ...

438

Correlation of Scan and Sample Measurements Using Appropriate Sample Size  

Microsoft Academic Search

At a former nuclear fuel cycle facility, radiological site characterization performed in the 1990's relied on surface soil samples collected and analyzed on a systematic sampling grid, supplemented by 100% scans of the property to identify soil exceeding decommissioning criteria. Biased sampling was performed as indicated by these measurements to provide more precise delineation of material exceeding the decommissioning criteria

Lux

2008-01-01

439

Adiabatic Single Scan Two-Dimensional NMR Spectrocopy Philippe Pelupessy*,  

E-print Network

on the use adiabatic pulses, for single scan two-dimensional NMR experiments (Frydman et al., Proc. Nat. Acad- and heteronuclear experiments are presented. Introduction The introduction of two-dimensional (2D) experiments has revolutionized the field of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).1,2 Unfortunately, these experiments are inherently

440

Solid-State Quantum Computer Based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

E-print Network

We propose a solid-state nuclear spin quantum computer based on application of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and well-developed silicon technology. It requires the measurement of tunneling current modulation caused by the Larmor precession of a single electron spin. Our envisioned STM quantum computer would operate at the high magnetic field ($\\sim 10$T) and at low temperature $\\sim 1$K.

G. P. Berman; G. W. Brown; M. E. Hawley; V. I. Tsifrinovich

2001-03-03

441

Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Program Department of Laboratory Medicine  

E-print Network

Produced by Donor AntiD Passenger Lymphocytes: Case Report and Literature Review. Transfusion Medicine of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) 2010. Arnold DM, Crowther MA, Meyer RM, Carruthers J, DiTomasso J, Heddle NM

Haykin, Simon

442

ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes  

PubMed Central

Background Laser scanning microscopy is a powerful tool for analyzing the structure and function of biological specimens. Although numerous commercial laser scanning microscopes exist, some of the more interesting and challenging applications demand custom design. A major impediment to custom design is the difficulty of building custom data acquisition hardware and writing the complex software required to run the laser scanning microscope. Results We describe a simple, software-based approach to operating a laser scanning microscope without the need for custom data acquisition hardware. Data acquisition and control of laser scanning are achieved through standard data acquisition boards. The entire burden of signal integration and image processing is placed on the CPU of the computer. We quantitate the effectiveness of our data acquisition and signal conditioning algorithm under a variety of conditions. We implement our approach in an open source software package (ScanImage) and describe its functionality. Conclusions We present ScanImage, software to run a flexible laser scanning microscope that allows easy custom design. PMID:12801419

Pologruto, Thomas A; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Svoboda, Karel

2003-01-01

443

Electrical conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance studies of n-C x H(2x+1)OSO3Li (x = 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical conductivity (?), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of n-C x H (2x+1) OSO 3Li (x= 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20) crystals were performed as a function of temperature. In addition, ?, DSC, and XRD observations of n-C x H (2x+1) OSO 3Na and n-C x H (2x+1) OSO 3K (x= 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20) crystals were carried out for comparison. DSC results of the salts revealed several solid-solid phase transitions with large entropy changes (?S). For n-C 18 H 37 OSO 3Li and n-C 20 H 41 OSO 3Li salts, each melting point produced a small ?S mp value compared with the total entropy change in the solid phases (?S tr1+?S tr2). Additionally, Li + ion diffusion was detected in the highest temperature solid phases. For K salts, larger ? values were detected for potassium alkylsulfates compared with those reported for alkyl carboxylate. 7Li NMR spectra of n-C 18 H 37 OSO 3Li crystals recorded in the low-temperature phase showed large asymmetry parameters, suggesting the Li + ions are localized at asymmetric sites in the crystals.

Hirakawa, Satoru; Morimoto, Yoshiaki; Honda, Hisashi

2014-11-01

444

Medicinal Herb Garden  

MedlinePLUS

... Garden images via the following lists: Index by botanical names Index by common names Map of the Garden by UW Campus Landscape Architect William Talley. Project Credits and other details. Try this: Search for latest Herbal Medicine literature via MEDLINEplus? or PubMed? . Located on the ...

445

Cannabis; extracting the medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have

Arno Hazekamp

2007-01-01

446

Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six issues of Wilderness Medicine Newsletter published in 1999 provide medical and rescue information for the nonphysician in remote wilderness areas. Feature articles include: "Tendinitis: Overdoing a Good Thing" (Buck Tilton); "A Sport for the Season: Trail Running" (injuries and health problems common to trail runners) (Rebecca S. Newton);…

Weber, Holly A., Ed.

1999-01-01

447

Cytomics in regenerative medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and culturing using non-invasive detection techniques, quality control and standardization for GMP and GLP conformity and even prediction of cell fate based on sophisticated data analysis. Cytomics requires quantitative and stoichiometric single cell analysis. In some areas the leading cytometric techniques represent the cutting edge today. Many different applications/variations of multicolour staining were developed for flow- or slide-based cytometry (SBC) analysis of suspensions and sections to whole animal analysis [78]. SBC has become an important analytical technology in drug discovery, diagnosis and research and is an emerging technology for systems analysis [78]. It enables high-content high-throughput measurement of cell suspensions, cell cultures and tissues. In the last years various commercial SBC instruments were launched principally enabling to perform similar tasks. Standardisation as well as comparability of different instruments is a major challenge. Hyperspectral optical imaging may be implemented in SBC analysis for label free cell detection based on cellular autofluorescence [3]. All of these developments push the systemic approach of the analysis of biological specimens to enhance the outcome of regenerative medicine.

Tárnok, Attila; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz

2008-02-01

448

Eskimo Medicine Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer than sixty thousand…

George, Otto

449

How Medicines Work  

MedlinePLUS

... are now able to use human, rather than animal, enzymes to predict whether a drug candidate or any of its byproducts will be toxic to humans. However, rare, serious drug reactions remain difficult to predict before testing experimental medicines in humans. The formulation, packaging and ...

450

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2011 / 2012 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p Standards2 Quality ­ Guidelines for Quality Management in Surgical Pathology Professional Practices Sciences GI Pathology November 10th MDCL ­ 2232 Dr. Robin Edwards McMaster University Professionalism

Thompson, Michael

451

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

Pathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2010 / 2011 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p treat cancer without a pathological diagnosis? The Yemen experience. October 21st MUMC ­ 1A3 Dr. S. Tang SPEAKER: TOPIC: January 13th MDCL ­ 3023 Dr. F. DeNardi HRLMP ­ McMaster University TBA ­ GI Pathology

Thompson, Michael

452

Health & Medicine Heart Disease  

E-print Network

See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science and stretchable electronics can map waves of electrical activity in the heart with better resolution and speed

Rogers, John A.

453

Traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical Chinese pharmacopoeia describes a large number of herbal formulations that are used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. This therapeutic approach is ignored by many and considered to be an alternative to conventional medicine by others. The scientific proof and clinical validation of these herbal formulations require a rigorous approach that includes chemical standardization, biological

Robert Yuan; Yuan Lin

2000-01-01

454

Pediatric Medicines -- Prescribing Drugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After more than a decade of U.S. regulations that first prompted and later required testing for children's medicines, less than half of the drugs that need to be studied have been studied. Technology may help speed up the process, but there's still some uncertainty over whether the laws that now require pediatric clinical trials will still be in place in 2012.

Robert Frederick (AAAS;)

2008-10-10

455

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

456

Women in Medicine. Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication consists solely of statistical data with respect to women in medicine. Seven tables and three figures are presented. The tables are organized as follows: (1) Women Applicants, Enrollees and Graduates, Selected Years 1949-50 through 1990-91; (2) Comparative Acceptance Data for Men and Women Applicants, 1973-74 through 1990-91; (3)…

Bickel, Janet; Quinnie, Renee

457

Women in Medicine: Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication consists solely of statistical data about women in medicine. Eight tables and three figures are presented. The tables are organized as follows: (1) Women Applicants, Enrollees and Graduates--Selected Years 1949-50 through 1991-92; (2) Comparative Acceptance Data for Men and Women Applicants 1973-74 through 1990-91; (3) Acceptance…

Bickel, Janet; Quinnie, Renne

458

Focus on Plasma Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Plasma Healthcare’ is an emerging interdisciplinary research topic of rapidly growing importance, exploring considerable opportunities at the interface of plasma physics, chemistry and engineering with life sciences. Some of the scientific discoveries reported so far have already demonstrated clear benefits for healthcare in areas of medicine, food safety, environmental hygiene, and cosmetics. Examples include ongoing studies of prion inactivation, chronic

G E Morfill; M G Kong; J L Zimmermann

2009-01-01

459

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

460

Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the six issues of the "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" published during 1996. The newsletter addresses the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness and training resources. Issues typically include feature articles, interviews with doctors in the wilderness, conferences and training courses,…

Weber, Holly A., Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01