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1

Fractal Physiology And Nuclear Medicine Scans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of the power spectra of liver scans reveals that the radiocolloid distribution in the human liver behaves as a fractal object. Analysis of the power spectra suggests that the fractal dimension of the functional units of the liver changes with disease state, and that power spectral slope may be a useful classifier for the presence of disease. Models are proposed that relate the power spectral slope to the fractal dimension of the liver parenchyma.

Cargill, E. B.; Barrett, H. H.; Fiete, R. D.; Ker, M.; Patton, D. D.; Seeley, G. W.

1988-06-01

2

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

3

Nuclear Medicine  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine utilizes radioisotopes to diagnose and in some cases treat disease. Modern instruments can image their accumulation in an organ and provide quantitative data when indicated. The strength of these procedures is in the unique physiologic information they provide, rather than the presentation of precise anatomic detail. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:21267203

Belzberg, Allan S.

1986-01-01

4

Nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1986-10-17

5

Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989  

SciTech Connect

Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

1989-01-01

6

Nuclear Scans (Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiographic studies (regular x-rays and contrast studies) Mammography Nuclear scans Ultrasound Categories of some common imaging ... of cancer To learn more References Previous Topic Mammography Next Topic Ultrasound Nuclear scans Other names include ...

7

Nuclear medicine annual  

SciTech Connect

This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

Freeman, L.M.

1988-01-01

8

Technologists for Nuclear Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

Barnett, Huey D.

1974-01-01

9

What Is Nuclear Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... Normal Enzyme Level Smoker Reduced Enzyme Level 5 Nuclear medicine can detect the radiation coming from inside a patient’s body. All of ... from outside the body using machines that send radiation through the body. As a result, nuclear medicine determines the cause of a medical problem ...

10

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

1990-01-01

11

Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

Atkins, H.L.

1984-01-01

12

Nuclear Medicine CT Angiography  

E-print Network

rotation is based at the Palo Alto VA Medical Center and gives the cardiology fellow experience. Understand the indications for exercise treadmill testing and specific nuclear cardiology tests, safe use patient and learn the importance of physical and pharmacologic stress in nuclear cardiology 3. Interpret

Ford, James

13

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

14

Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

NONE

2001-04-01

15

Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

2014-01-01

16

Laser scanning endoscope for diagnostic medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of endoscope is being developed which utilizes an optical raster scanning system for imaging through an endoscope. The optical raster scanner utilizes a high speed, multifaceted, rotating polygon mirror system for horizontal deflection, and a slower speed galvanometer driven mirror as the vertical deflection system. When used in combination, the optical raster scanner traces out a raster similar to an electron beam raster used in television systems. This flying spot of light can then be detected by various types of photosensitive detectors to generate a video image of the surface or scene being illuminated by the scanning beam. The optical raster scanner has been coupled to an endoscope. The raster is projected down the endoscope, thereby illuminating the object to be imaged at the distal end of the endoscope. Elemental photodetectors are placed at the distal or proximal end of the endoscope to detect the reflected illumination from the flying spot of light. This time sequenced signal is captured by an image processor for display and processing. This technique offers the possibility for very small diameter endoscopes since illumination channel requirements are eliminated. Using various lasers, very specific spectral selectivity can be achieved to optimum contrast of specific lesions of interest. Using several laser lines, or a white light source, with detectors of specific spectral response, multiple spectrally selected images can be acquired simultaneously. The potential for co-linear therapy delivery while imaging is also possible.

Ouimette, Donald R.; Nudelman, Sol; Spackman, Thomas; Zaccheo, Scott

1990-07-01

17

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

18

Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot  

SciTech Connect

Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

1987-04-01

19

New diagnostic approach to brain lesions in nuclear medicine. Differential diagnosis of brain lesions with a computed brain scan diagnosis by the likelihood method.  

PubMed

Using 240 true positive brain scans, a computer system for the differential diagnosis of brain lesions has been evaluated. Eighty-six parameters were extracted from brain scan findings without relationship to neurological signs and symptoms, and the likelihood method was adopted as an example of mathematical logic. The results of our experiment indicated that the overall accuracy was 77 per cent for the maximum likelihood method. The digital computer gave satisfactory results, particularly for diseases such as infarct, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma, and subdural hematoma. In spite of several problems to be solved, this method could provide invaluable help in differential diagnosis of brain lesions. PMID:166053

Mori, H; Suzuki, Y; Hisada, K; Kojima, K; Tonami, N

1975-01-01

20

Nuclear Medicine Technology: A Suggested Postsecondary Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this curriculum guide is to assist administrators and instructors in establishing nuclear medicine technician programs that will meet the accreditation standards of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Medical Education. The guide has been developed to prepare nuclear medicine technicians (NMT's) in two-year…

Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

21

Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

1983-12-01

22

Abscess scan - radioactive  

MedlinePLUS

... later. At that time, you will have a nuclear medicine scan to see if white blood cells have ... sting. Afterward, there may be some throbbing. The nuclear medicine scan is painless. It may be a little ...

23

Scanning Behavior in the Medicinal Leech Hirudo verbana  

PubMed Central

While moving through their environment, medicinal leeches stop periodically and wave their head or body back and forth. This activity has been previously described as two separate behaviors: one called ‘head movement’ and another called ‘body waving’. Here, we report that these behaviors exist on a continuum, and provide a detailed description of what we now call ‘scanning’. Scanning-related behavior has been thought to be involved in orientation; its function has never before been assessed. While previous studies suggested an involvement of scanning in social behavior, or sucker placement, our behavioral studies indicate that scanning is involved in orienting the leech towards prey stimuli. When such stimuli are present, scanning behavior is used to re-orient the leech in the direction of a prey-like stimulus. Scanning, however, occurs whether or not prey is present, but in the presence of prey-like stimuli scanning becomes localized to the stimulus origin. Most likely, this behavior helps the leech to gain a more detailed picture of its prey target. The display of scanning, regardless of the presence or absence of prey stimuli, is suggestive of a behavior that is part of an internally driven motor program, which is not released by the presence of sensory stimuli. The data herein include first steps to understanding the neural mechanisms underlying this important behavior. PMID:24465907

Harley, Cynthia M.; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

2014-01-01

24

Nuclear scan studies in critical care.  

PubMed

The field of nuclear cardiology has grown significantly over the past decade. This is a reflection of the value seen by providers in these safe and effective procedures. Nuclear scan studies are noninvasive and versatile in their usefulness. These studies assist in determining the likelihood of future cardiac events, guide approaches to revascularization, and assist in evaluation of the adequacy of revascularization procedures. Critical thinking and decision-making abilities are two key requirements for nurses in the critical care environment. Knowledge and understanding of the nuclear scan studies indicated for patients help nurses advocate for those in their care. PMID:20193881

McInnis, Leigh Ann; Revell, Maria A; Smith, Tasha L

2010-03-01

25

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a wide range of disciplines, including cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, oncology, and hematology.

Schmidt, H.A.E.; Csernay, L

1988-01-01

26

Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

Wolf, A.P.

1988-01-01

27

Trends in nuclear medicine in developing countries.  

PubMed

This article describes trends in nuclear medicine in the developing world as noted by nuclear medicine professionals at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The trends identified are based on data gathered from several sources, including information gathered through a database maintained by the IAEA; evaluation of country program frameworks of various IAEA Member States; personal interactions with representatives in the nuclear medicine field from different regions of the world; official proceedings and meeting reports of the IAEA; participation in numerous national, regional, and international conferences; discussions with the leadership of major professional societies; and relevant literature. The information presented in this article relied on both objective and subjective observations. The aims of this article were to reflect on recent developments in the specialty of nuclear medicine and to envision the directions in which it is progressing. These issues are examined in terms of dimensions of practice, growth, and educational and training needs in the field of nuclear medicine. This article will enable readers to gain perspective on the status of nuclear medicine practice, with a specific focus on the developing world, and to examine needs and trends arising from the observations. PMID:22144549

Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Pascual, Thomas; Zaknun, John; Bastos, Fernando Mut; Pynda, Yaroslav

2011-12-01

28

Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (''thyroid'') uptake probe, g-camera, SPECT and SPECT\\/CT scan- ner, and PET and PET\\/CT scanner. It should be particularly use- ful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and

Pat Zanzonico

29

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2010-04-01

30

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2012-04-01

31

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2011-04-01

32

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2013-04-01

33

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2014-04-01

34

Nuclear Medicine Reporting System for Microcomputers  

PubMed Central

Description: In this paper we present a completely user-defined reporting system for nuclear medicine. It is inexpensive, highly flexible and can be adapted for general radiology. Equipment: Apple II with 2 disc drives and printer. Language: Microsoft basic with microcode subroutines Availability: Pending

Ochs, Daniel; Haberman, Seth

1982-01-01

35

Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book documents the dramatic progress in the design, evaluation, and clinical use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Included are recent studies of the chemicals and physico-chemical properties of technetium, reports on the production of new technetium molecules suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals, and analyses of the biological properties of these molecules. Coverage is given to nuclear medicine clinical investigations employing technetium,

M. Nicolini; G. Bandoli; M. Uderico

1986-01-01

36

The CBNM scanning nuclear microprobe analytical facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new scanning nuclear microprobe setup of the Central Bureau for Nuclear Measurements (CBNM) in Geel, Belgium, is described. A 2.5 × 2.5 ?m 2 proton beam is routinely achieved with 100 pA beam current by means of a special focusing procedure. Elemental analysis using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), as well as the detection of secondary electrons for imaging are implemented. A comprehensive, user-friendly computer system facilities flexible real-time elemental mapping and analysis of incoming data in a menu style fashion. In addition the complete data stream can be collected in a list-mode fashion or as spectra pixel by pixel for later off-line and detailed analysis.

Göran Lövestam, N. E.; Swietlicki, Erik; Wätjen, Uwe; Louwerix, Edgard; Perujo, Adolfo; Rietveld, Peter

1992-07-01

37

Gallium scan  

MedlinePLUS

... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan of ... Segerman D, Miles KA. Radionuclide imaging: general principles. ... Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New ...

38

Hospital-wide distribution of nuclear medicine studies through a broadband digital network.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine provides a good environment for the evaluation of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) because of the relatively small quantity of digital data that are generated, leading to reduced requirements for storage, display, and transmission compared with those found in radiology. The PACS in nuclear medicine is characterized by use of a single computer as a central storage, display, and analysis node. Images are acquired with use of small, low-cost computers attached to each camera. This network configuration offers advantages of convenience, but with great reliance on a single computer. A campus-wide picture network is under development at Washington University employing broadband cable television technology supplemented by baseband Ethernet (Digital Equipment Corp, Maynard, MA) components. All areas of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are connected via a PACS testbed project. A radiology information system, supporting over 250 terminals, provides digital tracking of patients and report generation and retrieval. A new image workstation is under development in conjunction with Digital Equipment Corp. This system will permit display in multiple windows of report information and images from various modalities. A lung scan demonstration project is now beginning that is designed to test the value of a PACS in nuclear medicine. Digitally acquired chest radiographs will be displayed on an image workstation in nuclear medicine along with digital ventilation and perfusion lung scans. It is hoped that time-consuming logistic bottlenecks now encountered in lung scan interpretation will be reduced. PMID:2367872

Miller, T R; Jost, R G; Sampathkumaran, K S; Blaine, G J

1990-07-01

39

Nuclear medicine training and practice in Poland.  

PubMed

In Poland, nuclear medicine (NM) has been an independent specialty since 1988. At the end of 2013, the syllabus for postgraduate specialization in NM has been modified to be in close accordance with the syllabus approved by the European Union of Medical Specialists and is expected to be enforced before the end of 2014. The National Consultant in Nuclear Medicine is responsible for the specialization program in NM. The Medical Center of Postgraduate Training is the administrative body which accepts the specialization programs, supervises the training, organizes the examinations, and awards the specialist title. Specialization in NM for physicians lasts for five years. It consists of 36 months of training in a native nuclear medicine department, 12 months of internship in radiology, 3 months in cardiology, 3 months in endocrinology, 3 months in oncology, and 3 months in two other departments of NM. If a NM trainee is a specialist of a clinical discipline and/or is after a long residency in NM departments, the specialization in NM can be shortened to three years. During the training, there are obligatory courses to be attended which include the elements of anatomy imaging in USG, CT, and MR. Currently, there are about 170 active NM specialists working for 38.5 million inhabitants in Poland. For other professionals working in NM departments, it is possible to get the title of a medical physics specialist after completing 3.5 years of training (for those with a master's in physics, technical physics or biomedical engineering) or the title of a radiopharmacy specialist after completing 3 years of training (for those with a master's in chemistry or biology). At present, the specialization program in NM for nurses is being developed by the Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education. Continuing education and professional development are obligatory for all physicians and governed by the Polish Medical Chamber. The Polish Society of Nuclear Medicine (PTMN) organizes regular postgraduate training for physicians working in NM. Educational programs are comprehensive, covering both diagnostics and current forms of radioisotope therapy. They are aimed not only at physicians specialized/specializing in NM, but also at other medical professionals employed in radionuclide departments as well as physicians of other specialties. PMID:25091218

Teresi?ska, Anna; Birkenfeld, Bo?ena; Królicki, Leszek; Dziuk, Miros?aw

2014-10-01

40

Nuclear Medicine and Diseases of the Chest  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine encompasses the diagnostic use of unsealed sources of radiation in patient care, and is largely a diagnostic specialty. A variety of methods exist to assist in the diagnosis and management of patients with chest disease. Already the application of pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy makes a major contribution to the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism in the face of the often unhelpful chest radiograph, or if pulmonary angiography is contraindicated or unavailable. The rationale, applications and limitations of appropriate radionuclide methodologies such as pulmonary perfusion and ventilation scintigraphy, angiography, bone and tumor scintigraphy and radioimmunoassay are described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:21308051

Jackson, F. I.; Lentle, B. C.

1976-01-01

41

Employment in nuclear medicine during pregnancy  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear medicine technologist can work throughout a pregnancy with high confidence that her occupational radiation exposure will not add any significant risk to her changes of having a normal pregnancy and child. All that is required is for the employer to provide an ALARA work place and for the technologist to observe carefully all radiation safety guidelines and to maintain her occupational exposure ALARA. Current guidance is that the total uterine dose during gestation be less than 0.5 rem (5 mSv). The vast majority of nuclear medicine technologists can achieve this dose level easily, with no modifications of duties or work practices. Technologists working with generators and radiopharmaceutical kits may wish to temporarily transfer to other duties within the clinic, not necessarily to reduce routine exposures but to minimize the changes of an accident having high-dose or high-contamination potential. All of the available human data show that there is small additional risk to the fetus or neonate due to occupational radiation exposure compared to naturally occurring risks so long as the dose is within recommended guidelines.

Benedetto, A.R.

1986-12-01

42

Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top French (français) Bone Scan Scintigraphie osseuse - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

43

Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

2014-08-01

44

Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

Loudos, George K. [Department of Medical Instrumentation Technology, Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

2007-11-26

45

Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

Loudos, George K.

2007-11-01

46

Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney  

E-print Network

The 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer S. Nagurney Department of Electrical Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Study of Nuclear Medicine Supply Chains is a combination! Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo Supply Chain #12;Background and Motivation Ladimer S. Nagurney The 99 Mo

Nagurney, Anna

47

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

48

Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

2005-08-01

49

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2012-10-01

50

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2011-10-01

51

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2013-10-01

52

Applying Image Gently SM and Image Wisely SM in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Although computed tomography (CT) scan radiation dose has drawn much attention, radiation dose from nuclear medicine procedures should not be overlooked. An estimated 19.7 million nuclear medicine procedures are done annually in the United States, with patient radiation dose comparable to that from CT scans. Nuclear medicine departments should implement Image Gently SM and Image Wisely SM recommendations to reduce nuclear medicine patient radiation dose. Pediatric administered radiopharmaceutical doses should be compared with the North American Consensus Guidelines for Administered Radiopharmaceutical Activities in Children and Adolescents, and adult doses should be compared with national and international standards. In a 2011 patient quality and safety initiative at Gundersen Lutheran Health System, 24 pediatric protocols and 52 adult protocols were compared with standards. Doses not comparable to the recommended values were adjusted accordingly and the resultant image quality evaluated. Additional steps to reduce patient radiation dose include decision support to reduce inappropriate ordering, technique optimization for the CT portion of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans, use of vendor's dose reduction camera and software technology, use of shorter lived radiopharmaceuticals, and "right sizing" patient doses by weight. PMID:23287517

Jafari, Mary Ellen; Daus, Alan M

2013-02-01

53

Evolution of nuclear medicine training: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Since the official inception of nuclear medicine in 1971, the practice of nuclear medicine and its training programs have undergone major revisions. Numerous procedures that were common in the 1970s are no longer available, and many new radiotracers and procedures have since been developed. Training programs have evolved from an unstructured experience before 1971 to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 2 clinical years, to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year and, most recently, to 3 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year. The most substantial content changes in the new 2007 training program requirements are an increased emphasis on 6 clinical competencies, an increased emphasis on Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, and a new CT training requirement that was spawned by the advent of PET/CT. In addition to the new training program requirements, residents will need to become familiar with the concept of maintenance of certification, which will continue to be an important component of their professional careers. Nuclear medicine is gradually evolving into molecular imaging. Hence, it is inevitable that in the near future, training programs will be required to place greater emphasis on molecular imaging in both clinical and research applications. The incorporation of molecular imaging will represent a significant paradigm shift for the specialty but will ensure that nuclear medicine will be a major part of medical practice for the foreseeable future. PMID:17268024

Graham, Michael M; Metter, Darlene F

2007-02-01

54

Nuclear medicine imaging in the evaluation of endocrine hypertension  

PubMed Central

Endocrine hypertension forms a small (< 5%) but curable subset of patients with hypertension. Common endocrine causes of hypertension include pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. Nuclear medicine imaging plays an important role in evaluation of patients with endocrine hypertension. It has established role in patients of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, Cushing's syndrome, aldosteronism, and thyroid disorders. We present a brief overview of role of nuclear medicine imaging in endocrine hypertension. Development of newer radiotracers might further broaden the role of nuclear medicine in these patients. PMID:23087853

Sharma, Punit; Kumar, Rakesh

2012-01-01

55

The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia  

PubMed Central

Background Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Conclusions Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases. PMID:22933984

Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

2012-01-01

56

Scanning of Vehicles for Nuclear Materials  

E-print Network

Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

Katz, J I

2014-01-01

57

Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation Development: DOE Program, Study Group Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DOE Medical Application Program in general and the supporting nuclear medicine instrumentation development efforts in particular have been a major factor in producing the presently productive role of radionuclide applications to health care and biomed...

1979-01-01

58

What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... imagegently.org What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... patients, parents and caregivers with some information about nuclear medicine and radiation exposure. It is hoped that the information provided ...

59

Nuclear medicine studies of the prostate, testes, and bladder.  

PubMed

During the last decade, there has been a significant advancement in imaging of urologic diseases. Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), computerized tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and positron emission tomography (PET) are still experiencing new developments in urology. Despite these many technological advances, the initial diagnostic procedure for a patient with suspected prostate cancer (PC) is multiple site blind prostate biopsies. There is a need for a noninvasive metabolic imaging modality to direct the site of biopsy to decrease the sampling error. MRS seems promising but as it is a costly and more time-consuming test, further studies are needed to evaluate its clinical utility. Currently, PET does not play any role to direct biopsy. Acetate and choline appear to be better tracers than FDG for the detection of a prostate lesion, however, further well-organized studies are needed before any of these agents can be used clinically. Incidental detection of intense focal uptake in the prostate during whole body PET scanning should be evaluated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and TRUS-guided biopsy. Although FDG is inferior to other tracers for primary staging, it may be useful in selected patients with suspected high-grade cancer. The role of ProstaScint scan is still controversial for detection of recurrent PC. This study may be helpful for evaluating nodal metastases when PSA is elevated and bone scan is negative. Bone scan remains the study of choice when bone metastases are suspected (PSA>15-20 ng/mL+/-bone pain). Acetate and choline provide better accuracy than FDG in the detection of local soft tissue disease, nodal involvement, and distant metastases. High FDG uptake may be indicative of more aggressive and possibly androgen-independent disease. PET/CT with any of the above PET tracers will most likely be preferred to the PET scan alone due to better localization of a hot lesion in PET/CT. Nuclear medicine studies also have been used to evaluate acute scrotum and testicular neoplasms. Scrotal scintigraphy has lost its popularity to Doppler ultrasound in the evaluation of the acute scrotum. In testicular tumors, FDG-PET appears to be superior to conventional imaging modalities in initial staging, detection of residual/recurrence, and monitoring treatment response. Tumor markers after treatment occasionally are elevated and cannot locate the site of recurrence, FDG-PET can play a very important role in this regard. Nuclear medicine studies also have been used to evaluate diseases of the urinary bladder. Radionuclide cystography is more sensitive and has less than 1/20 the radiation exposure of the conventional contrast enhanced micturating cystourethrogram (MCU). However, the utility of FDG-PET in the evaluation of bladder cancer seems to be limited to the evaluation of distant metastases. 11C-Methionine and choline may be a better option for local and nodal disease due to their negligible excretion in the urine. PMID:16356796

Jana, Suman; Blaufox, M Donald

2006-01-01

60

Graduates of 2004 Heidi Ambrose ---Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

Bauthier --- Exercise Science Stephanie Boone --- Speech Pathology Sharina Broughton --- Computer Science Medicine Dustin Earnhardt --- Chemistry and Biochemistry Rebecca Echipare --- Biology Assen Gueorguiev Laroia --- Biology Monica Lea --- Communication Rebecca Long --- Exercise Science Erin Mehalic

61

Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

62

TLA — markers and nuclear scanning method for wear rate monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new extensions of the TLA-direct measuring method are presented: the TLA-markers for wear control and the nuclear scanning method for monitoring wear non-uniformity on large surfaces. Both methods were applied to measure the material loss on the surface of railway car brake disks.

Stan-Sion, C.; Plostinaru, D.; Ivan, A.; Ivanov, E.; Dudu, D.; Catana, M.; Roman, M.

1994-08-01

63

TLA - markers and nuclear scanning method for wear rate monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new extensions of the TLA-direct measuring method are presented: the TLA-markers for wear control and the nuclear scanning method for monitoring wear non-uniformity on large surfaces. Both methods were applied to measure the material loss on the surface of railway car brake disks.

C. Stan-Sion; D. Plostinaru; A. Ivan; E. Ivanov; D. Dudu; M. Catana; M. Roman

1994-01-01

64

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

65

The use of nuclear medicine techniques in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine techniques have received little attention in the practice of emergency medicine, yet radionuclide imaging can provide valuable and unique information in the management of acutely ill patients. In this review, emphasis is placed on the role of these techniques in patients with bone injuries, non-traumatic bone pain and in those with pleuritic chest pain. New developments such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in myocardial infarction are outlined and older techniques such as scrotal scintigraphy are reviewed. Radionuclide techniques are discussed in a clinical context and in relation to alternative imaging modalities or strategies that may be available to the emergency medicine physician. Aspects of a 24 hour nuclear medicine service are considered. PMID:11696487

McGlone, B; Balan, K

2001-01-01

66

Pioneers of nuclear medicine, Madame Curie.  

PubMed

Among those who have made important discoveries in the field of radioactivity and thus helped in the development of nuclear medicine as an identical entity are: Heinrich Hertz who in 1886 demonstrated the existence of radiowaves. In 1895 Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-rays. In 1896 H. Becquerel described the phenomenon of radioactivity. He showed that a radioactive uranium salt was emitting radioactivity which passing through a metal foil darkened a photographic plate. An analogous experiment performed by S.Thomson in London was announced to the president of the Royal Society of London before the time H.Becquerel announced his discovery but Thomson never claimed priority for his discovery. Muarie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) was undoubtedly the most important person to attribute to the discovery of radioactivity. In 1898 she discovered radium as a natural radioactive element. This is how she describes the hard time she had, working with her husband Pierre Curie (1859-1906) for the discovery of radium and polonium: "During the first year we did not go to the theater or to a concert or visited friends. I miss my relatives, my father and my daughter that I see every morning and only for a little while. But I do not complain...". In presenting her discovery of radium, Madame Curie said: " ...in the hands of a criminal, radium is very dangerous. So we must often ask ourselves: will humanity earn or lose from this discovery? I, myself belong to those who believe the former...". The notebooks that Madame Curie had when she was working with radium and other radioactive elements like polonium, thorium and uranium are now kept in Paris. They are contaminated with radioactive materials having very long half-lives and for this reason anyone who wishes to have access to these notes should sign that he takes full responsibility. There are some more interesting points in Madame Curie's life which may not be widely known like: Although her full name is Maria Sklodowska-Curie, she is not known neither by that full name nor as Maria Sklodowska but as Marie Curie. Madame Curie was the second of five children. At the age of 24 she went to Sorbonne-Paris after being invited by her sister Bronja to study for about 2-3 years; instead she stayed in Paris for her whole life. Her doctorate was on the subject: "Research on radioactive substances" which she completed in six years under the supervision of H. Becquerel. Pierre Curie was Director of the Physics Laboratory of the Ecole Municipale of Physics and Industrial Chemistry when he married M. Curie in 1895. Pierre Curie left his other research projects and worked full time with his wife. In this laboratory M. Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium and polonium. In 1901 Pierre Curie induced a radiation burn on his forearm by applying on his skin radiferous barium chloride for 10 hours. During World War I, M.Curie organized for the Red Cross a fleet of radiological ambulances each with X-ray apparates which were called "Little Curies". The X-ray tubes of these apparates were unshielded and so M.Curie was exposed to high doses of radiation. Once an ambulance fell into a ditch and M.Curie who was inside the ambulance was badly bruised and stayed at home for 3 days. M. Curie with her daughters, Irene and Eve, was invited and visited America in 1921. She led a successful campaign to collect radium for her experiments. Before leaving America, President Harding donated through her to the Radium Institute of Paris 1 g of radium for research purposes. At that time the process to obtain 0.5 g of pure radium bromide required 1 ton of ore and 5 tons of chemicals. No measures of radiation protection were taken back then. In 1929 Madame Curie visited the United States for a second time. She met with President Hoover and with the help of the Polish women's association in America collected funds for another gram of radium. Madame Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. Sixty years after her death her remnants were laid to rest under the dome of the Pantheon. Th

Grammaticos, Philip C

2004-01-01

67

Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.  

PubMed

In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline. PMID:24978339

Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

2014-08-01

68

Australian per caput dose from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The largest man-made contributor to the ionising radiation dose to the Australian population is from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine. The last estimation of this dose was made in 2004 (1.3 mSv), this paper describes a recent re-evaluation of this dose to reflect the changes in imaging trends and technology. The estimation was calculated by summing the dose from five modalities, computed tomography (CT), general radiography/fluoroscopy, interventional procedures, mammography and nuclear medicine. Estimates were made using Australian frequency data and dose data from a range of Australian and international sources of average effective dose values. The ionising radiation dose to the Australian population in 2010 from diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine is estimated to be 1.7 mSv (1.11 mSv CT, 0.30 mSv general radiography/fluoroscopy, 0.17 mSv interventional procedures, 0.03 mSv mammography and 0.10 mSv nuclear medicine). This exceeds the estimate of 1.5 mSv per person from natural background and cosmic radiation. PMID:23604741

Hayton, A; Wallace, A; Marks, P; Edmonds, K; Tingey, D; Johnston, P

2013-10-01

69

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

and Physiology II for Allied Health (3) or BSCI 20020 Biological Structure and Function (5) 5-6 Fulfills KentRoadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMRT] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1

Sheridan, Scott

70

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences -Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) -  

E-print Network

and Physiology II for Allied Health (3) or BSCI 20020 Biological Structure and Function (5) 5-6 Fulfills KentRoadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences - Nuclear Medicine (with AAS Radiologic Technology) - Bachelor of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMRT] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1

Sheridan, Scott

71

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMFR] Regional College Catalog Year: 2013-2014 Page 1 to enroll in RIS courses RIS 44000 Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences 2 C Semester Eight: [14

Sheridan, Scott

72

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (Freshman or AS degree) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMFR] Regional College Catalog Year: 2012-2013 Page 1 RIS 44000 Introduction to Radiologic and Imaging Sciences 2 C Semester Eight: [15 Credit Hours] RIS

Sheridan, Scott

73

Replenishment prioritization of highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine  

E-print Network

Serving customers in a nuclear medicine supply chain requires frequent and responsive replenishments. Nuclear medicine is a special category of perishable goods that is subject to rapid, but predictable radioactive decay. ...

Yea, Young-bai Michael

2007-01-01

74

Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

Alberto, Roger

2012-06-01

75

Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Medicine Patient Service Management in DEVS  

E-print Network

Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Medicine Patient Service Management in DEVS Eduardo P. In this paper, we present a discrete event system specification (DEVS) simulation model for nuclear medicine knowledge) DEVS simulation model for nuclear medicine patient service management. The model represents

Ntaimo, Lewis

76

Hand exposure to ionising radiation of nuclear medicine workers.  

PubMed

The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of an equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Standard nuclear medicine department uses ring dosemeters placed usually at the base of the middle finger. The main aim of the study was to find out whether a relationship exists between the doses recorded by thermoluminescent detectors placed at various locations on the radiopharmacists' hands and the doses recorded by the ring detectors, and to determine the character of that relationship. The correction factor represents a correction value to be used to calculate the doses which might be received by locations on the hand from the dose recorded by the ring dosemeter. The dose recorded by the ring dosemeter is on the average five times lower than that received by the fingertips of thumb, index and middle fingers. PMID:18310609

Wrzesie?, M; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J

2008-01-01

77

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

2012-10-01

78

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

79

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

80

American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

NONE

1991-12-31

81

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging.  

PubMed

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 - 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled "Photons Across Medicine", organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Vanbrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

82

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging  

PubMed Central

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned. PMID:24409377

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

83

Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

2005-12-01

84

A Network Model and Computational Approach Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

A Network Model and Computational Approach for the 99 Mo Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine Ladimer and Anna Nagurney A Network Model and Computational Approach #12;Medical Nuclear Supply Chains Medical Model and Computational Approach #12;Nuclear Medicine To create an image for medical diagnostic purposes

Nagurney, Anna

85

Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation  

PubMed Central

The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

2013-01-01

86

Nuclear medicine technologists and unauthorized self-injections.  

PubMed

An Office of Investigation (OI) investigation by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determined that, on three separate occasions over the past 10 years, technologists in one licensed nuclear medicine program were injected with radiopharmaceuticals without Authorized User knowledge or approval. The most recent instance, the one that precipitated the investigation, was discovered by the licensee and self-reported to the NRC; the other two instances were discovered during the OI investigation and came as a complete surprise to the licensee. In a mediated Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) involving the licensee, a professional, independent mediator and representatives of the NRC, an agreement was worked out whereby the licensee would admit to the violations and work with the NRC to inform other licensees that this is not an acceptable practice and that there are additional precautions that licensees can and should take to assure that such violations do not happen on their watch. PMID:16404185

Miller, K L; King, S H; Eggli, D F; Thompson, L K

2006-02-01

87

Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

Mark Smith

2007-01-11

88

Choosing transportation alternatives for highly perishable goods : a case study on nuclear medicine  

E-print Network

The transport of highly perishable goods, in particular nuclear medicine, is subject to stringent regulations. Carefully designed transport selection criteria considering available alternatives, product attributes, decay ...

Yang, Xiaowen, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

89

Diagnosing atherosclerosis makes Nuclear Medicine a tissue imaging modality.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis can be identified by fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) and is associated with cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Inflammation and classification appear jointly in the formation of atherogenesis. Arterial calcification has been also determined by CT, by (18)F-FDG PET and also in the last few years by (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF) PET. Beheshti et al, have introduced a new concept for the detection of early molecular and cellular calcification in the atherosclerotic plaques of the heart and aorta, based upon the concept of global disease burden, which had been employed earlier using (18)F-FDG PET. Fluorine-18-NaF uptake in the heart and aorta increased significantly with advancing age. In a screening study involving 1,825 individuals, CT coronary artery calcification (CAC) was found to be common in healthy middle-aged individuals with a low Heart Score and, on the contrary, high-risk subjects very frequently did not have CAC. It is obvious that atherosclerosis appears early in life and also that the actual limits of atherosclerosis related to serious cardiovascular events should be determined by more research, since atherosclerosis is not the only cause of these episodes. It is possible that (18)F-NaF PET/CT may provide information about ongoing active molecular calcification in the plaque before calcification as a cause of cardiovascular episodes is detectable. Global molecular cardiovascular calcification, before becomes macroscopically visible, before it can be identified by CT, may be assessed by nuclear medicine procedures. (18)-NaF PET/CT is the first non-invasive imaging method to identify and localize high risk coronary plaque, a new frontier in nuclear cardiology. The above nuclear medicine diagnostic technique is a major and historical new application, for the diagnosis and the study of cardiovascular diseases, by which a certain tissue per se can be identified. PMID:24701591

Grammaticos, Philip C

2014-01-01

90

Trends and different educational pathways for training physicians in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The introduction of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT), single photon-emission CT/CT, and software packages for multimodality imaging has accelerated the need for nuclear medicine physicians to obtain more training in cross-sectional imaging, especially in CT. In recent years, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, the American Board of Radiology, and the American Board of Nuclear Medicine have promulgated new rules and regulations. In addition, the Society of Nuclear Medicine, the American College of Radiology, and the American College of Cardiology Foundation have crafted new guidelines and training requirements. All these changes have consequences for the education of physicians in nuclear medicine. Self-referral and concerns about radiation exposure from nuclear medicine examinations and CT are also affecting the education of physicians practicing nuclear medicine. The authors examine the impact of these developments on training and certification in nuclear medicine and suggest another pathway to train some nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:19000877

Harolds, Jay A; Smith, Gary T; Baker, Stephen R

2008-12-01

91

Evaluation of routine telephone transmission of nuclear medicine studies  

SciTech Connect

Rapid and reliable transmission of nuclear medicine studies using conventional telephone lines and commercially available modems and computer systems has been accomplished through use of software developed within the authors' hospital. Original digital images of all-night and weekend studies, acquired on any of the acquisition computers from different manufacturers, are now routinely sent for remote reading at the physician's home. Data, software, and letters are routinely exchanged using modems and standard telephone lines with a sister institution in Haifa, Israel. The software has been designed to achieve no loss data compression and minimal turnaround time loss. Thus, an average lung perfusion image or gallbladder study requires about 1-3 minutes of transmission time. Full analysis and display software is available on the remote computer.

Orlin, J.A.; Tal, I.; Parker, J.A.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Kolodny, G.M. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-01-01

92

Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

2014-02-01

93

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Packer, Samuel (Great Neck, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY)

1996-12-10

94

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

1996-12-10

95

Dose and dose rate measurements for radiation exposure scenarios in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation exposure for the staff in nuclear medicine departments is inevitable. After application of radiopharmaceuticals the patient himself becomes a radioactive source. Consequently, we need detailed information on the extent of radiation exposure for each single person dealing with radioactive sources and patients in nuclear medicine.In this work, dose rates of a variety of radioactive sources – radiopharmaceuticals and patients

Ferdinand Sudbrock; Klara Uhrhan; Arndt Rimpler; Harald Schicha

2011-01-01

96

The Hotelling Trace Criterion Used for System Optimization and Feature Enhancement in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hotelling trace criterion (HTC) is a measure of class separability used in pattern recognition to find a set of linear features that optimally separate two classes of objects. In this dissertation we use the HTC not as a figure of merit for features, but as a figure of merit for characterizing imaging systems and designing filters for feature enhancement in nuclear medicine. If the HTC is to be used to optimize systems, then it must correlate with human observer performance. In our first study, a set of images, created by overlapping ellipses, was used to simulate images of livers. Two classes were created, livers with and without tumors, with noise and blur added to each image to simulate nine different imaging systems. Using the ROC parameter d_ {rm a} as our measure, we found that the HTC has a correlation of 0.988 with the ability of humans to separate these two classes of objects. A second study was performed to demonstrate the use of the HTC for system optimization in a realistic task. For this study we used a mathematical model of normal and diseased livers and of the imaging system to generate a realistic set of liver images from nuclear medicine. A method of adaptive, nonlinear filtering which enhances the features that separate two sets of images has also been developed. The method uses the HTC to find the optimal linear feature operator for the Fourier moduli of the images, and uses this operator as a filter so that the features that separate the two classes of objects are enhanced. We demonstrate the use of this filtering method to enhance texture features in simulated liver images from nuclear medicine, after using a training set of images to obtain the filter. We also demonstrate how this method of filtering can be used to reconstruct an object from a single photon-starved image of it, when the object contains a repetitive feature. When power spectrums for real liver scans from nuclear medicine are calculated, we find that the three classifications that a physician uses, normal, patchy, and focal, can be described by the fractal dimension of the texture in the liver. This fractal dimension can be calculated even for images that suffer from much noise and blur. Given a simulated image of a liver that has been blurred and imaged with only 5000 photons, a texture with the same fractal dimension as the liver can be reconstructed.

Fiete, Robert Dean

97

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

98

Physics of Nuclear Medicine Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201  

E-print Network

Physics of Nuclear Medicine Yao Wang Polytechnic Institute of NYU, Brooklyn, NY 11201 Based on J. L are from the textbook. #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 2 Lecture Outline of decay · Radiotracers #12;EL5823 Nuclear Physics Yao Wang, Polytechnic U., Brooklyn 3 What is Nuclear

Suel, Torsten

99

IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

2014-03-01

100

Maximum entropy deconvolution of low-count nuclear medicine images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing-step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were obtained than those achieved by a Wiener pre-filtering approach and a scatter-subtracted attenuation corrected filtered back projection method. Maximum entropy optimised for low counts holds promise for nuclear medicine applications where counts are necessarily low, and may facilitate reduction of the administered activity for other applications. The algorithm was in fact deemed advantageous for the processing of low count Poisson data in general.

McGrath, Deirdre Maria

101

IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online educational resources programs geared toward the enhancement of the nuclear medicine profession as delivered by the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA. PMID:23561452

Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

2013-05-01

102

New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.  

PubMed

In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

2013-12-01

103

Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ? 3mm.

Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

2014-03-01

104

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.  

PubMed

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-10-01

105

Pitfalls in classical nuclear medicine: myocardial perfusion imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintigraphic imaging is a complex functional procedure subject to a variety of artefacts and pitfalls that may limit its clinical and diagnostic accuracy. It is important to be aware of and to recognize them when present and to eliminate them whenever possible. Pitfalls may occur at any stage of the imaging procedure and can be related with the ?-camera or other equipment, personnel handling, patient preparation, image processing or the procedure itself. Often, potential causes of artefacts and pitfalls may overlap. In this short review, special interest will be given to cardiac scintigraphic imaging. Most common causes of artefact in myocardial perfusion imaging are soft tissue attenuation as well as motion and gating errors. Additionally, clinical problems like cardiac abnormalities may cause interpretation pitfalls and nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with these in order to ensure the correct evaluation of the study. Artefacts or suboptimal image quality can also result from infiltrated injections, misalignment in patient positioning, power instability or interruption, flood field non-uniformities, cracked crystal and several other technical reasons.

Fragkaki, C.; Giannopoulou, Ch

2011-09-01

106

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects  

PubMed Central

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-01-01

107

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-07-28

108

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-01-01

109

Simulation and Optimization Models for Scheduling Multi-step Sequential Procedures in Nuclear Medicine  

E-print Network

for coupling components, hierarchical and modular model construction, and an object-oriented substrate supporting repository reuse. Secondly, we derive algorithms for scheduling nuclear medicine patients and resources and validate our algorithms using...

Perez Roman, Eduardo

2011-08-08

110

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

2011-10-04

111

Summary results of an assessment of research projects in the Nuclear Medicine Research program  

SciTech Connect

In May 1987, OHER management requested the Office of Program Analysis (OPA) to conduct a peer review of the projects of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Research program. This was done using procedures and a quantitative methodology OPA developed for assessing DOE research programs. Sixty-three individual nuclear medicine projects were reviewed by seven panels; one panel on isotopes and radioisotopes, three on radiopharmacology, two on clinical feasibility, and one on instrumentation. Each panel consisted of five to ten knowledgeable reviewers. 5 figs.

Not Available

1988-01-01

112

Nuclear Medicine Practices in the 1950s through the Mid-1970s and Occupational Radiation Doses to Technologists from Diagnostic Radioisotope Procedures.  

PubMed

Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 ?Sv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 ?Sv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

2014-10-01

113

Activity based costing of diagnostic procedures at a nuclear medicine center of a tertiary care hospital  

PubMed Central

Context: Escalating health care expenses pose a new challenge to the health care environment of becoming more cost-effective. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of health care procedures. Demographic changes, changing morbidity profile, and the rising impact of noncommunicable diseases are emphasizing the role of nuclear medicine (NM) in the future health care environment. However, the impact of emerging disease load and stagnant resource availability needs to be balanced by a strategic drive towards optimal utilization of available healthcare resources. Aim: The aim was to ascertain the cost of diagnostic procedures conducted at the NM Department of a tertiary health care facility by employing activity based costing (ABC) method. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over a period of 1 year. ABC methodology was utilized for ascertaining unit cost of different diagnostic procedures and such costs were compared with prevalent market rates for estimating cost effectiveness of the department being studied. Results: The cost per unit procedure for various procedures varied from Rs. 869 (USD 14.48) for a thyroid scan to Rs. 11230 (USD 187.16) for a meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scan, the most cost-effective investigations being the stress thallium, technetium-99 m myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and MIBG scan. The costs obtained from this study were observed to be competitive when compared to prevalent market rates. Conclusion: ABC methodology provides precise costing inputs and should be used for all future costing studies in NM Departments. PMID:25400363

Hada, Mahesh Singh; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, Partha

2014-01-01

114

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: the incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15–19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field.

Alberto Cuocolo; Wanda Acampa; Andrea Varrone; Marco Salvatore

2006-01-01

115

Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

2004-01-01

116

Establishing a threshold for 131I bioassay in nuclear medicine personnel.  

PubMed

Since the late 1970's, manufacturers in nuclear medicine have reformulated the I solution to reduce the volatility of the iodine. There has also been an increase in use of the iodide in encapsulated form. Per the requirement of the current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) regulation, with the available results on the volatility of the reformulated radioiodine, we review the I bioassay program for nuclear medicine workers. Our analysis shows the threshold quantity for bioassay monitoring for the routine use of I in nuclear medicine is much higher than the criteria set in U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.20. The latter is a broad bioassay guideline for the general usage of radioactive iodine. For treatment of thyroid carcinoma and hyperthyroidism, a single therapeutic I dose large enough to yield a detectable thyroid burden is very unlikely to occur in a nuclear medicine clinic. Accidental ingestion or inhalation would be an exception to our conclusion. Based on this analysis, we propose a new bioassay policy for the routine use of I in nuclear medicine clinics. PMID:18849711

Liang, Yongguang; Chu, Robert Y; Galbraith, Wendy K; Macdurmon, George W; Sonnad, Jagadeesh R

2008-11-01

117

Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

118

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-12-31

119

Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

2014-11-01

120

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

SciTech Connect

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

Kieffer, C.T. (Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY); Suto, P.A.

1983-03-01

121

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-01-01

122

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-01-01

123

Integrated residency training leading to radiology and nuclear medicine board certification: the Arkansas experience.  

PubMed

The pool of qualified nuclear medicine (NM) physicians is declining as fewer choose to enter the specialty. In June 2012, we began developing an integrated categorical residency training position satisfying the requirements of both the American Board of Radiology (ABR) and the American Board of Nuclear Medicine (ABNM). Termed "NuRad," this was listed and filled in the 2013 NRMP match. We found it to be more attractive to qualified applicants than our traditional, three year NM residency. This approach may play a significant role in the future in ensuring the training of physicians expert in NM and molecular imaging. PMID:25174156

McDonald, James E; Deloney, Linda A; Jambhekar, Kedar

2014-08-01

124

Nuclear medicine in oral and maxillofacial diagnosis: a review for the practicing dental professional.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine studies often play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of oral and maxillofacial diseases. While not commonly used in everyday dental practice, the dental provider should have a conversational knowledge of these imaging modalities and understand the indications and limitations of these studies. The purpose of this review is to discuss the nuclear medicine studies that have applications in the head and neck region as well as their indications, limitations, and diagnostic conclusions that can be drawn from these studies. PMID:14973563

Baur, Dale A; Heston, Thomas F; Helman, Joseph I

2004-02-15

125

The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

2013-05-01

126

Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields  

PubMed Central

Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

2014-01-01

127

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

128

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology)  

E-print Network

Roadmap: Radiologic Imaging Sciences ­ Nuclear Medicine (with certification and ATS Radiologic Technology) ­ Bachelor of Radiologic Imaging Sciences Technology [RE-BRIT-RIS-NMHO] Regional College Catalog Hours] Note: Students must have graduated from a hospital-based certificate program in radiologic

Sheridan, Scott

129

Development of an automated multisample scanning system for nuclear track etched detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an automated scanning system for handling a large number of nuclear track etched detectors (NTEDs). The system consists of a magazine station for sample storage, a robotic sample loader, a high-speed wide-area digital imaging microscope device (modified HSP-1000) and PitFit software for analyzing etch pits. We investigated the performance of the system using CR-39 plastic NTED samples

H. Tawara; K. Eda; K. Takahashi; T. Doke; N. Hasebe; S. Kodaira; S. Ota; M. Kurano; N. Yasuda

2008-01-01

130

Reactor accident at Chernobyl: a nuclear medicine practitioner's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiation incident at Chernobyl, USSR, on April 26, 1986 was first detected in Sweden on April 29, when increased radioactivity was observed at a nuclear facility in that country. Subsequently, higher levels of radioactivity were observed in most of Eastern Europe and then in Western Europe. Increased radioactivity was eventually noted in the United States beginning about May 5.

J. G. Kereiakes; E. L. Saenger; S. R. Thomas

1986-01-01

131

Radioactivity appearing at landfills in household trash of nuclear medicine patients: much ado about nothing?  

PubMed

The U.S. NRC in 1997 removed its arbitrary 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule, which had been in existence for almost 50 y, and now many more patients receiving radionuclide therapy in nuclear medicine can be treated as outpatients. However, another problem has the potential to limit the short-lived reality of outpatient treatment unless nuclear medicine practitioners and the health physics community gets involved. Radioactive articles in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients are appearing at solid waste landfills that have installed radiation monitors to prevent the entry of any detectable radioactivity, and alarms are going off around the country. These monitors are set to alarm at extremely low activity levels. Some states may actually hold licensees responsible if a patient's radioactive household trash is discovered in a solid waste stream; this is another major reason [along with continued use of the 1.11 GBq (30 mCi) rule] why many licensees are still not releasing their radionuclide therapy patients. This is in spite of the fact that the radioactivity contained in released nuclear medicine therapy patients, let alone the much lower activity level contained in their potentially radioactive household wastes, poses a minimal hazard to the public health and safety or to the environment. Currently, there are no regulations governing the disposal of low-activity, rapidly-decaying radioactive materials found in the household trash of nuclear medicine patients, the performance of landfill radiation monitors, or the necessity of spectrometry equipment. Resources are, therefore, being unnecessarily expended by regulators and licensees in responding to radiation monitor alarms that are caused by these unregulated short-lived materials that may be mixed with municipal trash. Recommendations are presented that would have the effect of modifying the existing landfill regulations and practices so as to allow the immediate disposal of such wastes. PMID:11845839

Siegel, Jeffry A; Sparks, Richard B

2002-03-01

132

``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

2004-07-01

133

Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

Smart, Richard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217 (Australia)

2011-05-05

134

Three new renal simulators for use in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renal scintigraphy is useful to provide both functional and anatomic information of renal flow of cortical functions and evaluation of pathological collecting system. The objective of this study was develop and evaluate the performance of three renal phantoms: Two anthropomorphic static and another dynamic. The static images of the anthropomorphic phantoms were used for comparison with static renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA in different concentrations. These static phantoms were manufactured in two ways: one was made of acrylic using as mold a human kidney preserved in formaldehyde and the second was built with ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) in a 3D printer. The dynamic renal phantom was constructed of acrylic to simulate renal dynamics in scintigraphy with 99mTc-DTPA. These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. Using these phantoms it is possible to acquire similar renal images as in the clinical scintigraphy. Therefore, these new renal phantoms can be very effective for use in the quality control of renal scintigraphy, and image processing systems.

Dullius, Marcos; Fonseca, Mateus; Botelho, Marcelo; Cunha, Clêdison; Souza, Divanízia

2014-03-01

135

Advances in radiation biology: effect on nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Over the past 15 years and more, extensive research has been conducted on the responses of biological systems to radiation delivered at a low dose or low dose rate. This research has demonstrated that the molecular-, cellular-, and tissue-level responses are different following low doses than those observed after a single short-term high-dose radiation exposure. Following low-dose exposure, 3 unique responses were observed, these included bystander effects, adaptive protective responses, and genomic instability. Research on the mechanisms of action for each of these observations demonstrates that the molecular and cellular processes activated by low doses of radiation are often related to protective responses, whereas high-dose responses are often associated with extensive damage such as cell killing, tissue disruption, and inflammatory diseases. Thus, the mechanisms of action are unique for low-dose radiation exposure. When the dose is delivered at a low dose rate, the responses typically differ at all levels of biological organization. These data suggest that there must be a dose rate effectiveness factor that is greater than 1 and that the risk following low-dose rate exposure is likely less than that for single short-term exposures. All these observations indicate that using the linear no-threshold model for radiation protection purposes is conservative. Low-dose research therefore supports the current standards and practices. When a nuclear medical procedure is justified, it should be carried out with optimization (lowest radiation dose commensurate with diagnostic or therapeutic outcome). PMID:24832582

Brooks, Antone L; Dauer, Lawrence T

2014-05-01

136

Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder. (ACR)

Entine, G

1980-01-01

137

Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

1995-02-01

138

Refurbishing of a Freeze Drying Machine, used in Nuclear Medicine for Radiopharmaceuticals Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refurbishing of a freeze drying machine used in the radiopharmaceuticals production, applied in nuclear medicine in the Radioactive Materials Department of the Nuclear Research National Institute in México (ININ in Spanish), is presented. The freeze drying machine was acquired in the 80's decade and some components started having problems. Then it was necessary to refurbish this equipment by changing old cam-type temperature controllers and outdated recording devices, developing a sophisticated software system that substitutes those devices. The system is composed by a freeze drying machine by Hull, AC output modules for improved temperature control, a commercial data acquisition card, and the software system.

Gaytán-Gallardo, E.; Desales-Galeana, G.

2006-09-01

139

Comparison of Bayesian and classical reconstructions of tomographic gamma scanning for assay of nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

Tomographic gamma scanning has been used to assay special nuclear material for the past several years. Field experience suggests that the data analysis techniques can significantly affect the assay uncertainty. For example, a positive bias has been observed for low-activity samples. Recent attempts to reduce the bias without unacceptable increase in variance have taken a non-Bayesian approach. This paper will compare some of these non-Bayesian approaches to a Bayesian approach which is a modification of an approach used in photon emission computed tomography. The Bayesian approach is both more computationally demanding and more satisfying, though the choice of the prior probability for the distribution of nuclear material can impact the analysis. Assay results for scaled-down versions of the full-dimensioned problem will be presented for several methods and cases.

Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

1998-12-01

140

Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point source and S values of ORNL phantom are 1.3%, 1.2%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively. In conclusion, SimDOSE is an efficient and accurate toolkit to generate patient-specific dose distribution in clinical PET application.

Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

2014-11-01

141

An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,?) or (?,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity/gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

D'Auria, John M.; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Schmor, Paul

2013-03-01

142

Nuclear imaging in pediatrics  

SciTech Connect

The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

Siddiqui, A.R.

1985-01-01

143

Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals  

PubMed Central

Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

2014-01-01

144

Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

2008-03-01

145

Investigation of Recoil Collection Method for Production of High Specific Activity Nuclear Medicine Isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production of high specific activity, reactor -produced isotopes will be important for the new generation of nuclear medicine anti-cancer radiopharmaceuticals, When the radiopharmaceuticals are prepared for applications in nuclear medicine or in-vivo trials, the product should be very high quality and normally of very high specific activity to avoid the risk of a contamination with impurities such as stable nuclides, i.e. the resultant solution needs to be in most cases as "carrier free" as possible, as well as free of extraneous nuclides. Unfortunately, many useful isotopes made by (n, gamma) reactions such as Au-198, Re -186 and Re-188 are not carrier-free. The aim of this research is to evaluate the production of high specific activity isotopes by (n, gamma) reactions using a hot atom recoil collection method. The apparatus designed for gold and rhenium recoil experiments has been constructed and operated in the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) to collect the recoil Au-198 and Re-188 atoms. The degree of isotopic enrichment of the product will then be ascertained. The results from the recoil experiments are discussed, and plans for modifications to improve the desired yield are discussed.

Cheng, Kai-Yuan

146

Nuclear medicine computing. Where we have been, where we are and where we are going.  

PubMed

Demand for the newest and most elaborate Nuclear Medicine equipment is at an all time high. Never has there been more to offer than now with such improvements as large field of view, high resolution, whole-body capability and so on. The dedicated minicomputer systems that are available to go with these latest imaging devices are equally impressive. Still, the headaches associated with putting together a full capability camera/computer system are numerous. Things just do not seem to go together the way they ought to. If we are to truly get the most value out of our new equipment, we must put tremendous work loads on our clinical staff by expecting them to use very awkward and poorly configured systems in which several complicated steps are required to to produce the finished product ready for the reading room. The relatively low usage factor which most clinical Nuclear Medicine computer systems experience is not surprising when we consider the ridiculous way in which these systems are configured. It is time for a little human engineering to be introduced into the design process. Unfortunately, this proliferation of equipment is wasteful of money as well as the operator's time. It would make more sense to consolidate the multitude of displays and controlling elements into a single console which would allow a single operator to perform all necessary data processing operations quickly and interactively. PMID:1030828

Kirch, D L

1976-01-01

147

Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals.  

PubMed

Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

Bomanji, Jamshed B; Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

2014-10-01

148

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

149

Radiation doses of employees of a Nuclear Medicine Department after implementation of more rigorous radiation protection methods.  

PubMed

The appropriate radiation protection measures applied in departments of nuclear medicine should lead to a reduction in doses received by the employees. During 1991-2007, at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Pomeranian Medical University (Szczecin, Poland), nurses received on average two-times higher (4.6 mSv) annual doses to the whole body than those received by radiopharmacy technicians. The purpose of this work was to examine whether implementation of changes in the radiation protection protocol will considerably influence the reduction in whole-body doses received by the staff that are the most exposed. A reduction in nurses' exposure by ~63 % took place in 2008-11, whereas the exposure of radiopharmacy technicians grew by no more than 22 % in comparison with that in the period 1991-2007. Proper reorganisation of the work in departments of nuclear medicine can considerably affect dose reduction and bring about equal distribution of the exposure. PMID:23615359

Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Supinska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H; Zorga, Piotr; Birkenfeld, Bozena

2013-11-01

150

In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Final performance report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

Kelsey, K.T.

1991-12-31

151

"Nuclear" medicine physicians as communicators: their point of view on the aftermath of "nuclear" disaster.  

PubMed

On March 11th, 2011 earthquakes and a subsequent tsunami devastated northern Japan. The consecutive technical catastrophe in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only an additional local tragedy, it also turned out to be a global disaster. In this review we intend to discuss emerging problems and enlighten a way to communicate in such events, tell people how to react in such scenarios and prevent panic by providing rational information. PMID:22476594

Staudenherz, Anton; Sinzinger, Helmut

2012-02-01

152

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

153

[Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. PMID:24560040

Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

2014-09-01

154

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

155

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for

F. Botta; M. Cremonesi; A. Di Dia; G. Pedroli; A. Mairani; G. Battistoni; A. Fassò; A. Ferrari; M. Ferrari; G. Paganelli; M. Valente

2011-01-01

156

Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

2012-01-01

157

Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue. PMID:24594901

Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Eberlein, U; Lassmann, M

2014-03-21

158

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

159

The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts  

SciTech Connect

Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

Not Available

1992-02-01

160

Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator  

PubMed Central

Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N?,N?,N??-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. PMID:22174513

Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

2011-01-01

161

Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.  

PubMed

Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these technologies over PMT's is their insensitivity to magnetic fields which makes their use in co-axial multi-modality nuclear medicine/magnetic resonance instrumentation possible. PMID:16866565

Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

2006-08-01

162

College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine RM Radiation Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped and advanced topics in nuclear medicine imaging physics, including positron emission tomographic procedures IN RADIATION MEDICINE. (1-6) Applied field work at the graduate level in the sciences relating to radiation

MacAdam, Keith

163

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

164

Imaging of EGFR and EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Overexpression in Tumors by Nuclear Medicine Modalities  

PubMed Central

Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play a pivotal role in signal transduction pathways and in the development and maintenance of various cancers. They are involved in multiple processes such as transcription, cell cycle progression, proliferation, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. Among the PTKs, the EGFR is one of the most widely studied and has emerged as a promising key target for the treatment of cancer. Indeed, several drugs directed at this receptor are FDA-approved and many others are at various stages of development. However, thus far, the therapeutic outcome of EGFR-targeted therapy is suboptimal and needs to be refined. Quantitative PET molecular imaging coupled with selective labelled biomarkers may facilitate in vivo EGFR-targeted drug efficacy by noninvasively assessing the expression of EGFR in tumor, guiding dose and regime by measuring target drug binding and receptor occupancy as well as potentially detecting the existence of a primary or secondary mutation leading to either drug interaction or failure of EGFR recognition by the drug. This review describes the attempts to develop labelled EGFR molecular imaging agents that are based either on low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to the extracellular binding domain of the receptor to be used in nuclear medicine modalities. PMID:18991714

Mishani, Eyal; Abourbeh, Galith; Eiblmaier, Martin; Anderson, Carolyn J

2008-01-01

165

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

166

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

167

The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

168

TECHNICAL NOTE: A simple screen for minimising radiation doses to nursing staff involved in nuclear medicine procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shield has been designed and constructed for use by nurses during nuclear medicine procedures. The shape gives effective shielding and permits only 0.1% of 140 keV gamma-rays to be transmitted through it. The screen consists of 3 mm lead sheet sandwiched between two aluminium sheets each 2 mm thick to prevent the lead creeping. The large base with large

A. Ghosh; L. D. Brown

1979-01-01

169

Reduction of 68 Ge activity containing liquid waste from 68 Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

PET with 68Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based 68Ge\\/68Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity (68Ge vs. 68Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of 68Ge activity is produced by eluting the 68Ge\\/68Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry.

Erik de Blois; Ho Sze Chan; Kamalika Roy; Eric P. Krenning; Wouter A. P. Breeman

2011-01-01

170

Unravelling the molecular structure and packing of a planar molecule by combining nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning tunneling microscopy.  

PubMed

The determination of the molecular structure of a porphyrin is achieved by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. Since macroscopic crystals cannot be obtained in this system, this combination of techniques is crucial to solve the molecular structure without the need for X-ray crystallography. For this purpose, previous knowledge of the flatness of the reagent molecules (a porphyrin and its functionalizing group, a naphthalimide) and the resulting molecular structure obtained by a force-field simulation are used. The exponents of the I-V curves obtained by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) allow us to check whether the thickness of the film of molecules is greater than a monolayer, even when there is no direct access to the exposed surface of the metal substrate. Photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption, infrared (IR) reflectance and solubility tests are used to confirm the results obtained here with this NMR/STM/STS combination. PMID:24192713

Sáfar, Gustavo A M; Malachias, Angelo; Magalhães-Paniago, Rogério; Martins, Dayse C S; Idemori, Ynara M

2013-12-21

171

Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

1989-05-01

172

Use of volume-rendered images in registration of nuclear medicine studies  

SciTech Connect

A simple operator-guided alignment technique based on volume-rendered images was developed to register tomographic nuclear medicine studies. For each of 2 three-dimensional data sets to be registered, volume-rendered images were generated in 3 orthogonal projections (x,y,z) using the method of maximum-activity projection. Registration was achieved as follows: (a) One of the rendering orientations (e.g. x) was chosen for manipulation; (b) The two dimensional rendering was translated and rotated under operator control to achieve the best alignment as determined by visual assessment; (c) This rotation and translation was then applied to the underlying three-dimensional data set, with updating of the rendered images in each of the orthogonal projections; (d) Another orientation was chosen, and the process repeated. Since manipulation was performed on the small two-dimensional rendered image, feedback was instantaneous. To aid in the visual alignment, difference images and flicker images (toggling between the two data sets) were displayed. Accuracy was assessed by analysis of separate clinical data sets acquired without patient movement. After arbitrary rotation and translation of one of the two data sets, the 2 data sets were registered. Mean registration error was 0.36 pixels, corresponding to a 2.44 mm registration error. Thus, accurate registration can be achieved in under 10 minutes using this simple technique. The accuracy of registration was assessed with use of duplicate SPECT studies originating from separate reconstructions of the data from each of the detectors of a triple-head gamma camera.

Wallis, J.W.; Miller, T.R.; Hsu, S.S. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology] [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States). Mallinkrodt Inst. of Radiology

1995-08-01

173

A Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications using 113mIn 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical studies show our prototype Compton camera, C-SPRINT, matches the 99mTc performance of clinically available mechanically collimated systems if an advantage in sensitivity of ˜45 can be achieved. Imaging at higher energies substantially reduces the required sensitivity advantage. At ˜400 keV, our Compton camera system needs only five times the raw count rate of a mechanically collimated system imaging at 99mTc energy to reach the performance "break even" point. We analyze our C-SPRINT system performance for the isotope 113mIn (391.7 keV), and compare it to a collimated system imaging 99mTc. 113mIn has been used in nuclear medicine applications in the past, and can potentially be used to label many of the same radiopharmaceuticals as 99mTc. In order to fully compare the two systems, their relative sensitivities are combined with the relative amount of useful gamma rays that escape the object being imaged (the patient) for the same patient radiation dose. Results for uniformly distributed sources show that for equal lifetime radiation dose, the ratio of useful 99mTc to 113mIn gamma rays is 1.59. For a point source of activity centered inside the ellipsoid, the useful ratio decreases to 1.33. These fractions scale up the required raw sensitivity advantage to yield a required sensitivity advantage of 5 - 8. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that a raw sensitivity advantage of 25 can be achieved by improving C-SPRINT geometry and using a larger volume of silicon detectors. We conclude that gains of 3-5 in noise equivalent sensitivity are achievable when imaging 113mIn with our Compton camera relative to a collimated system imaging 99mTc.

LeBlanc, J. W.; Clinthorne, N. H.; Hua, C.; Rogers, W. L.; Wehe, D. K.; Wilderman, S. J.

1999-02-01

174

A study on the dependence of the change in total scan time on the timing of the scan-time determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the change in the scan time according to the scan-time determination in an examination by using a pre-set time to identify a reasonable alternative to altering the scan time. A hepatobiliary scan was conducted using the radiopharmaceutical 99 m Tc-mebrofenin in the Nuclear Medicine Department of Asan Medical Center from January to March 2012. Scanning began five minutes after an intravenous injection of 222 MBq (megabecquere) (6 mCi). As two detectors were placed facing each other, the patient was asked to stand between the two detectors with the front of the abdomen pressed as close as possible against the detector. After scanning, the measurement was carried out to determine the expected end time of scanning when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total scan time. After scanning had been completed, the measurement time was compared with the final scan time and the expected scan time in the middle of scanning. A phantom was also used to examine the dependence of the change in time on the dose. The difference was examined when the scan time was 10, 25, 50, and 75% of the total expected scan time after beginning the scan. According to the study results, the difference was five seconds or more at the maximum when the scan time was 10% of the total expected scan time. The difference was significant when the scan time was 25% or 50% of the total expected scan time.

Lee, Jong-Hun; Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

2013-03-01

175

Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... out of your body as instructed by the nuclear medicine personnel. The amount of radiation is so small that it is not a ... problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear medicine ... exposed to any radiation, including the low level of radiation released by ...

176

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute San Fernando Avenue No.22, Col. Section XVI (Mexico)

2012-10-23

177

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 ± 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 ± 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 ± 1.53 and 4.18 ± 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

2012-10-01

178

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

SciTech Connect

A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

2010-12-07

179

[Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect. PMID:19498253

Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

2009-05-20

180

Imaging genes, chromosomes, and nuclear structures using laser-scanning confocal microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 350 years, the optical microscope has had a powerful symbiotic relationship with biology. Until this century, optical microscopy was the only means of examining cellular structure; in return, biologists have contributed greatly to the evolution of microscope design and technique. Recent advances in the detection and processing of optical images, together with methods for labelling specific biological molecules, have brought about a resurgence in the application of optical microscopy to the biological sciences. One of the areas in which optical microscopy is breaking new ground is in elucidating the large scale organization of chromatin in chromosomes and cell nuclei. Nevertheless, imaging the contents of the cell nucleus is a difficult challenge for light microscopy, for two principal reasons. First, the dimensions of all but the largest nuclear structures (nucleoli, vacuoles) are close to or below the resolving power of far field optics. Second, the native optical contrast properties of many important chromatin structures (eg. chromosome domains, centromere regions) are very weak, or essentially zero. As an extreme example, individual genes probably have nothing to distinguish them other than their sequence of DNA bases, which cannot be directly visualized with any current form of microscopy. Similarly, the interphase nucleus shows no direct visible evidence of focal chromatin domains. Thus, imaging of such entities depends heavily on contrast enhancement methods. The most promising of these is labelling DNA in situ using sequence-specific probes that may be visualized using fluorescent dyes. We have applied this method to detecting individual genes in metaphase chromosomes and interphase nuclei, and to imaging a number of DNA-containing structures including chromosome domains, metaphase chromosomes and centromere regions. We have also demonstrated the applicability of in situ fluorescent labelling to detecting numerical and structural abnormalities both in condensed metaphase chromosomes and in interphase nuclei. The ability to image the loci of fluorescent-labelled gene probes hybridized to chromosomes and to interphase nuclei will play a major role in the mapping of the human genome. This presentation is an overview of our laboratory's efforts to use confocal imaging to address fundamental questions about the structure and organization of genes, chromosomes and cell nuclei, and to develop applications useful in clinical diagnosis of inherited diseases.

Ballard, Stephen G.

1990-08-01

181

Inhibition of Nuclear Factor ?B Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-?B-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

2010-01-01

182

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90}, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution. Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M. [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (I.N.F.N.), Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Nuclear Medicine Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 2014 Milan (Italy); Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); FaMAF, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba and CONICET, Cordoba, Argentina C.P. 5000 (Argentina)

2011-07-15

183

Study of the cost-savings potential of the Military - Civilian Health Services Partnership Program in the nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay services at Ireland Army Community Hospital, Fort Knox, Kentucky. Master's thesis, July 1987July 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using workload data for Calendar Year 1987, a cost savings analysis was performed on the following three options (involving the Nuclear Medicine Department at Ireland Army Community Hospital); (1) Elimination of Radioimmunoassay Internal Service, (2) Civilian Military Health Service Partnership Program and (3) Fixed price contract for Nuclear Medicine Services. This study revealed the Civilian-Military Health Services Partnership Program would

Amon

1989-01-01

184

[Introduction of a quality management system compliant with DIN EN 9001:2000 in a university department of nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

In 1995, the management of the University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf proposed to establish a total quality assurance (QA) system. A revised QA-system has been introduced stepwise in the department of nuclear medicine since 1997, and certification was achieved in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 on February 14, 2001. The QA-handbook is divided into two parts. The first part contains operational (diagnostic and therapeutic) procedures in so-called standard operating procedures (SOP). They describe the indication of procedures as well as the competences and time necessary in a standardized manner. Up to now, more than 70 SOPs have been written as a collaborative approach between technicians and physicians during daily clinical routine after analysing and discussing the procedures. Thus, the results were more clearly defined processes and more satisfied employees. The second part consists of general rules and directions concerning the security of work and equipment as well as radiation protection tasks, hygiene etc. as it is required by the law. This part was written predominantly by the management of the department of nuclear-medicine and the QA-coordinator. Detailed information for the patients, documentation of the work-flows as well as the medical report was adopted to the QM-system. Although in the introduction phase of a QA-system a vast amount of time is necessary, some months later a surplus for the clinical workday will become available. The well defined relations of competences and procedures will result in a gain of time, a reduction of costs and a help to ensure the legal demands. Last but not least, the QA-system simply helps to build up confidence and acceptance both by the patients and the referring physicians. PMID:11797512

Jansen-Schmidt, V; Paschen, U; Kröger, S; Bohuslavizki, K H; Clausen, M

2001-12-01

185

Feasibility and Merits of Performing Preclinical Imaging on Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Systems  

PubMed Central

Aim. Researchers have limited access to systems dedicated to imaging small laboratory animals. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility and merits of performing preclinical imaging on clinical systems. Materials and Methods. Scans were performed on rat and mouse models of diseases or injuries on four radiology systems, tomosynthesis, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), based on the availability at the author's institute. Results. Tomosysthesis delineated soft tissue anatomy and hard tissue structure with superb contrast and spatial resolution at minimal scan time and effort. CT allowed high resolution volumetric visualization of bones. Molecular imaging with PET was useful for detecting cancerous tissue in mouse but at the expense of poor resolution. MRI depicted abnormal or intervened tissue at quality and resolution sufficient for experimental studies. The paper discussed limitations of the clinical systems in preclinical imaging as well as challenges regarding the need of additional gadgets, modifications, or upgrades required for longitudinally scanning animals under anesthesia while monitoring their vital signs. Conclusion. Clinical imaging technologies can potentially make cost-effective and efficient contributions to preclinical efforts in obtaining anatomical, structural, and functional information from the underlying tissue while minimally compromising the data quality in certain situations. PMID:24490068

Bilgen, Mehmet

2013-01-01

186

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Vol. 30, No. 7, July 2003 Abstract. The purpose of this study was to assess the  

E-print Network

European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Vol. 30, No. 7, July 2003 Abstract. A completely automated method based on computerised image processing and artificial neural net- works was used- tures from each set of (joint) ventilation and perfusion studies in six projections. A third network

Lunds Universitet

187

Compartmental analysis of renal physiology using nuclear medicine data and statistical optimization  

E-print Network

This paper describes a general approach to the compartmental modeling of nuclear data based on spectral analysis and statistical optimization. We utilize the renal physiology as test case and validate the method against both synthetic data and real measurements acquired during two micro-PET experiments with murine models.

Garbarino, Sara; Brignone, Massimo; Massollo, Michela; Sambuceti, Gianmario; Piana, Michele

2012-01-01

188

The revision of RP 91 on criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations.  

PubMed

In 1997 the European Commission published Radiation Protection 91: 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations'. This document specified the minimum criteria for acceptability. It has been used to this effect in legislation, codes of practice and by individual professionals. In a single document, it defined a level of performance at which remedial action was required. The document specified a series of parameters which characterised equipment performance and acceptable levels of performance. In its time it proved to be a useful document which was applied in member states to various degrees. Since the publication of Report 91 in 1997, a series of weaknesses emerged over time. Development of new radiological systems and technologies, as well as improvements in traditional technologies, has created circumstances where the acceptability criteria were in need of review. These weaknesses were recognised by the European Commission and a tender for its revision was issued. The criteria were developed by a team drawn from a broad range of backgrounds including hospitals, industry, government bodies, regulators and standardisation organisations. Representatives were mainly from Europe, but individuals from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and International Atomic Energy Agency were included in the drafting process. This study describes the process employed in developing the revised document and the consultation process involved. One of the major difficulties the revision team encountered was related to an understanding of the actual meaning of the EC Directive. The view taken by the revision team was that Article 8, paragraph 3 places responsibilities on both the holders of radiological equipment and competent authorities. The acceptability criteria have been produced consistent with the European Commission's Medical Exposures Directive, which requires that patient exposures are optimised and justified. PMID:23169813

Faulkner, K; Malone, J F; Christofides, S; Lillicrap, S; Horton, P

2013-02-01

189

A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR  

PubMed Central

Yin Zhi Huang, a decoction of Yin Chin (Artemisia capillaris) and three other herbs, is widely used in Asia to prevent and treat neonatal jaundice. We recently identified the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) as a key regulator of bilirubin clearance in the liver. Here we show that treatment of WT and humanized CAR transgenic mice with Yin Zhi Huang for 3 days accelerates the clearance of intravenously infused bilirubin. This effect is absent in CAR knockout animals. Expression of bilirubin glucuronyl transferase and other components of the bilirubin metabolism pathway is induced by Yin Zhi Huang treatment of WT mice or mice expressing only human CAR, but not CAR knockout animals. 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo. We conclude that CAR mediates the effects of Yin Zhi Huang on bilirubin clearance and that 6,7-dimethylesculetin is an active component of this herbal medicine. CAR is a potential target for the development of new drugs to treat neonatal, genetic, or acquired forms of jaundice. PMID:14702117

Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Jun; Moore, David D.

2004-01-01

190

Diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate administration protocol for radiological emergency medicine in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants.  

PubMed

Inhalation therapy of diethylene-triamine-penta-acetate (DTPA) should be initiated immediately to workers who have significant incorporation of plutonium, americium or curium in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. A newly designed electric mesh nebulizer is a small battery-operated passive vibrating mesh device, in which vibrations in an ultrasonic horn are used to force drug solution through a mesh of micron-sized holes. This nebulizer enables DTPA administration at an early stage in the event of a radiation emergency from contamination from the above radioactive metals. PMID:18274997

Jin, Yutaka

2008-01-01

191

Comparison of measured and calculated dose rates near nuclear medicine patients.  

PubMed

Widely used release criteria for patients receiving radiopharmaceuticals (NUREG-1556, Vol. 9, Rev.1, Appendix U) are known to be overly conservative. The authors measured external exposure rates near patients treated with I, Tc, and F and compared the measurements to calculated values using point and line source models. The external exposure dose rates for 231, 11, and 52 patients scanned or treated with I, Tc, and F, respectively, were measured at 0.3 m and 1.0 m shortly after radiopharmaceutical administration. Calculated values were always higher than measured values and suggested the application of "self-shielding factors," as suggested by Siegel et al. in 2002. The self-shielding factors of point and line source models for I at 1 m were 0.60 ± 0.16 and 0.73 ± 0.20, respectively. For Tc patients, the self-shielding factors for point and line source models were 0.44 ± 0.19 and 0.55 ± 0.23, and the values were 0.50 ± 0.09 and 0.60 ± 0.12, respectively, for F (all FDG) patients. Treating patients as unshielded point sources of radiation is clearly inappropriate. In reality, they are volume sources, but treatment of their exposures using a line source model with appropriate self-shielding factors produces a more realistic, but still conservative, approach for managing patient release. PMID:23799503

Yi, Y; Stabin, M G; McKaskle, M H; Shone, M D; Johnson, A B

2013-08-01

192

Variable-Pitch Rectangular Cross-section Radiofrequency Coils for the Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Investigation of Sealed Medicines Packets  

PubMed Central

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from 14N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

2012-01-01

193

Variable-pitch rectangular cross-section radiofrequency coils for the nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance investigation of sealed medicines packets.  

PubMed

The performance of rectangular radio frequency (RF) coils capable of being used to detect nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) signals from blister packs of medicines has been compared. The performance of a fixed-pitch RF coil was compared with that from two variable-pitch coils, one based on a design in the literature and the other optimized to obtain the most homogeneous RF field over the whole volume of the coil. It has been shown from (14)N NQR measurements with two medicines, the antibiotic ampicillin (as trihydrate) and the analgesic medicine Paracetamol, that the latter design gives NQR signal intensities almost independent of the distribution of the capsules or pills within the RF coil and is therefore more suitable for quantitative analysis. PMID:23057555

Barras, Jamie; Katsura, Shota; Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Itozaki, Hideo; Kyriakidou, Georgia; Rowe, Michael D; Althoefer, Kaspar A; Smith, John A S

2012-11-01

194

Usefulness of specific calibration coefficients for gamma-emitting sources measured by radionuclide calibrators in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In nuclear medicine, the activity of a radionuclide is measured with a radionuclide calibrator that often has a calibration coefficient independent of the container type and filling. Methods: To determine the effect of the container on the accuracy of measuring the activity injected into a patient, The authors simulated a commercial radionuclide calibrator and 18 container types most typically used in clinical practice. The instrument sensitivity was computed for various container thicknesses and filling levels. Monoenergetic photons and electrons as well as seven common radionuclides were considered. Results: The quality of the simulation with gamma-emitting sources was validated by an agreement with measurements better than 4% in five selected radionuclides. The results show that the measured activity can vary by more than a factor of 2 depending on the type of container. The filling level and the thickness of the container wall only have a marginal effect for radionuclides of high energy but could induce differences up to 4%. Conclusions: The authors conclude that radionuclide calibrators should be tailored to the uncertainty required by clinical applications. For most clinical cases, and at least for the low-energy gamma and x-ray emitters, measurements should be performed with calibration coefficients specific to the container type.

Bochud, Francois O.; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Baechler, Sebastien; Kosinski, Marek; Bailat, Claude J. [Institute of Radiation Physics, University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Rue du Grand-Pre 1, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-07-15

195

Modeling the nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of lung: from electrical engineering to critical care medicine.  

PubMed

The present article reviews the basic principles of a new approach to the characterization of pulmonary disease. This approach is based on the unique nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of the lung and combines experimental measurements (using specially developed NMR techniques) with theoretical simulations. The NMR signal from inflated lungs decays very rapidly compared with the signal from completely collapsed (airless) lungs. This phenomenon is due to the presence of internal magnetic field inhomogeneity produced by the alveolar air-tissue interface (because air and water have different magnetic susceptibilities). The air-tissue interface effects can be detected and quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques using temporally symmetric and asymmetric spin-echo sequences. Theoretical models developed to explain the internal (tissue-induced) magnetic field inhomogeneity in aerated lungs predict the NMR lung behavior as a function of various technical and physiological factors (e.g., the level of lung inflation) and simulate the effects of various lung disorders (in particular, pulmonary edema) on this behavior. Good agreement has been observed between the predictions obtained from the mathematical models and the results of experimental NMR measurements in normal and diseased lungs. Our theoretical and experimental data have important pathophysiological and clinical implications, especially with respect to the characterization of acute lung disease (e.g., pulmonary edema) and the management of critically ill patients. PMID:10334720

Cutillo, A G; Ailion, D C

1999-01-01

196

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

2006-09-01

197

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

SciTech Connect

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, 14080, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 D.F. (Mexico)

2006-09-08

198

CAT Scan  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... reviews the benefits and risks of this scan. Test A CT scan uses x-ray technology and ... the scanning. This allows for sharper pictures. The test takes from a few minutes to approximately half ...

199

CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan; Computed axial tomography scan; Computed tomography scan ... Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 5th ed. New York, NY: Churchill ...

200

The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France, pp. PM1-4, 2003 1 Abstract--Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of deaths  

E-print Network

The Intl Conf Fully 3D Image Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Saint Malo, France of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631- 444-7837; fax: 631, WI 53201, USA. Wang is with the Department of Radiology, University of Iowa School of Medicine, Iowa

201

Study of the cost-savings potential of the Military - Civilian Health Services Partnership Program in the nuclear medicine and radioimmunoassay services at Ireland Army Community Hospital, Fort Knox, Kentucky. Master's thesis, July 1987-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

Using workload data for Calendar Year 1987, a cost savings analysis was performed on the following three options (involving the Nuclear Medicine Department at Ireland Army Community Hospital); (1) Elimination of Radioimmunoassay Internal Service, (2) Civilian Military Health Service Partnership Program and (3) Fixed price contract for Nuclear Medicine Services. This study revealed the Civilian-Military Health Services Partnership Program would potentially generate the greatest cost savings and recommended that it be implemented in other areas throughout the Army Medical Department.

Amon, T.M.

1989-01-01

202

Automated segmentation of tumors on bone scans using anatomy-specific thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of overall tumor area on bone scans may be a potential biomarker for treatment response assessment and has, to date, not been investigated. Segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans is a fundamental step for this response marker. In this paper, we propose a fully automated computerized method for the segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans, taking into account characteristics of different anatomic regions. A scan is first segmented into anatomic regions via an atlas-based segmentation procedure, which involves non-rigidly registering a labeled atlas scan to the patient scan. Next, an intensity normalization method is applied to account for varying levels of radiotracer dosing levels and scan timing. Lastly, lesions are segmented via anatomic regionspecific intensity thresholding. Thresholds are chosen by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis against manual contouring by board certified nuclear medicine physicians. A leave-one-out cross validation of our method on a set of 39 bone scans with metastases marked by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians yielded a median sensitivity of 95.5%, and specificity of 93.9%. Our method was compared with a global intensity thresholding method. The results show a comparable sensitivity and significantly improved overall specificity, with a p-value of 0.0069.

Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Gjertson, David; Poon, Cheryce; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew S.

2012-03-01

203

Study of a New Design of P-N Semiconductor Detector Array for Nuclear Medicine Imaging by Monte Carlo Simulation Codes  

PubMed Central

Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc99_m activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

Hajizadeh-Safar, M.; Ghorbani, M.; Khoshkharam, S.; Ashrafi, Z.

2014-01-01

204

Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.  

PubMed

Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using semiconductor P-N detectors such as P-NiO:Li, N-SnO2 :F for gamma detection could be possibly applicable for design of a one dimension array configuration with suitable spatial resolution of 2.7 mm for nuclear medicine imaging. PMID:25298932

Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

2014-07-01

205

Cardiac nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

Gerson, M.C.

1987-01-01

206

CAT Scans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Physics 2000 page uses characters and dialogue to help explain what CAT scans are and how they work. Java applets show the relationship between traditional x-rays and the CAT scan. Links for more information are provided.

2007-07-16

207

RadNuc: A graphical user interface to deliver dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine with a 137Cs irradiator  

PubMed Central

The temporal variations in absorbed dose rates to organs and tissues in the body are very large in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The response of biological endpoints of relevance to radiation safety and therapeutic efficacy are generally modulated by dose rate. Therefore, it is important to understand how the complex dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine impact relevant biological responses. Accordingly, a graphical user interface (GUI) was created to control a cesium-137 irradiator to deliver such dose rate patterns. Methods Visual Basic 6.0 was used to create a user-friendly GUI to control the dose rate by varying the thickness of a mercury attenuator. The GUI facilitates the delivery of a number of dose rate patterns including constant, exponential increase or decrease, and multi-component exponential. Extensive visual feedback is provided by the GUI during both the planning and delivery stages. Results The GUI controlled irradiator can achieve a maximum dose rate of 40 cGy/hr and a minimum dose rate of 0.01 cGy/hr. Addition of machined lead blocks can be used to further reduce the minimum dose rate to 0.0001 cGy/hr. Measured dose rate patterns differed from programmed dose rate patterns in total dose by 3.2% to 8.4%. Conclusion The GUI controlled irradiator is able to accurately create dose rate patterns encountered in nuclear medicine and other related fields. This makes it an invaluable tool for studying the effects of chronic constant and variable low dose rates on biological tissues in the contexts of both radiation protection and clinical administration of internal radionuclides. PMID:23265668

Pasternack, Jordan B.; Howell, Roger W.

2012-01-01

208

Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

1999-05-13

209

A New Approach for Heparin Standardization: Combination of Scanning UV Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Principal Component Analysis  

PubMed Central

The year 2007 was marked by widespread adverse clinical responses to heparin use, leading to a global recall of potentially affected heparin batches in 2008. Several analytical methods have since been developed to detect impurities in heparin preparations; however, many are costly and dependent on instrumentation with only limited accessibility. A method based on a simple UV-scanning assay, combined with principal component analysis (PCA), was developed to detect impurities, such as glycosaminoglycans, other complex polysaccharides and aromatic compounds, in heparin preparations. Results were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. This approach provides an additional, sensitive tool to determine heparin purity and safety, even when NMR spectroscopy failed, requiring only standard laboratory equipment and computing facilities. PMID:21267460

Lima, Marcelo A.; Rudd, Timothy R.; de Farias, Eduardo H. C.; Ebner, Lyvia F.; Gesteira, Tarsis F.; de Souza, Lauro M.; Mendes, Aline; Cordula, Carolina R.; Martins, Joao R. M.; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Yates, Edwin A.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Nader, Helena B.

2011-01-01

210

Taking Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Taking Medicines Drugs in the Body Medicines can enter the body in many different ways, ... many steps happen along the way. Understanding how medicines work in your body can help you learn ...

211

Nuclear medicine in the rehabilitative treatment evaluation in stroke recovery. Role of diaschisis resolution and cerebral reorganization.  

PubMed

There has recently been a tremendous increase in imaging technology and imaging methodology enabling noninvasive exploration of brain function to such an intricate degree as to enable measurements of very small spatial and short temporal cerebral operations responsible for neurological and functional recovery after stroke. This has allowed conceptualization of rehabilitation strategies designed to maximally enhance rehabilitation protocols tailored to the individual patient's deficits. Rehabilitation strategies may now be designed and optimized by employing methods to synchronize functional training of brain regions ascribed to those areas innately undergoing neuronal plasticity change responsible for stroke recovery. In order to effectively apply these noninvasive imaging methods, one must have a clear understanding of the physics and technique of the imaging methodologies and how these are best applied to understand brain physiology during the stroke recovery process to provide a solid rationale for development of rehabilitation protocols. Nuclear medicine imaging is first presented as a diagnostic method to assess the stroke process. The initial brain damage and resulting neurological disability can be primarily assessed in terms of changes in the vascular and hemodynamic status of the cerebral circulation in addition to alterations in the metabolic status around the infarction region. Techniques for assessing perfusion and metabolism include regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and F-18 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). In addition, hemodynamic vascular insufficiency can be assessed using O-15 O2 oxygen extraction PET and rest and Diamox rCBF SPECT. The status of the peri-infarction region can be characterized in terms of components of diaschisis and ischemia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging ((1)H MRSI) and rest/stress rCBF assessment of cerebral vascular reserve. As the brain recovers from cerebral infarction, areas of reorganization and energy utilization by the brain can be measured using oxygen extraction methods with PET, F-18 FDG glucose utilization by PET, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measures using the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) technique. In addition, high field MRI imaging of the brain is now able to provide detailed fractional anisotropy (FA) maps to characterize changes in white matter by fiber tracking mapping using diffusion tensor imaging. Imaging of the stroke recovery process focuses on the physiologic model of stroke characterized by rCBF, metabolism, 1H spectroscopic measures of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Ch) and creatine (Cr) in the peri-infarction zone as well as in the extended stroke penumbra including areas of distant ''pure'' diaschisis unencumbered with the confound of cerebral ischemia. Data is presented describing the results of application of imaging methodologies as the patient undergoes rehabilitation that demonstrates the importance of blood flow and metabolic changes in the contralesional frontal lobe both during the resting state and during motor and speech activation paradigms. The results of advanced imaging technologies on cerebral damage and cerebral reorganization during rehabilitation are presented in the context of furthering designs of rehabilitation strategies. Success can be monitored to assess the optimization of rehabilitation strategy design to maximize neurological recovery from stroke by employing facilitatory methods to maximally synchronize rehabilitation techniques with recovery of functionally counterpart areas of viable brain. PMID:17268387

Mountz, J M

2007-06-01

212

Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts inhibiting molecular interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA sequences mimicking NF-kappaB binding sites.  

PubMed

Several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of extracts derived from different medicinal plants of Bangladesh in interfering with specific DNA-protein interactions. The rationale for this study is based on the observation that alteration of gene transcription represents a very promising approach to control the expression of selected genes and could be obtained using different molecules acting on the interactions between DNA and transcription factors (TFs). We have analysed the antiproliferative activity of extracts from the medicinal plants Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Aphanamixis polystachya, Moringa oleifera, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata and Ocimum sanctum. Antiproliferative activity was assayed on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat and erythroleukemia HEL cell lines. We employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) as a suitable technique for the identification of plant extracts altering the binding between transcription factors and the specific DNA elements. We found that low concentrations of Hemidesmus indicus, Polyalthia longifolia, Moringa oleifera and Lagerstroemia speciosa, and very low concentrations of Aphanamixis polystachya extracts inhibit the interactions between nuclear factors and target DNA elements mimicking sequences recognized by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). On the contrary, high amount of extracts from Paederia foetida, Cassia sophera, Hygrophila auriculata or Ocimum sanctum were unable to inhibit NF-kappaB/DNA interactions. Extracts inhibiting both NF-kappaB binding activity and tumor cell growth might be a source for anti-tumor compounds, while extracts inhibiting NF-kappaB/DNA interactions with lower effects on cell growth, could be of interest in the search of compounds active in inflammatory diseases, for which inhibition of NF-kappaB binding activity without toxic effects should be obtained. PMID:16789890

Lampronti, I; Khan, M T H; Bianchi, N; Ather, A; Borgatti, M; Vizziello, L; Fabbri, E; Gambari, R

2005-07-01

213

Histologically proven pressure sore-related osteomyelitis in the setting of negative technetium bone scans. Case report.  

PubMed

Pressure sores are common in patients with spinal cord injury, stroke or debilitating medical illness. Contiguous osteomyelitis is a well recognized complication of pressure ulcers, but remains a challenging diagnostic and management problem. Technetium bone scan is purported to be an extremely sensitive, although nonspecific diagnostic test for osteomyelitis. Indeed, a negative bone scan is thought to virtually exclude bone infection. We report three cases of pressure sore-related polymicrobial osteomyelitis where technetium bone scan was normal, yet bone biopsy demonstrated characteristic histopathologic changes of osteomyelitis. These cases raise questions regarding the sensitivity of bone scanning in the setting of pressure sores, and they demonstrate the need for further investigation into the correlation between nuclear medicine scan results and bone biopsy histopathology. Bone biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of osteomyelitis, which can be present in bone underlying a pressure ulcer, even in the setting of a normal bone scan. PMID:8260133

Burdge, D R; Gribble, M J

1993-12-01

214

Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

1987-12-01

215

Slow Scan Telemedicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

1984-01-01

216

Kinetic model building using advanced nuclear medicine techniques: the kinetics of chromium(III) in the human body. [¹Cr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a valid index of chromium (III) nutritional status can be determined with satisfaction through in vivo kinetic analysis. Three normal subjects and three patients suffering from hemochromatosis were periodically scanned with the Donner Laboratory computerized whole body scanners, starting seconds after radiochromium(III) was administered intravenously, up to a period of 84

1978-01-01

217

SCANNING THE TECHNOLOGY Scanning Advanced  

E-print Network

SCANNING THE TECHNOLOGY Scanning Advanced Automobile Technology BY HAMID GHARAVI National Institute and advances in sensor technologies provide computational power and real time information, which can be used of Standards and Technology Guest Editor K. VENKATESH PRASAD Ford Motor Company Guest Editor PETROS IOANNOU

218

Simulation of Thermal Responses of 125TeO2 Solid Target to Energetic Proton Bombardment from Cyclotron When Fabricating 124I Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With nuclear medicine receiving greater attention due to its unique characteristics in both diagnostics and therapeutics during recent decades, finding a highly controllable fabrication method becomes more urgent. The radioisotope 124I (T1/2=4.18d E?+=2.13MeV I?+=25%) has gained plentiful interests in the medical usages such as functioning imaging of cell proliferation in brain tumors using [124I]iododeoxyuridine (IUdR), imaging of immunoreactions in tumors using 124I-labelled monoclonal antibodies, the in-vivo imaging of 124I-labelled tyrosine derivatives, and the classical imaging of thyroid diseases with 124I, among others. Furthermore, it is because that thermal response of target during the fabrication process may affect the production of 124I to some extent and needs thorough investigations. Hence, the compact cyclotron located in the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research was employed in this study to generate 20MeV protons to irradiate TeO2 solid targets in which the radioisotopes 124I were produced through the 125Te(p, 2n)124I nuclear reaction. In addition, the widely-used ANSYS computer code was adopted to theoretically analyze thermal responses of TeO2 to irradiation cases with variations in ion beam current and its thermal conductivity. The results indicate that TeO2 temperature is strongly dependent on its thermal conductivity and ion beam current. In particular, TeO2 surface temperature is extremely sensitive to the air-gap size between TeO2 and target holder. Thus the target holder is suggested to be re-designed in order to prevent TeO2 from melting and a high efficiency production of radioisotopes 124I for nuclear medical diagnostics can be successfully achieved.

Peir, Jinn-Jer; Liang, Jenq-Horng; Duh, Ting-Shieh

219

The proton (nuclear) microprobe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning proton microprobe (SPMP) is closely related to the scanning electron microprobe (SEMP) or scanning electron microscope (SEM) with X-ray detector. Though the much greater elemental sensitivity of the SPMP is inherent in the physics, the generally inferior spatial resolution of the SPMP is not inherent and big improvements are possible, As its alternative name would imply, the SPMP is often used with heavier particle beams and with nuclear rather than atomic reactions. Its versatility and quantitative accuracy have justified greater instrumentation and computer power than that associated with other microprobes. It is fast becoming an industrially and commercially important instrument and there are few fields of scientific research in which it has not played a part. Notable contributions have been made in biology, medicine, agriculture, semiconductors, geology, mineralogy, extractive metallurgy, new materials, archaeology, forensic science, catalysis, industrial problems and reactor technology.

Legge, G. J. F.

1989-04-01

220

Synthesis, characterization and crystal structures of technetium(V)-oxo complexes useful in nuclear medicine. 1. Complexes of mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG{sub 3}) and its methyl ester derivative (MAG{sub 3}OMe)  

SciTech Connect

Mercptoacetylpeptide complexes of {sup 99g}Tc are useful compounds for nuclear medicine. This work describes the synthesis and structural characterization of a mercaptoacetylglyclglycylglycine complex and its esterified analog. Structural characterization is accomplished through NMR, mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography.

Grummon, G.; Rajagopalan, R.; Palenik, G.J. [Mallinckrodt Medical, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-03-29

221

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau, Germany, July 9-13, 2007 Abstract--Four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Linau is with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (e-mail: jingwang@mil.sunysb.edu). H. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA

222

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utah, USA, July 9-13, 2005 Abstract--This work investigated a Karhunen-Loeve (K-L)  

E-print Network

International Conference on Fully 3D Reconstruction in Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utah, USA51466. Lu was with the Department of Radiology, State Univ of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA of Radiology, Computer Science and Physics, State Univ of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (phone: 631

223

Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

224

Ion permeability of the nuclear pore complex and ion-induced macromolecular permeation as studied by scanning electrochemical and fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

Efficient delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and nanomaterials into the nucleus is imperative for gene therapy and nanomedicine. Nucleocytoplasmic molecular transport, however, is tightly regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) with the hydrophobic transport barriers based on phenylalanine and glycine repeats. Herein, we apply scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to quantitatively study the permeability of the NPCs to small probe ions with a wide range of hydrophobicity as a measure of their hydrophobic interactions with the transport barriers. Amperometric detection of the redox-inactive probe ions is enabled by using the ion-selective SECM tips based on the micropipet- or nanopipet-supported interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The remarkably high ion permeability of the NPCs is successfully measured by SECM and theoretically analyzed. This analysis demonstrates that the ion permeability of the NPCs is determined by the dimensions and density of the nanopores without a significant effect of the transport barriers on the transported ions. Importantly, the weak ion-barrier interactions become significant at sufficiently high concentrations of extremely hydrophobic ions, i.e., tetraphenylarsonium and perfluorobutylsulfonate, to permeabilize the NPCs to naturally impermeable macromolecules. Dependence of ion-induced permeabilization of the NPC on the pathway and mode of macromolecular transport is studied by using fluorescence microscopy to obtain deeper insights into the gating mechanism of the NPC as the basis of a new transport model. PMID:24460147

Kim, Jiyeon; Izadyar, Anahita; Shen, Mei; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Amemiya, Shigeru

2014-02-18

225

Ion Permeability of the Nuclear Pore Complex and Ion-Induced Macromolecular Permeation as Studied by Scanning Electrochemical and Fluorescence Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Efficient delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and nanomaterials into the nucleus is imperative for gene therapy and nanomedicine. Nucleocytoplasmic molecular transport, however, is tightly regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) with the hydrophobic transport barriers based on phenylalanine and glycine repeats. Herein, we apply scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to quantitatively study the permeability of the NPCs to small probe ions with a wide range of hydrophobicity as a measure of their hydrophobic interactions with the transport barriers. Amperometric detection of the redox-inactive probe ions is enabled by using the ion-selective SECM tips based on the micropipet- or nanopipet-supported interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The remarkably high ion permeability of the NPCs is successfully measured by SECM and theoretically analyzed. This analysis demonstrates that the ion permeability of the NPCs is determined by the dimensions and density of the nanopores without a significant effect of the transport barriers on the transported ions. Importantly, the weak ion–barrier interactions become significant at sufficiently high concentrations of extremely hydrophobic ions, i.e., tetraphenylarsonium and perfluorobutylsulfonate, to permeabilize the NPCs to naturally impermeable macromolecules. Dependence of ion-induced permeabilization of the NPC on the pathway and mode of macromolecular transport is studied by using fluorescence microscopy to obtain deeper insights into the gating mechanism of the NPC as the basis of a new transport model. PMID:24460147

Kim, Jiyeon; Izadyar, Anahita; Shen, Mei; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Amemiya, Shigeru

2014-01-01

226

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA: Nuclear physics, lasers, and medicine(Scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 14 December 2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific session of the General Meeting of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) was held in the Conference Hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, on 14 December 2009. The following reports were put on the session agenda posted on the web site www.gpad.ac.ru of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS: (1) Kotov Yu D (National Research Nuclear University 'Moscow Engineering Physics Institute' (MEPhI), Institute of Astrophysics, Moscow) "High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS"; (2) Pakhlov P N (Russian Federation State Scientific Center 'Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,' Moscow) "Exotic charmonium"; (3) Shcherbakov I A (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Laser and plasma technologies in medicine"; (4) Balakin V E (Center for Physics and Technology, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Protvino, Moscow region) "New-generation equipment and technologies for the ray therapy of oncological diseases using a proton beam"; (5) Kravchuk L V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS." Papers based on reports 1, 3, and 5 are published below. The expanded content of the report by Pakhlov is presented in review form in Physics-Uspekhi 53 219 (2010). • High-energy solar flare processes and their investigation onboard Russian satellite missions CORONAS, Yu D Kotov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 619-631 • Laser physics in medicine, I A Shcherbakov Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 631-635 • Development of nuclear physics medicine at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, L V Kravchuk Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 6, Pages 635-639

2010-09-01

227

CT Scans  

Cancer.gov

An arm or chest radiograph looks all the way through a body without being able to tell how deep anything is. A CT scan is three-dimensional. By imaging and looking at several three-dimensional slices of a body (like slices of bread) a doctor could not only tell if a tumor is present, but roughly how deep it is in the body.

228

[Expedition medicine].  

PubMed

Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism. PMID:23120871

Donlagi?, Lana

2009-01-01

229

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

2007--2008 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Takao Shimizu Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The Faculty of Medicine

Miyashita, Yasushi

230

Cough Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report in the journal Pediatrics questioned the effectiveness of over-the-counter children's cough medicines. In this Science Update, you'll hear more about the study, and why some medicines may have escaped this sort of rigorous testing.

Science Update;

2004-08-16

231

Vulnerable Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

Bochner, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

232

NIH/BRP: Optical Molecular Tomography for Regenerative Medicine NSF/MRI: Development of the Next-generation Nano-CT System for ROI-focused Scanning & Exact Interior Reconstruction  

E-print Network

NIH/BRP: Optical Molecular Tomography for Regenerative Medicine NSF/MRI: Development of the Next- ing and optical molecular imaging, and drive a paradigm shift from static assays of cellular function of this project is to develop a first-of-its-kind multi-probe multi-modal optical molecular tomogra- phy system

Wang, Ge

233

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

that integrated health sciences, preventive medicine, environmental medicine, and nursing will become increasingly; strengthening preventive medicine; improving hospital management and medical services delivery

Miyashita, Yasushi

234

Wilderness medicine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Human activity in wilderness areas has increased globally in recent decades, leading to increased risk of injury and illness. Wilderness medicine has developed in response to both need and interest. METHODS: The field of wilderness medicine encompasses many areas of interest. Some focus on special circumstances (such as avalanches) while others have a broader scope (such as trauma care). Several core areas of key interest within wilderness medicine are discussed in this study. RESULTS: Wilderness medicine is characterized by remote and improvised care of patients with routine or exotic illnesses or trauma, limited resources and manpower, and delayed evacuation to definitive care. Wilderness medicine is developing rapidly and draws from the breadth of medical and surgical subspecialties as well as the technical fields of mountaineering, climbing, and diving. Research, epidemiology, and evidence-based guidelines are evolving. A hallmark of this field is injury prevention and risk mitigation. The range of topics encompasses high-altitude cerebral edema, decompression sickness, snake envenomation, lightning injury, extremity trauma, and gastroenteritis. Several professional societies, academic fellowships, and training organizations offer education and resources for laypeople and health care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: The future of wilderness medicine is unfolding on multiple fronts: education, research, training, technology, communications, and environment. Although wilderness medicine research is technically difficult to perform, it is essential to deepening our understanding of the contribution of specific techniques in achieving improvements in clinical outcomes.

Sward, Douglas G.; Bennett, Brad L.

2014-01-01

235

Complementary medicine.  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care. PMID:9584661

Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

1998-01-01

236

Medicinal Herbman  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Japanese gardens are admired for their understated elegance, their meditation/movement fusion, their precise placement of essential elements such as water and stone. In this last way at least, Medicinal Herbman is typically...

Hacker, Randi

2010-07-21

237

Forensic Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary of forensic medicine; Life reactions; Necrosis and necrotic phenomena; Causes of death and violent deaths; Mechanical injuries; Poisoning and tests for poisons; Mechanical suffocation; Injury and death from burns and scalds; Electrocutio...

1969-01-01

238

Medicines management.  

PubMed

The Yellow Card reporting system is a way for healthcare professionals and the public to report suspected adverse reactions (side effects) to a medicine, vaccine, herbal or complementary remedy. PMID:25370251

Griffiths, Matt

2014-11-01

239

ADHD Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > Health Problems > Learning & Emotional Problems > ... and the Mind How Therapy Can Help About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

240

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments for glaucoma. Use of alternative medicine continues to increase, although ... positive impact on your overall health and other glaucoma risk factors including high blood pressure. Always talk ...

241

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

2005--2006 Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine PROSPECTUS The University of Tokyo #12;#12;Welcome to Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo Nobutaka Hirokawa Dean, Faculty of Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine The University of Tokyo The University of Tokyo Graduate

Miyashita, Yasushi

242

Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.  

PubMed

Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants, including persons providing student support, in the program. PMID:23561457

Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

2013-05-01

243

Sinus CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

244

Pelvic CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... 361-90, vii. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, ...

245

Shoulder CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

246

Arm CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

247

Thoracic spine CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... remove iodine out of the body. Those with kidney disease or diabetes may need to receive extra fluids ...

248

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

249

Use of therapeutic radionuclides in medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to follow the course of historical development in the use of radiopharmaceuticals as a therapeutic tool in nuclear medicine. This chapter is designed to point out the different phases of the development of therapeutic nuclear medicine, pointing out the events which most shaped its history along the way. Those events included the discovery of radioactivity, the development of the cyclotron and nuclear reactor as a method of delivering high specific activity radioactive sources, and a few significant therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I and 32P. The most significant therapeutic radionuclide was radium, which is treated very extensively in this paper from an historical viewpoint. It is only recently that attention of the nuclear medicine community turned to new therapeutic agents, such as bone pain palliation agents, monoclonal antibodies, and others. It may be that the next growth phase of nuclear medicine will revolve around therapy with these radionuclides. PMID:7558861

Early, P J; Landa, E R

1995-11-01

250

(Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-01-01

251

Is old medicine new medicine?  

PubMed

By the year 2000, over 90% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are expected in Third World countries where Western medicine is often unavailable, unaffordable, or culturally unacceptable. Thus, there is a need for greater attention to the potential role of traditional medicine and healers in the prevention and treatment of AIDS. A US-based nongovernmental organization, Green Cross Inc, is examining cross-cultural healing traditions and seeking areas of convergence between scientific bio-medicine and indigenous traditional healing systems. At a street clinic operated by Green Cross in Washington DC, both Western medicine and traditional Chinese practices such as acupuncture, herbal remedies, and meditation are offered to AIDS patients at those at risk of infection. Although the individualized nature of Chinese medicine makes it difficult to evaluate through use of Western research methods, there is anecdotal evidence that it reduces the stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue that accompany AIDS. Health care systems in all parts of the world could benefit from the concept that illness cannot be treated in isolation from individuals and communities. PMID:12284192

Montaocean, K

1991-07-01

252

school of medicine school of medicine  

E-print Network

school of medicine #12;school of medicine Dr. Richard Hoppmann, Dean "The School of Medicine has, compassionate health care throughout the state and world." #12;the promise of medicine: to students, to society "Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also love of humanity." - Hippocrates It is a place where

Almor, Amit

253

A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Methods: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 32}P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 111}In, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. Results: GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece) and Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece)

2012-08-15

254

Maritime Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a fascinating look at the practice of medicine aboard commercial and military ships in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Contemporary medical practice believed all diseases were created by one of four "humors." In spite of this, and the constant presence of disease, most seamen led relatively healthy lives. (MJP)

Estes, J. Worth

1996-01-01

255

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

256

Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine  

E-print Network

number of elderly people in our population, we know that integrated health sciences, preventive medicine; strengthening preventive medicine; improving hospital management and medical services delivery

Miyashita, Yasushi

257

Use Medicines Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine’s label or from your pharmacist, doctor, or nurse, you get the best results. There are simple ... t understand the medicine’s directions, ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist to explain them to you. Keep ...

258

Medicines by Design  

MedlinePLUS

... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight A Medicine's Life Inside the Body Using Genes to Guide Prescriptions Aspirin to Zoloft: Ways Medicines Work Computation Aids Drug Discovery Nature: The Master ...

259

Radioisotopes: Problems of Responsibility Arising from Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a ...

M. Dupon

1978-01-01

260

Soraya Boudia, Radioisotopes "economy of promises : On the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities" in X. Roqu et N. Herran(eds), Isotopes: Science, Medicine  

E-print Network

and the fall of biomedicine in the public legitimization of the development of nuclear energy. Until the late in the public legitimization of financial investment and civilian uses of nuclear energy began to decline from the late 1950s. Keywords: atomic biomedicine, nuclear energy legitimization, Commissariat à l

Boyer, Edmond

261

Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an application of the Mössbauer Effect designed to retrieve specific information on the magnetic response of iron-containing materials. It consists in the measurement of the nuclear absorption of gamma-rays as a function of an external magnetic field for a specific nuclear transition between magnetically-split nuclear levels. The experiments, here termed Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments, were carried out recording the absorption of 57Fe 14.4 keV gamma-ray in ?-Fe at constant Doppler energies coincident with some of the spectral lines of the magnetically split Mössbauer spectrum. Due to the dependence of the transition probabilities on the relative orientation between the nuclear magnetic moment and the gamma-ray direction, the present application results in a useful method to study the magnetic-field evolution of the distribution of atomic-magnetic-moment orientations. The proposed technique inherit from the Mössbauer Spectroscopy the chemical-element selectiveness as well as the ability to differentiate responses from iron atoms located at inequivalent site or at different phases. In this work, we show that the data analysis for these experiments depends on the sample thickness that the gamma-ray has to cross. For thin samples (i.e.samples with Mössbauer effective thicknesses lower than one) the magnetic-field dependence of the second-order-moment of the orientation distribution in the direction of the gamma ray is obtained. On the other hand, for thicker samples, although the data analysis is more complex, the dependences of the three second-order-moments of the orientation distribution are obtained. The experiments were performed on two ?-Fe foils of different Mössbauer effective thicknesses. They were chosen to represent the cases of thin and thick Mössbauer absorbers. The magnetic evolution of the orientations distribution is compared with results obtained from magnetometric measurements showing a good agreement as well indicating the complementarity of both techniques. A complete description of the experimental set up and the formalism for Mössbauer Magnetic Scan data analysis are presented.

Pasquevich, G. A.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Lencina, A.; Veiga, A.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Sánchez, F. H.

2014-06-01

262

Transfusion medicine  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

1986-01-01

263

Knee CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

264

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine  

E-print Network

_______________________________28 Module 4: Core Clerkships ____________________________29 Medicine and Family Medicine _________________________29 Inpatient Medicine________________________________29 Family Medicine

Bushman, Frederic

265

Master in Molecular Medicine Faculty of Medicine  

E-print Network

Master in Molecular Medicine Faculty of Medicine February 2010 #12;University of Ulm There are many of the Master program The English Master course of studies combines the disciplines Biology and Medicine of research, development and application in the field of molecular medicine especially in universities

Pfeifer, Holger

266

College of Medicine MED Internal Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine MED Internal Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped. (Same as MI/PHA 616.) MED 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, MEDICINE. (1-3) With the advice and approval of his of Medicine. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity for exploration and study in an area which

MacAdam, Keith

267

College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine ER Emergency Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 ER 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, EMERGENCY MEDICINE. (1-year curriculum. Pass-fail only. Prereq: Admission to first year, CollegeofMedicine. ER 825 SECOND-YEAR ELECTIVE

MacAdam, Keith

268

OFFICE OF ACADEMIC AFFAIRS SCHOOL OF MEDICINE  

E-print Network

, Medicine (General Internal Medicine) and (Family & Community Medicine) Morisa Guy, Medicine (General Internal Medicine) and (Family & Community Medicine) Lisa Ha, Medicine (Infectious Diseases) Ieshia

Kay, Mark A.

269

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genomewide linkage scan for obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Obsessive-compulsive disorder; published online 6 June 2006 Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder; genome-wide scan; covariate based

Murphy, Dennis L.

270

Why sports medicine is not medicine.  

PubMed

Sports Medicine as an apparent sub-class of medicine has developed apace over the past 30 years. Its recent trajectory has been evidenced by the emergence of specialist international research journals, standard texts, annual conferences, academic appointments and postgraduate courses. Although this field of enquiry and practice lays claim to the title 'sports medicine' this paper queries the legitimacy of that claim. Depending upon how 'sports medicine' and 'medicine' are defined, a plausible-sounding case can be made to show that sports medicine is not in fact a branch of medicine. Rather, it is sometimes closer to practices such as non-therapeutic cosmetic surgery. The argument of the paper is as follows. It begins with a brief statement concerning methodology. We then identify and subscribe to a plausible defining goal of medicine taken from a recognised authority in the field. Then two representative, authoritative, definitions of sports medicine are discussed. It is then shown that acceptance of these definitions of sports medicine generates a problem in that if they are accepted, no necessary commitment to the defining goal of medicine is present within sports medicine. It seems to follow that sports medicine is not medicine. In the final part of the paper a critical response to that conclusion is presented and rebutted. The response is one which rejects the identification of the defining goal of medicine upon which our argument rests. PMID:17195578

Edwards, Steven D; McNamee, Mike

2006-06-01

271

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public. PMID:21805819

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

272

Boston University Family Medicine  

E-print Network

Boston University Family Medicine Global Health CollaborativeFamily Medicine As part of the Department of Family Medicine at Boston University, the Collaborative is committed to introducing and improving Family Medicine programs around the world. Family Medicine is a holistic specialty that attends

Spence, Harlan Ernest

273

Paralympic medicine.  

PubMed

Paralympic medicine describes the health-care issues of those 4500 or so athletes who gather every 4 years to compete in 20 sports at the Summer Paralympic Games and in five sports at the Winter Paralympic Games. Paralympic athletes compete within six impairment groups: amputation or limb deficiencies, cerebral palsy, spinal cord-related disability, visual impairment, intellectual impairment, or a range of physically impairing disorders that do not fall into the other classification categories, known as les autres. The variety of impairments, many of which are severe, fluctuating, or progressive disorders (and are sometimes rare), makes maintenance of health in thousands of Paralympians while they undertake elite competition an unusual demand on health-care resources. The increased physical fitness of athletes with disabilities has important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction in a population for whom the prevalence of risk factors can be high. PMID:22770458

Webborn, Nick; Van de Vliet, Peter

2012-07-01

274

Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

2012-05-01

275

HIV Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Flying Publisher, _HIV Medicine 2005_ is a free, online "medical textbook that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the treatment of HIV Infection." This edition is an update of the 2003 version of the textbook (reported on in the June 13, 2003 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences). Chapter titles in the textbook include HIV Testing, HIV and Pulmonary Diseases, Mitochondrial Toxicity, HIV and HBV Coinfections, and Traveling with HIV, to name a few. The textbook is available in both German and English. Please note that while certain sections of the 2005 edition are currently available, many sections are still in the process of being published on the site. Sections from the 2003 edition are standing in for some of the forthcoming 2005 sections. The entire 352-page 2003 edition is available for download at this site as well.

276

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tear Postoperative Rehabilitation;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tear Postoperative Rehabilitation Protocol Conditioning: Stationary bike Treadmill #12;Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine Hip Arthroscopy for Labral Tear

Oliver, Douglas L.

277

National Farm Medicine Center  

MedlinePLUS

Farm Medicine, Rural Health & Safety National Farm Medicine Center Established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic, the National Farm Medicine Center ...

278

Medicine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... New Moms Registries Help Moms Measure Medication Risks Medicine and Pregnancy Print and Share (PDF 201KB) En Español Get the facts before you take any medicines during pregnancy. Many pregnant women take prescription medicines ...

279

Bioactivity-integrated ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the identification of nuclear factor-?B inhibitors and ?2 adrenergic receptor agonists in Chinese medicinal preparation Chuanbeipipa dropping pills.  

PubMed

A simple and dual-target method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with dual-bioactive [nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and ?2 -adrenergic receptor] luciferase reporter assay systems was developed to rapidly characterize the chemical structure of various bioactive compounds of TCM preparations. Chuanbeipipa dropping pills, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation used for the clinical therapy of chronic obstructive lung disease and cough caused by bronchial catarrh, was analyzed with this method. Potential anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic constituents were screened using NF-?B and ?2 -adrenergic receptor activity luciferase reporter assay systems and simultaneously identified according to the time-of-flight mass spectrometry data. One ?2-adrenergic receptor agonist (ephedrine) and two structural types of NF-?B inhibitors (platycosides derivatives and ursolic acid derivatives) were characterized. Platycodin D3 and E were considered new NF-?B inhibitors. Further cytokine and chemokine detection confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of the potential NF-?B inhibitors. Compared with conventional fingerprints, activity-integrated fingerprints that contain both chemical and bioactive details offer a more comprehensive understanding of the chemical makeup of plant materials. This strategy clearly demonstrated that multiple bioactivity-integrated fingerprinting is a powerful tool for the improved screening and identification of potential multi-target lead compounds in complex herbal medicines. PMID:23483566

Dong, Linyi; Luo, Yi; Cheng, Binfeng; Zhang, Yaoshu; Zhang, Ning; Hou, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Min; Luo, Guoan; Bai, Gang

2013-08-01

280

Lumbar spine CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... 2008:chap 2. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

281

Medicines for osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become brittle and more likely to fracture (break). With ...

282

Dosis efectivas asociadas a las exploraciones multimodales habituales en medicina nuclear  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo know the effective doses (E) that can be given in the common multimodal procedures in nuclear medicine, Single Photon Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography, combined with Computed Tomography, SPECT\\/CT and PET\\/CT. Effective dose will be expressed according to Background Equivalent Radiation Time (BERT) and the contribution of the CT scan to the total dose will also be studied.

C. Camacho López; J. F. Martí Vidal; M. Falgás Lacueva; J. L. Vercher Conejero

2011-01-01

283

Scan Software 1 Introduction  

E-print Network

Scan Software 1 Introduction Scan is a graphical user interface designed to control a confocal microscope BIORAD MRC- 600. The software can acquire simultaneously two channels, scanning an area of 0. In addition, the software can control the stage position and amplifiers setup. The software runs on the Matlab

Alford, Simon

284

Antenna Scan Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper consists of three parts, each treating a single type of antenna scan. Part I is devoted to the spiral scan, deriving the equations of motion for searching a region of space in a minimum period of time. Power relations required for the antenna drive also are derived. Part II discusses a simple conical scan; the development concerns the

Daniel Levine

1954-01-01

285

Tests and Procedures  

MedlinePLUS

... and Procedures General Procedures Blood Tests Imaging Tests Nuclear Medicine Scans Anxiety Around Medical Procedures Treatment Options Treatment ... Tests: CT Scan Echocardiogram MRI SPECT Scan Ultrasound Nuclear Medicine Scans: Bone Scan PET Scan Gallium Scan MIBG ...

286

Magnetism in Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing the weak magnetic fields generated by brain and cardiac activity, are currently under investigation.

Schenck, John

2000-03-01

287

Rapid frequency scan EPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

2011-08-01

288

Dance Medicine: Current Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dance medicine has grown exponentially over the past 10 to 15 years and continues to grow every year as more former professional dancers and stu- dents of dance enter into the field of medicine. Dance medicine is part of the field of performing arts medicine, which specializes in evaluating and treat- ing performing artists such as musicians, dancers, actors\\/actresses, and

Clay Miller

2006-01-01

289

FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of  

E-print Network

FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of Family medicine is the medical specialty which provides continuing the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity. (1986) (2003) Quality Healthcare In Family Medicine Quality

Finley Jr., Russell L.

290

Managing Your Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... daily routine. For example, take your morning medicine right after you brush your teeth. • Use a chart to check off when you’ve taken your medicines. Telling your health care providers about your medicines Some combinations of medicine and dietary supplements can be harmful. ...

291

Ethics and fetal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Ethical issues in the clinical practice of fetal medicine are discussed, largely from the point of view of early prenatal medicine. The discussion concentrates on several aspects including the time when human life begins, the pros and cons of fetal medicine, and ethical guidelines for fetal medicine. The emphasis is placed on the importance of informed consent and an

Makoto Higurashi; Kumiko Iijima; Hideoki Fukuoka; Yutaka Nakahori

1993-01-01

292

Taking Medicine Safely  

E-print Network

All of us will take medicine at some time in our lives. It is important to talk with your doctor about how your medicine could affect your plans to get (or not) get pregnant. Some of the medicine choices you and your doctor make while you are not pregnant can be different from the choices you make when you are pregnant. Although medicines are tested for safety, some medicines may not be safe to take when you are pregnant. If you think you could be pregnant or are not taking steps to avoid pregnancy, do not begin any medicines until you talk with your doctor. Prescription medicines If you are already taking a medicine prescribed by your doctor, and are pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant, talk to your doctor before you stop taking the medicine. ? In some cases, it may be more harmful to stop taking the medicine than to continue taking it ? It may be necessary to reduce the amount of medicine you are taking or change the medicine for something safer in pregnancy Over-The-Counter (OTC) medicines All OTC medicines have a Drug Facts label. The Drug Facts label is arranged the same way on all OTC medicines to make information about using the medicine easier to find. One section of the Drug Facts label is for pregnant women.

unknown authors

293

Structural MRI scan Functional MRI scan  

E-print Network

FUNCTIONAL IMAGING LABORATORY www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk MRI INFORMATION #12;MRI is short for Magnetic Resonance. For the same reason, people with certain metallic implants cannot be scanned. Such metal items include any of the following: Cardiac pacemakers, cochlear implants, metallic aneurysm clips, metallic fragments in the eye

Zeki, Semir

294

Abdominal CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... care provider if you take the diabetes medication metformin(Glucophage). People taking this medicine may have to ... be used to look for: Cause of abdominal pain or swelling Hernia Cause of a fever Masses ...

295

Advanced scanning probe lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nanoscale control afforded by scanning probe microscopes has prompted the development of a wide variety of scanning-probe-based patterning methods. Some of these methods have demonstrated a high degree of robustness and patterning capabilities that are unmatched by other lithographic techniques. However, the limited throughput of scanning probe lithography has prevented its exploitation in technological applications. Here, we review the fundamentals of scanning probe lithography and its use in materials science and nanotechnology. We focus on robust methods, such as those based on thermal effects, chemical reactions and voltage-induced processes, that demonstrate a potential for applications.

Garcia, Ricardo; Knoll, Armin W.; Riedo, Elisa

2014-08-01

296

The white blood cell scan in orthopedics  

SciTech Connect

A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

1982-08-01

297

School of Medicine Degree options  

E-print Network

136 School of Medicine Medicine Degree options BSc (Single Honours Degree) Medicine Entrance Applied Sciences`Pathway to Medicine'at Perth College The School of Medicine has formed a partnership Andrews. More information can be found on the School of Medicine web pages ( http://medicine

Brierley, Andrew

298

Environmental Scanning Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes Truckee Meadows Community College's (Nevada) environmental scanning process and results. The college decided that environmental scanning and forecasting techniques should be used to plan for both short-term and long-term external factors that impact programs, enrollment, and budgets. Strategic goals include: (1) keeping pace…

Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

299

Behavioral medicine in Russian family medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation's recently adopted family medicine as a specialty, but with little or no training in psychosocial and behavioral issues, unlike many training programs in other countries. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of Russian primary care physicians regarding the practice of behavioral medicine and psychosocial methods. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted

David Buyck; Michael Floyd; Fred Tudiver; Lana McGrady; Andrea Journagin; Svetlana Kishenko

2005-01-01

300

School of Dental Medicine School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Combined DMD/MPH Program School of Dental Medicine & School of Medicine Contact Us: For more.wright@tufts.edu 617.636.3646 American Board of Dental Public Health Dental Public Health is one of the nine dental specialty areas recognized by the American Dental Association. Earning a DMD from TUSDM, combined

Dennett, Daniel

301

CollegeofMedicine College of Medicine  

E-print Network

CollegeofMedicine 130 College of Medicine anatomy and cell Biology Mailing Address: Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology (MC 512) Room 578 CME 808 South Wood Street Chicago, IL 60612-7308 Campus Director of Graduate Studies: Conwell Anderson The Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology offers work

Illinois at Chicago, University of

302

Activities Report of the Institute of Nuclear Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in experimental nuclear physics; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic and surface physics; nuclear solid state physics; nuclear medicine; environmental physics; and cyclotron based areas is summarized. Instrumentation and electronics, and data ana...

J. F. W. Jansen, R. A. R. L. Malfliet

1984-01-01

303

Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).  

PubMed

Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark; Garcia, Ernest V

2014-08-01

304

To intercompare and to test all the Nuclear Medicine procedures used in the Department of Nuclear Medicine for diagnostic and research purposes starting with and giving particular importance to the procedures for liver disease. Final report for the period 1985 - 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study had the purpose to evaluate solitary liver defects with Tc-99m sulfur colloid and to assess the additional benefits by combining routine liver scan with liver blood pool image and Ga-67 liver imaging. 103 patients with various liver diseases hav...

S. Asghar

1988-01-01

305

Feinberg School of Medicine  

E-print Network

Sullivan, MD sullivan@northwestern.edu Dermatology Roopal Kundu rkundu@nmff.org Emergency Medicine Amy-ryan@northwestern.edu (503-4326) Internal Medicine David Neely, MD dneely@northwestern.edu (926-0

Chisholm, Rex L.

306

Cold and Cough Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

307

The Home Medicine Cabinet  

PubMed Central

The home medicine cabinet contains both drug and non-drug poisons, of varying toxicity. The more seriously toxic ones and old medications, should be removed, since the `steps' of toilet and sink make medicine cabinets accessible even to young children. This article describes the degree of toxicity of items commonly found in medicine cabinets, and recommends storage methods which prevent accidents. Ipecac syrup should be in every medicine cabinet of every home in which there are children.

McGuigan, Michael A.

1983-01-01

308

A study on evaluation of the dependences of the function and the shape in a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan on the difference in acquisition count  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a nuclear medicine examination, methods to acquire a static image include the preset count method and the preset time method. The preset count method is used mainly in a static renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA (dimoercaptosuccinic acid) whereas the preset time method is used occasionally. When the preset count method is used, the same number of acquisition counts is acquired for each time, but the scan time varies. When the preset time method is used, the scan time is constant, but the number of counts acquired is not the same. Therefore, this study examined the dependence of the difference in information on the function and the shape of both sides of the kidneys on the counts acquired during a renal scan that utilizes 99 m Tc-DMSA. The study involved patients who had 40-60% relative function of one kidney among patients who underwent a 99 m Tc-DMSA renal scan in the Nuclear Medicine Department during the period from January 11 to March 31, 2012. A gamma camera was used to obtain the acquisition count continuously using 100,000 counts and 300,000 counts, and an acquisition time of 7 minutes (exceeding 300,000 counts). The function and the shape of the kidney were evaluated by measuring the relative function of both sides of the kidneys, the geometric mean, and the size of kidney before comparative analysis. According to the study results, neither the relative function nor the geometric mean of both sides of the kidneys varied significantly with the acquisition count. On the other hand, the size of the kidney tended to be larger with increasing acquisition count.

Dong, Kyung-Rae; Shim, Dong-Oh; Kim, Ho-Sung; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan

2013-02-01

309

Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry  

E-print Network

#12;Adam Benoit Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation of Acridine Country: United States #12;Amit Gangar Medicinal Chemistry Ph.D. Thesis Title: Design and Development Wagner Home Country: India #12;Dan Wang Medicinal Chemistry M.S. Thesis Title: Synthesis and Evaluation

Thomas, David D.

310

High Blood Pressure Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... fluid. Renin inhibitors slow down your body’s production of renin, the enzyme that starts the many chemical reactions that raise your blood pressure. Do these medicines have any side effects? All medicines ... effects of high blood pressure medicines include the following: Chest ...

311

Behavioral sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the knowledge base in sleep disorders medicine has broadened, a subspecialty that we will refer to as “behavioral sleep medicine” area is emerging. This article will define this subspecialty area, provide some historical context for its emergence, review issues related to specialty training and clinical practice, and suggest needs for future research.The term “behavioral sleep medicine” was selected because

Edward J Stepanski; Michael L Perlis

2000-01-01

312

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine  

E-print Network

Winter 2007 Practicing Medicine in the Line of Fire #12; UTHealthScienceCenter University of tennessee HealtH science center Medicine Magazine Winter 2007 CommunicationsTeam Writing,Editing ShH science center Medicine Magazine Winner 2006 Gold Award Best Magazine ­ External Audience Public Relations

Cui, Yan

313

Pathology and Molecular Medicine  

E-print Network

. Pollett Mount Sinai Hospital University of Toronto Personalized Medicine in GI Oncologic PathologyPathology and Molecular Medicine ANATOMICAL PATHOLOGY GRAND ROUNDS 2012 / 2013 TIME: 12:30 - 1:30 p ROUNDS ARE SPONSORED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Updated: October5, 2012 #12;

Haykin, Simon

314

Two-modality ? detection of blood volume by camera imaging and nonimaging stethoscope for kinetic studies of cardiovascular control in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantification of rapid hemodynamic reactions to wide and slow breathing movements has been performed, by two modalities (gamma) -left ventriculography of 99mTc-labeled blood volume, in anterior oblique incidence on standing and even exercising healthy volunteers and cardiac patients. A highly sensitive stethoscope delivered whole (gamma) -counts acquired at 30 msec intervals in a square field of view including the left ventricle, in a one dimensional low resolution imaging mode for beat to beat analysis. A planar 2D (gamma) -camera imaging of the same cardiac area was then performed without cardiac gating for alternate acquisitions during deep inspiration and deep expiration, completed by a 3D MRI assessment of the stethoscope detection field. Young healthy volunteers displayed wide variations of diastolic times and stroke volumes, as a result of enhanced baroreflex control, together with +/- 16% variations of the stethoscope's background blood volume counts. Any of the components of these responses were shifted, abolished or even inverted as a result of either obesity, hypertension, aging or cardiac pathologies. The assessment of breathing control of the cardiovascular system by the beat to beat (gamma) -ventriculography combined with nuclear 2D and 3D MRI imaging is a kinetic method allowing the detection of functional anomalies in still ambulatory patients.

Eclancher, Bernard; Chambron, Jacques; Dumitresco, Barbu; Karman, Miklos; Pszota, Agnes; Simon, Atilla; Didon-Poncelet, Anna; Demangeat, Jean

2002-04-01

315

Revised 1/2014 Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine  

E-print Network

Revised 1/2014 Schools of Medicine and Dental Medicine 2014-2015 Student Health Insurance Waiver I at the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, or School of Public Health. I School of Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, or School of Public Health. I understand I have waived my

Oliver, Douglas L.

316

HIV Medicines and Side Effects  

MedlinePLUS

... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ... What are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the ...

317

Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy  

DOEpatents

Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

2006-07-11

318

The Scanning Optical Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

Sheppard, C. J. R.

1978-01-01

319

The conical scan radiometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A satellite-borne conical scan radiometer (CSR) is proposed, offering multiangular and multispectral measurements of Earth radiation fields, including the total radiances, which are not available from conventional radiometers. Advantages of the CSR for meteorological studies are discussed. In comparison to conventional cross track scanning instruments, the CSR is unique with respect to the selected picture element size which is kept constant by means of a specially shaped detector matrix at all scan angles. The conical scan mode offers the chance to improve angular sampling. Angular sampling gaps of previous satellite-borne radiometers can be interpolated and complemented by CSR data. Radiances are measured through 10 radiometric channels which are selected to study cloudiness, water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, ground and mean stratospheric temperature, and aerosols.

Prosch, T.; Hennings, D.

1982-07-01

320

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use a virtual scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to observe electron behavior in an atomic-scale world. Walk through the principles of this technology step-by-step. First learn how the STM works. Then try it yourself! Use a virtual STM to manipulate individual atoms by scanning for, picking up, and moving electrons. Finally, explore the advantages and disadvantages of the two modes of an STM: the constant-height mode and the constant-current mode.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

321

Study Of Nuclear Level Densities From Evaporation Of Compound Nuclei Of Mass Numbers 61, 64, 65, And 82.  

E-print Network

??Level density studies have very important applications in nuclear astrophysics, production cross sections of radioactive isotopes, nuclear fission, and nuclear medicine. We studied level densities… (more)

Oginni, Babatunde M.

2009-01-01

322

8 107 9654321Issue 07 April 2010 This issue: 1 Nuclear physics promises earlier detection of brain tumours with just one scan 3 CLASP Challenge Led Knowledge Exchange call to meet Challenges  

E-print Network

8 107 9654321Issue 07 April 2010 This issue: 1 Nuclear physics promises earlier detection of brain of Liverpool with the Nuclear Physics Group and Technology departments at the Science and Technology Facilities developed its technology based on what is known as the Nuclear physics promises earlier detection of brain

323

Lung Ventilation/Perfusion Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... ventilation and perfusion. The ventilation scan shows where air flows in your lungs. The perfusion scan shows where ... body use the energy to create images of air and blood flow patterns in your lungs. Outlook VQ scans involve ...

324

Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. PMID:24314042

Morandi, Federica

2014-01-01

325

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O (input/output) channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardward for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold.

Moore, James M. (Livermore, CA); Leighton, James F. (Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

326

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1988-02-05

327

Forschungsverbund community medicine  

E-print Network

15 Jahre Forschungsverbund community medicine 9. April 2010 Förderer · Bundesministerium für Störungen 12:10 Uhr Prof. Dr. U. John Präventionsforschung in der Community Medicine 12:35 Uhr Prof. Dr. W. Hoffmann / Dr. N. van den Berg Community Medicine: Forschung für den Patienten ,Bevölkerung` ­ Konzepte

Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

328

Medicine, Technology and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medical science is intimately tied to our view of ourselves and our bodies. Traditional Chinese medicine is based upon a different world view than is Western medicine. Yet, ancient Chinese techniques such as acupunture, meditation and the use of herbal medications are influencing health care in contemporary America. How are we to understand and evaluate these alternative approaches to healing? In this unit students are asked to compare and contrast traditional Chinese and contemporary Western approaches to medicine, to bring a rational and scientific approach to the evaluation of alternative medicines, and to develop a view of medical practices as technologies with historical and cultural, as well as scientific, components.

David Form (Minuteman Tech. REV)

1994-07-30

329

Innovations in behavioral medicine.  

PubMed

The chapter begins with a brief history of the behavioral medicine movement along with an overview of contemporary activities in the field. Three subsequent sections review technical innovations in major areas of clinical behavioral medicine: treatment, health care delivery, and preventive health care. The final section describes the methodological characteristics of research in behavioral medicine, discusses the field in light of the psychosomatic medicine and behavior modification movements, and calls for a conceptual integration that is authentically behavioristic. Already the quality of research in behavioral medicine appears comparable to that of research in behavior therapy. Even so, when viewed in terms of contemporary methodological desiderata, most of the work is fairly unimpressive. Possibly needed are "hybrid" experimental approaches in which the inferential power of intrasubject phase manipulations and between-subject outcome comparisons are combined. There is good reason to believe that behavioral medicine will follow the historical course of behavior therapy/modification, not the course of psychosomatic medicine. Behaviorally knowledgeable psychologists can become major service providers in liaison with well-informed medical practitioners. Some potentially deleterious influences on the behavioral medicine movement are (inevitable) mentalistic and dualistic thinking and a retreat toward psychosomatic medicine. Field behaviorism as an organizing schema can, in principle, serve as a safeguard against such untoward influences. PMID:3517829

Delprato, D J; McGlynn, F D

1986-01-01

330

College of Medicine, Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry  

E-print Network

College of Medicine, Departments of Family Medicine and Psychiatry Present 46th Annual Family Medicine Review Course and the 7th Family Medicine/Psychiatry CME Conference SPEAKING THE SAME LANGUAGE reservations if overnight accommodations are needed and ask for group "University of TN Family Medicine

Cui, Yan

331

College of Medicine MD Medicine (M.D. Program)  

E-print Network

College of Medicine MD Medicine (M.D. Program) KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course. Prereq: Permission of the Dean of the College of Medicine. MD 810 FOUNDATIONS OF DISEASE AND THERAPEUTICS INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL MEDICINE I. (10) Introduction to Clinical Medicine I is a year-long course for first

MacAdam, Keith

332

Scanning holographic lidar telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The

Geary K. Schwemmer; Thomas D. Wilkerson

1993-01-01

333

Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

Yao, Min

334

Teaching the SCANS Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

335

Scan This Book!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

Albanese, Andrew Richard

2007-01-01

336

Virtual Scanning Electron Microscopy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from Florida State University features an interactive Java tutorial that explores various aspects of virtual scanning electron microscopy. Users can see how specimens appear when magnified in the virtual SEM. The site also features an image gallery and extensive information about different types of microscopy.

Davidson, Michael W.; Kunkel, Dennis; Parry-Hill, Matthew J.; University, Florida S.

337

Scanning Electron Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Museum of Science features an introduction to scanning electron microscopy and is suitable for high school or introductory college audiences. It includes resources for teachers, an image gallery, a self paced tour, links, and a QuickTime animation.

Network, Science L.; Science, Museum O.

338

Scanning National and International  

E-print Network

to Scanning National and International Education Standards in 2009 An Interim Report on Common Core, NAEP drafts of the "Common Core" standards released in September 2009 by the Common Core State Standards Common Core standards stack up alongside extant national and international benchmarks? Here

Wilson, W. Stephen

339

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Physics Department at Davidson College presents an overview of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) as well as the results of an experiment conducted by the authors. They discuss the construction of two different types of probe tips and their use for imaging graphite and molybdenum disulfide. A section of images they obtained using the STM is also included.

Jr., John A.; Neumann, Doug; College, Davidson

340

DSQ Scanning Information: Westat  

Cancer.gov

Westat, Inc. provides scanning and intelligent data capture for the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ). Services include providing printed questionnaires for data collection and processing completed questionnaires. Westat can provide a modified version of the DSQ for customized data collections. A verified data file along with images of the processed DSQ questionnaires are provided after processing.

341

Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

Fry, Edward B.

342

The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society  

E-print Network

The Department of PhysicsPRESENTS Nuclear Physics & Society A free, four-day short course on nuclear physics and public policy for anyone who wants to better understand nuclear power nuclear weapons P.M. Applications of Nuclear Physics on Earth: Nuclear power, weapons, and nuclear medicine. Topics

Gilfoyle, Jerry

343

[Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic. PMID:21287744

Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

2010-10-01

344

Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research  

SciTech Connect

A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

Vogt, J R [ed.

1980-01-01

345

Physics in Action: CT Scans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article explains how Computed Tomography (CT) scans have been recently developed and improved. The site contrasts the CT scan to X-rays to show CT scan's ability to take pictures of the body's soft tissue like the brain or organs. It also presents some recent advances, such as 3D scans and time-dependent imaging. Links to resources are included.

Central, Physics

2004-04-08

346

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

1987-01-01

347

Description of Clerkships FAMILY MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Description of Clerkships FAMILY MEDICINE Department of Family Medicine #12;2 Family Medicine the dimensions of the role of the family physician and the problem-solving approach of family medicine, community Normally six students rotate monthly in the Department of family medicine. Students receive didactic

Shihadeh, Alan

348

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE  

E-print Network

DIVISION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND GEOGRAPHIC MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE 300 PASTEUR DRIVE, S infectious disease clinic will be decreased considerably. We also hope to facilitate, MD, FACP, FIDSA Professor of Medicine Division of Infectious Diseases

Kay, Mark A.

349

Three-Dimensional Body Scanning: A New Method to Estimate Body Surface Area in Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Body surface area (BSA) is usually estimated by calculation with mathematical formulae. Three-dimensional body scanning (3D scan) offers a suitable alternative. Objectives: We determined the BSA in healthy term and near-term neonates by 3D scanning. This system should be useful in the setting of intensive care medicine. Methods: The measuring system consisted of a projector, two cameras, mirrors and

R. L. Schloesser; M. Lauff; H. Buxmann; K. Veit; D. Fischer; A. Allendorf

2011-01-01

350

Medicines from Marine Invertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

Davies-Coleman, Mike

2011-01-01

351

Prehistoric Iroquois Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study of pre-1750 medicine reveals that Iroquois diagnosis and treatment of disease was more advanced than the medicine of their European counterparts. The Iroquois developed a cure for scurvy, treated hypertension, and head lice, and even designed sauna baths. Indian psychiatry also included modern day techniques such as dream analysis. (MR)

Hosbach, Richard E.; Doyle, Robert E.

1976-01-01

352

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25359743

2014-11-01

353

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine,  

E-print Network

Personal Genomics, Personalized Medicine, & YOU Carrie Iwema, PhD, MLS 21st May 2012 AAAS/Science Translational Medicine panel discussion; MLA 2012 #12;Timeline: Human Genome Sequence HSLS, U.Pitt 1995 2014 2000 2003 2007 2007 2010 Human Genome Draft Sequence Complete Human Reference Genome Individual Human

Napp, Nils

354

Preventive Medicine Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

Moore, George

1981-01-01

355

Bioprospecting: Medicine Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The thought provoking interview reflects on how it is crucial to protect biodiversity because nature can provide: medicines from natural products, new antiobiotics and organisms that fight antiobiotic resistance, models for medical research, and knowledge about how all living things depend on each other.The interview is accompanied by excerpts from Dr. Plotkin's book, Medicine Quest: In Search of Nature's Healing Secrets.

Mark Plotkin (Amazon Conservation Team;)

2000-10-01

356

Az-Tech Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created in 1552 as a gift for Spain's king, the Badianus Manuscript is a repository of Aztec traditional medicinal knowledge and contains the earliest surviving illustrations of New World plants. At the College of Santa Cruz (Mexico City) for Aztec nobility, an Aztec healer who became the college physician compiled plant descriptions and medicinal

Nicholson, Rob

2000-01-01

357

Science and Medicine Graduate  

E-print Network

Science and Medicine Graduate Research Scholars Program Agriculture Social Sciences Life Sciences Native American Indian doctorates 17 Nobel Prizes and 29 Pulitzer Prizes have been awarded to UW amongst Schools of Agriculture in the U.S. in competitive grant funding, and the School of Medicine

Mladenoff, David

358

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25081876

2014-08-01

359

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK, and on other relevant issues. PMID:25193757

2014-09-01

360

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:25281450

2014-10-01

361

Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.  

PubMed

The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. PMID:24314047

Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

2014-01-01

362

Foucault and modern medicine.  

PubMed

Modernity as a concept or ideal, resulting from the age of Enlightenment and the French Revolution gave hope of a better future and new possibilities. To be modern means an 'enlightened' individual and society, welcoming change and development. In this paper, I will discuss Foucault's analysis (1973) of problematics in medicine in eighteenth century France. Three themes prominent in the text are: 'the birth of the clinic', 'the clinical gaze' and the power-knowledge relationship. Three problematics identified in modern medicine by Foucault and which are particularly relevant to twentieth century medicine are: (i) the extension of the clinical gaze from the individual body to the wider population; (ii) the increasing medical intervention and use of technology in fundamental life processes; and (iii) the relationship between society and medicine. I will argue that Foucault's analysis is fraught with ambiguities. It is useful, however, for establishing an explanation for medicine today and for presenting a particular interpretation of modernity. PMID:7664146

Peerson, A

1995-06-01

363

Scanning temperature gradient focusing.  

PubMed

Temperature gradient focusing (TGF) is a recently developed technique for the simultaneous concentration and electrophoretic separation of ionic analytes in microfluidic channels. One drawback to TGF as it has previously been described is the limited peak capacity; only a small number of analyte peaks (approximately 2-3) can be simultaneously focused and separated. In this paper, we report on a variation of the TGF method whereby the bulk flow rate is varied over time so that a large number of analytes can be sequentially focused, moved past a fixed detection point, and flushed to waste. In addition to improved peak capacity, the detection limits of the scanning TGF method can be adjusted on-the-fly, as needed for different samples. Finally, scanning TGF provides a technique by which high-resolution, high-peak-capacity electrophoretic separations can be performed in simple, straight, and short microfluidic channels. PMID:17037919

Hoebel, Stacey J; Balss, Karin M; Jones, Barbara J; Malliaris, Constantin D; Munson, Matthew S; Vreeland, Wyatt N; Ross, David

2006-10-15

364

Photon scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

The Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (PSTM) is the photon analogue of the electron Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). It uses the evanescent field due to the total internal reflection of a light beam in a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) prism. The sample, mounted on the base of the prism, modulates the evanescent field. A sharpened optical fiber probes this field, and the collected light is processed to generate an image of the topography and the chemical composition of the surface. We give, in this paper, a description of the microscope and discuss the influence of several parameters such as -- polarization of light, angle of incidence, shape of the end of the fiber -- on the resolution. Images of various samples -- glass samples, teflon spheres -- are presented. 8 refs., 7 figs.

Goudonnet, J.P.; Salomon, L.; De Fornel, F.; Chabrier, G. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Lab. de Physique du Solide); Warmack, R.J.; Ferrell, T.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

365

[Clinical nuclear medicine in bone metastases].  

PubMed

(99m)Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate is not directly to Calcium of the bone matrix, but is binding to hydroxyapatite within the bone matrix. Strontium-89 is a member of family II A of the periodic table, same as Calcium, and is incorporated into bone matrix directly. It is very important that the the regions of the pain from bone metastases are present in the site of the abnormal uptake by bone metastases. PMID:23445892

Kawabe, Joji; Higashiyama, Shigeaki; Shiomi, Susumu

2013-03-01

366

Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is from Boston Museum of Science and is an introduction to Scanning Electron Micrscope (SEM). It contains an image gallery of insects, plants and other items as seen with an SEM. A slide show and a movie explains how the microsope works. Teacher resources offer guidance on building your own microscope and setting up a lab, including wet mounts and staining cells. Information on how the Museum uses the scope, and additional electronic resources, completes the site.

367

EdgarScan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at the PricewaterhouseCoopers Technology Centre, EdgarScan helps company researchers effectively sort through the mass of quarterly (10-Q) and annual filings (10-ks) housed at the SEC EDGAR Database (reviewed in the February 9, 1996 Scout Report). Filings and initial public offerings may be searched by company name or industry code, and search results are listed in an easy-to-read format with hypertext table and Excel spreadsheet output possibilities.

368

Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

2010-01-01

369

Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

Keeley, R. H.

1983-03-01

370

Scanning holographic lidar telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a unique telescope for lidar using a holographic optical element (HOE) as the primary optic. The HOE diffracts 532 nm laser backscatter making a 43 deg angle with a normal to its surface to a focus located 130 cm along the normal. The field of view scans a circle as the HOE rotates about the normal. The detector assembly and baffling remain stationary, compared to conventional scanning lidars in which the entire telescope and detector assembly require steering, or which use a large flat steerable mirror in front of the telescope to do the pointing. The spectral bandpass of our HOE is 50 nm (FWHM). Light within that bandpass is spectrally dispersed at 0.6 nm/mm in the focal plane. An aperture stop reduces the bandpass of light reaching the detector from one direction to 1 nm while simultaneously reducing the field of view to 1 mrad. Wavelengths outside the 50 nm spectral bandpass pass undiffracted through HOE to be absorbed by a black backing. Thus, the HOE combines three functions into one optic: the scanning mirror, the focusing mirror, and a narrowband filter.

Schwemmer, Geary K.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.

1993-01-01

371

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE CURRICULUM GUIDE  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE YEAR 2 CURRICULUM GUIDE WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 20112012 PLEASE READ THE INTRODUCTORY PAGES VERY CAREFULLY University, School of Medicine Medical Student Competencies and Institutional Learning Objectives

Cinabro, David

372

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE CURRICULUM GUIDE  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE YEAR 2 CURRICULUM GUIDE WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 20092010 PLEASE READ THE INTRODUCTORY PAGES VERY CAREFULLY University, School of Medicine Medical Student Competencies and Institutional Learning Objectives

Cinabro, David

373

College of Medicine Promotion & Tenure  

E-print Network

College of Medicine Promotion & Tenure Guidelines 3/4/2014 #12;Table of Contents INTRODUCTION.....................................................................................................................................3 COLLEGE OF MEDICINE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS..................................................................................10 TENURE-TRACK FACULTY DEPARTMENT OF INTERNAL MEDICINE

Wu, Shin-Tson

374

THE COLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Professor, Veterinary Preventive Medicine "SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY HAVE CHANGED DRAMATICALLY SINCE THE DAWN biosciences, veterinary clinical sciences, and veterinary preventive medicine. We are the only veterinary some form of private practice, while the remainder choose fields such as preventive medicine

375

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

376

American Academy of Sleep Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... receive online access through the end of 2015. Sleep Medicine Trends 2015 Register today for the can't- ... for Our Future: Celebrating 40 Years of Advancing Sleep Medicine AASM Scoring Manual v2.1 Sleep Medicine Trends ...

377

Development of a computer-aided diagnostic scheme for detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans  

SciTech Connect

Bone scintigraphy is the most frequent examination among various diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. It is a well-established imaging modality for the diagnosis of osseous metastasis and for monitoring osseous tumor response to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Although the sensitivity of bone scan examinations for detection of bone abnormalities has been considered to be relatively high, it is time consuming to identify multiple lesions such as bone metastases of prostate and breast cancers. In addition, it is very difficult to detect subtle interval changes between two successive abnormal bone scans, because of variations in patient conditions, the accumulation of radioisotopes during each examination, and the image quality of gamma cameras. Therefore, we developed a new computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme for the detection of interval changes in successive whole-body bone scans by use of a temporal subtraction image which was obtained with a nonlinear image-warping technique. We carried out 58 pairs of successive bone scans in which each scan included both posterior and anterior views. We determined 107 'gold-standard' interval changes among the 58 pairs based on the consensus of three radiologists. Our computerized scheme consisted of seven steps, i.e., initial image density normalization on each image, image matching for the paired images, temporal subtraction by use of the nonlinear image-warping technique, initial detection of interval changes by use of temporal-subtraction images, image feature extraction of candidates of interval changes, rule-based tests by use of 16 image features for removing some false positives, and display of the computer output for identified interval changes. One hundred seven gold standard interval changes included 71 hot lesions (uptake was increased compared with the previous scan, or there was new uptake in the current scan) and 36 cold lesions (uptake was decreased or disappeared) for anterior and posterior views. The overall sensitivity in the detection of interval changes, including both hot and cold lesions evaluated by use of the resubstitution and the leave-one-case-out methods, were 95.3%, with 5.97 false positives per view, and 83.2% with 6.02, respectively. The temporal subtraction image for successive whole-body bone scans has the potential to enhance the interval changes between two images, which also can be quantified. Furthermore, the CAD scheme for the detection of interval changes by use of temporal subtraction images would be useful in assisting radiologists' interpretation on successive bone scan images.

Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Pu Yonglin; Doi, Kunio [Kurt Rossmann Laboratories for Radiologic Image Research, Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2026, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2007-01-15

378

Individualized pain medicine  

PubMed Central

Since the first draft of the human genome was published 10 years ago, scientists have tried to develop new treatment strategies for various types of diseases based on individual genomes. It is called personalized (or individualized) medicine and is expected to increase efficacy and reduce adverse reactions of drugs. Much progress has been made with newly developed technologies, though individualized pain medicine is still far from realization. Efforts on the integrative genomic analyses along with understandings of interactions between other related factors such as environment will eventually translate complex genomic information into individualized pain medicine. PMID:21399745

Kim, Hyungsuk; Dionne, Raymond A.

2010-01-01

379

MedicineNet.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MedicineNet, Inc., a Web-based healthcare publishing company, offers "easy-to-read, in-depth, authoritative medical information for consumers via its robust, user-friendly, interactive website." MedicineNet.com is similar to other online resources like WebMD and MEDLINEplus, designed to help readers make informed decisions about their health. In addition to basic background information on everything from allergies to urology, MedicineNet.com offers the latest health-related news, physicians" views on various topics, timely and relevant health facts (e.g. flu vaccination information), and much more.

380

Scanning Electron Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the Science Learning Network, the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Web site explores what an SEM is, how it's used, and what images it can produce. The How It Works section has a self-paced tutorial and an interesting movie describing how it functions as well. The other section for students is the image gallery, which has the Animal, Vegetable, Mineral game. Individual images from a SEM are shown, and users get to guess which of the three substances is shown. It isn't as easy as it sounds, but it is fun.

1998-01-01

381

College of Medicine RBM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation  

E-print Network

College of Medicine RBM Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation KEY: # = new course * = course changed, PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION. (1-3) With the advice and approval of his or her faculty adviser, the first-year student may choose approved electives offered by the Department of Physical Medicine

MacAdam, Keith

382

College of Medicine FM Family and Community Medicine  

E-print Network

College of Medicine FM Family and Community Medicine KEY: # = new course * = course changed, FAMILY MEDICINE. (1-3) With the advice and approval of his or her faculty adviser, the first-year student may choose approved electives offered by the Department of Family and Community Medicine. The intent

MacAdam, Keith

383

PAIN MEDICINE CENTER INSTITUTE FOR TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE  

E-print Network

PAIN MEDICINE CENTER INSTITUTE FOR TRANSLATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE Pain diseases such as diabetes and stroke. The outpatient Pain Medicine Center within the Department of Anesthesiology at Northwestern Medicine offers hope to patients with chronic pain. Starting with a comprehensive

Engman, David M.

384

College of Medicine PM Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PM Preventive Medicine and Environmental Health KEY: # = new course * = course to a maximum of six credits. Prereq: Consent of instructor. PM 780 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN PREVENTIVE MEDICINE to a maximum of six credits. Prereq: Consent of instructor. PM 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, PREVENTIVE MEDICINE

MacAdam, Keith

385

American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine  

E-print Network

© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine The following product has been developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Copyright © 2003 American Academy of Sleep: (708) 492-0943 Visit Us at www.aasmnet.org #12;© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy

Goldman, Steven A.

386

Medicinal Herb Garden  

MedlinePLUS

... Medicinal Herb Garden: An unofficial hypertext tour and partial catalog by Michael Boer is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License . Permissions beyond ...

387

Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine  

E-print Network

By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by The University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Michael Shen 24 Viral Transformation Eileen White 26 Sleep Genetics Julie Williams 29 Molecular

388

Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine  

E-print Network

By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Transformation Eileen White 27 Sleep Genetics Julie Williams 31 Molecular Neurodevelopment Mengqing Xiang 33

389

Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine  

E-print Network

By Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey and by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey Transformation Eileen White 36 Sleep Genetics Julie Williams 40 Molecular Neurodevelopment Mengqing Xiang 41

390

Ayurvedic Medicine: An Introduction  

MedlinePLUS

... is not widely studied as part of conventional (Western) medicine. This fact sheet provides a general overview ... and systematic research reviews—the gold standard for Western medical research—to prove that the approaches are ...

391

Giving Medicine to Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... Watch video in English or Spanish When young children are sick and cranky, it can be tough ...

392

Pregnancy and Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... before October 15, 1994 submit safety information for review by the FDA. However, unlike medicines, the FDA ... sheet was reviewed by: Joseph M. Kaczmarczyk, D.O., M.P.H. Medical Officer Office of Women's Health ...

393

Medicines: Use Them Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... prescription. Be sure you: Tell your doctor or nurse about all the medicines you take whenever a new drug is prescribed. Remind your doctor or nurse about your allergies and any problems you have ...

394

Alternative Medicine for Menopause  

MedlinePLUS

... of mainstream medicine. CAM includes herbs and other plant-based treatments (botanicals), non-botanical supplements, and mind-body therapies. Some women use only CAM, and others use CAM with mainstream ...

395

Health Professions & Veterinary Medicine  

E-print Network

or veterinary medicine, undergraduate study at Virginia Tech provides a solid academic background for graduate, dentistry, optometry, pharmacy, physical and occupational therapy, physician assistant, clinical science Admission Test (MCAT) for medical schools, Optometry Admission Test (OAT) for optometry schools, Pharmacy

Virginia Tech

396

3-D Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine that links the print library of functional-physiological knowledge with the image library of structural-anatomical knowledge into one unified resource. (JOW)

Reese, Susan

2001-01-01

397

Occupational Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

Tarver, William J.

2012-01-01

398

Aerospace or aviation medicine?  

PubMed

As the United States and its international partners prepare Space Station Freedom components and systems for operational readiness, and as the space medicine community expands its research efforts, the U.S. Air Force finds itself with little direct input into these endeavors. Due to fiscal and patient care commitments, the Air Force has gone from its early position of leadership and pioneering in space medicine to its present day lack of involvement. Clearly, if the Air Force wishes to have any influence in this growing field, and to continue to be considered a leader in "Aerospace" Medicine, efforts must be made now to reinvest Air Force resources and physicians into current research and operational Space Medicine projects. PMID:8185558

Martin, G A

1994-03-01

399

Medicines for Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... a kid also eats healthy and exercises regularly. Glucagon Insulin and other diabetes medicines help to keep ... has really low blood sugar might need a glucagon shot. Glucagon (say: GLOO-kuh-gon) is a ...

400

ADHD Medicines (For Kids)  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society ADHD Medicines KidsHealth > Kids > People, Places & Things That Help > ... and the Mind How Therapy Can Help About ADHD Have you ever been so bored that you ...

401

Medicines for ADHD  

MedlinePLUS

ADHD is a problem that most often affects children. People with ADHD may have problems with: Being able to focus ... control behavior Medicines can help improve symptoms of ADHD. Talk or behavioral therapy can also help.You ...

402

PanScan Study Participants  

Cancer.gov

The following principal investigators and studies are participating in PanScan. Note that the principal investigators for PanScan often are not the same individuals who are the principal investigators of the established cohorts.

403

Scanning Hartmann instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometry is not adequate for surface measurement of large mirrors during the early stages of figuring. Edges tend to roll off with errors of many waves, and these errors are undetectable with interferometry. The Hartmann test has become very important in providing surface information during these early stages, but unfortunately, data reduction is quite slow. Itek now has an instrument to automate the Hartmann test using a scanning laser beam and a solid state sensor. A narrow laser beam scans the testpiece in an appropriate raster. A solid state detector senses the reflected spot in the vicinity of the center of curvature. Knowing the positioning of the beam, and the position of the reflected spot is sufficient information for a mirror slope determination of that raster position. A computer program integrates the slope data to produce a surface wavemap of the testpiece. This wavemap can be displayed on a contour plot within a few minutes or routed to a computer controlled Milacron robot to appropriately refigure the testpiece. A null lens is unnecessary. The measurement accuracy of the instrument is about 1/5 to 1/2 waves surface rms.

Chase, Richard C.; Keleti, Steven; Norman, Bryan R.

1992-03-01

404

Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy  

SciTech Connect

I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-09-01

405

CAT (Computerized Axial Tomography) scans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page about CAT (computerized axial tomography) scans gives a brief overview of this imaging technique. CAT (or CT) scanning captures a lot of 2-dimensional X-rays that a computer then joins together to generate 3-dimensional images of internal structures. As part of a set of materials about brain scanning technologies, this page mentions what researchers can learn about the brain from CAT scans. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Productions, David G.; York, Thirteen/wnet N.

2001-01-01

406

Optimized x/y scanning head for laser beam positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a fast two-axis deflection unit for laser beam positioning, an X/Y scanning head based on two galvanometric scanners with vertical crossed axes is a central component of different applications in industry, medicine and communications. Some of these are laser markers, stereolithography devices, scanning laser vibrometers, laser trimmers, laser cutting machines, infrared scanners, lead bonders, Q-switches, laser ophthalmoscope, robotic vision systems, range finders, image digitizers, and laser graphic projectors for entertainment. Velocity and accuracy of the X/Y scanning heads are very important for the performance of the devices in which they are used. Therefore the dynamic properties of the X/Y scanning head must be optimized. One important criterion is the mass moment of inertia of the second scanning mirror. It can be reduced by inclining the axis of the first galvanometric scanner. To solve these problems both computer tools for the optical and mechanical optimization, and measuring devices to minimize the wobble and jitter of galvanometric scanners were developed. The development of scanning heads for different apertures (laser beam diameters), scan angles and F-(Theta) -objectives was done for SCANLAB GmbH (Puchheim/Munchen, Germany), one of the three leading manufacturers for galvanometric scanners.

Muth, Michael

1996-08-01

407

The Scanning Process: Getting Started.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scanning the external environment will become more essential to colleges in the coming decade. Developing an environmental scanning system can identify important emerging issues that may constitute either threats or opportunities. The organizational features of a mature scanning process are described. (MLW)

Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

1983-01-01

408

Boston University School of Medicine  

E-print Network

2013­2015 Boston University School of Medicine Compassion Excellence Innovation Inclusion #12;Boston University School of Medicine2 www.bumc.bu.edu 1 Our MissiOn Boston University School of Medicine of medicine, to biomedical research, and to the health of the public. We, as a community, place great value

Spence, Harlan Ernest

409

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE CURRICULUM GUIDE  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE YEAR IV CURRICULUM GUIDE WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 2010 of this Curriculum Guide that can be found on the School of Medicine website. #12;2 Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Clinical Curriculum ...................... 4 Clinical Competencies and the School of Medicine Educational

Cinabro, David

410

School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin  

E-print Network

School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin 2010-2011 #12;2 School of Veterinary Medicine About of Veterinary Medicine. http://www.vetmed.lsu.edu/art_show.htm #12;2010­2011 Bulletin 22010­2011 Bulletin 1 2010, and other mail sent to­School of Veterinary Medicine, LSU, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803. Statement

411

School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin  

E-print Network

School of Veterinary Medicine Bulletin 2009-2010 #12;2 School of Veterinary Medicine About at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, March 28-April 26, 2009. #12;2009­2010 Bulletin of address, undeliverable copies, and other mail sent to­School of Veterinary Medicine, LSU, Baton Rouge

412

Scanning the periphery.  

PubMed

Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision. PMID:16299966

Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

2005-11-01

413

Medicine and War  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As war predictably leaves injuries and ailments in its wake, medicine has long maintained a presence both on the battlefield and at hospitals where the wounded come home for treatment. This Report's Topic in Depth examines the role of medicine in war, and presents online resources and information regarding combat-related ailments, and services for active military and veterans. From PBS-NOVA, the first selection is a companion website to a program about an American Combat Support Hospital in Iraq. The website contains an article regarding combat medicine ethics, a Teacher's Guide, a visual tour of archival images from the American Civil War through the current Iraq War, and more (1). The second site, created by Civil War buff Jenny Goellnitz, posts a collection of old photos, and offers some interesting information about Civil War medicine, including a feature on amputation surgery (2). The third site, from the Gettysburg National Military Park, contains several photos and brief information for kids about medicine in the Civil War (3). From the Institute of Medicine, the fourth website presents information and reports relating to the health of veterans and deployed military forces. The site has sections for the Gulf War, Vietnam War, Korean War, World War II, and Deployment Health (4). The fifth site presents the Virtual Naval Hospital, which is a digital health sciences library of Naval and Military medicine. The site has separate sections for patients, providers, and administrators (5). From News@Nature.com, the sixth site contains a recent article discussing the debate over Gulf War syndrome (6). The seventh site presents Doctors Without Borders (MSF), an international medical relief organization that courageously enters regions of conflict to provide medical aid (7). The final selection is a companion website to a National Geographic television series reporting on the work of Doctors Without Borders. The site features profiles of MSF projects, episode summaries, and interviews with MSF staff and volunteers (8).

414

Scan pattern optimization for uniform proton beam scanning.  

PubMed

Magnetic beam scanning allows one to spread proton beam over the desired radiation field area, improving beam utilization and conformity to the target area. This article discusses generic scan forms for generating uniform circular and rectangular fields and establishes criteria that can be applied to optimize selected scan patterns. During construction of the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute (MPRI), Indiana University developed a magnetically scanned beam spreading system for the 3 m long gantry nozzle. Based on the commissioning experience, criteria for optimizing the scan patterns were derived. A numerical integration model was used to perform initial optimization of the resulting dose distribution. The selected scan patterns were then experimentally validated via test irradiation of Gafchromic films. Generic spiral and linear scan forms are proposed capable of delivering uniform circular and rectangular fields in continuous scanning mode. The test irradiations performed indicate that dose uniformity is within +/- 3% for both scan forms and that penumbra of the uncollimated field can approach the radius of the pristine beam spot. A well designed uniform scanning system can have a large library of uniform circular and rectangular fields of different sizes, which would increase beam utilization and minimize out-of-field dose to the patient. PMID:19746790

Anferov, Vladimir A

2009-08-01

415

Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?  

PubMed

The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines. PMID:10890333

Federspil, G; Vettor, R

2000-06-01

416

PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AT THE YALE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE*  

E-print Network

division of the Department of Internal Medicine at the Yale University School of Medicine, has been established on the principle that preventive medicine is part of clinical medicine. This calls for a broad use of the term clinical medicine. It implies that clinical medicine means more than the practice of the technics of diagnosis and therapeutics, for, although it deals primarily with the care of the sick individual, it is also concerned with the whole subject of disease in living people. In other words, clinical medicine is not a specialty; it is the mother of the clinical specialties, such as internal medicine and surgery, and their subdivisions. As the aims of preventive medicine are (according to our definition) also concerned with the whole subject of disease in living people and particularly with the potentially sick individual, we find in this fact the justification for placing the new division in the midst of the clinical activities of the school. This assignment is by no

John R

417

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

418

Earth observing scanning polarimeter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques developed for planetary missions, will retrieve tropospheric aerosol characteristics from measurements of multispectral radiance and polarization. Moreover, the same radiance and polarization measurements will also provide very precise information on cloud properties and maps of surface characteristics for cloud-free regions. These capabilities also give EOSP the unique ability to discriminate aerosol from clouds and surface.

Travis, Larry

1993-01-01

419

Medicinal chemistry for 2020.  

PubMed

Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein-protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

2011-10-01

420

Medicinal chemistry for 2020  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

2011-01-01

421

Analysis - what is legal medicine?  

PubMed

Legal medicine addresses the interface between medicine and law in health care. The Australian College of Legal Medicine (ACLM) established itself as the peak body in legal and forensic medicine in Australia. It helped establish the Expert Witness Institute of Australia (EWIA), the legal medicine programme at Griffith University and contributes to government enquiries. Public health, disability assessment, competing priorities of privacy verses notification and determination of fitness for a host of pursuits are aspects of legal medicine. Complementing the EWIA, the ACLM runs training programmes emphasising legal medicine skills additional to clinical practice, advocating clinical relevance. Assessment of athletes' fitness and ensuring that prohibited substances are not inadvertently prescribed represent a growing area of legal medicine. Ethical consideration of health care should respect legal medicine principles rather than armchair commentary. International conventions must be respected by legal medicine and dictate physicians' obligations. The NSW courts imposed a duty to provide emergency medical care. Migration and communicable diseases are aspects of legal medicine. Police surgeons provide a face to legal medicine (which incorporates forensic medicine) underpinning its public perception of specialty recognition. Legal medicine deserves its place as a medical specialty in its own right. PMID:18313010

Beran, Roy G

2008-04-01

422

Laser Scanning Cytometry  

PubMed Central

Summary The laser scanning cytometer (LSC) is the microscope-based cytofluorometer that offers a plethora of analytical capabilities. Multilaser-excited fluorescence emitted from individual cells is measured at several wavelength ranges, rapidly (up to 5000 cells/min), with high sensitivity and accuracy. The following applications of LSC are reviewed: (1) identification of cells that differ in degree of chromatin condensation (e.g., mitotic or apoptotic cells or lymphocytes vs granulocytes vs monocytes); (2) detection of translocation between cytoplasm vs nucleus or nucleoplasm vs nucleolus of regulatory molecules such as NF- ?B, p53, or Bax; (3) semiautomatic scoring of micronuclei in mutagenicity assays; (4) analysis of fluorescence in situ hybridization; (5) enumeration and morphometry of nucleoli; (6) analysis of phenotype of progeny of individual cells in clonogenicity assay; (7) cell immunophenotyping; (8) visual examination, imaging, or sequential analysis of the cells measured earlier upon their relocation, using different probes; (9) in situ enzyme kinetics and other time-resolved processes; (10) analysis of tissue section architecture; (11) application for hypocellular samples (needle aspirate, spinal fluid, etc.); (12) other clinical applications. Advantages and limitations of LSC are discussed and compared with flow cytometry. PMID:16719355

Pozarowski, Piotr; Holden, Elena; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew

2013-01-01

423

Molecular Medicine in Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Molecular Medicine in Action program at the Indiana University School of Medicine is a selective "hands-on program for high school students to experience the methods scientists use for unlocking and modifying the genetic codes of diseases." Students don't have to be admitted to the program to make use of the excellent online materials available online from MMIA. This particular Web site offers high-quality animations to supplement related lectures or readings. Topics covered include cytogenetics, DNA isolation, fluorescence microscopy, flow, gel electrophoresis, gene therapy, infecting cells, PCR, vector production, and viral vectors.

2007-07-10

424

On medicine and politics.  

PubMed Central

This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

Krakauer, E.

1992-01-01

425

Spirituality, healing and medicine.  

PubMed Central

The natural science base of modern medicine influences the way in which medicine is delivered and may ignore the spiritual factors associated with illness. The history of spirituality in healing presented here reflects the growth of scientific knowledge, demands for religious renewal, and the shift in the understanding of the concept of health within a broader cultural context. General practitioners have been willing to entertain the idea of spiritual healing and include it in their daily practice, or referral network. Recognizing patients' beliefs in the face of suffering is an important factor in health care practice. PMID:1777299

Aldridge, D

1991-01-01

426

Bioethical aspects of regenerative and reproductive medicine.  

PubMed

The birth announced in 1997 of Dolly, the lamb cloned from the somatic mammary cells of an adult ewe, and the discovery of human embryonic stem cells in 1998 have been the most exciting developments in the biological sciences in the past decade. Reproductive somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in additional species has been inefficient in that relatively few births, harmful side effects and high fetal and neonatal death rates have resulted from many attempts. Ongoing debates about the ethics of reproductive SCNT have revealed that some researchers regard human reproductive SCNT as morally unacceptable in all circumstances, others see merit in reproductive SCNT in certain circumstances and others await more information before making judgment about the ethical status of the procedure. Regenerative medicine and emerging biotechnologies started to revolutionize the practice of medicine. Advances in stem cell biology, including embryonic and postnatal somatic stem cells, have made the prospect of tissue regeneration a potential reality. Mammal cloning experiments have provided new impetus to the prospect of regenerative medicine through stem cell research. The procedure of SCNT could be used to create the raw material to replace defective or senescent tissue as a natural extension of the biology of stem cells. Researchers working in reproductive medicine should consider the potential hope given to many patients against the requisite and ethically contentious creation of human blastocysts for therapeutic intent. PMID:16879561

Yoshimura, Yasunori

2006-05-01

427

Medicinal Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry of Metal Radiopharmaceuticals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal complexes have been used as medicinal compounds. Metals have advantageous features over organic compounds. Significant applications of metal complexes are in the field of nuclear medicine. Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs containing radioisotopes used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The generalized targeting strategy for molecular imaging probe consists of three essential parts: (i) reporter unit or payload, (ii) carrier, and (iii) targeting system. Medicinal radiopharmaceutical chemistry pays special consideration to radioisotopes, as a reporter unit for diagnostic application or as a payload for therapeutic application. Targeting is achieved by a few approaches but the most common is the bifunctional chelator approach. While designing a radiopharmaceutical, a range of issues needs to be considered including properties of metal radioisotopes, bifunctional chelators, linkers, and targeting molecules. Designing radiopharmaceuticals requires consideration of two key words: "compounds of biological interest" and "fit for intended use." The ultimate goal is the development of new diagnostic methods and treatment. Diagnostic metal radiopharmaceuticals are used for SPECT and PET applications. Technetium chemistry constitutes a major portion of SPECT and gallium chemistry constitutes a major portion of PET. Therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can be constructed by using alpha-, beta minus-, or Auger electron-emitting radiometals. Special uses of medicinal radiopharmaceuticals include internal radiation therapy, brachytherapy, immunoPET, radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide imaging and therapy.

Saw, Maung Maung

2012-06-01

428

Scan Primitives for GPU Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scan primitives are powerful, general-purpose data-parallel primitives that are building blocks for a broad range of applications. We describe GPU implementations of these primitives, specifically an efficient formulation and implementation of segmented scan ,o n NVIDIA GPUs using the CUDA API. Using the scan primitives, we show novel GPU implementations of quicksort and sparse matrix-vector multiply, and analyze the

Shubhabrata Sengupta; Mark Harris; Yao Zhang; John D. Owens

2007-01-01

429

Clinical holistic medicine: holistic adolescent medicine.  

PubMed

The holistic medical approach seems to be efficient and can also be used in adolescent medicine. Supporting the teenager to grow and develop is extremely important in order to prevent many of the problems they can carry into adulthood. The simple consciousness-based, holistic medicine--giving love, winning trust, giving holding, and getting permission to help the patient feel, understand, and let go of negative beliefs--is easy for the physician interested in this kind of practice and it requires little previous training for the physician to be able to care for his/her patient. A deeper insight into the principles of holistic treatment and a thorough understanding of our fellow human beings are making it work even better. Holistic medicine is not a miracle cure, but rather a means by which the empathic physician can support the patient in improving his/her future life in respect to quality of life, health, and functional capacity--through coaching the patient to work on him/herself in a hard and disciplined manner. When the patient is young, this work is so much easier. During our lifetime, we have several emotional traumas arranged in the subconscious mind with the smallest at the top, and it is normal for the person to work on a large number of traumatic events that have been processed to varying degrees. Some traumas have been acknowledged, some are still being explored by the person, and yet others are still preconscious, which can be seen for example in the form of muscle tension. Sometimes the young dysfunctional patient carries severe traumas of a violent or sexual nature, but the physician skilled in the holistic medical toolbox can help the patient on his/her way to an excellent quality of life, full self-expression, a love and sex life, and a realization of his/her talents--all that a young patient is typically dreaming about. Biomedicine is not necessary or even recommended when the physical or mental symptoms are caused by disturbances in the personal development that can be corrected with love and understanding. If possible, biomedicine must be avoided, even if this means suffering for the young person, who needs to confront the tough realities of life in order to grow into an able and sound adult. PMID:15311331

Ventegodt, Søren; Morad, Mohammed; Press, Joseph; Merrick, Joav; Shek, Daniel T L

2004-08-01

430

Hamilton Regional Laboratory Medicine Program Department of Laboratory Medicine  

E-print Network

Produced by Donor AntiD Passenger Lymphocytes: Case Report and Literature Review. Transfusion Medicine of Transfusion Medicine (CSTM) 2010. Arnold DM, Crowther MA, Meyer RM, Carruthers J, DiTomasso J, Heddle NM

Haykin, Simon

431

The utility of Xenon-133 liver scan in the diagnosis and management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important and common condition affecting approximately 20% of the general population. Given the limitation of radiological investigations, diagnosis often requires a liver biopsy. OBJECTIVE: To compare Xenon-133 (Xe-133) liver scanning with ultrasonography in the diagnosis of NAFLD. METHODS: From January 2003 to February 2007, 258 consecutive patients with suspected NAFLD underwent Xe-133 liver scanning at Royal Victoria Hospital (Montreal, Quebec). Of these, 43 patients underwent ultrasonography and liver biopsy for the evaluation of NAFLD. Patients with other liver diseases and significant alcohol consumption were excluded. Two nuclear medicine physicians assessed liver Xe-133 uptake and measured the grade of steatosis using a standardized protocol. The degree of steatosis was determined from biopsy specimens assessed by two hepatopathologists. RESULTS: NAFLD was identified by liver biopsy in 35 of 43 patients (81.4%). Xe-133 scan demonstrated 94.3% sensitivity (95% CI 81.4% to 98.4%) and 87.5% specificity (95% CI 52.9% to 99.4%) for the presence of NAFLD. The positive and negative predictive values for detection of steatosis by Xe-133 scan were 97.1% (95% CI 85.1% to 99.8%) and 77.8% (95% CI 45.3% to 93.7%), respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 7.54 (95% CI 1.20 to 47.26) and 0.07 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.26), respectively. Two patients with NAFLD (5.7%) who had a negative Xe-133 scan result had histologically mild steatosis (<10%). The grade of steatosis on liver biopsy was highly correlated with the results of the Xe-133 scan (r=0.87; P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in diagnosing steatosis were 62.9% and 75%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Xe-133 liver scan proved to be a safe, reliable, non-invasive method for diagnosing and quantifying hepatic steatosis, and was superior to ultrasound. PMID:22408767

Al-Busafi, Said A; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Novales-Diaz, Javier A; Deschenes, Marc

2012-01-01

432

Medline Plus: Herbal Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the world of Aloe Vera to yohimbe, this site leaves no herbal medicines unexplored. As part of the Medline Plus omnibus site which was created by the U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, this particular section covers many aspects of the world of herbal medicine. First-time visitors will want to start by looking over the background essays on the use of botanical dietary supplements offered from the Office of Dietary Supplements. After that, they should browse through sections that include "Basics", "Learn More", "Research", and "Reference Shelf". They can also just scroll down through the homepage, which includes overviews on the use of different herbs and supplements. Those persons looking for the latest information about research findings on herbs and topical treatments can look within the "Latest News" listings, which are updated frequently. Researchers will appreciate the inclusion of a "Clinical Trials" area which provides the latest information about ongoing clinical trials that draw on various aspects of herbal medicine.

433

Genomics & Medicine Doug Brutlag  

E-print Network

://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/ #12;Central Paradigm of Molecular Biology · Molecules ­Structure ­Function · Processes ­Mechanism neutral ­ Used in DNA fingerprints ­ Forensic medicine ­ Paternity ­ Immigration in the United Kingdom

Brutlag, Doug

434

Reconsidering spirituality and medicine.  

PubMed

Increasing awareness of possible links between religion and health has led to greater attention to spirituality and medicine in medical education; both trends have culminated in vigorous debate about the place of spirituality and related values in medical care. The author argues that due to basic ambiguities of the term "spirituality" as well as prevailing biases of both patients and practitioners, this debate risks valorizing theistic religious views, a trend that would be to the detriment of physicians, residents, and students who happen to be non-believers or adherents of minority faiths. It is maintained that philosophical value theory, a broad inquiry into value and meaning that is carefully neutral as regards religious matters, provides the greatest possible protection of both secular and non-secular world views. A notion of "separation of church and medicine," similar in some ways to the well-known political model, is proposed. Because so many issues of meaning and value may be relevant to health, vigilance is required to properly delineate the purview of medicine. The author concludes by proposing that a medicine that neither exalts nor demeans religious belief but rather situates the latter among the countless values persons may hold should be the goal. PMID:12691963

Scheurich, Neil

2003-04-01

435

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair Surgery Work? Rev. 2 Surgical Illustrations (Pages 2-4) · Preparing for Rotator Cuff Surgery (Pages 5-6) · General Post Surgery to embark on the arthroscopic rotator cuff repair journey. The goal of rotator cuff repair surgery is create

Kim, Duck O.

436

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine  

E-print Network

Orthopaedic Surgery Sports Medicine How Does Arthroscopic Shoulder Instability Surgery Work? Rev. 2/13 1 Table of Contents · Introduction to Shoulder Instability Surgery (Page 1) · Shoulder Instability Surgery Illustrations (Page 2) · Preparing for Shoulder Surgery (Pages 3-4) · General Post Surgery (Pages

Kim, Duck O.

437

Whistleblowing in academic medicine  

PubMed Central

The authors present and discuss cases of academic medicine failing to address unethical behaviour in academic science and, thereby, illustrate the scope and seriousness of the problem. The Olivieri/Apotex affair is just another instance of academic medicine's dereliction in a case of scientific fraud and misconduct. Instead of vigorously supporting their faculty member in her efforts to honestly communicate her findings and to protect patients from the risks associated with the use of the study drug, the University of Toronto collaborated with the Apotex company's "stalling tactics," closed down Dr Olivieri's laboratory, harassed her, and ultimately dismissed her. The authors argue that the incentives for addressing problematic behaviour have to be revised in order to effect a change in the current pattern of response that occurs in academic medicine. An externally imposed realignment of incentives could convert the perception of the whistleblower, from their present caste as the enemy within, into a new position, as valued friend of the institution. The authors explain how such a correction could encourage appropriate reactions to scientific misconduct from academic medicine. PMID:14872069

Rhodes, R; Strain, J

2004-01-01

438

INTRODUCTION TO GENOMIC MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Pharmacogenomics May 23 Susceptibility Genetics June 6 Cancer Genomics June 13 Genomics of Microbes and Microbiomes Implications of Genomics in Clinical Medicine February 7 Molecular Biology/Genetics Refresher - 1 February 14 Molecular Biology/Genetics Refresher - 2 February 21 The Genetic Basis of Disease February 28 Introduction

439

Genome Medicine 2009, 11  

E-print Network

Genome Medicine 2009, 11::39 Research AA kkeerrnneell--bbaasseedd iinntteeggrraattiioonn ooff of fusing more than one source of genome-wide data, such as the genome, transcriptome, proteome support in which many genome-wide data sources are combined. Integration occurs within the patient domain

440

Against narrative medicine.  

PubMed

This essay aims to provoke debate on how and what the medical humanities should teach. It argues that the field has been dominated (to its detriment) by two misguided movements, postmodernism and narrative medicine, and that it should be redirected from utilitarian aims towards the goal of exposing medical students to a climate of thought and reflection. PMID:24769751

O'Mahony, Seamus

2013-01-01

441

The Medicine Tree.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demographic changes in population continue to bring children of different cultural backgrounds to classrooms. This article provides suggestions teachers and counselors can use to bridge cultures. Using the parable of a medicine tree, it explains how no society can endure without caring for its young. (Author/JDM)

Brokenleg, Martin

2000-01-01

442

Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The six issues of Wilderness Medicine Newsletter published in 1999 provide medical and rescue information for the nonphysician in remote wilderness areas. Feature articles include: "Tendinitis: Overdoing a Good Thing" (Buck Tilton); "A Sport for the Season: Trail Running" (injuries and health problems common to trail runners) (Rebecca S. Newton);…

Weber, Holly A., Ed.

1999-01-01

443

Fructose in medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is given of the metabolism of fructose in the mammalian organism, and its significance in medicine. Emphasis is laid upon the absorption and assimilation of fructose through pathways not identical with those of glucose. The metabolism of fructose is largely insulin-independent, although the ultimate fate of fructose carbons is determined by the presence or the absence of insulin.Clinical

Jussi K. Huttunen

1971-01-01

444

How Medicines Work  

MedlinePLUS

... are now able to use human, rather than animal, enzymes to predict whether a drug candidate or any of its byproducts will be toxic to humans. However, rare, serious drug reactions remain difficult to predict before testing experimental medicines in humans. The formulation, packaging and ...

445

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

446

Science, Medicine, and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the new biology on what, how, and why persons learn in medicine is discussed. The transformation of medical education is reflected in the radical changes in views of man as organism that are arising from new discoveries in molecular and cellular biology. (MLW)

Tosteson, Daniel C.

1981-01-01

447

Is Medicine Flat?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomedical model, attempting to explain health and disease in terms of the physical sciences, tends to eliminate or ignore other aspects of sickness phenomena. Medicine and medical education have sought to assert the importance of the patient's subjectivity, including psychological makeup, social context, illness framework, beliefs, culture, and other forces. These offer an added dimension to the flat biomedical

Charles L. Bardes

2007-01-01

448

Nanobiotechnology and personalized medicine.  

PubMed

This chapter will start with a definition and scope of personalized medicine and describe how various nanobiotechnologies will contribute to its development. Nanodiagnostics and its combination with therapeutics as well as nanoparticle-based drug delivery will play an important role. The most important applications of nanobiotechnology will be personalized management of cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22093223

Jain, K K

2011-01-01

449

EMERGENCY MEDICINE CONFERENCE OUTLINE  

E-print Network

Brewer, PhD John Gough, MD 11:00 EM Grand Rounds "New Concepts in the Approach to the Syncope Patient, 2013 @11:00 am EM Classroom ­ 3ED-350 "New Concepts in the Approach to the Syncope Patient" Richard School of Medicine at East Carolina University Objectives: 1. Define syncope, its basic epidemiology

450

Space physiology and medicine  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge in space physiology and medicine are reviewed. Overviews of manned space flight, the space environment, spaceflight systems and procedures, physiological adaptation to space flight, health maintenance of space crew members, and medical problems of space flight are presented.

Nicogossian, A.E.; Parker J.F. Jr.

1982-01-01

451

Health & Medicine Heart Disease  

E-print Network

See Also: Health & Medicine Heart Disease· Medical Imaging· Vioxx· Matter & Energy Electronics.AEDSuperstore.com Stem Cell Study - Heart Now enrolling patients with heart disease in adult stem cell trial. www· Technology· Medical Technology· Reference Artificial heart· Biosensor· Circuit design· Machine· Science

Rogers, John A.

452

Pediatric Medicines -- Prescribing Drugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After more than a decade of U.S. regulations that first prompted and later required testing for children's medicines, less than half of the drugs that need to be studied have been studied. Technology may help speed up the process, but there's still some uncertainty over whether the laws that now require pediatric clinical trials will still be in place in 2012.

Robert Frederick (AAAS;)

2008-10-10

453

1 Kevin Abel 12 Chip Brooks Family Medicine Emergency Medicine  

E-print Network

1 Kevin Abel 12 Chip Brooks Family Medicine Emergency Medicine North Mississippi Medical Ctr Earl K Otolaryngology Family Medicine Medical University of South Carolina North Mississippi Medical Center - Tupelo University of South Alabama New Orleans, Louisiana Mobile, Alabama 24 Cindy Garrett 35 Russ Johnson Family

Raucher, Drazen

454

The Relationship between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Modern Medicine  

PubMed Central

The essence of the traditional Chinese medicine has always been the most advanced and experienced therapeutic approach in the world. It has knowledge that can impact the direction of future modern medical development; still, it is easy to find simple knowledge with mark of times and special cultures. The basic structure of traditional Chinese medicine is composed of three parts: one consistent with modern medicine, one involuntarily beyond modern medicine, and one that needs to be further evaluated. The part that is consistent with modern medicine includes consensus on several theories and concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, and usage of several treatments and prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine including commonly used Chinese herbs. The part that is involuntarily beyond modern medicine contains several advanced theories and important concepts of traditional Chinese medicine, relatively advanced treatments, formula and modern prescriptions, leading herbs, acupuncture treatment and acupuncture anesthesia of traditional Chinese medicine that affect modern medicine and incorporates massage treatment that has been gradually acknowledged by modern therapy. The part that needs to be further evaluated consists not only the knowledge of pulse diagnosis, prescription, and herbs, but also many other aspects of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23983772

2013-01-01

455

Scanned Probe Microscopies: STM and Beyond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This conference dealt with an array of scanning probe and other microscopy techniques based on various physical and chemical properties. Some of them are: Scanning Tunneling Microscopy STM, Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy SEM, Scanning Capacitance Mic...

C. Stewart

1991-01-01

456

Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Cold Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What is Prescription Drug Abuse: Some medications have psychoactive (mind-altering) properties and, ... Treatment Locator or 1-800-662-HELP . Prescription Drug Abuse Learn what you can do to prevent medicine ...

457

Time for UConn Sports Medicine.  

E-print Network

Spring 2005 #12;Time for UConn Sports Medicine. AT THE UCONN HEALTH C ENTER, our team-679-6600 to make an appointment with one of our sports medicine physicians: Jeffrey Anderson, M. D., Robert Arciero

Holsinger, Kent

458

Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Diabetes can make it hard to control how much sugar (called glucose) is in your blood. There is ... Warning Signs Diabetes Medicines Learn More about Diabetes Diabetes Tips Talk to your doctor before you change ...

459

Study report COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES AND  

E-print Network

________________________________________________________________________ 9 I. Medicine counterfeiting, criminal organisations and cybercrime __________________________ 11 I medicines: a `structural hole' logic________________ 24 I.4. Cybercrime and counterfeiting of cybercrime _________________________________________________________ 29 II. Realities of the « counterfeit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Sequential liver-spleen scanning for documentation of wandering spleen  

SciTech Connect

An additional case of wandering spleen is reported. A brief review of the etiology of this entity, as well as various findings obtained with nuclear imaging of the spleen, is presented. The authors discuss the relevance of repeated spleen scans to the clinical decision making process. Particular significance is paid to preservation of the spleen to maintain immunologic competence.

Barnett, S.M.; Poole, J.R.; Briggs, R.C.

1981-11-01

461

Communication Single-scan 2D DOSY NMR spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Communication Single-scan 2D DOSY NMR spectroscopy Yoav Shrot, Lucio Frydman * Department. Introduction Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) plays a fundamental role in expanding on the principles and applications of the resulting 2D diffusion-shift NMR correlation experiment, have been given

Frydman, Lucio

462

Too Many Heart Scans May Pose Radiation Risks, Cardiologists Say  

MedlinePLUS

... used types of heart imaging tests that use radiation include nuclear stress tests, cardiac CT scans, and fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy is a technique that uses X-rays to create "real-time" or moving images of the body. Ultrasound and MRI ... American Heart Association, news release, Sept. 29, ...

463

An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (?4 ?m), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10-7 T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

2014-08-01

464

An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.  

PubMed

We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (?4 ?m), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K. PMID:25173276

Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

2014-08-01

465

Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences  

E-print Network

SCHOOL OF Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences TO RECOVERY FROM DISCOVERY Information, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences2 SCHOOL OF Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences Thank you for your interest in a Clinical Academic Career at Queen's in the School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical

466

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE CURRICULUM GUIDE  

E-print Network

1 SCHOOL OF MEDICINE YEAR 1 CURRICULUM GUIDE WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 20112012 Revised 06/08/11 PLEASE READ THE INTRODUCTORY PAGES to revision. Updated versions of the Curriculum Guide will be posted on the School of Medicine website

Cinabro, David

467

Demystifying Medicine Seminar Series 2012  

E-print Network

Demystifying Medicine Seminar Series 2012 DATE: Monday, Sept. 24, 2012 TIME: 4:00 p.m. to 5:30 p Chair and Professor, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine Associate Member, Pediatrics Co-Director, Special Immunology Services/HIV Clinic Department of Medicine LEARNING OBJECTIVES: · Review the changing

Hitchcock, Adam P.

468

College of Medicine PED Pediatrics  

E-print Network

College of Medicine PED Pediatrics KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped-year curriculum. Pass-fail only. Prereq: Admission to first year, College of Medicine. PED 825 SECOND-year student may choose approved electives offered by the various departments in the College of Medicine

MacAdam, Keith

469

College of Medicine NEU Neurology  

E-print Network

College of Medicine NEU Neurology KEY: #