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Sample records for nuclear medicine scan

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  3. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  4. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine What is General Nuclear Medicine? What are some ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  6. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  7. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  8. Nuclear Heart Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

  9. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePLUS

    An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to mark (tag) red blood cells (RBCs). Your body is then ... scanner does not give off any radiation. Most nuclear scans (including an RBC scan) are not recommended ...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine procedure. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine procedure. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine procedure. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear medicine procedure. (b)...

  14. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  15. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  17. Society of Nuclear Medicine

    Cancer.gov

    June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

  18. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  19. Whistleblowers and nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, C F; Donald, J W

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare facilities that practice nuclear medicine are subject to federal "whistleblower" protection laws when an employee reports a potentially unsafe radiological condition. This article addresses enforcement of the applicable sections of the Atomic Energy Act and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations in order to help such facilities avoid running afoul of those laws, which can result in fines, generate civil lawsuits by the claimant, and significantly disrupt the operation of a healthcare facility. PMID:10538012

  20. Nuclear medicine case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    This text presents case studies in nuclear medicine which emphasize the diagnosis of the patient's problem rather than the technical performance of the procedure. The book is arranged by organ systems and each section begins with a description of the technique and findings in a normal study.

  1. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  2. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W. (East Moriches, NY); Brill, A. Bertrand (Shoreham, NY); Bizais, Yves J. C. (Upton, NY); Rowe, R. Wanda (Upton, NY); Zubal, I. George (Upton, NY)

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  4. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  5. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... small dose, just a few drops. Is the radioactivity harmful? Although exposure to radioactivity in very large doses can be harmful, the radioactivity in radiopharmaceuticals is carefully selected by the nuclear ...

  6. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  7. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  8. Data resources for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.

  9. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  10. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  11. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePLUS

    ... later. At that time, you will have a nuclear medicine scan to see if white blood cells have ... sting. Afterward, there may be some throbbing. The nuclear medicine scan is painless. It may be a little ...

  12. Scanning Behavior in the Medicinal Leech Hirudo verbana

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Cynthia M.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called ‘head movement’ and another called ‘body waving’. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call ‘scanning’. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior. PMID:24465907

  13. Scanning behavior in the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana.

    PubMed

    Harley, Cynthia M; Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called 'head movement' and another called 'body waving'. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call 'scanning'. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior. PMID:24465907

  14. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

  15. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine Dear Author,

    E-print Network

    Piana, Michele

    of Publications Society of Nuclear Medicine 1850 Samuel Morse Drive Reston, VA 20190-5316 Fax: (703) 708-9018 Tel of Publications Society of Nuclear Medicine 1850 Samuel Morse Drive Reston, VA 20190-5316 USA Corrections may also: ______________________________________________________________________ State or country: ________________________________________ Postal code: __________ Phone number

  16. Redesigning the nuclear medicine reading room.

    PubMed

    Zemariame, Nigist; Knight, Nancy; Siegel, Eliot L

    2011-11-01

    The process of image review and interpretation has become increasingly complex and challenging for today's nuclear medicine physician from many perspectives, especially with regard to workstation integration and reading room ergonomics. With the recent proliferation of hybrid imaging systems, this complexity has increased rapidly, along with the number of studies performed. At the same time, clinicians throughout the health care enterprise are expecting remote access to nuclear medicine images whereas nuclear medicine physicians require reliable access at the point of care to the electronic medical record and to medical images from radiology and cardiology. The authors discuss the background and challenges related to integration of nuclear medicine into the health care enterprise and provide a series of recommendations for advancing successful integration efforts. Also addressed are unique characteristics of the nuclear medicine environment as well as ergonomic, lighting, and environmental considerations in the design and redesign of the modern reading room. PMID:21978448

  17. About Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Medicine is the medical specialty that utilizes the

    E-print Network

    Kachroo, Pushkin

    and Waste Management Association: www.awma.org/Public/ American Water Works Association: wwwAbout Nuclear Medicine Nuclear Medicine is the medical specialty that utilizes the nuclear/or physiologic conditions of the body and to provide therapy with unsealed radioactive sources. The Nuclear

  18. Patient dosimetry in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2015-07-01

    In diagnostic nuclear medicine, the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical (actually of the radionuclide) is determined for a number of representative patients. At therapy, it is essential to determine the patient's individual biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical in order to calculate the absorbed doses to critical normal organs/tissues and to the target volume(s) with high accuracy. For the diagnostic situations, there is still a lack of quantitative determinations of the organ/tissue contents of radiopharmaceuticals and their variation with time. Planar gamma camera imaging using the conjugate view technique combined with a limited number of SPECT/CT images is the main method for such studies. In a similar way, PET/CT is used for 3D image-based internal dosimetry for PET substances. The transition from stylised reference phantoms to voxel phantoms will lead to improved dose estimates for diagnostic procedures. Examples of dose coefficients and effective doses for diagnostic substances are given. For the therapeutic situation, a pre-therapeutic low activity administration is used for quantitative measurements of organ/tissue distribution data by a gamma camera or a SPECT- or PET-unit. Together with CT and/or MR images this will be the base for individual dose calculations using Monte Carlo technique. Treatments based on administered activity should only be used if biological variations between patients are small or if a pre-therapeutic activity administration is impossible. PMID:25821210

  19. Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

  20. Brief overview of nuclear medicine in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.C.; Chou, C.E.

    1989-04-01

    The year 1956 witnessed the birth of Nuclear Medicine in China, when the first course, Biomedical Applications of Isotopes, was offered in our country by the Peking Union Medical College (PUMC). This course was preceded by a training course in nuclear instruments in which students learned to construct the radiation detection devices required for performing experiments using radioisotopes. In 1958, several courses in clinical nuclear medicine brought up the first generation of nuclear medicine physicians in China. Historically, some of the chief events include: (1) operation of the first reactor, producing 33 radioactive isotopes in 1958; (2) first linear scanner built in 1960; (3) setting up an organization for the control of radiopharmaceuticals in 1961; (4) distribution of the first batch of cyclotron-produced isotopes in 1963; (5) development and use of the first radioimmunoassay (RIA) procedure in 1963; (6) production of tritium in 1964; (7) production of 99.8% enriched heavy water in 1965; (8) supply of 99mTc and 113mIn generators in 1972; (9) first gamma camera imported in 1972 and first homemade gamma camera installed in 1977; (10) founding of Chinese Society of Nuclear Medicine (CSNM) in 1980; (11) publication of the Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine beginning in 1981; (12) first single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imported in 1983. At present, there are 556 nuclear medicine departments in China with 4,000 staff.

  1. An overview of nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Peter; Lawson, Richard

    2015-11-25

    Nuclear medicine imaging is not generally well understood by nurses who work outside this area. Consequently, nurses can find themselves unable to answer patients' questions about nuclear medicine imaging procedures or give them proper information before they attend for a test. This article aims to explain what is involved in some common diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures so that nurses are able to discuss this with patients. It also addresses some common issues about radiation protection that nurses might encounter in their usual working routine. The article includes links to videos showing some typical nuclear medicine imaging procedures from a patient's point of view and links to an e-Learning for Healthcare online resource that provides detailed information for nurses. PMID:26602680

  2. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  4. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear scanning bed. 892.1350 Section 892.1350...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning bed is an adjustable bed intended to support a patient during a nuclear...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

  8. Nuclear medicine imaging in rhabdomyolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, E.A.

    1982-10-01

    A case of severe rhabdomyolysis is reported in which, some seven and one-half weeks after its occurrence, a gallium scan was strongly positive, due to abscess formation in the damaged muscle. A bone scan was weakly positive in the same area, due to gallium photons. A review of the the reported cases reveals that bone scans are a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and are useful to monitor its repair.

  9. A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

    This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

  10. Computer-assisted cardiac nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, B.L.; Paker, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to supply an introduction to the use of computers for the non-computer scientist, physician, technologist, or other individual who is involved with clinical cardiovascular nuclear medicine. The book is divided into four sections. The first section (two chapters) deals with applications of numbers and logic to computers. The second section (eight chapters) deals with computer hardware. Software is described in the third section (five chapters) and the discussion leads the reader from programming fundamentals to the application of Basic and Fortran languages. The final section (six chapters) deals with specific computer applications in cardiovascular nuclear medicine, ranging from a brief discussion of the necessary basics for a cardiac nuclear medicine facility to introductory remarks about the application of tomography. (JMT)

  11. Nuclear medicine in clinical urology and nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Tauxe, W.N.; Dubousky, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents explanations of current procedures involving the kidney with information of the performance of each test, its rationale, and interpretation. The information covers all currently used radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, test protocols, and mathematical principles of pathophysiology as they relate to nuclear medicine studies. Information is provided on which radiopharmaceutical, instrument, or computer application to use, and when.

  12. Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    The 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical November 13, 2012 #12;Nuclear Medicine: Meeting Patient Needs with 99 Mo Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Study of Nuclear Medicine Supply Chains is a combination

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine practice

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Perry, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the basic principles and clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals. Topics include atomic physics as applied to radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide generator function, nuclear pharmacy and safety, and radiopharmaceutical use in evaluating the major organ systems of the body. For each body system the author explains rationale for use, typical procedures, current agents of choice, and interpretation of results. Images, tables, and graphs illustrate normal and abnormal studies.

  14. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  15. Solid state detectors in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Darambara, D G; Todd-Pokropek, A

    2002-03-01

    Since Nuclear Medicine diagnostic applications are growing fast, room temperature semiconductor detectors such CdTe and CdZnTe either in the form of single detectors or as segmented monolithic detectors have been investigated aiming to replace the NaI scintillator. These detectors have inherently better energy resolution that scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes leading to compact imaging systems with higher spatial resolution and enhanced contrast. Advantages and disadvantages of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in imaging systems are discussed and efforts to develop semiconductor-based planar and tomographic cameras as well as nuclear probes are presented. PMID:12072840

  16. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

  17. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) ... thyroïde - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Hindi (??????) Bone Scan ?????? (Hindi) Bilingual ...

  18. Society of Nuclear Medicine 52nd Annual Meeting Highlights of the Society of Nuclear Medicine 52nd Annual Meeting CME

    E-print Network

    Jadvar, Hossein

    medicine specialists, and select referring physicians (cardiologists, oncologists, pediatric specialists, into their practice to facilitate the early detection and clinical management of cardiac disease, cancer, pediatric to outline the value of these technologies for the radiology, nuclear medicine, oncology, cardiology

  19. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce "lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium" CRY018 "CRY019" lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  20. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce “lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium” CRY018 “CRY019” lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  1. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.

    PubMed

    Teresi?ska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bo?ena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miros?aw

    2014-10-01

    In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular postgraduate training for physicians working in NM. Educational programs are comprehensive, covering both diagnostics and current forms of radioisotope therapy. They are aimed not only at physicians specialized/specializing in NM, but also at other medical professionals employed in radionuclide departments as well as physicians of other specialties. PMID:25091218

  2. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer. PMID:26229668

  3. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-03-15

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer.

  4. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    E-print Network

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  5. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  6. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  7. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  8. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  9. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists The following...Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  10. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  11. Gallium scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... There is a small risk of radiation exposure (less than with x-rays or CT scans). Pregnant or nursing women and young children should avoid radiation exposure if at ...

  12. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  13. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  14. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  15. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  16. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  17. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  18. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

  19. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  20. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  1. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  2. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  3. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  4. Diagnostic Services and Communication Protocols for Remote Nuclear Medicine Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Herbig, F.K.; Daly, J.L.; Gooch, N.E.; Donati, R.M.; Fletcher, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A telecommunications system has been designed and implemented which provides diagnostic services to nuclear medicine laboratories established in smaller primary care medical facilities. These remote laboratories are located in areas where nuclear medicine patient services were not previously available because of the lack of trained nuclear physicians. The system provides through the use of computerized data acquisition and telephone data communication capability all routine and specialized imaging procedures with a degree of quality and sophistication normally available only in large urban medical centers. Nuclear image data acquired remotely is transmitted to Saint Louis, Missouri for interpretation by specialists in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the Veterans Administration Medical Center. The functions of hardware and software protocols necessary to assure the correctness and completeness of transmitted data are presented together with essential data descriptors for identification and format.

  5. Further progress for a fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with Large Angle Scanning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2014-02-01

    The LASSO (Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA) is a scanning system designed in the framework of the OPERA experiment as a result of several R&Ds aimed to improve the performance of the European Scanning System (ESS) by increasing the scanning speed, the angular acceptance and the efficiency in microtrack reconstruction. The novel Continuous Motion (CM) scanning approach allows to double the ESS nominal speed without any changes in the hardware set-up. The LASSO modular design makes the system easily adaptable to new hardware. The novel microtrack reconstruction algorithm has been developed to be efficient in both standard Stop&Go (SG) and CM modes, performing a number of corrections during the processing like corrections for vibrations, optical distortions, field of view curvature. As an intermediate step it reconstructs silver grains positions inside emulsion layer to make a transition from 2D images to real 3D traces of a charged particle. This allows the algorithm to have no internal limits on the slope of microtracks being equally efficient on all angles. The LASSO has been used for about one year for mass production scanning of emulsion films of OPERA, Muon Radiography and also of films employed to study nuclear fragmentation of ion beams used in medical physics. More than 50000 cm2 of the emulsion surface have been analyzed during this period.

  6. Self-assessment of current knowledge in nuclear medicine (second edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Frey, G.D.; Cooper, J.F.; Klobukoski, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this updated second edition, the order of contents of the textbook has been reorganized. It has been divided into main parts: Basic Science and Clinical Nuclear Medicine. Basic Science, Part I, encompasses basic physics, radiation protection, interaction of radiation with matter and radiation detection, imaging, nuclear pharmacy, and radiation biology. Part II, Clinical Nuclear Medicine, covers the central nervous system, bone, gastroenterology (liver/spleen), cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, genitourinary system, thyroid and endocrine systems, gallium studies, radioassay, hematology, and therapy. The total number of pages of the current edition is increased to 250 from the 213 of the first edition but there are fewer questions because those in the basic science area have been carefully selected to 60 of the original 98 questions. Compared with the previous edition, there are two advantages in the current one: (1) the addition of explanatory answers; and (2) the inclusion of up-to-date scintiphotos replacing rectilinear scan illustrations.

  7. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G.

    1985-05-07

    Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

  8. Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

    2012-01-01

    Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging. PMID:23133813

  9. Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

    1988-01-01

    This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

  10. Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip C

    2004-01-01

    Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

  11. Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Two-Year Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David

    This curriculum guide prescribes an educational program for training nuclear medicine technologists. Following a brief section on program development, the curriculum is both outlined and presented in detail. For each of the 44 courses, the following information is given: (1) sequential placement of the course in the curriculum; (2) course…

  12. Essentials of nuclear medicine imaging. 3rd edition

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.; Guiberteau, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers topics ranging from basic physics and instrumentation to various aspects of clinical imaging and regulatory issues. It includes a section on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The clinical sections include newer aspects of nuclear medicine, such as antibody imaging, pharmacologic stress, bone mineral analysis, evaluation of renovascular hypertension, and the role of gallium in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

  13. Liver scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... technetium sulfur colloid scan; Liver-spleen radionuclide scan; Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan - liver or spleen ... Radiation from any scan is always a slight concern. The level of radiation in this procedure is ...

  14. Replenishment prioritization of highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine

    E-print Network

    Yea, Young-bai Michael

    2007-01-01

    Serving customers in a nuclear medicine supply chain requires frequent and responsive replenishments. Nuclear medicine is a special category of perishable goods that is subject to rapid, but predictable radioactive decay. ...

  15. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety www.imagegently.org What is nuclear medicine? ... using a mask. The radiotracer gives off invisible rays called gamma rays. These rays can be seen ...

  16. Three years' experience with an all-digital nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A M; Parker, J A; Donohoe, K; Jansons, D; Kolodny, G M

    1990-07-01

    We describe our all-digital, filmless, department of nuclear medicine, which has been fully operational for 3 years. The approach to the design and implementation of a nuclear medicine picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is discussed, as well as enhancements found to be necessary or desirable during our 3 years of experience using the system. Studies are initially viewed on remote monitors in the reading room, and transferred from multiple vendor's computers to the PACS by floppy disc network. Scans are analyzed on networked image workstations using a variety of software imaging tools. Reports are dictated into a digital voice storage system, allowing the referring physician immediate telephone access. The dictated report is typed into a computer, electronically edited, reviewed, billed, and printed for appropriate distribution on an integrated medical information system. The final report is stored on the PACS, along with the scan image and other patient information on 1-gigabyte removable optical discs. Two networked optical disc drives allow us to have approximately 3 years of our department's studies available instantly, allowing recall of previous studies for comparison with the current scan. Emergency night and weekend studies are sent via modern over normal phone lines to the on-call physician, who has a similar image workstation at home. Digital image storage allows for easy manipulation of the data, such as gray scale manipulation and cine (movie) display. Cost analysis shows significant savings compared with a film-based department. We conclude that an all-digital nuclear medicine department is practical, cost effective, and beneficial to both patients and staff. PMID:2367870

  17. High Performance Organ-Specific Nuclear Medicine Imagers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Stan

    2006-04-01

    One of the exciting applications of nuclear science is nuclear medicine. Well-known diagnostic imaging tools such as PET and SPECT (as well as MRI) were developed as spin-offs of basic scientific research in atomic and nuclear physics. Development of modern instrumentation for applications in particle physics experiments offers an opportunity to contribute to development of improved nuclear medicine (gamma and positron) imagers, complementing the present set of standard imaging tools (PET, SPECT, MRI, ultrasound, fMRI, MEG, etc). Several examples of new high performance imagers developed in national laboratories in collaboration with academia will be given to demonstrate this spin-off activity. These imagers are designed to specifically image organs such as breast, heart, head (brain), or prostate. The remaining and potentially most important challenging application field for dedicated nuclear medicine imagers is to assist with cancer radiation treatments. Better control of radiation dose delivery requires development of new compact in-situ imagers becoming integral parts of the radiation delivery systems using either external beams or based on radiation delivery by inserting or injecting radioactive sources (gamma, beta or alpha emitters) into tumors.

  18. Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Medicine Patient Service Management in DEVS

    E-print Network

    Ntaimo, Lewis

    Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Medicine Patient Service Management in DEVS Eduardo P identified as one of the causes of increased health care costs in the U.S. Nuclear medicine, a sub patient service in nuclear medicine is a very challenging problem with very little research attention

  20. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  1. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  2. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  3. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  4. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  5. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  6. Discharges of nuclear medicine radioisotopes in Spanish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, E; Piñero-García, F; Ferro-García, M A

    2013-02-01

    Given the increasing use of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine, the aim of this paper is to determine radioactivity levels in the effluents of hospitals with Nuclear Medicine Departments. The radiological study of hospital discharges was carried out by gamma spectrometry, and liquid scintillation spectrometry to determine (14)C and (3)H contents. On March 9th and April 19th, 2010, daily radioactivity levels were monitored from 8:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. Each sample was collected at a specific control point of two major public hospitals in Granada (Spain). The analytical results show the presence of radionuclides such as (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, and (111)In.They are frequently used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes. This study shows the differences between direct and after-storage discharges and also justifies the need of storage tanks in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. Moreover, monitoring of (99m)Tc released at hospital control points can be a useful tool for optimizing the safety conditions of storage tanks and discharge of radionuclides. PMID:23103581

  7. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  8. * DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease. It is a multi-

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    1 * DESCRIPTION OF THE PROFESSION Nuclear medicine uses radioactivity to diagnose and treat disease, and medicine. Though there are many diagnostic techniques currently available, nuclear medicine uniquely medicine from other imaging modalities, such as X-ray. Nuclear medicine procedures are safe, they involve

  9. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  10. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  11. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  12. Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

    2011-10-01

    In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

  13. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  14. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  15. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  16. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  17. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  18. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of pheochromocytoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine].

    PubMed

    Pucar, Dragan; Markovi?, Stevan

    2002-07-01

    Excess secretion of any of the adrenal cortical or medullary hormones contributes to a number of well-known clinical syndromes.. They may result from benign or malignant adrenal tumours, adrenal hyperplasia or, least frequently, from extra-adrenal disease. Differentiation among these possibilities is often impossible on clinical or biochemical grounds alone. Location of the site(s) of excess hormone production in the past depended on relatively insensitive or invasive radiological methods. The non-invasive evaluation began with X-ray computed tomography but the functional significance of anatomical abnormalities cannot be determined from CT scan. Incorporation of specific radiopharmaceuticals into the abnormal tissues allows scintigraphic localization of functional abnormalities with a high degree of efficacy. The combination of adrenal scintigraphy and kompjuterizovanom tomografijom CT or magnetskom rezonancijom MRI should in most cases obviatc the need for more invasive procedures. Phaeochromocytoma is rare in hypertensive population, affecting only an estimated of 0.1%. However, a high index of suspicion is essential, since these tumours have potentially life-threatening cardiovascular effects and their successful resection is curative. Important clinical clues include the presence of orthostatic hypotension in an untreated hypertensive, resistance of hypertension to standard therapy (including possible exacerbation by (beta-blockers). In most cases, the diagnosis can be established by demonstrating high levels of free catecholamines and their metabolites (metanephrines and Vanillylmandelic acid). Clonidine test may be important in some cases. The purpose of this study is to point that metaiodobenzylguanidine (mlBG) has proved to be a safe, sensitive and highly specific agent for the location of phaeochromocytoma. The first successful schinigraphic demonstration of phaeochromocytomas in man was reported in 1981, using a new radiopharmaceutical, 131l-metaiodobenzylguanidinc (mlBG). mlBG is an aralkyl-guanidine which structurally resembles noradrenaline sufficiently to be recognized and be stored in the catecholamine storage vesicles. Whereas unstored noradrenaline is rapidly degraded, the halogenated benzyl ring of mlBG conlers resistance to catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) while its guanidino side-chain is resistant to monoamine oxidase (MAO). Uptake of mIBG is inhibited by some inhibitors (reserpine, tricyclic antidepressants, cocaine, labetalol, calcium-chanel blockers...). 131I-mlBG is normally taken up by liver, spleen, myocardium and salivary glands. Thyroid uptake ol liberated radioiodide will also occur unless the thyroid is blocked with stable iodide. The normal adrenal glands are usually not seen but faint uptake may be visible 48-72 h after injection in up to 16% of cases. Hepatic uptake is maximal at 24 h, declining to very low levels by 72 h (even more rapid in patients with phaeochromocytoma. Dosimetric corlsiderations limit the amount of 131l-mlBG that is administered for diagnostic studies. This, coupled with the low detection efficiency of gamma cameras for the 364 keV photon of 131l, led to the introduction of 131l-mlBG as an adrenomedullary scintigraphic agent of choice. In our department we started with mIBG scintigraphy in 1985 and we treated near 1000 patients. In this study we are talking about 180 patients from the beginning of 1996 to the end of 2001 all treated with 131l-mlBG. Like the other worldwide experience with this agent our sensitivity was 88.58% and specificity of 98.46%. Positive predictive value was 88.5% and negative predictive value was 93.46%. False negative results were 6.52% and there were no false positive results. After all we can say that mlBG has proved to be a safe, sensitive and highly specific agent for the location of phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Other radiolabelled aralkylamines have been examined as potential adrenal medullary scintigraphic agents. None has demonstrated superiority over mlBG in animal or limited human studies. 131l-mlBG should always be con

  19. SCAN+

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore »the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  20. Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging

    PubMed Central

    Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

  1. Nuclear Medicine in Thyroid Diseases in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volkan-Salanc?, Bilge; Özgen K?ratl?, P?nar

    2015-01-01

    Both benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid are rare in the pediatric and adolescent population, except congenital hypothyroidism. Nuclear medicine plays a major role, both in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid pathologies. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is strictly controlled due to possible side effects such as secondary cancers; therefore, management of pediatric patients requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to overview current algorithms in the management of thyroid diseases and use of radionuclide therapy in pediatric and adolescent population. PMID:26316469

  2. Evolving Important Role of Lutetium-177 for Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Ambikalmajan M R; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-01-01

    Lutetium-177 ((177)Lu) is a late entrant into the nuclear medicine therapy arena but is expected to become one of the most widely used therapeutic radionuclides. This paper analyses the reason for the increasing preference of (177)Lu as a therapeutic radionuclide. While the radionuclidic properties favor its use for several therapeutic applications, the potential for large scale production of (177)Lu is also an important aspect for its acceptability as a therapeutic radionuclide. This introductory discussion also summarizes some developing clinical uses and suggested future directions for applications of (177)Lu. PMID:25771380

  3. Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine

    E-print Network

    Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

  4. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  5. Problems in detection and measurement in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysun Ugur, Fatma

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies are performed with a variety of types of radiation measurement instruments, depending on the kind of radiation source that is being measured and the type of information sought. For example, some instruments are designed for in vitro measurements on blood samples, urine specimens, and so forth. Others are designed for in vivo measurements of radioactivity in patients. All these instruments have special design characteristics to optimize them for their specific tasks, as described in this study; however, some considerations of design characteristics and performance limitations are common to all of them. An important consideration for any radiation measurement instrument is its detection efficiency. Maximum detection efficiency is desirable because one thus obtains maximum information with a minimum amount of radioactivity. Also important are instrument's counting rate limitations. There are finite counting rate limits for all counting and imaging instruments used in nuclear medicine, above which accurate results are obtained because of data losses and other data distortions. Non penetrating radiations, such as ß particles, have special detection and measurement problems. In this study, some of these general considerations have been discussed.

  6. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE. PMID:25695043

  7. Prediction of tumour hypoxia and radioresistance with nuclear medicine markers.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J. D.; Coia, L. R.; Stobbe, C. C.; Engelhardt, E. L.; Fenning, M. C.; Schneider, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tumour hypoxia have been synthesised and screened for hypoxic marking activity in cell cultures and in mouse tumours (EMT-6). Markers of the iodinated azomycin nucleoside class with greater water solubility and faster plasma clearance rates relative to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) were of particular interest. The test systems used to characterise hypoxic marking activity of compounds included (1) covalent linkage of radiolabelled markers to cells in suspension culture equilibrated with specific O2 concentrations; (2) biodistribution of radiolabelled markers in EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice; and (3) biodistribution in R3327-AT tumour-bearing rats by nuclear medicine procedures. Of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides produced to date, beta-D-iodoazomycin galactoside (beta-D-IAZG) and beta-D-iodoazomycin xylopyranoside (beta-D-IAZXP) exhibited high metabolism-dependent hypoxic cell uptake, rapid clearance kinetics from the blood and excellent tumour marking activity in vivo. Tumour-blood (T/B) ratio (a measure of tumour hypoxic fraction) was dependent upon EMT-6 tumour size and implantation site. The radioresistance of individual tumours was measured by in vivo/in vitro assay and correlated well with the T/B ratio of hypoxic marker. These studies have identified beta-D-IAZG and beta-D-IAZXP as effective hypoxic markers for planar and single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) imaging studies of tumour oxygenation. PMID:8763881

  8. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  9. The Hotelling Trace Criterion Used for System Optimization and Feature Enhancement in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiete, Robert Dean

    The Hotelling trace criterion (HTC) is a measure of class separability used in pattern recognition to find a set of linear features that optimally separate two classes of objects. In this dissertation we use the HTC not as a figure of merit for features, but as a figure of merit for characterizing imaging systems and designing filters for feature enhancement in nuclear medicine. If the HTC is to be used to optimize systems, then it must correlate with human observer performance. In our first study, a set of images, created by overlapping ellipses, was used to simulate images of livers. Two classes were created, livers with and without tumors, with noise and blur added to each image to simulate nine different imaging systems. Using the ROC parameter d_ {rm a} as our measure, we found that the HTC has a correlation of 0.988 with the ability of humans to separate these two classes of objects. A second study was performed to demonstrate the use of the HTC for system optimization in a realistic task. For this study we used a mathematical model of normal and diseased livers and of the imaging system to generate a realistic set of liver images from nuclear medicine. A method of adaptive, nonlinear filtering which enhances the features that separate two sets of images has also been developed. The method uses the HTC to find the optimal linear feature operator for the Fourier moduli of the images, and uses this operator as a filter so that the features that separate the two classes of objects are enhanced. We demonstrate the use of this filtering method to enhance texture features in simulated liver images from nuclear medicine, after using a training set of images to obtain the filter. We also demonstrate how this method of filtering can be used to reconstruct an object from a single photon-starved image of it, when the object contains a repetitive feature. When power spectrums for real liver scans from nuclear medicine are calculated, we find that the three classifications that a physician uses, normal, patchy, and focal, can be described by the fractal dimension of the texture in the liver. This fractal dimension can be calculated even for images that suffer from much noise and blur. Given a simulated image of a liver that has been blurred and imaged with only 5000 photons, a texture with the same fractal dimension as the liver can be reconstructed.

  10. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 ?Sv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 ?Sv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled therapeutic 131I (2.5 mSv). In conclusion, the maximum expected annual dose to extremities is less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y).

  11. ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.

    PubMed

    Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21571791

  12. ACR-SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training: report of the task force.

    PubMed

    Guiberteau, Milton J; Graham, Michael M

    2011-06-01

    The expansion of knowledge and technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology require physicians to have more expertise in functional and anatomic imaging. The convergence of these two specialties into the new discipline of molecular imaging has also begun to place demands on residency training programs for additional instruction in physiology and molecular biology. These changes have unmasked weaknesses in current nuclear medicine and radiology training programs. Adding to the impetus for change are the attendant realities of the job market and uncertain employment prospects for physicians trained in nuclear medicine but not also trained in diagnostic radiology. With this background, the ACR and the Society of Nuclear Medicine convened the Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training to define the issues and develop recommendations for resident training. PMID:21636052

  13. Evaluation of routine telephone transmission of nuclear medicine studies

    SciTech Connect

    Orlin, J.A.; Tal, I.; Parker, J.A.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Kolodny, G.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Rapid and reliable transmission of nuclear medicine studies using conventional telephone lines and commercially available modems and computer systems has been accomplished through use of software developed within the authors' hospital. Original digital images of all-night and weekend studies, acquired on any of the acquisition computers from different manufacturers, are now routinely sent for remote reading at the physician's home. Data, software, and letters are routinely exchanged using modems and standard telephone lines with a sister institution in Haifa, Israel. The software has been designed to achieve no loss data compression and minimal turnaround time loss. Thus, an average lung perfusion image or gallbladder study requires about 1-3 minutes of transmission time. Full analysis and display software is available on the remote computer.

  14. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  15. NMINT--introductory courseware for nuclear medicine: database design.

    PubMed Central

    Mankovich, N. J.; Verma, R. C.; Yue, A.; Veyne, D.; Ratib, O.; Bennett, L. R.

    1991-01-01

    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) provides a dynamic and self-paced learning experience to the medical trainee. Microcomputer based hypermedia systems integrate text, graphics, and image information. We present the design of an introductory CAI course for nuclear medicine called NMINT and elaborate on the underlying relational database that contains clinically relevant information and links to local or remote image storage over high speed networks. The IBM PS/2 Windows system uses Toolbook software augmented by C language modules for image and image-overlay database access. The current implementation stores text, graphical lesson material, and image index information on microcomputer magnetic disk; image data are stored on the attached optical disk. The storage architecture is described in detail. We emphasize its multi-access methods and its expandability into department-wide image networks. PMID:1807706

  16. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Packer, Samuel (Great Neck, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY)

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

  17. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  18. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  19. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  20. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics... (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics; (4) Medical...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics... (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics; (4) Medical...

  2. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics... (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics; (4) Medical...

  3. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics... (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics; (4) Medical...

  4. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics... (1) Human anatomy and physiology; (2) Physics; (3) Mathematics; (4) Medical...

  5. Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man Yu

    2014-05-01

    As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

  6. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  7. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  8. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  9. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  10. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  11. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

  12. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  13. Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

    2011-09-01

    Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

  14. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  15. New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

  16. Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

  17. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Quality control of herbal medicines assessed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    E-print Network

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Quality control of herbal medicines assessed by Nuclear. With the tremendous expansion in their use, their safety and efficacy as well as the control of their quality have) will be employed for controlling the quality of plant extracts or commercial herbal medicines. The combination of 1

  18. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

    2011-10-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  19. Hardware performance of a scanning system for high speed analysis of nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrabito, L.; Barbuto, E.; Bozza, C.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Coppola, D.; Cozzi, M.; Damet, J.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Marco, D.; Esposito, L. S.; Giacomelli, G.; Grella, G.; Hauger, M.; Juget, F.; Kreslo, I.; Giorgini, M.; Ieva, M.; Laktineh, I.; Manai, K.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Manzoor, S.; Migliozzi, P.; Monacelli, P.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pistillo, C.; Pozzato, M.; Royole-Degieux, P.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Savvinov, N.; Schembri, A.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Sorrentino, G.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.; Waelchli, T.

    2006-12-01

    The use of nuclear emulsions in very large physics experiments is now possible thanks to the recent improvements in the industrial production of emulsions and to the development of fast automated microscopes. In this paper the hardware performances of the European Scanning System (ESS) are described. The ESS is a very fast automatic system developed for the mass scanning of the emulsions of the OPERA experiment, which requires microscopes with scanning speeds of ˜20 cm2/h in an emulsion volume of 44 ?m thickness.

  20. The nuclear basket mediates perinuclear mRNA scanning in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Saroufim, Mark-Albert; Bensidoun, Pierre; Raymond, Pascal; Rahman, Samir; Krause, Matthew R; Oeffinger, Marlene; Zenklusen, Daniel

    2015-12-21

    After synthesis and transit through the nucleus, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are exported to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore complex (NPC). At the NPC, messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) first encounter the nuclear basket where mRNP rearrangements are thought to allow access to the transport channel. Here, we use single mRNA resolution live cell microscopy and subdiffraction particle tracking to follow individual mRNAs on their path toward the cytoplasm. We show that when reaching the nuclear periphery, RNAs are not immediately exported but scan along the nuclear periphery, likely to find a nuclear pore allowing export. Deletion or mutation of the nuclear basket proteins MLP1/2 or the mRNA binding protein Nab2 changes the scanning behavior of mRNPs at the nuclear periphery, shortens residency time at nuclear pores, and results in frequent release of mRNAs back into the nucleoplasm. These observations suggest a role for the nuclear basket in providing an interaction platform that keeps RNAs at the periphery, possibly to allow mRNP rearrangements before export. PMID:26694838

  1. A new fast scanning system for the measurement of large angle tracks in nuclear emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Buonaura, A.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Galati, G.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M. C.; Pupilli, F.; Shchedrina, T.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nuclear emulsions have been widely used in particle physics to identify new particles through the observation of their decays thanks to their unique spatial resolution. Nevertheless, before the advent of automatic scanning systems, the emulsion analysis was very demanding in terms of well trained manpower. Due to this reason, they were gradually replaced by electronic detectors, until the '90s, when automatic microscopes started to be developed in Japan and in Europe. Automatic scanning was essential to conceive large scale emulsion-based neutrino experiments like CHORUS, DONUT and OPERA. Standard scanning systems have been initially designed to recognize tracks within a limited angular acceptance (? lesssim 30°) where ? is the track angle with respect to a line perpendicular to the emulsion plane. In this paper we describe the implementation of a novel fast automatic scanning system aimed at extending the track recognition to the full angular range and improving the present scanning speed. Indeed, nuclear emulsions do not have any intrinsic limit to detect particle direction. Such improvement opens new perspectives to use nuclear emulsions in several fields in addition to large scale neutrino experiments, like muon radiography, medical applications and dark matter directional detection.

  2. Nuclear medicine technologists are able to accurately determine when a myocardial perfusion rest study is necessary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), typically a stress and a rest study is performed. If the stress study is considered normal, there is no need for a subsequent rest study. The aim of the study was to determine whether nuclear medicine technologists are able to assess the necessity of a rest study. Methods Gated MPS using a 2-day 99mTc protocol for 121 consecutive patients were studied. Visual interpretation by 3 physicians was used as gold standard for determining the need for a rest study based on the stress images. All nuclear medicine technologists performing MPS had to review 82 training cases of stress MPS images with comments regarding the need for rest studies, and thereafter a test consisting of 20 stress MPS images. After passing this test, the nuclear medicine technologists in charge of a stress MPS study assessed whether a rest study was needed or not or if he/she was uncertain and wanted to consult a physician. After that, the physician in charge interpreted the images and decided whether a rest study was required or not. Results The nuclear medicine technologists and the physicians in clinical routine agreed in 103 of the 107 cases (96%) for which the technologists felt certain regarding the need for a rest study. In the remaining 14 cases the technologists were uncertain, i.e. wanted to consult a physician. The agreement between the technologists and the physicians in clinical routine was very good, resulting in a kappa value of 0.92. There was no statistically significant difference in the evaluations made by technicians and physicians (P?=?0.617). Conclusions The nuclear medicine technologists were able to accurately determine whether a rest study was necessary. There was very good agreement between nuclear medicine technologists and physicians in the assessment of the need for a rest study. If the technologists can make this decision, the effectiveness of the nuclear medicine department will improve. PMID:22947251

  3. The Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe and its Applications in Biology and Environmental Science

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Zsofia

    2007-11-26

    Nuclear microscopy is one of the most powerful tools which are able to determine quantitative trace element distributions in complex samples on a microscopic scale. The advantage of nuclear microprobes are that different ion beam analytical techniques, like PIXE, RBS, STIM and NRA can be applied at the same time allowing the determination of the sample structure, major, minor and trace element distribution simultaneously.In this paper a nuclear microprobe setup developed for the microanalysis of thin complex samples of organic matrix at the Debrecen Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Facility is presented. The application of nuclear microscopy in life sciences is shown through an example, the study of penetration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles of bodycare cosmetics in skin layers.

  4. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed on a regional level. Our study presents an important step for the integration of 4DCT-ventilation into thoracic clinical practice.

  5. Nuclear medicine techniques in Merkel cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    KRITIKOS, NIKOLAOS; PRIFTAKIS, DIMITRIOS; STAVRINIDES, STAVROS; KLEANTHOUS, STEFANOS; SARAFIANOU, ELENI

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. It predominantly affects the elderly, with a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck. Risk factors include immune-suppressing diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma, organ transplantation, and the presence of the newly-identified Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Diagnosis is based on pathological findings, primarily the immunohistochemical determination of cytokeratin 20 positivity. By contrast, staging relies on conventional imaging methods, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine techniques, such as sentinel lymph node scintigraphy, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) or alternative radiopharmaceuticals. The treatment of MCC is primarily surgical, with possible adjuvant radiation, while the use of chemotherapy appears to be an alternative therapeutic option that is used only in specific cases. The present study describes the case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive Caucasian man with MCC located on the posterior surface of the left thigh, which was identified by cytological and histological examination of tissue sampled by fine needle aspiration and biopsy performed under CT. SRS demonstrated a high uptake of 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-octreotide at the affected site. Therefore, the lesion was surgically excised, and the patient received chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Three months subsequent to treatment, the patient underwent a PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG that demonstrated uptake in the cervical lymph nodes and the area of the excised lesion. These findings indicated that the disease was in remission. The aim of the present study was to highlight the value and contribution of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis, staging and follow-up, using PET/CT, octreoscan and sentinel lymph node scintigraphy, of patients with MCC, as well as the therapeutic strategy of radiolabelled somatostatin analogue scintigraphy. PMID:26622719

  6. Scanning system and image process for double-lambda hypernucleus searching in nuclear emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junya; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Tint, Khin Than; Soe, Myint Kyaw; Kinbara, Shinji; Mishina, Akihiro; Endo, Yoko; Ito, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; E07 Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    A new method named ``Overall scanning'' is being developed to search for more events of double -lambda hypernucleus in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans full volume of emulsion layers exhaustively and a high-speed, high-resolution camera takes their sequential microscopic images. Then, an image process picks out ``double-lambda hypernucleus-like shapes'' having multi tracks and 3 vertices stem from production and cascade weak decay of double-lambda hypernucleus. In this talk, I'll present the current status of development and its operation. During test operations by E373's emulsion plates, about 20cc volume of emulsion was scanned so far. It equals a half of an E373's emulsion plate. Some candidates of double- ? hypernuclei and twin single-lambda hypernucleus have been detected. Besides, 103 single-lambda hypernucleus and 103 alpha decays were found, which is calibration samples for range-energy relation.

  7. Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  8. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M; Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray-based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the US, currently lags behind x-ray-based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This article discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray-based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying, monitoring, and reporting strategies used in x-ray-based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists, and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  9. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  10. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  11. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... All radiation has possible side effects. There is a very small amount of radiation in the tracer swallowed during ...

  12. The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

  13. Possibilities for the production of radioisotopes for nuclear-medicine problems by means of photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhilavyan, L. Z.; Karev, A. I.; Raevsky, V. G.

    2011-12-15

    For electrons of energy about 55 MeV that create an average current of about 40 Micro-Sign A, it is shown that the production of many of the radioisotopes important for nuclear medicine is possible in significant amounts.

  14. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    This report describes a nationally coordinated program development project whose purpose was to catalyze the implementation of needed postsecondary educational programs in the field of nuclear medicine technology (NMT). The NMT project was carried out during the six year period 1968-74 in cooperation with more than 36 community/junior colleges and…

  15. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  16. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy for the imaging of nuclear pore complexes and Ran-mediated transport.

    PubMed

    Shaulov, Lihi; Fichtman, Boris; Harel, Amnon

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution scanning electron microscopy provides three-dimensional surface images of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here, we describe a method for exposing the nuclear surface in mammalian tissue culture cells for imaging by scanning electron microscopy. Hypotonic treatment is followed by low-speed centrifugation onto polylysine-coated silicon chips, without the use of detergents. This helps to preserve NPCs close to their native morphology, embedded in undamaged nuclear membranes. This method is particularly advantageous for combining high-resolution imaging of NPCs with mammalian genetic systems. PMID:24470031

  17. Radioactivity appearing at landfills in household trash of nuclear medicine patients: much ado about nothing?

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jeffry A; Sparks, Richard B

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. NRC in 1997 removed its arbitrary 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule, which had been in existence for almost 50 y, and now many more patients receiving radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine can be treated as outpatients. However, another problem has the potential to limit the short-lived reality of outpatient treatment unless nuclear medicine practitioners and the health physics community gets involved. Radioactive articles in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients are appearing at solid waste landfills that have installed radiation monitors to prevent the entry of any detectable radioactivity, and alarms are going off around the country. These monitors are set to alarm at extremely low activity levels. Some states may actually hold licensees responsible if a patient's radioactive household trash is discovered in a solid waste stream; this is another major reason [along with continued use of the 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule] why many licensees are still not releasing their radionuclide therapy patients. This is in spite of the fact that the radioactivity contained in released nuclear medicine therapy patients, let alone the much lower activity level contained in their potentially radioactive household wastes, poses a minimal hazard to the public health and safety or to the environment. Currently, there are no regulations governing the disposal of low-activity, rapidly-decaying radioactive materials found in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients, the performance of landfill radiation monitors, or the necessity of spectrometry equipment. Resources are, therefore, being unnecessarily expended by regulators and licensees in responding to radiation monitor alarms that are caused by these unregulated short-lived materials that may be mixed with municipal trash. Recommendations are presented that would have the effect of modifying the existing landfill regulations and practices so as to allow the immediate disposal of such wastes. PMID:11845839

  18. Development of an automated multisample scanning system for nuclear track etched detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, H.; Eda, K.; Takahashi, K.; Doke, T.; Hasebe, N.; Kodaira, S.; Ota, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-08-01

    We have developed an automated scanning system for handling a large number of nuclear track etched detectors (NTEDs). The system consists of a magazine station for sample storage, a robotic sample loader, a high-speed wide-area digital imaging microscope device (modified HSP-1000) and PitFit software for analyzing etch pits. We investigated the performance of the system using CR-39 plastic NTED samples exposed to high-energy heavy ions and fast neutrons. When applying the system to fast neutron dosimetry, the typical scanning speed was about 100 samples/day with a scan area of 4 cm 2/sample. The neutron doses obtained from a fully automatic measurement agreed closely with those from a semi-automatic measurement. These results indicate the feasibility of fully automatic scanning of CR-39 personal neutron dosimeters. The system is also expected to be applicable to future large-scale experiments using CR-39 plastic and BP-1 glass NTEDs for observing ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays with high mass resolution.

  19. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:25766899

  20. Geometric matrix research for nuclear waste drum tomographic gamma scanning transmission image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Zhao; Tuo, Xian-Guo

    2015-06-01

    A geometric matrix model of nuclear waste drums is proposed for transmission image reconstruction from tomographic gamma scans (TGS). The model assumes that rays are conical, with intensity uniformly distributed within the cone. The attenuation coefficients are centered on the voxel (cube) of the geometric center. The proposed model is verified using the EM algorithm and compared to previously reported models. The calculated results show that the model can obtain good reconstruction results even when the sample models are highly heterogeneous. Supported by NSFC (41374130), National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (41025015) National Science Foundation (41274109, 41104118)

  1. Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, Richard

    2011-05-01

    A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

  2. Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, Richard

    2011-05-05

    A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

  3. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  4. Comparison of Bayesian and classical reconstructions of tomographic gamma scanning for assay of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-12-01

    Tomographic gamma scanning has been used to assay special nuclear material for the past several years. Field experience suggests that the data analysis techniques can significantly affect the assay uncertainty. For example, a positive bias has been observed for low-activity samples. Recent attempts to reduce the bias without unacceptable increase in variance have taken a non-Bayesian approach. This paper will compare some of these non-Bayesian approaches to a Bayesian approach which is a modification of an approach used in photon emission computed tomography. The Bayesian approach is both more computationally demanding and more satisfying, though the choice of the prior probability for the distribution of nuclear material can impact the analysis. Assay results for scaled-down versions of the full-dimensioned problem will be presented for several methods and cases.

  5. Modular 64x64 CdZnTe arrays with multiplexer readout for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.; Barrett, H.H.; Dereniak, E.L.; Eskin, J.D.; Marks, D.G.; Matherson, K.J.; Young, E.T.; Augustine, F.L.

    1998-12-31

    The authors are developing modular arrays of CdZnTe radiation detectors for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging. Each detector is delineated into a 64x64 array of pixels; the pixel pitch is 380 {micro}m. Each pixel is connected to a corresponding pad on a multiplexer readout circuit. The imaging system is controlled by a personal computer. They obtained images of standard nuclear medicine phantoms in which the spatial resolution of approximately 1.5 mm was limited by the collimator that was used. Significant improvements in spatial resolution should be possible with different collimator designs. These results are promising for high-resolution nuclear medicine imaging.

  6. Three new renal simulators for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullius, Marcos; Fonseca, Mateus; Botelho, Marcelo; Cunha, Clêdison; Souza, Divanízia

    2014-03-01

    Renal scintigraphy is useful to provide both functional and anatomic information of renal flow of cortical functions and evaluation of pathological collecting system. The objective of this study was develop and evaluate the performance of three renal phantoms: Two anthropomorphic static and another dynamic. The static images of the anthropomorphic phantoms were used for comparison with static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA in different concentrations. These static phantoms were manufactured in two ways: one was made of acrylic using as mold a human kidney preserved in formaldehyde and the second was built with ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) in a 3D printer. The dynamic renal phantom was constructed of acrylic to simulate renal dynamics in scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA. These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. Using these phantoms it is possible to acquire similar renal images as in the clinical scintigraphy. Therefore, these new renal phantoms can be very effective for use in the quality control of renal scintigraphy, and image processing systems.

  7. STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    for produc- tion of the PET emitters. PNPI can also produce radioisotopes in nuclear reactors. This line nuclear reactor WWR-M, are supplied to the Radium Institute in St. Petersburg for production of variousSTATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA N

  8. Therapeutic strategy of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland: a nuclear medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Riemann, B; Schober, O

    2009-03-01

    According to the literature, the prevalence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is increasing. To date, PMTC account for up to 30% of all differentiated thyroid cancers. Patients with PTMC have an excellent prognosis with a normal life expectancy. Because of the differential definitions of the PTMC, the therapeutic approaches of the national Scien-tific Societies have not been standardized. The therapeutic algorithms have to be adjusted with regard to thyroid surgery, radioiodine ablation and thyrotropin-suppressive therapy as well as follow-up. Recently, the Therapy Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) has recommended a risk-adapted therapy and follow-up. Risk factors which require a more aggressive therapeutic approach are multifocality, thyroid capsule infiltration, evidence of locoregional or distant metastasis and unfavourable histology. It was the aim of this review to evaluate the current therapeutic concepts in patients with PTMC from a nuclear medicine perspective. PMID:19209130

  9. MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

  10. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G

    1980-01-01

    The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder. (ACR)

  11. Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production

    SciTech Connect

    Gaytan-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G.

    2006-09-08

    The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in Mexico (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

  12. Short- and long-term responses to molybdenum-99 shortages in nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, J R

    2010-01-01

    Most nuclear medicine studies use 99Tcm, which is the decay product of 99Mo. The world supply of 99Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities. In the long-term, stability of 99Mo supply will rely on a combination of replacing conventional reactors and developing new technologies. PMID:20965898

  13. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  14. Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality and patient satisfaction in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    De Man, Stefanie; Gemmel, Paul; Vlerick, Peter; Van Rijk, Peter; Dierckx, Rudi

    2002-09-01

    Patients' and personnel's perceptions of service quality were analysed to position nuclear medicine organisations in the service triangle theory of Haywood-Farmer [ Int J Production and Operations Management 1988; 6:19-29]. After distinguishing the service quality dimensions of nuclear medicine, a comparison was made between the service quality perceptions of patients ( n=259) and those of personnel ( n=24). We examined the importance of different service quality dimensions by studying their relationship to patient satisfaction. The proposed five dimensions of SERVQUAL, the most commonly used service quality measurement scale, were not confirmed. Patients considered tangibles and assurance as one dimension, while the original empathy dimension was separated into empathy and convenience. Personnel perceived all service quality dimensions as less good than did patients, except for empathy. Results indicated that patients' perception of service quality was correlated with patient satisfaction, especially in terms of reliability and tangibles-assurance. Based on these service quality dimensions, we suggest that nuclear medicine services need to optimise their physical and process component and the technical skills of personnel. PMID:12192553

  15. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  16. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image. PMID:25880881

  17. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-03-20

    In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

  18. Improving efficiency management of radiopharmaceutical materials at a nuclear medicine department

    PubMed Central

    Al Ahmed, Ali; Al-Surimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    The cost of radiopharmaceutical materials is highly expensive compared with other resources employed in nuclear medicine department. Hence, inefficient utilization of these costly materials will lead to waste and more financial burden on the healthcare system, increasing the patient waiting list for important diagnostic procedures, especially in those with need urgent care on time. The available data for the previous 12 months about positron emission tomography / computed tomography (PET/CT) unit at nuclear medicine departments showed that over 16% of radiopharmaceutical materials were not utilized and being wasted due to increased number of cancelled or rescheduled oncology patients. The overall financial cost for the underutilized radiopharmaceutical materials due to cancelled and rescheduled procedures for 142 patient were about 39,760 US dollar. Most of these are the oncology patients with diabetes arriving at the nuclear medicine department with high blood glucose level and so are not fit for the procedure. This project aims to improve the oncology diabetic patients preparation for PET/CT procedure to avoid wasting the radiopharmaceutical materials. After implementing the PDSA cycles on 14 oncology patients we found that the quantity of not utilized radiopharmaceuticals were significantly reduced. On the other hand, majority of oncology diabetic patients became more aware about the importance of following the required preparation instruction.

  19. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site identification is problematic. OCT offers a good availability/reliability ratio, and FDG-PET was proven useful. 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT use was infrequent, despite offering the highest sensitivity. PMID:26158607

  20. Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-11-01

    PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point source and S values of ORNL phantom are 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, SimDOSE is an efficient and accurate toolkit to generate patient-specific dose distribution in clinical PET application.

  1. Nuclear physics for medicine: how nuclear research is improving human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Angela

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an associated Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics, and its trans-disciplinary use and application in collaborative ventures between research groups.

  2. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  3. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  4. PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (Y????/?Y????/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their research and results to more than 150 participants from 14 countries. During the conference, exhibitors presented medical equipment used in nuclear medicine. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation, the European Regional Development Fund and the Cyprus Biomedical Research Foundation. Also, we appreciate the support of the various local sponsors listed in the conference programme. We would like to express our sincere thanks and gratitude to the organising committee, the scientific committee and the supporting professional organizations for the success of the conference. We also thank all of speakers for their excellent contributions, all the participants for their input, and the exhibitors for their valuable presentations. Special thanks go to Demetris Kaolis, Maria Christofidou, Isabelle Chrysanthou, Charalambos Yiannakkaras, Ourania Demetriadou, and Elena Christofidou for their invaluable contribution to the conference. The conference volume consists of 26 selected proceedings papers. We would like to thank all of the authors for their time and genuine efforts and the reviewers for their fruitful comments. The Conference Chairpersons Stelios Christofides and Yiannis Parpottas

  5. National comparison of 131I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries.

    PubMed

    Olsovcová, Veronika; Iwahara, Akira; Oropesa, Pilar; Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha; Ghafoori, Mostafa; Son, Hye-Kyung; Sahagia, Maria; Tastan, Selma; Zimmerman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of (131)I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value. PMID:20006521

  6. A strategy for intensive production of molybdenum-99 isotopes for nuclear medicine using CANDU reactors.

    PubMed

    Morreale, A C; Novog, D R; Luxat, J C

    2012-01-01

    Technetium-99m is an important medical isotope utilized worldwide in nuclear medicine and is produced from the decay of its parent isotope, molybdenum-99. The online fueling capability and compact fuel of the CANDU(®)(1) reactor allows for the potential production of large quantities of (99)Mo. This paper proposes (99)Mo production strategies using modified target fuel bundles loaded into CANDU fuel channels. Using a small group of channels a yield of 89-113% of the weekly world demand for (99)Mo can be obtained. PMID:21816619

  7. Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

    2014-07-01

    A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist in improving the accuracy and tractability of dose and shielding calculations for nuclear medicine facility design. PMID:24849904

  8. SiPM MEPhI Megagrant Developments in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. V.; Belyaev, V. N.; Berdnikov, V. V.; Buzhan, P. Zh.; Ilyin, A. L.; Lazarenko, E. O.; Philippov, D. E.; Skryabin, A. A.; Stifutkin, A. A.

    Three projects has been started in our laboratory as part of megagrant "High energy physics and nuclear medicine with silicon photomultiplier detectors" in NRNU MEPHI. The goal of these projects is development of devices for nuclear medicine in which replacement of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with solid-state silicon photomultipliers promises various advantages. The first project is full-body SPECT, where replacement of PMT's could reduce size of the detector module and improve spatial resolution while keeping other parameters. The second project is development of a TOF-PET module. Replacement of PMTs with silicon photomultipliers makes it possible to use that detector not only in high magnetic fields but also for Time-of-Flight measurements (higher signal-to-noise ratio on final image) due to very high timing resolution of a SiPM. And the last project is the SiPM-based position-sensitive Gamma-spectrometer for dose monitoring in neutron-capture therapy based on SiPM's.

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: Application of mathematical methods in dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Richard S.

    1999-04-01

    Dynamic nuclear medicine studies can generate large quantities of data, and their analysis consists essentially of a reduction of these data to a small number of relevant parameters which will assist in clinical decision making. This review examines some of the mathematical techniques that have been used in the process of data reduction and attempts to explain the principles behind their application. It particularly identifies the techniques that have stood the test of time and demonstrated their usefulness, many of which are now available as standard tools on nuclear medicine processing computers. These include curve processing tools such as smoothing, fitting and factor analysis, as well as tools based on empirical models, such as the Patlak/Rutland plot and deconvolution. Compartmental models and vascular models are also examined and the review finishes with a summary of some functional images and condensed images. It is concluded that an appreciation of the principles and limitations of these mathematical tools is valuable for their correct usage and interpretation of the results produced.

  10. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals.

    PubMed

    Bomanji, Jamshed B; Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-10-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  11. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulot, J.

    2003-08-01

    H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

  13. "Nuclear" medicine physicians as communicators: their point of view on the aftermath of "nuclear" disaster.

    PubMed

    Staudenherz, Anton; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2012-02-01

    On March 11th, 2011 earthquakes and a subsequent tsunami devastated northern Japan. The consecutive technical catastrophe in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only an additional local tragedy, it also turned out to be a global disaster. In this review we intend to discuss emerging problems and enlighten a way to communicate in such events, tell people how to react in such scenarios and prevent panic by providing rational information. PMID:22476594

  14. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. PMID:24560040

  15. Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Wahner, H.W.

    1985-12-01

    In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

  16. The effects of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine on diagnostic radioimmunoassay testing. Is there any significant interference

    SciTech Connect

    Riccio, J.A.; Maturani, D.; Wright, J.; Fleetwood, M.K. )

    1990-11-01

    The administration of radioisotopes for diagnostic nuclear medicine scans and therapeutic procedures is quite prevalent today. A period of interference with the counting of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) test may occur with the serum of a patient receiving an in vivo radionuclide that decays by gamma emission. Because the logistics of precounting all specimens may be cumbersome and prohibitive, it is important to determine the degree of this interference. In this study, the authors evaluate the potential interference of the most commonly used radioisotopes with RIA studies. For two months (March and August 1988) 10,650 patient serum specimens were counted for significant background gamma radiation before RIA testing. Forty-three patients, on whom 105 RIA tests were performed, were identified as having preassay gamma radiation in their serum. With the use of selective energy windows for each different interfering radionuclide, proportional determinations were made as to the amount of interfering gamma radiation spilling into the iodine 125 test marker window. It was shown that initial whole serum pretest gamma counts as high as 111,000 counts/minute did not significantly affect the results of the RIA. Because of the meticulous washing and decanting procedures required in modern RIA and the monoclonal nature of most antibodies used currently, it appears the degree of nonspecific binding of this potentially interfering radiation is minuscule. The energy level of cobalt 57, however, and many of the other commonly used radioisotopes, overlaps so closely that it is difficult to window for this interference. It is possible, therefore, that this distinction cannot be made and folate and vitamin B12 test systems using cobalt 57 markers may have to be routinely prescreened.

  17. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Infection in Cancer Patients (With Emphasis on FDG-PET)

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Fidel J.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Timely and adequate diagnosis of infection is very important. This article provides clinicians as well as nuclear medicine specialists with a concise summary of the most important and widely available nuclear medicine imaging techniques for infectious and inflammatory diseases in cancer patients with an emphasis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). 67Ga-citrate has many unfavorable characteristics, and the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals has resulted in the replacement of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy by scintigraphy with labeled leukocytes or FDG-PET for the majority of conditions. The sensitivity of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in non-neutropenic cancer patients is comparable with that in patients without malignancy. The specificity, however, is lower because of the uptake of labeled leukocytes in many primary tumors and metastases, most probably as a result of their inflammatory component. In addition, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy cannot be used for febrile neutropenia because of the inability to harvest sufficient peripheral leukocytes for in vitro labeling. FDG-PET has several advantages over these conventional scintigraphic techniques. FDG-PET has shown its usefulness in diagnosing septic thrombophlebitis in cancer patients. It has also been shown that imaging of infectious processes using FDG-PET is possible in patients with severe neutropenia. Although larger prospective studies examining the value of FDG-PET in cancer patients suspected of infection, especially in those with febrile neutropenia, are needed, FDG-PET appears to be the most promising scintigraphic technique for the diagnosis of infection in this patient group. PMID:21680576

  18. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  19. Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Eberlein, U.; Lassmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue.

  20. A study on the dependence of the change in total scan time on the timing of the scan-time determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Hun; Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the change in the scan time according to the scan-time determination in an examination by using a pre-set time to identify a reasonable alternative to altering the scan time. A hepatobiliary scan was conducted using the radiopharmaceutical 99 m Tc-mebrofenin in the Nuclear Medicine Department of Asan Medical Center from January to March 2012. Scanning began five minutes after an intravenous injection of 222 MBq (megabecquere) (6 mCi). As two detectors were placed facing each other, the patient was asked to stand between the two detectors with the front of the abdomen pressed as close as possible against the detector. After scanning, the measurement was carried out to determine the expected end time of scanning when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total scan time. After scanning had been completed, the measurement time was compared with the final scan time and the expected scan time in the middle of scanning. A phantom was also used to examine the dependence of the change in time on the dose. The difference was examined when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total expected scan time after beginning the scan. According to the study results, the difference was five seconds or more at the maximum when the scan time was 10% of the total expected scan time. The difference was significant when the scan time was 25% or 50% of the total expected scan time.

  1. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  2. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  3. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  4. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  5. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Páez, Diana; Orellana, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ramirez, Raúl; Mut, Fernando; Torres, Leonel

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Latin American and Caribbean region has experienced important growth in the last decade. However, there is great heterogeneity among countries regarding the availability of technology and human resources. According to data collected through June 2014 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the total number of ? cameras in the region is 1,231, with an average of 2.16 per million inhabitants. Over 90% of the equipment is SPECT cameras; 7.6% of which have hybrid technology. There are 161 operating PET or PET/CT cameras in 12 member states, representing a rate of 0.3 per million people. Most NM centers belong to the private health system and are in capitals or major cities. Only 4 countries have the capability of assembling 99Mo-99mTc generators, and 2 countries produce 99mTc from nuclear reactors. Cold kits are produced in some countries, and therapeutic agents are mostly imported from outside the region. There are 35 operative cyclotrons. In relation to human resources: there is 1 physician per ? camera, 1.6 technologists per ? camera, 0.1 medical physicist per center, and approximately 0.1 radiochemist or radiopharmacist per center. Nearly 94% of the procedures are diagnostic. PET studies represent about 4% of the total. The future of NM in the Latin American and Caribbean region is promising, with great potential and possibilities. Some of the most important factors driving the region toward greater homogeneity in the availability and application of NM, and bridging the gaps between countries, are clinician awareness of the importance of NM in managing diseases prevalent in the region, increased building of capacity, continuous and strong support from international organizations such as the IAEA through national and regional projects, and strong public-private partnerships and government commitment. PMID:26229143

  6. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  7. Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S

    2011-11-01

    Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

  8. Lanthanides in Nuclear Medicine. The Production of Terbium-149 by Heavy Ion Beams

    E-print Network

    Dmitriev, S N; Zaitseva, N G; Maslov, O D; Molokanova, L G; Starodub, G Ya; Shishkin, S V; Shishkina, T V

    2001-01-01

    Among radioactive isotopes of lanthanide series elements, finding the increasing using in nuclear medicine, alpha-emitter {149}Tb (T_{1/2} = 4.118 h; EC 76.2 %; beta^+ 7.1 %; alpha 16.7 %) is considered as a perspective radionuclide for radioimmunotherapy. The aim of the present work is to study experimental conditions of the {149}Tb production in reactions Nd({12}C, xn){149}Dy (4.23 min; beta^+, EC)\\to {149}Tb when the Nd targets have been irradiated by heavy ions of carbon. On the basis of results of formation and decay of {149}Dy\\to{149}Tb evaluation of the {149}Tb activity, is made which can be received under optimum conditions (enriched {142}Nd target, {12}C ions with the energy 120 MeV and up to current 100 mu A, time of irradiating 8-10 hours). Under these conditions {149}Tb can be obtained up to 30 GBq (up to 0.8 Ci).

  9. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  10. Quantitation of SPECT performance: Report of Task Group 4, Nuclear Medicine Committee.

    PubMed

    Graham, L S; Fahey, F H; Madsen, M T; van Aswegen, A; Yester, M V

    1995-04-01

    A comprehensive performance testing program is an essential ingredient of high-quality single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Many of the procedures previously published are complicated, time consuming, or require a special testing environment. This Task Group developed a protocol for evaluating SPECT imaging systems that was simple, practical, required minimal test equipment, and could be performed in a few hours using processing software available on all nuclear medicine computers. It was designed to test rotational stability of uniformity and sensitivity, tomographic spatial resolution, uniformity and contrast, and the accuracy of attenuation correction. It can be performed in less than three hours and requires only a Co-57 flood source, a line source, and a tomographic cylindrical phantom. The protocol was used 51 times on 42 different cameras (seven vendors) by four different individuals. The results were used to establish acceptable ranges for the measured parameters. The variation between vendors was relatively small and appeared to reflect slight differences in basic camera performance, collimation, and reconstruction software. Individuals can use the tabulated values to evaluate the performance of individual systems. PMID:7609720

  11. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. ); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. . Cyclotron Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.; Hsieh, B.T.

    1994-01-01

    Processing of enriched tungsten-186 oxide targets after long irradiations (> 2 cycles) in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has resulted in specific activities significantly lower than the theoretical values, with the concomitant formation of varying amounts of highly radioactive black insoluble material to total tungsten-188 yield, 5% sodium hypochlorite solution has been found to dissolve this black material. Yields for longer irradiation periods (> 2 cycles) have nearly doubled. As an alternative, more simple approach, enriched tungsten-186 metallic targets have also now been irradiated. Following irradiation, these targets were dissolved in hydrogen peroxide/NaOH solution with no evidence of any residual black insoluble material remaining. Yields for a 2-cycle (e.g. 42 days) HFIR irradiation have thus now significantly increased, for example, from 5--6 mCi {sup 188}W/mg of {sup 186}W, to 10 mCi/mg (43 days) and 12.9 mCi/mg (53 days). Large clinical scale (< 1 Ci) generators fabricated from tungsten-188 prepared from such metal targets have exhibited the expected high {sup 188}Re yield and low {sup 188}W breakthrough. Also during this period, a systematic evaluation of the production yields of a number of radioisotopes of current interest in nuclear medicine were evaluated by irradiation of targets in the Hydraulic Tube Facility (HT) of the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Small samples were irradiated for short periods, and the radioactive contents of the sealed sources then analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.

  13. A Perspective of the Future of Nuclear Medicine Training and Certification.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Paris, Manuel; Graham, Michael M; Osborne, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine (NM) has evolved from a medical subspecialty using quite basic tests to one using elaborate methods to image organ physiology and has truly become "Molecular Imaging." Concurrently, there has also been a timely debate about who has to be responsible for keeping pace with all of the components of the developmental cycle-imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation. Since the foundation of the American Board of NM, the practice of NM and the process toward certification have undergone major revisions. At present, the debate is focused on the inevitable future convergence of Radiology and NM. The potential for further cooperation or fusion of the American Board of Radiology and the American Board of NM is likely to bring about a new path for NM and Molecular Imaging training. If the merger is done carefully, respecting the strengths of both partners equally, there is an excellent potential to create a hybrid NM-Radiology specialty that combines Physiology and Molecular Biology with detailed anatomical imaging that sustains the innovation that has been central to NM residency and practice. We introduce a few basic trends in imaging use in the United States. These trends do not predict future use, but highlight the need for an appropriately credentialed practitioner to interpret these examination results and provide value to the health care system. PMID:26687859

  14. Asymmetric horseshoe kidney in the infant: value of renal nuclear scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Grandone, C.H.; Haller, J.O.; Berdon, W.E.; Friedman, A.P.

    1985-02-01

    Five infants with an abdominal mass were found to have asymmetric horseshoe kidney. In all five, ultrasound and excretory urography were inconclusive; only after renal nuclear imaging was the diagnosis confirmed and planned surgery cancelled.

  15. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  16. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

    1993-07-01

    The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

  17. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... out of your body as instructed by the nuclear medicine personnel. The amount of radiation is so small that it is not a ... problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear medicine ... exposed to any radiation, including the low level of radiation released by ...

  18. Microfluidic labeling of biomolecules with radiometals for use in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Tobias D; Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V; Önal, Birce; Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J A

    2010-12-21

    Radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals, used as imaging and therapeutic agents in nuclear medicine, consist of a radiometal that is bound to a targeting biomolecule (BM) using a bifunctional chelator (BFC). Conventional, macroscale radiolabeling methods use an excess of the BFC-BM conjugate (ligand) to achieve high radiolabeling yields. Subsequently, to achieve maximal specific activity (minimal amount of unlabeled ligand), extensive chromatographic purification is required to remove unlabeled ligand, often resulting in longer synthesis times and loss of imaging sensitivity due to radioactive decay. Here we describe a microreactor that overcomes the above issues through integration of efficient mixing and heating strategies while working with small volumes of concentrated reagents. As a model reaction, we radiolabel 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) conjugated to the peptide cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) with (64)Cu(2+). We show that the microreactor (made from polydimethylsiloxane and glass) can withstand 260 mCi of activity over 720 hours and retains only minimal amounts of (64)Cu(2+) (<5%) upon repeated use. A direct comparison between the radiolabeling yields obtained using the microreactor and conventional radiolabeling methods shows that improved mixing and heat transfer in the microreactor leads to higher yields for identical reaction conditions. Most importantly, by using small volumes (~10 µL) of concentrated solutions of reagents (>50 µM), yields of over 90% can be achieved in the microreactor when using a 1:1 stoichiometry of radiometal to BFC-BM. These high yields eliminate the need for use of excess amounts of often precious BM and obviate the need for a chromatographic purification process to remove unlabeled ligand. The results reported here demonstrate the potential of microreactor technology to improve the production of patient-tailored doses of radiometal-based radiopharmaceuticals in the clinic. PMID:20941431

  19. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  20. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  1. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  2. Characterisation of crystal matrices and single pixels for nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, D. J.; Belcari, N.; Camarda, M.; Guerra, A. Del; Vaiano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially constructed crystal matrices are characterised for use with PSPMT detectors for PET system developments and other nuclear medicine applications. The matrices of different scintillation materials were specified with pixel dimensions of 1.5×1.5 mm2 in cross-section and a length corresponding to one gamma ray interaction length at 511 keV. The materials used in this study were BGO, LSO, LYSO, YSO and CsI(Na). Each matrix was constructed using a white TiO loaded epoxy that forms a 0.2 mm septa between each pixel. The white epoxy is not the optimum choice in terms of the reflective properties, but represents a good compromise between cost and the need for optical isolation between pixels. We also tested a YAP matrix that consisted of pixels of the same size specification but was manufactured by a different company, who instead of white epoxy, used a thin aluminium reflective layer for optical isolation that resulted in a septal thickness of just 0.01 mm, resulting in a much higher packing fraction. The characteristics of the scintillation materials, such as the light output and energy resolution, were first studied in the form of individual crystal elements by using a single pixel HPD. A comparison of individual pixels with and without the epoxy/dielectric coatings was also performed. Then the matrices themselves were coupled to a PSPMT in order to study the imaging performance. In particular, the system pixel resolution and the peak to valley ratio were measured at 511 and 122 keV.

  3. Nuclear delivery of NF?B-assisted DNA/polymer complexes: plasmid DNA quantitation by confocal laser scanning microscopy and evidence of nuclear polyplexes by FRET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Breuzard, Gilles; Tertil, Magdalena; Gonçalves, Cristine; Cheradame, Hervé; Géguan, Philippe; Pichon, Chantal; Midoux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of a plasmid DNA (pDNA) and investigation of its polymer-associated state in the nucleus are crucial to evaluate the effectiveness of a gene-delivery system. This study was conducted with p3NF-luc-3NF, a pDNA-bearing optimized ?B motif to favour NF?B-driven nuclear import. Here, a quantification of pDNA copies in the nucleus was performed by real-time confocal laser scanning microscopy in HeLa and C2C12 cells transfected with linear polyethylenimine or histidylated polylysine. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from the fluorescein-p3NF-luc-3NF donor to the co-localized rhodamine-polymer acceptor was carried out to investigate whether the pDNA was still condensed with the polymer in the nucleus. Upon 5 h of transfection, the nuclear amount of p3NF-luc3NF was ?1500 copies in both cell lines whereas that of pTAL-luc, a 3NF-free counterpart pDNA, was less than 250. This quantity of p3NF-luc-3NF dropped dramatically to that of pTAL-luc in the presence of the BAY 11-7085, an inhibitor of NF?B activation. These data strongly support a nuclear import of p3NF-luc3NF mediated by NF?B. Moreover, FRET experiments clearly revealed that most of nuclear pDNA were still condensed with the polymer raising the question of their passage through the nuclear pore complex and their impact on the gene-expression efficiency. PMID:18515353

  4. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  5. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-07

    A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  6. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

  7. Imaging genes, chromosomes, and nuclear structures using laser-scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballard, Stephen G.

    1990-08-01

    For 350 years, the optical microscope has had a powerful symbiotic relationship with biology. Until this century, optical microscopy was the only means of examining cellular structure; in return, biologists have contributed greatly to the evolution of microscope design and technique. Recent advances in the detection and processing of optical images, together with methods for labelling specific biological molecules, have brought about a resurgence in the application of optical microscopy to the biological sciences. One of the areas in which optical microscopy is breaking new ground is in elucidating the large scale organization of chromatin in chromosomes and cell nuclei. Nevertheless, imaging the contents of the cell nucleus is a difficult challenge for light microscopy, for two principal reasons. First, the dimensions of all but the largest nuclear structures (nucleoli, vacuoles) are close to or below the resolving power of far field optics. Second, the native optical contrast properties of many important chromatin structures (eg. chromosome domains, centromere regions) are very weak, or essentially zero. As an extreme example, individual genes probably have nothing to distinguish them other than their sequence of DNA bases, which cannot be directly visualized with any current form of microscopy. Similarly, the interphase nucleus shows no direct visible evidence of focal chromatin domains. Thus, imaging of such entities depends heavily on contrast enhancement methods. The most promising of these is labelling DNA in situ using sequence-specific probes that may be visualized using fluorescent dyes. We have applied this method to detecting individual genes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei, and to imaging a number of DNA-containing structures including chromosome domains, metaphase chromosomes and centromere regions. We have also demonstrated the applicability of in situ fluorescent labelling to detecting numerical and structural abnormalities both in condensed metaphase chromosomes and in interphase nuclei. The ability to image the loci of fluorescent-labelled gene probes hybridized to chromosomes and to interphase nuclei will play a major role in the mapping of the human genome. This presentation is an overview of our laboratory's efforts to use confocal imaging to address fundamental questions about the structure and organization of genes, chromosomes and cell nuclei, and to develop applications useful in clinical diagnosis of inherited diseases.

  8. Introduction In nuclear medicine, a pharmaceutical tagged with a radioactive isotope (a radio

    E-print Network

    Duncan, James S.

    tomographic imaging methods in medicine. The first medical scanner to perform x­ray computed tomography (x­ray the gamma rays emitted in the radioactive decay of the isotope. Unlike x­ray techniques, where the radiation a given organ typically yields information about the physi­ ological function of the organ, whereas an x­ray

  9. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Authentication and quality control of herbal medicines assessed by Nuclear Magnetic

    E-print Network

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Authentication and quality control of herbal medicines as the control of their quality have become important concerns. For the quality control of an herbal drug Spectrometry experiments. During the PhD, several NMR methods will be employed for controlling the quality

  10. A Network Model and Computational Approach Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Sections of the American Physical Society, the American Association Physics Teachers, and the Society in nuclear medical imaging, which is routinely utilized by physicians for diagnostic analysis for both cancer

  11. Nuclear Scans (Cancer)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tissues. Special cameras pick up the pattern of radioactivity to create pictures that show where the material ... your body will naturally decay and lose its radioactivity over time. It may also leave your body ...

  12. Discovery of rhenium and masurium (technetium) by Ida Noddack-Tacke and Walter Noddack. Forgotten heroes of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Biersack, H-J; Stelzner, F; Knapp, F F

    2015-11-30

    The history of the early identification of elements and their designation to the Mendeleev Table of the Elements was an important chapter in German science in which Ida (1896-1978) and Walter (1893-1960) Noddack played an important role in the first identification of rhenium (element 75, 1925) and technetium (element 43, 1933). In 1934 Ida Noddack was also the first to predict fission of uranium into smaller atoms. Although the Noddacks did not for some time later receive the recognition for the first identification of technetium-99m, their efforts have appropriately more recently been recognized. The discoveries of these early pioneers are even more astounding in light of the limited technologies and resources which were available during this period. The Noddack discoveries of elements 43 and 75 are related to the subsequent use of rhenium-188 (beta/gamma emitter) and technetium-99m (gamma emitter) in nuclear medicine. In particular, the theranostic relationship between these two generator-derived radioisotopes has been demonstrated and offers new opportunities in the current era of personalized medicine. PMID:26478117

  13. Design and manufacturing of anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom for use in nuclear medicine centres in Chile.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, A; Díaz Londoño, G; García, M; Ruíz, F; Andrade, P; Pérez, A

    2014-12-01

    Anthropomorphic phantoms are used in nuclear medicine for imaging quality control, calibration of gamma spectrometry system for the study of internal contamination with radionuclides and for internal dosimetric studies. These are constructed of materials that have radiation attenuation coefficients similar to those of the different organs and tissues of the human body. The material usually used for the manufacture of phantoms is polymethyl methacrylate. Other materials used for this purpose are polyethylene, polystyrene and epoxy resin. This project presents the design and manufacture of an anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom that includes the cervical spine, trachea and oesophagus, using a polyester resin (? = 1.1 g cm(-3)). Its linear and mass attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined and simulated by means of XCOM software, finding that this material reproduces the soft tissue ICRU-44 in a range of energies between 80 keV and 11 MeV, with less than a 5 % difference. PMID:24567500

  14. X-ray imaging physics for nuclear medicine technologists. Part 1: Basic principles of x-ray production.

    PubMed

    Seibert, J Anthony

    2004-09-01

    The purpose is to review in a 4-part series: (i) the basic principles of x-ray production, (ii) x-ray interactions and data capture/conversion, (iii) acquisition/creation of the CT image, and (iv) operational details of a modern multislice CT scanner integrated with a PET scanner. Advances in PET technology have lead to widespread applications in diagnostic imaging and oncologic staging of disease. Combined PET/CT scanners provide the high-resolution anatomic imaging capability of CT with the metabolic and physiologic information by PET, to offer a significant increase in information content useful for the diagnostician and radiation oncologist, neurosurgeon, or other physician needing both anatomic detail and knowledge of disease extent. Nuclear medicine technologists at the forefront of PET should therefore have a good understanding of x-ray imaging physics and basic CT scanner operation, as covered by this 4-part series. After reading the first article on x-ray production, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with (a) the physical characteristics of x-rays relative to other electromagnetic radiations, including gamma-rays in terms of energy, wavelength, and frequency; (b) methods of x-ray production and the characteristics of the output x-ray spectrum; (c) components necessary to produce x-rays, including the x-ray tube/x-ray generator and the parameters that control x-ray quality (energy) and quantity; (d) x-ray production limitations caused by heating and the impact on image acquisition and clinical throughput; and (e) a glossary of terms to assist in the understanding of this information. PMID:15347692

  15. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine: English, German, French and Russian

    SciTech Connect

    Sube, R.

    1986-01-01

    This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering, compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language. The subject matter dealt with is indicated in detail on the interleaves preceding each separate part of the dictionary. The majority of terms have been compiled from texts in the same language. Care has been taken to use standard terms. The terminology employed by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) as part of the International Atomic Energy Organization has been incorporated in full.

  16. Compartmental analysis of renal physiology using nuclear medicine data and statistical optimization

    E-print Network

    Garbarino, Sara; Brignone, Massimo; Massollo, Michela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Piana, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a general approach to the compartmental modeling of nuclear data based on spectral analysis and statistical optimization. We utilize the renal physiology as test case and validate the method against both synthetic data and real measurements acquired during two micro-PET experiments with murine models.

  17. Computer assisted diagnosis in renal nuclear medicine: rationale, methodology and interpretative criteria for diuretic renography

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Andrew T; Garcia, Ernest V

    2014-01-01

    The goal of artificial intelligence, expert systems, decision support systems and computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) in imaging is the development and implementation of software to assist in the detection and evaluation of abnormalities, to alert physicians to cognitive biases, to reduce intra and inter-observer variability and to facilitate the interpretation of studies at a faster rate and with a higher level of accuracy. These developments are needed to meet the challenges resulting from a rapid increase in the volume of diagnostic imaging studies coupled with a concurrent increase in the number and complexity of images in each patient data. The convergence of an expanding knowledge base and escalating time constraints increases the likelihood of physician errors. Errors are even more likely when physicians interpret low volume studies such as 99mTc-MAG3 diuretic scans where imagers may have had limited training or experience. Decision support systems include neural networks, case-based reasoning, expert systems and statistical systems. iRENEX (renal expert) is an expert system for diuretic renography that uses a set of rules obtained from human experts to analyze a knowledge base of both clinical parameters and quantitative parameters derived from the renogram. Initial studies have shown that the interpretations provided by iRENEX are comparable to the interpretations of a panel of experts. iRENEX provides immediate patient specific feedback at the time of scan interpretation, can be queried to provide the reasons for its conclusions and can be used as an educational tool to teach trainees to better interpret renal scans. iRENEX also has the capacity to populate a structured reporting module and generate a clear and concise impression based on the elements contained in the report; adherence to the procedural and data entry components of the structured reporting module assures and documents procedural competency. Finally, although the focus is CAD applied to diuretic renography, this review offers a window into the rationale, methodology and broader applications of computer assisted diagnosis in medical imaging. PMID:24484751

  18. An unusual breast lesion: the ultrasonographic, mammographic, MRI and nuclear medicine findings of mammary hibernoma

    PubMed Central

    Martini, N; Londero, V; Machin, P; Travaini, L L; Zuiani, C; Bazzocchi, M; Paganelli, G

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old woman being treated for an ovarian cancer who was diagnosed at the age of 40. A CT–positron emission tomography (PET) scan performed as follow-up documented abnormal uptake in the right breast. Mammograms were negative for malignancy, while a focal hyperechoic lesion was observed on ultrasonography in the same breast. Thus, she was referred to our institution for breast MRI, which showed a focal area of enhancement with atypical features. Percutaneous biopsy was performed, and a mammary hibernoma was diagnosed. Radiological and pathological correlation was provided. To our knowledge, this is the only report that describes the features of this rare tumour on four different imaging modalities (mammography, ultrasonography, MRI and CT–PET). PMID:20139247

  19. The revision of RP 91 on criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, K; Malone, J F; Christofides, S; Lillicrap, S; Horton, P

    2013-02-01

    In 1997 the European Commission published Radiation Protection 91: 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations'. This document specified the minimum criteria for acceptability. It has been used to this effect in legislation, codes of practice and by individual professionals. In a single document, it defined a level of performance at which remedial action was required. The document specified a series of parameters which characterised equipment performance and acceptable levels of performance. In its time it proved to be a useful document which was applied in member states to various degrees. Since the publication of Report 91 in 1997, a series of weaknesses emerged over time. Development of new radiological systems and technologies, as well as improvements in traditional technologies, has created circumstances where the acceptability criteria were in need of review. These weaknesses were recognised by the European Commission and a tender for its revision was issued. The criteria were developed by a team drawn from a broad range of backgrounds including hospitals, industry, government bodies, regulators and standardisation organisations. Representatives were mainly from Europe, but individuals from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and International Atomic Energy Agency were included in the drafting process. This study describes the process employed in developing the revised document and the consultation process involved. One of the major difficulties the revision team encountered was related to an understanding of the actual meaning of the EC Directive. The view taken by the revision team was that Article 8, paragraph 3 places responsibilities on both the holders of radiological equipment and competent authorities. The acceptability criteria have been produced consistent with the European Commission's Medical Exposures Directive, which requires that patient exposures are optimised and justified. PMID:23169813

  20. A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

  1. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  2. Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

  3. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  4. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

  5. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  6. High performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach for quantifying multi-components in traditional complex herbal medicines, Qiong-Yu-Gao as an example.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Shen, Hong; Mao, Qian; Zhu, He; Kong, Ming; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-08-10

    An improved high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) method was developed to quantitatively evaluate the holistic quality of traditional complex herbal medicines (CHMs). Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), a classical CHM consisting of Rehmanniae Radix, Poriae and Ginseng Radix, was used as an example. Thirty-eight major components (including six pairs of epimers/isomers) belonging to five chemical types, i.e., iridoid glycosides, phenethylacohol glycosides, furfural derivatives, ginsenosides and triterpenoid acids, were selected as marker compounds. Programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning were designed to improve the sensitivity of the MS detection concerning the diverse chemical features of the analytes. The reference compounds of the analytes were individually injected directly into MS to optimize the ionization cone voltage and to select monitoring ion of each analyte. Nine channels with eight time segments were determined for monitoring the thirty-eight analytes, among which six were detected in positive and thirty-two in negative ion modes respectively. Higher signal-to-noise ratios of the analytes were achieved when compared with full time scanning. In addition, the linearity, precision, accuracy and stability of the method were also validated. The established method was applied for the quantitative evaluation of QYG samples prepared with three different methods. Obvious difference in the contents of thirty-eight components, in particular the original ginsenosides, degraded ginsenosides and furfural derivatives, was found among these QYG samples. All these results demonstrated that the established HPLC-ESI-MS with programmed ionization mode switching and time segment scanning approach is very suitable for the standardization investigation of CHMs. PMID:25982197

  7. Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

    2014-07-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

  8. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  9. The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Jaszczak, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0 to 4.0 mm diameter apertures. Curves of the form sin{sup x}{theta}, where {theta} is the angle of the incident ray with the surface of the detector crystal, were fit to sensitivity measurements from the projection data. Experimentally measured x values were between 3.3 and 4.1 for Tc-99m and between 5.1 and 7.2 for I-131. Penetration near the pinhole aperture was modeled using (1) an expression for effective pinhole diameter that is a generalization of Anger{close_quote}s formula for normally incident photons and (2) a photon transport simulation code. Experimentally measured sensitivity exponents x from new and previously reported experimental observations were modeled within 15{percent} by the numerical simulations. For modeling using the generalized expression for effective diameter the average error was 1.4{percent} and the standard deviation was 7.7{percent}. For the photon transport simulation code the average error was 1.5{percent} and the standard deviation also was 7.7{percent}. The effect of pinhole aperture design parameters on angle-dependent sensitivity for high resolution pinhole apertures was modeled using a photon transport simulation code. The sensitivity exponents x were greater for 364 keV photons than for 140 keV photons and were greater for small aperture diameters, small acceptance angles, and large aperture channel heights. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  11. CT Scans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    MedlinePLUS

    ... like? Special camera or imaging devices used in nuclear medicine include the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, , also called a scintillation camera, detects radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and ...

  13. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... porque registra la radiación que se emite desde el cuerpo del paciente en vez de la radiación ... a órganos, huesos o tejidos espe- cíficos. Cuando el radiofármaco viaja a través del cuerpo, produce emisiones ...

  14. Non-additive response of blends of rice and potato starch during heating at intermediate water contents: A differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    The impact of different hydration levels, on gelatinization of potato starch (PS), rice starch (RS) and a 1:1 blend thereof, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and related to nuclear magnetic resonance proton distributions of hydrated samples, before and after heating. At 20% or 30% hydration, the visual appearance of all samples was that of a wet powder, and limited, if any, gelatinization occurred upon heating. At 30% hydration, changes in proton distributions were observed and related to plasticization of amorphous regions in the granules. At 50% hydration, the PS-RS blend appeared more liquid-like than other hydrated samples and showed more pronounced gelatinization than expected based on additive behavior of pure starches. This was due to an additional mobile water fraction in the unheated PS-RS blend, originating from differences in water distribution due to altered stacking of granules and/or altered hydration of PS due to presence of cations in RS. PMID:26304387

  15. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images. PMID:26009552

  16. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear medicine images but can also be used for any other kind of photon-counting images, such as x-ray and fluorescence images.

  17. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  18. Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

    1999-05-13

    Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

  19. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography. Literature scanned from April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985. First edition, Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1985-04-01

    The literature cited cover data on collisions in which the incident particle energy has a minimum energy of less than 100 MeV in the laboratory system, the data including excitation functions, or thick target or product yields leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state. Such quantities are included as fission yields, isomeric ratios, and excitation functions for specific particle groups where such data readily yield information on the excitation functions or thick target yields for the ground or metastable state. Selected compilations, evaluations, and reviews of charged-particle nuclear data are also listed. The bibliography is indexed by target and by residuals. (LEW)

  20. Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

    1987-12-01

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

  1. Three-Dimensional Apoptotic Nuclear Behavior Analyzed by Means of Field Emission in Lens Scanning Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Salucci, S.; Burattini, S.; Falcieri, E.; Gobbi, P.

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is an essential biological function required during embryogenesis, tissue home-ostasis, organ development and immune system regulation. It is an active cell death pathway involved in a variety of pathological conditions. During this process cytoskeletal proteins appear damaged and undergo an enzymatic disassembling, leading to formation of apoptotic features. This study was designed to examine the three-dimensional chromatin behavior and cytoskeleton involvement, in particular actin re-modeling. HL-60 cells, exposed to hyperthermia, a known apoptotic trigger, were examined by means of a Field Emission in Lens Scanning Electron Microscope (FEISEM). Ultrastructural observations revealed in treated cells the presence of apoptotic patterns after hyperthermia trigger. In particular, three-dimensional apoptotic chromatin rearrangements appeared involving the translocation of filamentous actin from cytoplasm to the nucleus. FEISEM immunogold techniques showed actin labeling and its precise three-dimensional localization in the diffuse chromatin, well separated from the condensed one. The actin presence in dispersed chromatin inside the apoptotic nucleus can be considered an important feature, indispensable to permit the apoptotic machinery evolution. PMID:26428889

  2. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  3. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Kruger, Albert A.; Chun, Jaehun; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent mass loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.

  4. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-01-01

    Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine radiotherapy and SPECT/PET imaging were developed and detailed for 99Mo/99mTc and 68Ge/68Ga radionuclide generators as the cases. Optimisation methods of the daughter nuclide build-up versus stand-by time and/or specific activity using mean progress functions were developed for increasing the performance of radionuclide generators. As a result of this optimisation, the separation of the daughter nuclide from its parent one should be performed at a defined optimal time to avoid the deterioration in specific activity of the daughter nuclide and wasting stand-by time of the generator, while the daughter nuclide yield is maintained to a reasonably high extent. A new characteristic parameter of the formation-decay kinetics of parent/daughter nuclide system was found and effectively used in the practice of the generator production and utilisation. A method of "early elution schedule" was also developed for increasing the daughter nuclide production yield and specific radioactivity, thus saving the cost of the generator and improving the quality of the daughter radionuclide solution. These newly developed optimisation methods in combination with an integrated elution-purification-concentration system of radionuclide generators recently developed is the most suitable way to operate the generator effectively on the basis of economic use and improvement of purposely suitable quality and specific activity of the produced daughter radionuclides. All these features benefit the economic use of the generator, the improved quality of labelling/scan, and the lowered cost of nuclear medicine procedure. Besides, a new method of quality control protocol set-up for post-delivery test of radionuclidic purity has been developed based on the relationship between gamma ray spectrometric detection limit, required limit of impure radionuclide activity and its measurement certainty with respect to optimising decay/measurement time and product sample activity used for QC quality control. The optimisation ensures a certainty of measurement of the specific impure radionuclide and avoids wasting the useful amount of valuable purified/concentrated daughter nuclide product. This process is important for the spectrometric measurement of very low activity of impure radionuclide contamination in the radioisotope products of much higher activity used in medical imaging and targeted radiotherapy. PMID:24918542

  5. Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF-kappaB binding sites.

    PubMed

    Lampronti, I; Khan, M T H; Bianchi, N; Ather, A; Borgatti, M; Vizziello, L; Fabbri, E; Gambari, R

    2005-07-01

    Several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of extracts derived from different medicinal plants of Bangladesh in interfering with specific DNA-protein interactions. The rationale for this study is based on the observation that alteration of gene transcription represents a very promising approach to control the expression of selected genes and could be obtained using different molecules acting on the interactions between DNA and transcription factors (TFs). We have analysed the antiproliferative activity of extracts from the medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Aphanamixis polystachya, Moringa oleifera, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata and Ocimum sanctum. Antiproliferative activity was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines. We employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) as a suitable technique for the identification of plant extracts altering the binding between transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. We found that low concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Moringa oleifera and Lagerstroemia speciosa, and very low concentrations of Aphanamixis polystachya extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). On the contrary, high amount of extracts from Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata or Ocimum sanctum were unable to inhibit NF-kappaB/DNA interactions. Extracts inhibiting both NF-kappaB binding activity and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti-tumor compounds, while extracts inhibiting NF-kappaB/DNA interactions with lower effects on cell growth, could be of interest in the search of compounds active in inflammatory diseases, for which inhibition of NF-kappaB binding activity without toxic effects should be obtained. PMID:16789890

  6. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    2014-06-15

    Medical Physics 2.0 is a bold vision for an existential transition of clinical imaging physics in face of the new realities of value-based and evidencebased medicine, comparative effectiveness, and meaningful use. It speaks to how clinical imaging physics can expand beyond traditional insular models of inspection and acceptance testing, oriented toward compliance, towards team-based models of operational engagement, prospective definition and assurance of effective use, and retrospective evaluation of clinical performance. Organized into four sessions of the AAPM, this particular session focuses on three specific modalities as outlined below. CT 2.0: CT has been undergoing a dramatic transition in the last few decades. While the changes in the technology merits discussions of their own, an important question is how clinical medical physicists are expected to effectively engage with the new realities of CT technology and practice. Consistent with the upcoming paradigm of Medical Physics 2.0, this CT presentation aims to provide definitions and demonstration of the components of the new clinical medical physics practice pertaining CT. The topics covered include physics metrics and analytics that aim to provide higher order clinicallyrelevant quantification of system performance as pertains to new (and not so new) technologies. That will include the new radiation and dose metrics (SSDE, organ dose, risk indices), image quality metrology (MTF/NPS/d’), task-based phantoms, and the effect of patient size. That will follow with a discussion of the testing implication of new CT hardware (detectors, tubes), acquisition methods (innovative helical geometries, AEC, wide beam CT, dual energy, inverse geometry, application specialties), and image processing and analysis (iterative reconstructions, quantitative CT, advanced renditions). The presentation will conclude with a discussion of clinical and operational aspects of Medical Physics 2.0 including training and communication, use optimization (dose and technique factors), automated analysis and data management (automated QC methods, protocol tracking, dose monitoring, issue tracking), and meaningful QC considerations. US 2.0: Ultrasound imaging is evolving at a rapid pace, adding new imaging functions and modes that continue to enhance its clinical utility and benefits to patients. The ultrasound talk will look ahead 10–15 years and consider how medical physicists can bring maximal value to the clinical ultrasound practices of the future. The roles of physics in accreditation and regulatory compliance, image quality and exam optimization, clinical innovation, and education of staff and trainees will all be considered. A detailed examination of expected technology evolution and impact on image quality metrics will be presented. Clinical implementation of comprehensive physics services will also be discussed. Nuclear Medicine 2.0: Although the basic science of nuclear imaging has remained relatively unchanged since its inception, advances in instrumentation continue to advance the field into new territories. With a great number of these advances occurring over the past decade, the role and testing strategies of clinical nuclear medicine physicists must evolve in parallel. The Nuclear Medicine 2.0 presentation is designed to highlight some of the recent advances from a clinical medical physicist perspective and provide ideas and motivation for designing better evaluation strategies. Topics include improvement of traditional physics metrics and analytics, testing implications of hybrid imaging and advanced detector technologies, and strategies for effective implementation into the clinic. Learning Objectives: Become familiar with new physics metrics and analytics in nuclear medicine, CT, and ultrasound. To become familiar with the major new developments of clinical physics support. To understand the physics testing implications of new technologies, hardware, software, and applications. Identify approaches for implementing comprehensive medical physics services in future imaging pr

  7. Taking Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Taking Medicines Drugs in the Body Medicines can enter the body in many different ways, ... many steps happen along the way. Understanding how medicines work in your body can help you learn ...

  8. ADHD Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... System How the Body Works Main Page ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Learning & Emotional Problems > ADHD ... doctor can decide if ADHD medicine is needed. Medicine and the Mind There are a lot of ...

  9. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  10. The proton (nuclear) microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, G. J. F.

    1989-04-01

    The scanning proton microprobe (SPMP) is closely related to the scanning electron microprobe (SEMP) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray detector. Though the much greater elemental sensitivity of the SPMP is inherent in the physics, the generally inferior spatial resolution of the SPMP is not inherent and big improvements are possible, As its alternative name would imply, the SPMP is often used with heavier particle beams and with nuclear rather than atomic reactions. Its versatility and quantitative accuracy have justified greater instrumentation and computer power than that associated with other microprobes. It is fast becoming an industrially and commercially important instrument and there are few fields of scientific research in which it has not played a part. Notable contributions have been made in biology, medicine, agriculture, semiconductors, geology, mineralogy, extractive metallurgy, new materials, archaeology, forensic science, catalysis, industrial problems and reactor technology.

  11. A Study of the Oxidation Behaviour of Pile Grade A (PGA) Nuclear Graphite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT).

    PubMed

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J; Scott, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Pile grade A (PGA) graphite was used as a material for moderating and reflecting neutrons in the UK's first generation Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all but one of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to understand the residual state of the material prior to decommissioning of the cores, in particular the location and concentration of key radio-contaminants such as 14C. The oxidation behaviour of unirradiated PGA graphite was studied, in the temperature range 600-1050°C, in air and nitrogen using thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to investigate the possibility of using thermal degradation techniques to examine 14C distribution within irradiated material. The thermal decomposition of PGA graphite was observed to follow the three oxidation regimes historically identified by previous workers with limited, uniform oxidation at temperatures below 600°C and substantial, external oxidation at higher temperatures. This work demonstrates that the different oxidation regimes of PGA graphite could be developed into a methodology to characterise the distribution and concentration of 14C in irradiated graphite by thermal treatment. PMID:26575374

  12. A Study of the Oxidation Behaviour of Pile Grade A (PGA) Nuclear Graphite Using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Tomography (XRT)

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Liam; Heard, Peter J.; Scott, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Pile grade A (PGA) graphite was used as a material for moderating and reflecting neutrons in the UK’s first generation Magnox nuclear power reactors. As all but one of these reactors are now shut down there is a need to understand the residual state of the material prior to decommissioning of the cores, in particular the location and concentration of key radio-contaminants such as 14C. The oxidation behaviour of unirradiated PGA graphite was studied, in the temperature range 600–1050°C, in air and nitrogen using thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography to investigate the possibility of using thermal degradation techniques to examine 14C distribution within irradiated material. The thermal decomposition of PGA graphite was observed to follow the three oxidation regimes historically identified by previous workers with limited, uniform oxidation at temperatures below 600°C and substantial, external oxidation at higher temperatures. This work demonstrates that the different oxidation regimes of PGA graphite could be developed into a methodology to characterise the distribution and concentration of 14C in irradiated graphite by thermal treatment. PMID:26575374

  13. CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    An arm or chest radiograph looks all the way through a body without being able to tell how deep anything is. A CT scan is three-dimensional. By imaging and looking at several three-dimensional slices of a body (like slices of bread) a doctor could not only tell if a tumor is present, but roughly how deep it is in the body.

  14. COPD Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5654 ) You are here: Health Information > Medications > COPD COPD Medicine Your doctor may prescribe medicine to control ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count COPD Program This program offers comprehensive, individualized care for ...

  15. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  16. Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

  17. Pitfalls of I-131 whole body scan interpretation: bronchogenic cyst and mucinous cystadenoma.

    PubMed

    Agriantonis, Demetrios J; Hall, Lance; Wilson, Michael A

    2008-05-01

    Whole body iodine scans are routinely performed in the nuclear medicine department as part of the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Similarly, radioactive iodine has a well-established role as an adjunct to thyroidectomy in the treatment of these patients. A thorough understanding of the normal, benign, and pathologic biodistribution of iodine is imperative for the nuclear medicine physician. This knowledge leads to the accurate determination of the presence of metastatic or recurrent carcinoma, and may even facilitate the accurate detection of an undiagnosed condition. Above all, correct image interpretation avoids unnecessary therapeutic doses. The authors describe 2 unusual examples of false positive findings in fluid-filled cavities that showcase the variety of nonmalignant entities one may encounter when interpreting metastatic surveys. PMID:18431144

  18. Osteopathic Medicine: About Osteopathic Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside the AOA About the AOA AOA Annual ... DOs Licensed? How Are DOs Certified? About Osteopathic Medicine Page Content You are more than just the ...

  19. Medicine and Veterinary Medicine Postgraduate Opportunities

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Medicine and Veterinary Medicine Imaging Postgraduate Opportunities MSc/Dip/Cert by online distance of students with backgrounds in clinical medicine (Radiology, Radiography, Surgery, Medicine and Veterinary medicine); basic sciences & engineering (Biology, Biomedical Sciences, Physics, Engineering, Chemistry

  20. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch's research group for heart and brain imaging.

  1. Quantitative in vivo cell-surface receptor imaging in oncology: kinetic modeling and paired-agent principles from nuclear medicine and optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Wang, Yu; Pogue, Brian W.; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2015-07-01

    The development of methods to accurately quantify cell-surface receptors in living tissues would have a seminal impact in oncology. For example, accurate measures of receptor density in vivo could enhance early detection or surgical resection of tumors via protein-based contrast, allowing removal of cancer with high phenotype specificity. Alternatively, accurate receptor expression estimation could be used as a biomarker to guide patient-specific clinical oncology targeting of the same molecular pathway. Unfortunately, conventional molecular contrast-based imaging approaches are not well adapted to accurately estimating the nanomolar-level cell-surface receptor concentrations in tumors, as most images are dominated by nonspecific sources of contrast such as high vascular permeability and lymphatic inhibition. This article reviews approaches for overcoming these limitations based upon tracer kinetic modeling and the use of emerging protocols to estimate binding potential and the related receptor concentration. Methods such as using single time point imaging or a reference-tissue approach tend to have low accuracy in tumors, whereas paired-agent methods or advanced kinetic analyses are more promising to eliminate the dominance of interstitial space in the signals. Nuclear medicine and optical molecular imaging are the primary modalities used, as they have the nanomolar level sensitivity needed to quantify cell-surface receptor concentrations present in tissue, although each likely has a different clinical niche.

  2. Use Medicines Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 8 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  3. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2007--2008 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Takao Shimizu Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The Faculty of Medicine

  4. Head CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial ... infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside the skull ( hydrocephalus ) Craniosynostosis Injury (trauma) to the brain, head, ...

  5. Vulnerable Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  6. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

  7. Micromachined microscanners for optical scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Meng-Hsiung; Solgaard, Olav; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.

    1997-04-01

    We present the design and fabrication of surface- micromachined electrostatic-comb driven microscanners that have high angular precision over a large scan angle. When used as resonant scanners, these mirrors have fast scan rates with very low operating power. We use polysilicon microhinges, which allow the micromirrors to be lifted out of the plane of the substrate after processing is completed, to create high-aspect-ratio optical surfaces with dimensions in the hundreds of micrometers s while taking advantage of the planar surface-micromachining processing technology. Microscanners that are capable of high-speed scanning over large scan angles with high precision have been fabricated. Application of these actuated micromirrors in laser barcode scanning and optical-fiber switches have been demonstrated. These single-mirror scanners can be combined to form more complicated microscanners such as a two-mirror, two-axis raster scanner that have a wide range of applications in areas such as medicine, displays, printing, data storage, and communications.

  8. Wilderness medicine

    PubMed Central

    Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes. PMID:25215140

  9. WE-A-17A-07: Evaluation of a Grid-Based Boltzmann Solver for Nuclear Medicine Voxel-Based Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mikell, J; Kappadath, S; Wareing, T; Mourtada, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Grid-based Boltzmann solvers (GBBS) have been successfully implemented in radiation oncology clinics as dose calculations for e×ternal photon beams and 192Ir sealed-source brachytherapy. We report on the evaluation of a GBBS for nuclear medicine vo×el-based absorbed doses. Methods: Vo×el-S-values were calculated for monoenergetic betas and photons (1, 0.1, 0.01 MeV), 90Y, and 131I for 3 mm vo×el sizes using Monte Carlo (DOS×YZnrc) and GBBS (Attila 8.1-beta5, Transpire). The source distribution was uniform throughout a single vo×el. The material was an infinite 1.04 g/cc soft tissue slab. To e×plore convergence properties of the GBBS 3 tetrahedral meshes, 3 energy group structures, 3 different square Chebyschev-Legendre quadrature set orders (Sn), and 4×2013;7 spherical harmonic e×pansion terms (Pn) were investigated for a total of 168 discretizations per source. The mesh, energy group, and quadrature sets are 8×, 3×, and 16×, respectively, finer than the corresponding coarse discretization. GBBS cross sections were generated with full electronphoton-coupling using the vendors e×tended CEP×S code. For accuracy, percent differences (%?) in source vo×el absorbed doses between MC and GBBS are reported for the coarsest and finest discretization. For convergence, ratios of the two finest discretization solutions are reported along each variable. Results: For 1 MeV, 0.1 MeV, 0.01 MeV, Y90, and I-131 beta sources the %? in the source vo×el for (coarsest,finest) discretization were (+2.0,?6.4), (?8.0, ?7.5), (?13.8, ?13.4), (+0.9,?5.5), and (? 10.1,?9.0) respectively. The corresponding %? for photons were (+33.7,?7.1), (?9.4, ?9.8), (?17.4, ?15.2), and (?1.7,?7.7), respectively. For betas, the convergence ratio of mesh, energy, Sn, and Pn ranged from 0.991–1.000. For gammas, the convergence ratio of mesh, Sn, and Pn ranged from 0.998–1.003 while the ratio for energy ranged from 0.964–1.001. Conclusions: GBBS is promising for nuclear medicine vo×el-based dose calculations. Ongoing work includes evaluating GBBS in bone, lung, and realistic clinical PET/SPECT-based activity distributions. Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01CA138986. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

  10. SU-C-9A-02: Structured Noise Index as An Automated Quality Control for Nuclear Medicine: A Two Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J; Christianson, O; Samei, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flood-field uniformity evaluation is an essential element in the assessment of nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras. It serves as the central element of the quality control (QC) program, acquired and analyzed on a daily basis prior to clinical imaging. Uniformity images are traditionally analyzed using pixel value-based metrics which often fail to capture subtle structure and patterns caused by changes in gamma camera performance requiring additional visual inspection which is subjective and time demanding. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a robust QC metrology for NM that is effective in identifying non-uniformity issues, reporting issues in a timely manner for efficient correction prior to clinical involvement, all incorporated into an automated effortless workflow, and to characterize the program over a two year period. Methods: A new quantitative uniformity analysis metric was developed based on 2D noise power spectrum metrology and confirmed based on expert observer visual analysis. The metric, termed Structured Noise Index (SNI) was then integrated into an automated program to analyze, archive, and report on daily NM QC uniformity images. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated over a period of 2 years. Results: The SNI metric successfully identified visually apparent non-uniformities overlooked by the pixel valuebased analysis methods. Implementation of the program has resulted in nonuniformity identification in about 12% of daily flood images. In addition, due to the vigilance of staff response, the percentage of days exceeding trigger value shows a decline over time. Conclusion: The SNI provides a robust quantification of the NM performance of gamma camera uniformity. It operates seamlessly across a fleet of multiple camera models. The automated process provides effective workflow within the NM spectra between physicist, technologist, and clinical engineer. The reliability of this process has made it the preferred platform for NM uniformity analysis.

  11. Effective radiation dose to the patient and to the general population from nuclear medicine procedures: variations in the last twenty-year period.

    PubMed

    Garancini, S; Bianchi, L; Conte, L; Monciardini, M; Roncari, G

    1995-06-01

    We have evaluated how changes in nuclear medicine (NM) techniques over the last twenty-year period have modified radiation exposure to the patient and population. For this purpose, we estimated the variations in the mean effective dose to the patient, and both the collective and the per capita effective dose to the population of the province of Varese, derived from radioisotope examinations carried out in the four NM Centers of this province in the years 1972, 1981, and 1991. Dosimetric calculations were based on ICRP Publication 53 for most of the radiopharmaceuticals used, and tissue weighting factors were based on ICRP Publication 60. The total number of NM exams carried out was 19,744 in 1972, 31,973 in 1981, and 23,623 in 1991. Between 1972 and 1991 there has been a substantial decrease in the effective irradiation to the patient and to the general population (mean effective dose to the patient: from 21.2 to 6 mSv; per capita mean effective dose: from 0.58 to 0.18 mSv), and in the per capita equivalent dose to some target organs, such as the thyroid (9.6-->1.5 mSv) and liver (0.51-->0.07 mSv). At the same time, there has been a significant increase in the per capita equivalent dose to the bladder (0.05-->0.48 mSv), skeleton (0.08-->0.36 mSv), and testes (0.02-->0.15 mSv), and a less marked increase to the ovaries (0.03-->0.06 mSv). The per capita equivalent dose to red marrow (0.13-->0.1 mSv) and to the large intestine (0.1-->0.12 mSv) did not change significantly. PMID:8574811

  12. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2005--2006 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Nobutaka Hirokawa Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The University of Tokyo Graduate

  13. Medicinal Herbman

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-07-21

    Broadcast Transcript: Japanese gardens are admired for their understated elegance, their meditation/movement fusion, their precise placement of essential elements such as water and stone. In this last way at least, Medicinal ...

  14. Role of isotope scan, including positron emission tomography/computed tomography, in nodular goitre.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, Luca; Ceriani, Luca; Treglia, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine techniques were first used in clinical practice for diagnosing and treating thyroid diseases in the 1950s, and are still an integral part of thyroid nodules work-up. Thyroid imaging with iodine or iodine-analogue isotopes is the only examination able to prove the presence of autonomously functioning thyroid tissue, which excludes malignancy with a high probability. In addition, a thyroid scan with technetium-99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile is able to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures for cytologically inconclusive thyroid nodules, as confirmed by meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness studies. Finally, positron emission tomography alone, and positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography scans with (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose are also promising for diagnosing thyroid diseases, but further studies are needed before introducing them to clinical practice. PMID:25047202

  15. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CAT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly (abdomen) very quickly. This test may be used to ...

  16. (Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, W.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

  17. Mesopotamian medicine.

    PubMed

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots. PMID:17378276

  18. Bioenergetic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a specific therapeutic strategy we call ‘bioenergetic medicine’. Bioenergetic medicine refers to the manipulation of bioenergetic fluxes to positively affect health. Bioenergetic medicine approaches rely heavily on the law of mass action, and impact systems that monitor and respond to the manipulated flux. Since classically defined energy metabolism pathways intersect and intertwine, targeting one flux also tends to change other fluxes, which complicates treatment design. Such indirect effects, fortunately, are to some extent predictable, and from a therapeutic perspective may also be desirable. Bioenergetic medicine-based interventions already exist for some diseases, and because bioenergetic medicine interventions are presently feasible, new approaches to treat certain conditions, including some neurodegenerative conditions and cancers, are beginning to transition from the laboratory to the clinic. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24004341

  19. A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Methods: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 32}P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 111}In, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. Results: GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

  20. Medicinal smokes.

    PubMed

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2006-11-24

    All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients. PMID:17030480

  1. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2009--2010 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;A Message From the Dean of Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo Takao Shimizu Dean, Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine

  2. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2011--2012 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;A Message From the Dean of Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo Kohei Miyazono Dean, Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine

  3. Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    2015 2016 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;A Message From the Dean of Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo Kohei Miyazono Dean, Faculty and Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Faculty of Medicine

  4. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  5. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    New York State education law, rules, and regulations concerning the practice of medicine are presented, along with requirements and procedures for obtaining licensure and first registration as a physician. State statutory provisions cover: duration and registration of a license, practice and regulation of the profession, supervision by the Board…

  6. Medicine Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern medical practice in New York State is presented. After an overview of professional regulation in the state, licensing requirements/procedures for medicine are described including education and postgraduate training requirements, state licensing examinations, and application…

  7. Faculty of Medicine Faculty Education Office (Medicine)

    E-print Network

    Faculty of Medicine Faculty Education Office (Medicine) Print Candidate Name: UCAS Number: Graduate Medicine Degree Checklist It is not possible to provide a comprehensive list of all degrees that fulfil our

  8. Application of a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach combined with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis as an efficient tool for discriminating between Korean and Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jinho; Choi, Moon-Young; Kang, Sunmi; Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Wen, He; Lee, Chang Hoon; Park, Minseok; Wiklund, Susanne; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Sunghyouk

    2008-12-24

    Correct identification of the origins of herbal medical products is becoming increasingly important in tandem with the growing interest in alternative medicine. However, visual inspection of raw material is still the most widely used method, and newer scientific approaches are needed. To develop a more objective and efficient tool for discriminating herbal origins, particularly Korean and Chinese, we employed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach combined with an orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) multivariate analysis. We first analyzed the constituent metabolites of Scutellaria baicalensis through NMR studies. Subsequent holistic data analysis with OPLS-DA yielded a statistical model that could cleanly discriminate between the sample groups even in the presence of large structured noise. An analysis of the statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) spectrum identified citric acid and arginine as the key discriminating metabolites for Korean and Chinese samples. As a validation of the discrimination model, we performed blind prediction tests of sample origins using an external test set. Our model correctly predicted the origins of all of the 11 test samples, demonstrating its robustness. We tested the wider applicability of the developed method with three additional herbal medicines from Korea and China and obtained very high prediction accuracy. The solid discriminatory power and statistical validity of our method suggest its general applicability for determining the origins of herbal medicines. PMID:19053358

  9. Medicine safety and children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. DO NOT call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...

  10. Medicines: Use Them Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... raquo Medicines: Use Them Safely Heath and Aging Medicines: Use Them Safely What Are Medicines? What Are ... they’re taking many different drugs. What Are Medicines? What Are Drugs? Some people refer to the ...

  11. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

  12. Pregnancy and Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet ePublications Pregnancy and medicines fact sheet Print this fact sheet Pregnancy and ... pregnancy and medicines Is it safe to use medicine while I am pregnant? There is no clear- ...

  13. Transfusion medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

  14. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians and scientists should be actively engaged in fundamental and applied research designed to ensure that it is safe for humans to routinely and repeatedly stay and work in the microgravity environment of space.

  15. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePLUS

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a ...

  16. SCHOOL of MEDICINE School of Medicine

    E-print Network

    California at Riverside, University of

    SCHOOL of MEDICINE School of Medicine A next generation med school for the next generation of med students ABOUT THE UCR SCHOOL OF MEDICINE Built upon more than three decades of medical education experience, the new UCR School of Medicine is committed to expanding and diversifying the physician workforce

  17. Visual scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.; Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results and knowledge of scan behavior gained in various simulation and laboratory studies. Results were obtained through various analysis techniques such as real-time viewing of the pilot's scanning behavior and quantitative analysis of scan behavior performance parameters (average dwell time, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell histograms, and entropy rate measures). Pilot scan behavior is discussed in the following areas; scanning is a subconscious conditioned activity, scanning is situation dependent, pilots' scanning pattern is centered around a home base. Scanning behavior data have been shown to be useful in determining pilot's workload, evaluating pilot's strategy and role, determining the rate of information transfer of various displays, and aiding in pilot training.

  18. Visual scanning behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L., Sr.; Spady, A. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the results and knowledge of scan behavior gained in various simulation and laboratory studies. Results were obtained through various analysis techniques such as real-time viewing of the pilot's scanning behavior and quantitative analysis of scan behavior performance parameters (average dwell time, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell histograms, and entropy rate measures). Pilot scan behavior is discussed in the following areas; scanning is a subconscious conditioned activity, scanning is situation dependent, pilots' scanning pattern is centered around a home base. Scanning behavior data nave been shown to be useful in determining pilot's workload, evaluating pilot's strategy and role, determining the rate of information transfer of various displays, and aiding in pilot training.

  19. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How the Body Works Main Page Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  20. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any concerns you have about radiation with the health care provider who recommends the test. ... Usually the health care provider will recommend this scan based on ... the scan. For this reason, this test is not often done anymore.

  1. Scan Software 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Scan Software 1 Introduction Scan is a graphical user interface designed to control a confocal microscope BIORAD MRC- 600. The software can acquire simultaneously two channels, scanning an area of 0. In addition, the software can control the stage position and amplifiers setup. The software runs on the Matlab

  2. Fast automated scanning of OPERA emulsion films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirri, G.; Opera Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    The use of nuclear emulsions to record tracks of charged particles with an accuracy of better than 1 micron is possible in large physics experiments thanks to the recent improvements in the industrial production of emulsions and to the development of fast automated microscopes. The European Scanning System (ESS) is a fast automatic system developed for the mass scanning of the emulsions of the OPERA experiment, which requires microscopes with scanning speeds of about 20 cm 2/h. Recent improvements in the technique and measurements with ESS are reported.

  3. Rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Cozens, J. A.; Chamberlain, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    The nature of rehabilitation medicine is outlined in terms of its objectives, its methods, the patient groups which it seeks to help and its relationships to other specialties. Some major advances of recent years are discussed, such as the development of the impairment/disability/handicap framework. With particular emphasis upon neurological rehabilitation, the breadth of the specialty is then illustrated with examples of current preoccupations. These include recovery patterns of the damaged nervous system, testing the efficacy of existing therapies, applying new treatment techniques and developing quantitative measures of disability and handicap. Looking to the future, some key areas are identified where further advances might be sought. Images Figure PMID:7494770

  4. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  5. Rapid frequency scan EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  6. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

  7. Paralympic medicine.

    PubMed

    Webborn, Nick; Van de Vliet, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Paralympic medicine describes the health-care issues of those 4500 or so athletes who gather every 4 years to compete in 20 sports at the Summer Paralympic Games and in five sports at the Winter Paralympic Games. Paralympic athletes compete within six impairment groups: amputation or limb deficiencies, cerebral palsy, spinal cord-related disability, visual impairment, intellectual impairment, or a range of physically impairing disorders that do not fall into the other classification categories, known as les autres. The variety of impairments, many of which are severe, fluctuating, or progressive disorders (and are sometimes rare), makes maintenance of health in thousands of Paralympians while they undertake elite competition an unusual demand on health-care resources. The increased physical fitness of athletes with disabilities has important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction in a population for whom the prevalence of risk factors can be high. PMID:22770458

  8. Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

    2012-05-01

    Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

  9. SU-E-I-65: The Joint Commission's Requirements for Annual Diagnostic Physics Testing of Nuclear Medicine Equipment, and a Clinically Relevant Methodology for Testing Low-Contrast Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    West, W. Geoffrey; Gray, David Clinton

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce the Joint Commission's requirements for annual diagnostic physics testing of all nuclear medicine equipment, effective 7/1/2014, and to highlight an acceptable methodology for testing lowcontrast resolution of the nuclear medicine imaging system. Methods: The Joint Commission's required diagnostic physics evaluations are to be conducted for all of the image types produced clinically by each scanner. Other accrediting bodies, such as the ACR and the IAC, have similar imaging metrics, but do not emphasize testing low-contrast resolution as it relates clinically. The proposed method for testing low contrast resolution introduces quantitative metrics that are clinically relevant. The acquisition protocol and calculation of contrast levels will utilize a modified version of the protocol defined in AAPM Report #52. Results: Using the Rose criterion for lesion detection with a SNRpixel = 4.335 and a CNRlesion = 4, the minimum contrast levels for 25.4 mm and 31.8 mm cold spheres were calculated to be 0.317 and 0.283, respectively. These contrast levels are the minimum threshold that must be attained to guard against false positive lesion detection. Conclusion: Low contrast resolution, or detectability, can be properly tested in a manner that is clinically relevant by measuring the contrast level of cold spheres within a Jaszczak phantom using pixel values within ROI's placed in the background and cold sphere regions. The measured contrast levels are then compared to a minimum threshold calculated using the Rose criterion and a CNRlesion = 4. The measured contrast levels must either meet or exceed this minimum threshold to prove acceptable lesion detectability. This research and development activity was performed by the authors while employed at West Physics Consulting, LLC. It is presented with the consent of West Physics, which has authorized the dissemination of the information and/or techniques described in the work.

  10. Depression - stopping your medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are reasons ... Depression or anxiety might not come back right away when you stop taking the medicine, but it may come ...

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > Teens > Body > Getting Medical Care > Complementary and ... replacement. Continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  12. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  13. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  14. Managing Your Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Your Medicines Updated:May 27,2015 If you have heart ... Yourself • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  15. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  16. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  17. Vulnerability Scanning Policy 1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Vulnerability Scanning Policy 1 Introduction Vulnerability scanning is an important and necessary and can alert system administrators to potentially serious problems. However vulnerability scanning also to compromise system security. The following policy details the conditions under which vulnerability scans may

  18. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With ...

  19. Magnetism in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenck, John

    2000-03-01

    For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing the weak magnetic fields generated by brain and cardiac activity, are currently under investigation.

  20. Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan? A lung ventilation/perfusion scan, or VQ scan, is a test ... A VQ scan involves two types of scans: ventilation and perfusion. The ventilation scan shows where air ...

  1. Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

    Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

  2. Medicine organizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Ricardo; Belchior, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    In the last year of secondary school, students studying physics and chemistry are incentivized to do a project where they must put in practice their improvement of scientific knowledge and skills, like observation of phenomena and analysis of data with scientific knowledge. In this project a group of students, tutored by the teacher, wanted to build an instrument that helps people to take their medical drugs at the right time. This instrument must have some compartments with an alarm and an LED light where the people can put their medical drugs. The instrument must be easily programed using an android program that also registers if the medicine has been taken. The students needed to simulate the hardware and software, draw the electronic system and build the final product. At the end of the school year, a public oral presentation was prepared by each group of students and presented to the school community. They are also encouraged to participate in national and international scientific shows and competitions.

  3. A study on evaluation of the dependences of the function and the shape in a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan on the difference in acquisition count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Kyung-Rae; Shim, Dong-Oh; Kim, Ho-Sung; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In a nuclear medicine examination, methods to acquire a static image include the preset count method and the preset time method. The preset count method is used mainly in a static renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA (dimoercaptosuccinic acid) whereas the preset time method is used occasionally. When the preset count method is used, the same number of acquisition counts is acquired for each time, but the scan time varies. When the preset time method is used, the scan time is constant, but the number of counts acquired is not the same. Therefore, this study examined the dependence of the difference in information on the function and the shape of both sides of the kidneys on the counts acquired during a renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA. The study involved patients who had 40-60% relative function of one kidney among patients who underwent a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan in the Nuclear Medicine Department during the period from January 11 to March 31, 2012. A gamma camera was used to obtain the acquisition count continuously using 100,000 counts and 300,000 counts, and an acquisition time of 7 minutes (exceeding 300,000 counts). The function and the shape of the kidney were evaluated by measuring the relative function of both sides of the kidneys, the geometric mean, and the size of kidney before comparative analysis. According to the study results, neither the relative function nor the geometric mean of both sides of the kidneys varied significantly with the acquisition count. On the other hand, the size of the kidney tended to be larger with increasing acquisition count.

  4. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    SEM (Scanning electron Microscope) image of a vesicular ash particle erupted by Augustine volcano on January 13, 2006. The ash sample was collected during the ashfall in Homer, Alaska by John Paskievitch, AVO. The image was acquired by Pavel Izbekov using ISI-40 Scanning Electron Microscope at the A...

  5. Side Scan Sonar

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A view of the Klein  side scan sonar instrument.  Side scan sonar is a type of technology used to interpret seabed features, material, and textures from acoustic backscatter response intensity. In this application the instrument (towfish) is towed by a cable aft of the vessel. Once activa...

  6. Optimization of pupil design for point-scanning and line-scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh G; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dimarzio, Charles A

    2011-08-01

    Both point-scanning and line-scanning confocal microscopes provide resolution and optical sectioning to observe nuclear and cellular detail in human tissues, and are being translated for clinical applications. While traditional point-scanning is truly confocal and offers the best possible optical sectioning and resolution, line-scanning is partially confocal but may offer a relatively simpler and lower-cost alternative for more widespread dissemination into clinical settings. The loss of sectioning and loss of contrast due to scattering in tissue is more rapid and more severe with a line-scan than with a point-scan. However, the sectioning and contrast may be recovered with the use of a divided-pupil. Thus, as part of our efforts to translate confocal microscopy for detection of skin cancer, and to determine the best possible approach for clinical applications, we are now developing a quantitative understanding of imaging performance for a set of scanning and pupil conditions. We report a Fourier-analysis-based computational model of confocal microscopy for six configurations. The six configurations are point-scanning and line-scanning, with full-pupil, half-pupil and divided-pupils. The performance, in terms of on-axis irradiance (signal), resolution and sectioning capabilities, is quantified and compared among these six configurations. PMID:21833360

  7. Optimization of pupil design for point-scanning and line-scanning confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yogesh G.; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; DiMarzio, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Both point-scanning and line-scanning confocal microscopes provide resolution and optical sectioning to observe nuclear and cellular detail in human tissues, and are being translated for clinical applications. While traditional point-scanning is truly confocal and offers the best possible optical sectioning and resolution, line-scanning is partially confocal but may offer a relatively simpler and lower-cost alternative for more widespread dissemination into clinical settings. The loss of sectioning and loss of contrast due to scattering in tissue is more rapid and more severe with a line-scan than with a point-scan. However, the sectioning and contrast may be recovered with the use of a divided-pupil. Thus, as part of our efforts to translate confocal microscopy for detection of skin cancer, and to determine the best possible approach for clinical applications, we are now developing a quantitative understanding of imaging performance for a set of scanning and pupil conditions. We report a Fourier-analysis-based computational model of confocal microscopy for six configurations. The six configurations are point-scanning and line-scanning, with full-pupil, half-pupil and divided-pupils. The performance, in terms of on-axis irradiance (signal), resolution and sectioning capabilities, is quantified and compared among these six configurations. PMID:21833360

  8. Radiation in medicine: Origins, risks and aspirations

    PubMed Central

    Donya, Mohamed; Radford, Mark; ElGuindy, Ahmed; Firmin, David; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of radiation in medicine is now pervasive and routine. From their crude beginnings 100 years ago, diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy have all evolved into advanced techniques, and are regarded as essential tools across all branches and specialties of medicine. The inherent properties of ionizing radiation provide many benefits, but can also cause potential harm. Its use within medical practice thus involves an informed judgment regarding the risk/benefit ratio. This judgment requires not only medical knowledge, but also an understanding of radiation itself. This work provides a global perspective on radiation risks, exposure and mitigation strategies. PMID:25780797

  9. Genome Medicine 2009, 11

    E-print Network

    Dehene, Frank

    Genome Medicine 2009, 11::88 Correspondence BBrriiddggiinngg tthhee ggaapp bbeettwweeeenn Care Medicine and CRISMA laboratory, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Scaife 602, 3550 Biotechnology Center, University of Torino, Via Nizza 52, I, 10126 Torino, Italy; 10Institutionen för Medicin

  10. Medicine and Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) #12;400 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Graduate Catalogue 2014­15 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Officers Vice President for Medical Affairs and the Raja N. Khuri Dean of the Faculty of Medicine Ziyad Ghazzal

  11. Medicine and Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) #12;418 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Graduate Catalogue 2015­16 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Officers. Sayegh Executive Vice President for Medicine and Global Strategy and the Raja N. Khuri Dean

  12. Identification of chemical constituents in two traditional Chinese medicine formulae by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and off-line nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Zhu, Yunxiang; Shao, Qing; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    There have been increasing works on identification of the chemical constituents in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). However, isomers cannot be distinguished generally only by MS data, and the structures of unknown compounds cannot be confirmed. In this study, semi-preparative LC guided by LC-MS was used to prepare the isomers in microscale followed by off-line NMR analysis to confirm their structures. This approach was applied to identifying the constituents in two TCM formulae, Zhi-Zi-Gan-Cao-Chi-Tang (ZZGCCT) and Zhi-Zi-Bai-Pi-Tang (ZZBPT). A total number of 119 constituents were identified tentatively or unambiguously by LC-IT-MS, LC-Q-TOF-MS, and NMR. Among them, 20 constituents were characterized unambiguously by comparing with the reference substances. In addition, 21 constituents without reference substances were prepared for the following 1D-NMR and/or 2D-NMR analysis, and their structures were unambiguously identified by MS, 1D-NMR, and 2D-NMR. Two triterpenoid glycosides (compounds 134 and 140) and one flavonoid glycoside (compound 62a or 62b) were showed to be novel compounds. Compounds 125 and 129, as well as 62a,b, were epimers. PMID:26397205

  13. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  14. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  15. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  16. Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

    2006-07-11

    Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

  17. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tissues are working. Other imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal ... asked to read or name letters if your memory is being tested. The test takes between 30 ...

  18. Wide scanning spherical antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

  19. www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. fr medicin

    E-print Network

    www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. för medicin 2015 inflammationsforskning hälsas välkommen som ny ledamot i FUU. Per Ladenvall vid avd. för molekylär och klinisk medicin

  20. School of Medicine Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    136 School of Medicine Medicine Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Medicine Entrance Applied Sciences`Pathway to Medicine'at Perth College The School of Medicine has formed a partnership Andrews. More information can be found on the School of Medicine web pages ( http://medicine

  1. Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    PubMed Central

    Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma. Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, 123I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

  2. Aging-induced changes in microstructure and water distribution in fresh and cooked pork in relation to water-holding capacity and cooking loss - A combined confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation study.

    PubMed

    Straadt, Ida Krestine; Rasmussen, Marianne; Andersen, Henrik Jørgen; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2007-04-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry were combined to characterize microstructural changes and water distribution in fresh and cooked pork during an aging period of 14 days. At day 1 (24h postmortem) a few muscle fibres, which appear swollen, were observed in both fresh and cooked meat. An identical microstructure was still apparent after 14 days, however, the number of muscle fibres showing distinguished characteristics was found to increase throughout the aging period. Hence, it was apparent that during aging the individual fibres swell and disintegrate at different rates. Development in water-holding capacity (WHC) was followed during the aging period using gravimetric methods, and an increase in the WHC in the fresh meat was observed, which resembled the amount of extramyofibrillar water measured by NMR relaxometry (T(22) population). This was consistent with the CLSM images, as a substantial increase in the number of myofibrils that appeared swollen, capable of holding more water, was observed during aging. In the cooked meat the width of the T(21c) population, reflecting the myofibrillar water in the cooked meat, was seen to decrease during the entire storage period, which corresponds to the development of a more homogeneous structure. In the CLSM data a continuous degradation during the storage period was observed, which could resemble a shift to a more homogeneous structure. Comparison of CLSM of transverse sections of fresh and cooked pork revealed a pronounced shrinkage of muscle fibres upon cooking. This resulted in large gaps between the cooked muscle fibres, which also was visible as shrinkage at the level of the individual myofibrils. This pattern was also reflected in the NMR relaxation data. The cooking-induced shrinkage of the myofibrils occurred concomitantly with a decrease in the amount of intermyofibrillar water within the individual fibre and an increase in the larger extramyofibrillar spaces between fibres, i.e. water is expelled from the myofibrillar matrix upon cooking. Accordingly, the present study demonstrated that the use of CLSM together with NMR relaxometry can provide further information on the relationship between structural characteristics of meat and resultant water distribution. PMID:22064034

  3. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1992-01-24

    The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

  4. A Standardized Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation Named Yejuhua Capsule Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Downregulating Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor-?B

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chu-Wen; Chen, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Xiao-Li; Ning, Zhao-Xiao; Su, Zu-Qing; Li, Yu-Cui; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A standardized traditional Chinese medicine preparation named Yejuhua capsule (YJH) has been clinically used in treatments of various acute respiratory system diseases with high efficacy and low toxicity. In this study, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects and to elucidate underlying mechanisms of YJH against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Moreover, the chemical analysis and chromatographic fingerprint study were performed for quality evaluation and control of this drug. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5?mg/kg) into the lung in mice and dexamethasone (5?mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a positive control drug. Results demonstrated that pretreatments with YJH (85, 170, and 340?mg/kg, p.o.) effectively abated LPS-induced histopathologic changes, attenuated the vascular permeability enhancement and edema, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the ability of myeloperoxidase, declined proinflammatory cytokines productions, and downregulated activations of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This study demonstrated that YJH exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and supported that YJH was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI in clinic. And its mechanisms were at least partially associated with downregulations of TLR4/NF-?B pathways. PMID:25878714

  5. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  6. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Alternative & Integrative Medicine SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen Alternative medicine is a term used to define therapies other ...

  7. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit an Abstract Patient Information Pages from Vascular Medicine December 2015 Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) More info ... 1, 2014 Archive Submit a Case New! Vascular Medicine Videos Geoff Barnes talks about the article, VTE: ...

  8. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  9. Using Medicines Wisely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Use Medicines Wisely Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...

  10. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > Teens > Drugs & Alcohol > Drugs > Cough & Cold ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  11. Femtosecond scanning tunneling microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.J.; Donati, G.P.; Rodriguez, G.; Gosnell, T.R.; Trugman, S.A.; Some, D.I.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). By combining scanning tunneling microscopy with ultrafast optical techniques we have developed a novel tool to probe phenomena on atomic time and length scales. We have built and characterized an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope in terms of temporal resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. Using a novel photoconductive low-temperature-grown GaAs tip, we have achieved a temporal resolution of 1.5 picoseconds and a spatial resolution of 10 nanometers. This scanning tunneling microscope has both cryogenic and ultra-high vacuum capabilities, enabling the study of a wide range of important scientific problems.

  12. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

  13. Vector generator scan converter

    DOEpatents

    Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

    1988-02-05

    High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

  14. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  15. Orientation Laboratory Medicine & Pathology

    E-print Network

    MacMillan, Andrew

    Welcome! Graduate Student Orientation Laboratory Medicine & Pathology albertadiary.ca e.wikipedia.org Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry (FOMD) Dept of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology (LMP) #12;LMP Graduate · Rounds Attendance and Seminars · Ethics and Academic Integrity Training · PhD Proposal and the Candidacy

  16. Performing Narrative Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  17. Medicines By Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This publication discusses the many different ways medicines work in the body and how this information guides the hunt for drugs of the future. The science of pharmacology--understanding the basics of how our bodies react to medicines and how medicines affect our bodies--is already a vital part of 21st-century research. Pharmacology is a broad…

  18. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  19. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Abuse » Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: ... treatment of addiction. Read more Safe Disposal of Medicines Disposal of Unused Medicines: What You Should Know ( ...

  20. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with ... are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the first ...

  1. Appropriate indications for positron emission tomography/computed tomography: College of Nuclear Physicians of the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sathekge, Mike; Warwick, James M; Doruyter, Alex; Vorster, Mariza

    2015-11-01

    Individualised patient treatment approaches demand precise determination of initial disease extent combined with early, accurate assessment of response to treatment, which is made possible by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). PET is a non-invasive tool that provides tomographic images and quantitative parameters of perfusion, cell viability, and proliferation and/or metabolic activity of tissues. Fusion of the functional information with the morphological detail provided by CT as PET/CT can provide clinicians with a sensitive and accurate one-step whole-body diagnostic and prognostic tool, which directs and changes patient management. Three large-scale national studies published by the National Oncologic PET Registry in the USA have shown that imaging with PET changes the intended patient management strategy in 36.5% to 49% of cases, with consistent results across all cancer types. The proven clinical effectiveness and growing importance of PET/CT have prompted the College of Nuclear Physicians of South Africa, in collaboration with university hospitals, to develop a list of recommendations on the appropriate use of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) and non-18F-FDG PET/CT in oncology, cardiology, neurology and infection/inflammation. It is expected that other clinical situations will be added to these recommendations, provided that they are based upon solid clinical evidence. These recommendations are intended to offer advice regarding contemporary applications of PET/CT, as well as indicating novel developments and potential future indications. The CNP believes that these recommendations will serve an important and relevant role in advising referring physicians on the appropriate use of 18F-FDG and non-18F-FDG PET/CT. More promising clinical applications will be possible in the future, as newer PET tracers become more readily available. PMID:26632309

  2. The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society

    E-print Network

    Gilfoyle, Jerry

    P.M. Applications of Nuclear Physics on Earth: Nuclear power, weapons, and nuclear medicine. TopicsThe Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society A free, four-day short course on nuclear physics and public policy for anyone who wants to better understand nuclear power nuclear weapons

  3. Bone scanning in clinical practice

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelman, I. )

    1987-01-01

    The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

  4. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Shimon (El Cerrito, CA); Chemla, Daniel S. (Kensington, CA); Ogletree, D. Frank (El Cerrito, CA); Botkin, David (San Francisco, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample.

  5. Scanning National and International

    E-print Network

    Wilson, W. Stephen

    3: Reviews 19 Math · W. Stephen Wilson 20 --Common Core 22 --NAEP 26 --TIMSS 29 --PISA 33 English to AN INTERIM REPORT ON COMMON CORE, NAEP, TIMSS AND PISA · OCTOBER 2009 Sheila Byrd Carmichael, W. Stephen to Scanning National and International Education Standards in 2009 An Interim Report on Common Core, NAEP

  6. Teaching the SCANS Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

    SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

  7. THE 2016 ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Gene

    2015-09-01

    Every year, the American Hospital Association compiles the Environmental Scan to provide hospital leaders with insight and information about market forces that are likely to affect the health care field. One common theme this year is the pace of change. PMID:26495611

  8. DSQ Scanning Information: Westat

    Cancer.gov

    Westat, Inc. provides scanning and intelligent data capture for the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ). Services include providing printed questionnaires for data collection and processing completed questionnaires. Westat can provide a modified version of the DSQ for customized data collections. A verified data file along with images of the processed DSQ questionnaires are provided after processing.

  9. Scan This Book!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

  10. Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Min

    In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

  11. Ultrafast scanning probe microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Ogletree, D.F.; Botkin, D.

    1995-05-16

    An ultrafast scanning probe microscopy method is described for achieving subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of an observation sample. In one embodiment of the present claimed invention, a single short optical pulse is generated and is split into first and second pulses. One of the pulses is delayed using variable time delay means. The first pulse is then directed at an observation sample located proximate to the probe of a scanning probe microscope. The scanning probe microscope produces probe-sample signals indicative of the response of the probe to characteristics of the sample. The second pulse is used to modulate the probe of the scanning probe microscope. The time delay between the first and second pulses is then varied. The probe-sample response signal is recorded at each of the various time delays created between the first and second pulses. The probe-sample response signal is then plotted as a function of time delay to produce a cross-correlation of the probe sample response. In so doing, the present invention provides simultaneous subpicosecond-temporal resolution and submicron-spatial resolution of the sample. 6 Figs.

  12. Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio

    2007-01-15

    Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The overall sensitivity in the detection of interval changes, including both hot and cold lesions evaluated by use of the resubstitution and the leave-one-case-out methods, were 95.3%, with 5.97 false positives per view, and 83.2% with 6.02, respectively. The temporal subtraction image for successive whole-body bone scans has the potential to enhance the interval changes between two images, which also can be quantified. Furthermore, the CAD scheme for the detection of interval changes by use of temporal subtraction images would be useful in assisting radiologists' interpretation on successive bone scan images.

  13. School of Medicine Degree options

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    126 School of Medicine Medicine Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Medicine Entrance level. HNC Applied Sciences`Pathway to Medicine'at Perth College The School of Medicine has formed at St Andrews. More information can be found on the School of Medicine webpages or from Perth College T

  14. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  15. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  16. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y P; Woerdenbag, H J

    1995-07-28

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage are the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the most important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the West. This article gives a brief introduction to the written history, theory, and teaching of Chinese herbal medicine in China. It also describes modern scientific research into and the quality control of Chinese herbal medicines in China. Some examples of how new drugs derived from Chinese herbs have been developed on the basis of traditional therapeutic experience are presented. Finally, the situation of Chinese herbal medicine in the West is discussed. PMID:7581215

  17. [Assertive medicine: a proposal against defensive medicine].

    PubMed

    Tena Tamayo, Carlos; Sánchez González, Jorge Manuel

    2005-10-01

    More than ever the physician-patient relationship is deteriorated by diverse factors, among these liability complaints stand out, and have propitiated the practice of defensive medicine, an attitude considered in many countries as inappropriate, expensive and unethical. Defensive medicine widens the distance between a physician and his patient. To revert this vice and its noxious effects which corrupt the patient-physician relationship in our country, we propose that physicians put to practice actions which permit the renewal of the essence of humanistic medicine in their daily practice and the restoration of the relationship. These changes in attitude sum up to a proposition of professional practice which we have denominated assertive medicine. This offer is resumed in four points: 1) Maintain a proper verbal and non verbal communication with each patient, 2) Keep continuously up to date skills, knowledge and abilities, 3) Respect the patient's rights and 4) Defend their own rights as physicians. PMID:16583836

  18. [Contribution of occupational medicine to social medicine].

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Occupational medicine has always been part of social medicine, but focuses on the part of the population in paid employment. Investigations of occupational diseases have identified several toxic chemicals that can affect other sectors of society: examples include cancers due to sawdust, asbestos, benzene, as well as carcinogens, mutagens and reproductive toxins. Better knowledge of the risks posed by epoxy resins, cements, formaldehyde, lead, toluene and other chemical agents has helped to understand certain diseases in the population. Knowledge of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive work has been of help in other areas; gradual resumption of appropriate activity seems to be the best basic treatment. Studies of mental overload and its consequences in the workplace (suicide, depression, etc.) have implications for human relations in society as a whole. Multidisciplinary networking helps to regularly take stock of findings in occupational medicine that may be applicable to social medicine. PMID:21568051

  19. Nuclear Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W.; Meyer, Philip D.; Ward, Andy L.

    2005-01-12

    Nuclear wastes are by-products of nuclear weapons production and nuclear power generation, plus residuals of radioactive materials used by industry, medicine, agriculture, and academia. Their distinctive nature and potential hazard make nuclear wastes not only the most dangerous waste ever created by mankind, but also one of the most controversial and regulated with respect to disposal. Nuclear waste issues, related to uncertainties in geologic disposal and long-term protection, combined with potential misuse by terrorist groups, have created uneasiness and fear in the general public and remain stumbling blocks for further development of a nuclear industry in a world that may soon be facing a global energy crisis.

  20. Abdominal MRI scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Nuclear magnetic resonance - abdomen; NMR - abdomen; Magnetic resonance imaging - abdomen; MRI of the abdomen ... use ionizing radiation. No side effects from the magnetic fields and radio waves have been reported. The ...

  1. Measurements of computed tomography dose index for clinical scans.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, D; Ravanelli, D; Valentini, A

    2014-03-01

    Dose assessment in computed tomography is nowadays based on indicators such as the weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIw) and the volume-weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol), both measured only on single-axial scans. The aim of this study is to extend the set of CT protocols suitable in CTDIvol,w evaluation and therefore to perform measurements directly on clinical CT scans. With this purpose, the present work follows the methodology proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine in the Report No. 111 and focuses on the central cumulative dose DL(0), which predicts CTDIvol,w values for scan length equal to 100 mm. All measurements performed with ion chamber and gafchromic films suggest that it is possible to achieve accurate CTDIvol,w values without selecting single-axial scans tailored to dosimetry. Therefore, it is not always necessary to split dosimetric and clinical CT scanner set-up. PMID:24162372

  2. Personalized MedicinePersonalized Medicine QuoQuo VadisVadis? Conference on Personalized Medicine

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Personalized MedicinePersonalized Medicine ­­ QuoQuo VadisVadis? ? Conference on Personalized Medicine: Conference on Personalized Medicine: Breaking Down the Barriers and Achieving Results Breaking of Clinical Pharmacology CDER/FDA CDER/FDA #12;22 OutlineOutline Personalized MedicinePersonalized Medicine

  3. PRACTICE OF MEDICINE III PRACTICE OF MEDICINE IV PRACTICE OF MEDICINE V

    E-print Network

    Puglisi, Joseph

    PRACTICE OF MEDICINE III PRACTICE OF MEDICINE IV PRACTICE OF MEDICINE V PRACTICE OF MEDICINE I PRACTICE OF MEDICINE II SpringWinterAutumn Year3,4,[5] Year2 SCHOLARLY CONCENTRATIONS Year1 · Cells to Tissues · Molecular Foundations of Medicine · Applied Biochemistry · Genetics · Development & Disease

  4. Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2006-12-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid (CA) and liver (all the extracts). The alterations promoted by TC extract could be related to cardiotonic, antidiabetes and renal toxicity. The alteration in liver in EA and CA extracts could be related to its hepatoprotective activities. The extracts (EA, MI, BG) were not capable to interfere in the survival of E. coli. Moreover, these extracts have protected the E. coli against the SnCl 2 action and this fact can be related to the free radical scavenging properties of the chemical compounds of the extracts. In conclusion these findings could be worthwhile to try to understand and to avoid some pitfalls in the nuclear medicine.

  5. Optical scanning holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; Doh, Kyu B.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Wu, Ming H.; Shinoda, Kazunori K.; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    1995-03-01

    We first review a newly developed 3D imaging technique called optical scanning holography (OSH), and discuss recording and reconstruction of a point object using the principle of OSH. We then derive 3D holographic magnification, using three points configured as a 3D object. Finally, we demonstrated 3D imaging capability of OSH by holographically recording two planar objects at different depths and reconstructing the hologram digitally.

  6. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  7. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, Warren C. (Knoxville, TN); Blau, Peter J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  8. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  9. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  10. Scanning noise microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffert, J.; Cottin, M. C.; Sonntag, A.; Karacuban, H.; Utzat, D.; Bobisch, C. A.; Möller, R.

    2013-04-01

    The paper describes a simple scheme enabling the real-time characterization of fluctuations, e.g., of the conductance in scanning tunneling microscopy. The technique can be used in parallel to other data acquisition, evaluating the rate, the amplitude, and the duty cycle of telegraphic noise in the tunneling current. This kind of scanning probe microscopy allows to evaluate the noise parameters as a function of the average tunneling current, the electron energy, and the lateral position. Images of the noise with Ångstrom spatial resolution are acquired simultaneously to the topographic information providing a direct correlation between the structural information and the noise. The method can be applied to a large variety of systems to monitor dynamics on the nanoscale, e.g., the localization of tunneling current induced switching within a single molecule. Noise spectroscopy may reveal the involved molecular orbitals, even if they cannot be resolved in standard scanning tunneling spectroscopy. As an example we present experimental data of the organic molecule copper phthalocyanine on a Cu(111) surface [J. Schaffert, M. C. Cottin, A. Sonntag, H. Karacuban, C. A. Bobisch, N. Lorente, J.-P. Gauyacq, and R. Möller, Nature Mater. 12, 223-227 (2013), 10.1038/nmat3527].

  11. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  12. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  13. EASY REFILL SCAN YOUR RX Refill by simply scanning the

    E-print Network

    EASY REFILL ­ SCAN YOUR RX Refill by simply scanning the barcode on your mail Rx label ­ anywhere, anytime. PILL IDENTIFIER Quickly identify your pills by entering the imprint, color or shape. DRUG INTERACTIONS Quickly identify unwanted interactions with a simple scan. Sign-in Features: FIND A PHARMACY

  14. Scans Solo: A One-Person Environmental Scanning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    An effective environmental scan will improve the quality of community college planning and decision making by alerting institutional leaders to the challenges and opportunities in the environment. Scanning can be done in three ways: (1) establishing a scanning committee to gather and synthesize information to guide planning; (2) sponsoring a…

  15. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  16. Keeping your medicines organized

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Your Medicine: Be Smart. Be Safe. (with wallet card). Updated April 2011. ... http://www.consumermedsafety.org/tools-and-resources/medication- ...

  17. PanScan Study Participants

    Cancer.gov

    The following principal investigators and studies are participating in PanScan. Note that the principal investigators for PanScan often are not the same individuals who are the principal investigators of the established cohorts.

  18. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. PMID:24314047

  19. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  20. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F. B.; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness.

  1. Scanning Quantum Dot Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christian; Green, Matthew F B; Leinen, Philipp; Deilmann, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Rohlfing, Michael; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F Stefan

    2015-07-10

    We introduce a scanning probe technique that enables three-dimensional imaging of local electrostatic potential fields with subnanometer resolution. Registering single electron charging events of a molecular quantum dot attached to the tip of an atomic force microscope operated at 5 K, equipped with a qPlus tuning fork, we image the quadrupole field of a single molecule. To demonstrate quantitative measurements, we investigate the dipole field of a single metal adatom adsorbed on a metal surface. We show that because of its high sensitivity the technique can probe electrostatic potentials at large distances from their sources, which should allow for the imaging of samples with increased surface roughness. PMID:26207484

  2. Looking into future: challenges in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M

    2015-07-01

    Radiation protection in medicine is becoming more and more important with increasing wider use of X-rays, documentation of effects besides the potential for long-term carcinogenic effects. With computed tomography (CT) likely to become sub-mSv in coming years, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and some of the nuclear medical examination will become focus of attraction as high-dose examinations, even though they are less-frequent ones. Clarity will be needed on radiation effects at levels of radiation doses encountered in a couple of CT scans and if effects are really cumulative. There is challenge to develop radiation metrics that can be used as easily as units of temperature and length and avoidance of multiple meaning of a single dose metric. Other challenges include development of biological indicators of radiation dose, transition from dose to a representative phantom to dose to individual patient, system for tracking of radiation exposure history of patient, avoidance of radiation-induced skin injury in patients and radiation cataract in staff, cutting down inappropriate referrals for radiological examinations, confidence building in patient and patient safety in radiotherapy. PMID:25848110

  3. Personalized Medicine: What Is It ?

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    Personalized Medicine: What Is It ? How Will It Affect Health Care ? Personalized Medicine: What;#12;Medicine Is Personal:Medicine Is Personal: We are all different. Some of our differences translate to how we react to drugs ­ as individuals. This is why individualized, or personalized medicine is important

  4. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Curriculum for Preventive Medicine Residents.

    PubMed

    Chiaramonte, Delia R; D'Adamo, Christopher; Amr, Sania

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Department of Epidemiology and Public Health collaborated with the Center for Integrative Medicine at the same institution to develop and implement a unique integrative medicine curriculum within a preventive medicine residency program. Between October 2012 and July 2014, Center for Integrative Medicine faculty provided preventive medicine residents and faculty, and occasionally other Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, with comprehensive exposure to the field of integrative medicine, including topics such as mind-body medicine, nutrition and nutritional supplements, Traditional Chinese Medicine, massage, biofield therapies, manual medicine, stress management, creative arts, and the use of integrative medicine in the inpatient setting. Preventive medicine residents, under the supervision of Department of Epidemiology and Public Health faculty, led integrative medicine-themed journal clubs. Resident assessments included a case-based knowledge evaluation, the Integrative Medicine Attitudes Questionnaire, and a qualitative evaluation of the program. Residents received more than 60 hours of integrative medicine instruction, including didactic sessions, experiential workshops, and wellness retreats in addition to clinical experiences and individual wellness mentoring. Residents rated the program positively and recommended that integrative medicine be included in preventive medicine residency curricula. The inclusion of a wellness-focused didactic, experiential, and skill-based integrative medicine program within a preventive medicine residency was feasible and well received by all six preventive medicine residents. PMID:26477900

  5. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN IN INDIAN SYSTEM OF MEDICINE

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Y.C.; Prabhu, V.V.; Pal, R.S.; Mishra, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in Indian system of medicine from Rajasthan state have been surveyed and catagorised systematically. The paper deals with 205 medicinal plants, thoroughly indexed along with their important traditional application for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556743

  6. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  7. Free motion scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Sword, Charles K. (Pleasant Hills, PA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ultrasonic scanner system and method for the imaging of a part system, the scanner comprising: a probe assembly spaced apart from the surface of the part including at least two tracking signals for emitting radiation and a transmitter for emitting ultrasonic waves onto a surface in order to induce at least a portion of the waves to be reflected from the part, at least one detector for receiving the radiation wherein the detector is positioned to receive the radiation from the tracking signals, an analyzer for recognizing a three-dimensional location of the tracking signals based on the emitted radiation, a differential converter for generating an output signal representative of the waveform of the reflected waves, and a device such as a computer for relating said tracking signal location with the output signal and projecting an image of the resulting data. The scanner and method are particularly useful to acquire ultrasonic inspection data by scanning the probe over a complex part surface in an arbitrary scanning pattern.

  8. Synchronisation in Scan-On-Scan-On-Scan I. Vaughan L. Clarkson

    E-print Network

    Clarkson, Vaughan

    strategy. I. INTRODUCTION Electronic Support (ES) is that area of Electronic Warfare (EW) concerned-on-scan-on-scan' problem, important in Electronic Support. In this paper, the theory of three-way and higher

  9. (New imaging systems in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    We continue to use and maintain PCR-I, the single-slice high- resolution high-sensitivity positron emission tomograph, while development proceeds on PCR-II, a three-dimensional PET system. A two-dimensional BGO scintillation detector has been designed and we are nearing completion of the detector, including the light guide, crystals and phototube assembly, and the gantry electronics. We are currently exploring techniques for a very high resolution (sub-mm) PET imaging system. We are using the current PCR-I system to assess changes in presynaptic dopamine receptors and glucose utilization in current biological models of Huntington's disease. Our preliminary studies support the use of the primate (Cynomolgus monkey) model of Huntington's disease to monitor in vivo functional changes. We are planning to extend this study to examine the MPTP model of Parkinson disease, and to assess the therapeutic value of D{sub 1} dopamine receptor agonists for treatment of MPTP-induced neurological defects. 13 refs., 5 figs. (MHB)

  10. Nuclear medicine imaging of inflammatory bowel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    With the availability of indium-labeled white blood cells, radionuclide imaging studies have a definite role in the diagnosis and staging of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The In-/sup 111/ white blood cell study is particularly helpful in evaluating recurrent disease in patients with severe intercurrent diseases and in screening patients without the need for barium examinations.

  11. Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

    1976-01-01

    Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)

  12. Medicinal properties of legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to discuss the USDA, ARS medicinal legume germplasm taxonomy, molecular techniques, maintenance, evaluation, utilization, and conventional breeding for use by students and scientists working on medicinal legume genetic resources. The results of this study will provide a valu...

  13. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    Some depression medicines can also be used at lower doses at bedtime, because they make you drowsy. Your body is less likely to become dependent on these medicines. Your doctor will prescribe these drugs and monitor you while you take them.

  14. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Coolen, ACC "Ton"

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim to plausible alternative explanations for previous counter- intuitive inferences to prostate cancer's College London, School of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, U.K. c Department of Surgical Sciences

  15. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Carlin, Bradley P.

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim on these results, we recommend hierarchical Bayesian methods as an attractive alternative in the multi/09/02 v2.00] #12;Statistics in Medicine L. Renfro et al. treatment effects on the surrogate and true

  16. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim in medicine. Unfortunately, randomized controlled studies cannot answer many comparative effectiveness, Ltd. Prepared using simauth.cls [Version: 2010/03/10 v3.00] #12;alternative source of data

  17. Genome Medicine 2009, 11

    E-print Network

    Genome Medicine 2009, 11::39 Research AA kkeerrnneell--bbaasseedd iinntteeggrraattiioonn ooff biology due to alternative splicing, post-translational modifications, as well as the influence. Published: 3 April 2009 Genome Medicine 2009, 11::39 (doi:10.1186/gm39) The electronic version

  18. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Coolen, ACC "Ton"

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim to survival data, with prostate cancer as the primary risk (the ULSAM cohort), leads to plausible alternative of Medicine, Guy's Hospital, London, U.K. c Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala

  19. Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Holly, Ed.; Thompson, Ken, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This document consists of the six issues of the "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" issued during 1995. The newsletter addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Issues typically include feature articles, interviews with doctors in the field of wilderness medicine, product reviews, notices of…

  20. Storing your medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... down the toilet. This is bad for the water supply. To throw away medicine in the trash, first mix your medicine with something that ruins it, such as coffee grounds or kitty litter. Put the entire mixture in a sealed plastic ...

  1. Medicines from Marine Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies-Coleman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

  2. Az-Tech Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Rob

    2000-01-01

    Created in 1552 as a gift for Spain's king, the Badianus Manuscript is a repository of Aztec traditional medicinal knowledge and contains the earliest surviving illustrations of New World plants. At the College of Santa Cruz (Mexico City) for Aztec nobility, an Aztec healer who became the college physician compiled plant descriptions and medicinal

  3. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:26637615

  4. Veterinary medicines update.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:26719512

  5. Lifestyle Medicine Education

    PubMed Central

    Pojednic, Rachele M.; Phillips, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    The actual causes of premature adult deaths, the preponderance of noncommunicable chronic diseases, and their associated costs are related to unhealthy behaviors, such as poor nutrition, physical inactivity, and tobacco use. Although recommended as the first line of prevention and management, providers often do not provide behavioral change counseling in their care. Medical education in lifestyle medicine is, therefore, proposed as a necessary intervention to allow all health providers to learn how to effectively and efficiently counsel their patients toward adopting and sustaining healthier behaviors. Lifestyle medicine curricula, including exercise, nutrition, behavioral change, and self-care, have recently evolved in all levels of medical education, together with implementation initiatives like Exercise is Medicine and the Lifestyle Medicine Education (LMEd) Collaborative. The goal of this review is to summarize the existing literature and to provide knowledge and tools to deans, administrators, faculty members, and students interested in pursuing lifestyle medicine training or establishing and improving an LMEd program within their institution. PMID:26413038

  6. Japan's advanced medicine.

    PubMed

    Sho, Ri; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Murakami, Masayasu

    2013-10-01

    Like health care systems in other developed countries, Japan's health care system faces significant challenges due to aging of the population and economic stagnation. Advanced medicine (Senshin Iryou) is a unique system of medical care in Japan offering highly technology-driven medical care that is not covered by public health insurance. Advanced medicine has recently developed and expanded as part of health care reform. Will it work? To answer this question, we briefly trace the historical development of advanced medicine and describe the characteristics and current state of advanced medical care in Japan. We then offer our opinions on the future of advanced medicine with careful consideration of its pros and cons. We believe that developing advanced medicine is an attempt to bring health care reform in line rather than the goal of health care reform. PMID:24241175

  7. Scan mirrors relay for high resolution laser scanning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David

    2014-09-01

    Two dimensional beam deflection is often required in medical laser scanning systems such as OCT or confocal microscopy. Commonly two linear galvo mirrors are used for performance in terms of their large apertures and scan angles. The galvo mirrors are placed at the vicinity of entrance pupil of the scan lens with a "displacement distance" separating them. This distance limits the scan fields and/or reduces the effective aperture of the scan lens. Another option is to use a beam or pupil relay, and image one galvo mirror onto the other. However, beam (or pupil) relays are notoriously complicated, expensive and can add significant aberrations. This paper discusses a simple, all reflective, diffraction limited, color corrected, beam relay, capable of large scan angles and large deflecting mirrors. The design is based on a unique combination of an Offner configuration with a Schmidt aspheric corrector. The design is highly corrected up to large scan mirrors and large scan angles down to milliwaves of aberrations. It allows significantly larger scan field and or scan lenses with higher numerical aperture as compared with scanners using galvos separated by the displacement distance. While this relay is of exceptionally high performance, it has one element located where the beam is focused which may present a problem for high power lasers. Thus modifications of the above design are introduced where the beam is focused in mid air thus making it usable for high power systems such including laser marking and fabrication systems.

  8. Over-the-counter medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tells you it is OK. COLD, SORE THROAT, COUGH Cold medicines can treat symptoms to make you ... medicine, even if it is labeled for children. Cough medicines: Guaifenesin: Helps break up mucus. Drink lots ...

  9. American Academy of Pain Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources Clinical Pearls AAPM... the Voice of Pain Medicine The professional organization representing over 2,200 pain ... for Anesthesia/Pain Medicine For more information... Pain Medicine Journal Members: Log in for Full Journal Access ...

  10. American Academy of Oral Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5, 2016 AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

  11. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are listed ...

  12. College of Medicine Promotion & Tenure

    E-print Network

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    College of Medicine Promotion & Tenure Guidelines 3/4/2014 #12;Table of Contents INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................3 COLLEGE OF MEDICINE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS..................................................................................10 TENURE-TRACK FACULTY DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL MEDICINE

  13. A scanning cavity microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Matthias; Reichel, Jakob; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2015-01-01

    Imaging the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a high-finesse scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1,700-fold signal enhancement compared with diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross-section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity less than 1?nm2; we show a method to improve the spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for optical studies of nanomaterials, molecules and biological nanosystems. PMID:26105690

  14. Microarray image scanning.

    PubMed

    Ramdas, Latha; Zhang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Of the technologies available for measuring gene expression, microarrays using cDNA targets is one of the most common and well-developed high-throughput techniques. With this technique, the expression levels of thousands of genes are measured simultaneously. DNA probes are immobilized on solid surfaces, either membrane-based or chemically coated glass surfaces. On glass arrays, the probes are hybridized with fluorescent-labeled target samples. Fluorescence intensities, which reflect gene expression levels, are detected by imaging the array using a laser or white-light source and capturing the image using photomultiplier tube detection or a charge-coupled device camera. Different laser-based scanners are used in laboratories to scan microarray images. This chapter discusses the imaging process and the protocols being developed. PMID:16719360

  15. Telescopic horizon scanning.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan

    2014-12-20

    The problem of "distortionless" viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems (mainly "binoculars") remains problematic. The so called "globe effect" is only partially counteracted in modern designs. Theories addressing the phenomenon have never reached definitive closure. In this paper, we show that exact distortionless viewing with terrestrial telescopic systems is not possible in general, but that it is in principle possible in-very frequent in battle field and marine applications-the case of horizon scanning. However, this involves cylindrical optical elements. For opto-electronic systems, a full solution is more readily feasible. The solution involves a novel interpretation of the relevant constraints and objectives. For final design decisions, it is not necessary to rely on a corpus of psychophysical (or ergonomic) data, although one has to decide whether the instrument is intended as an extension of the eye or as a "pictorial" device. PMID:25608206

  16. Fetal cardiac scanning today.

    PubMed

    Allan, Lindsey

    2010-07-01

    The ability to examine the structure of the fetal heart in real-time started over 30 years ago now. The field has seen very great advances since then, both in terms of technical improvements in ultrasound equipment and in dissemination of operator skills. A great deal has been learnt about normal cardiac function in the human fetus throughout gestation and how it is affected by pathologies of pregnancy. There is increasing recognition of abnormal heart structure during routine obstetric scanning, allowing referral for specialist diagnosis and counselling. It is now possible to make accurate diagnosis of cardiac malformations as early as 12 weeks of gestation. Early diagnosis of a major cardiac malformation in the fetus can provide the parents with a comprehensive prognosis, enabling them to make the most informed choice about the management of the pregnancy. PMID:20572107

  17. A Scanning Cavity Microscope

    E-print Network

    Mader, Matthias; Hänsch, Theodor W; Hunger, David

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of the optical properties of individual nanosystems beyond fluorescence can provide a wealth of information. However, the minute signals for absorption and dispersion are challenging to observe, and only specialized techniques requiring sophisticated noise rejection are available. Here we use signal enhancement in a scanning optical microcavity to demonstrate ultra-sensitive imaging. Harnessing multiple interactions of probe light with a sample within an optical resonator, we achieve a 1700-fold signal enhancement compared to diffraction-limited microscopy. We demonstrate quantitative imaging of the extinction cross section of gold nanoparticles with a sensitivity below 1 nm2, we show a method to improve spatial resolution potentially below the diffraction limit by using higher order cavity modes, and we present measurements of the birefringence and extinction contrast of gold nanorods. The demonstrated simultaneous enhancement of absorptive and dispersive signals promises intriguing potential for opt...

  18. Alternatives to medicine. Hannah Semeraro

    E-print Network

    Molinari, Marc

    Alternatives to medicine. Hannah Semeraro Audiology Recruitment Coordinator Audiological Researcher ­ Occupational Therapy ­ 15:15 ­ 15:45 Jim Bird ­ Nursing 2 #12;Alternatives to medicine. Healthcare Science

  19. How the confocal laser scanning microscope entered biological research.

    PubMed

    Amos, W B; White, J G

    2003-09-01

    A history of the early development of the confocal laser scanning microscope in the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge is presented. The rapid uptake of this technology is explained by the wide use of fluorescence in the 80s. The key innovations were the scanning of the light beam over the specimen rather than vice-versa and a high magnification at the level of the detector, allowing the use of a macroscopic iris. These were followed by an achromatic all-reflective relay system, a non-confocal transmission detector and novel software for control and basic image processing. This design was commercialized successfully and has been produced and developed over 17 years, surviving challenges from alternative technologies, including solid-state scanning systems. Lessons are pointed out from the unusual nature of the original funding and research environment. Attention is drawn to the slow adoption of the instrument in diagnostic medicine, despite promising applications. PMID:14519550

  20. Humanism in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, S

    1993-09-01

    Emergency medicine has not yet appropriated "humanism" as a term of its own. Medical humanism needs to be interpreted in a way that is consistent with the practical goals of emergency medicine. In this essay, humanism in emergency medicine is defined by identifying the dehumanizing aspects of sudden illness and exploring of ways for sustaining the humanity of emergency department patients. Excerpts from Dr Oliver Sacks' autobiographical work A Leg to Stand On give voice to the human needs created by sudden illness and its treatment. PMID:8363690

  1. 1Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. 2Department of Social and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan. Correspondence should be addressed to A.B. (abradley@san

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    of Social and Environmental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan for regenerative medicine, however, is the delivery of reprogramming factors. Whereas retroviral transduction out by cell fusion or nuclear trans- fer1. The molecular basis of reprogramming has been revealed

  2. Stochastic scanning multiphoton multifocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jureller, Justin E; Kim, Hee Y; Scherer, Norbert F

    2006-04-17

    Multiparticle tracking with scanning confocal and multiphoton fluorescence imaging is increasingly important for elucidating biological function, as in the transport of intracellular cargo-carrying vesicles. We demonstrate a simple rapid-sampling stochastic scanning multifocal multiphoton microscopy (SS-MMM) fluorescence imaging technique that enables multiparticle tracking without specialized hardware at rates 1,000 times greater than conventional single point raster scanning. Stochastic scanning of a diffractive optic generated 10x10 hexagonal array of foci with a white noise driven galvanometer yields a scan pattern that is random yet space-filling. SS-MMM creates a more uniformly sampled image with fewer spatio-temporal artifacts than obtained by conventional or multibeam raster scanning. SS-MMM is verified by simulation and experimentally demonstrated by tracking microsphere diffusion in solution. PMID:19516485

  3. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques developed for planetary missions, will retrieve tropospheric aerosol characteristics from measurements of multispectral radiance and polarization. Moreover, the same radiance and polarization measurements will also provide very precise information on cloud properties and maps of surface characteristics for cloud-free regions. These capabilities also give EOSP the unique ability to discriminate aerosol from clouds and surface.

  4. www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar Forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. fr medicin

    E-print Network

    www.medicine.gu.se Minnesanteckningar ­ Forskarutbildningsutskottet, inst. för medicin 2015, forskare vid avd. för molekylär och klinisk medicin hälsas välkommen som ny ledamot i FUU. Pauline ersätter informerade om hur antagningarna granskas vid avd. för molekylär och klinisk medicin. De vanligaste bristerna

  5. 65School of Chinese Medicine Master of Chinese Medicine (MCM)

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Yiu-ming

    65School of Chinese Medicine Master of Chinese Medicine (MCM) (One-year Full-time or Two-year Part and enhance students' ability in proficiently applying Chinese medicine theories and methods to clinical practice as well as research in and development of Chinese medicine. After taking the programme, students

  6. PAIN MEDICINE CENTER INSTITUTE FOR TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    PAIN MEDICINE CENTER INSTITUTE FOR TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE Pain diseases such as diabetes and stroke. The outpatient Pain Medicine Center within the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern Medicine offers hope to patients with chronic pain. Starting with a comprehensive

  7. Translational Medicine/ Evidence Based Practice Translational Medicine 2

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Translational Medicine/ Evidence Based Practice Years I-IV 2014-2015 Year II Translational Medicine 2 Year 2 students practice the Translational Medicine skills learned in first year in small group journal discussions with clinical research faculty. Objectives of Translational Medicine 2: · Assess

  8. European Medicines Agency -Science, medicines, health Trainee programme

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    European Medicines Agency - Science, medicines, health Trainee programme The European Medicines Agency operates a trainee programme. The programme gives trainees an understanding of the Agency and its to the activities of the Agency, such as pharmacy, medicine, life sciences, healthcare, chemistry, information

  9. Occupational medicine: new interface for family medicine?

    PubMed

    Markham, J

    1989-11-01

    Family physicians are naturally concerned with the work effects or causes of their patients' health problems. As occupational risk factors have become better understood, however, a new specialty of occupational medicine has been recognized by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1984, two years after the Canadian Board of Occupational Medicine started its own certification. Occupational physicians are available to act as an extension of the family doctor's care and can provide trustworthy medical resources in the workplace. The family physician should be aware of some of the games poorly trained or ill-informed personnel managers may play in the workplace if they have no medical consultant to rely on. New human rights legislation has given more opportunities to rehabilitate workers back to their jobs, and occupational physicians and family physicians can achieve a great deal in co-operation as a result. PMID:21248920

  10. Emergency medicine in the United States: a systemic review

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fifty years of our history in developing and advancing emergency medicine into an independent medical specialty will surely provide emergency medicine colleagues from all over the world with valuable suggestions and guidance. DATA SOURCES: This systemic review is based on the author’s extensive experience through active involvement in the national and international development of emergency medicine. RESULTS: Emergency physicians in the U.S. emergency departments and sometimes other settings provide urgent and emergency care to patients of all ages, including definitive diagnosis of emergent conditions, prolonged stabilization of patients when necessary, airway management, and life-saving procedures using rapid sequence intubation and sedation. They use a multitude of diagnostic technologies including laboratory studies, bedside ultrasound and other sophisticated radiology, such as CT scan, and MRI. CONCLUSION: In the U.S., emergency medicine fits extremely well into the overall medical system, and is clearly the most efficient way to provide emergency patient care. PMID:25215031

  11. [Overdiagnosis and defensive medicine in occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Berral, Alessandro; Pira, Enrico; Romano, Canzio

    2014-01-01

    In clinical medicine since some years overdiagnosis is giving rise to growing attention and concern. Overdiagnosis is the diagnosis of a "disease" that will never cause symptoms or death during a patient's lifetime. It is a side effect of testing for early forms of disease which may turn people into patients unnecessarily and may lead to treatments that do no good and perhaps do harm. Overdiagnosis occurs when a disease is diagnosed correctly, but the diagnosis is irrelevant. A correct diagnosis may be irrelevant because treatment for the disease is not available, not needed, or not wanted. Four drivers engender overdiagnosis: 1) screening in non symptomatic subjects; 2) raised sensitivity of diagnostic tests; 3) incidental overdiagnosis; 4) broadening of diagnostic criteria for diseases. "Defensive medicine" can play a role. It begs the question of whether even in the context of Occupational Medicine overdiagnosis is possible. In relation to the double diagnostic evaluation peculiar to Occupational Medicine, the clinical and the causal, a dual phenomenon is possible: that of overdiagnosis properly said and what we could define the overattribution, in relation to the assessment of a causal relationship with work. Examples of occupational "diseases" that can represent cases of overdiagnosis, with the possible consequences of overtreatment, consisting of unnecessary and socially harmful limitations to fitness for work, are taken into consideration: pleural plaques, alterations of the intervertebral discs, "small airways disease", sub-clinical hearing impairment. In Italy the National Insurance for occupational diseases (INAIL) regularly recognizes less than 50% of the notified diseases; this might suggest overdiagnosis and possibly overattribution in reporting. Physicians dealing with the diagnosis of occupational diseases are obviously requested to perform a careful, up-to-date and active investigation. When applying to the diagnosis of occupational diseases, proper logical criteria should be even antecedent to a good diagnostic technique, due to social outcome for the worker. PMID:25558728

  12. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  13. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10001 New Hampshire Avenue Hillandale Building, 4th Floor Silver Spring, MD 20993 More in Buying & Using Medicine ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...

  14. Emergency medicine in space.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Lowan H; Trunkey, Donald; Rebagliati, G Steve

    2007-01-01

    Recent events, including the development of space tourism and commercial spaceflight, have increased the need for specialists in space medicine. With increased duration of missions and distance from Earth, medical and surgical events will become inevitable. Ground-based medical support will no longer be adequate when return to Earth is not an option. Pending the inclusion of sub-specialists, clinical skills and medical expertise will be required that go beyond those of current physician-astronauts, yet are well within the scope of Emergency Medicine. Emergency physicians have the necessary broad knowledge base as well as proficiency in basic surgical skills and management of the critically ill and injured. Space medicine shares many attributes with extreme conditions and environments that many emergency physicians already specialize in. This article is an introduction to space medicine, and a review of current issues in the emergent management of medical and surgical disease during spaceflight. PMID:17239732

  15. Advanced Computing for Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Glenn D.; Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses contributions that computers and computer networks are making to the field of medicine. Emphasizes the computer's speed in storing and retrieving data. Suggests that doctors may soon be able to use computers to advise on diagnosis and treatment. (TW)

  16. Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in varying forms in Southeast Asia. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... and integrative health approaches you use. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Ayurvedic Medicine Research ...

  17. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePLUS

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  18. Health & Medicine Heart Disease

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science and stretchable electronics can map waves of electrical activity in the heart with better resolution and speed

  19. INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    D Institute Director, Cancer Control and Survivorship Research Program Leader Supportive Oncology for a loved one with cancer. The continuum of support services includes psychosocial support and educationTHE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE CANCER SURVIVORSHIP INSTITUTE THE INSTITUTES

  20. Research Article in Medicine

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    Research Article Statistics in Medicine Received XXXX (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania b Division of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public