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1

Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? What is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)? What ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

2

Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

Badawi, Ramsey D.

2001-01-01

3

Nuclear Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

4

Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

Martire, J.R.

1987-10-01

5

Nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1986-10-17

6

Quality Control of Techetium 99M Radiopharmaceutical in Nuclear Medicine. The Use of Gel Chromatography Column Scanning in Research and Routine Clinical Work.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gel chromatography column scanning (GCS) is a new method for radiochemical quality control. GCS techniques for Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine have been developed for use in both research and routine clinical work. The dependence o...

L. Darte

1981-01-01

7

Nuclear Heart Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Nuclear Heart Scan? A nuclear heart scan is a test that provides important ... use it to create pictures of your heart. Nuclear heart scans are used for three main purposes: ...

8

Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

MedlinePLUS

Nuclear Medicine Imaging What you need to know about… A nuclear medicine procedure is sometimes described as an “inside-out” ... that is directed through the patient’s body. Nuclear medicine procedures use small amounts of radioactive materials, called ...

9

RBC nuclear scan  

MedlinePLUS

An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to mark (tag) red blood cells (RBCs). Your body is then ... radiation -- it does not give off radiation. Most nuclear scans (including an RBC scan) are not recommended ...

10

Nuclear Scans (Cancer)  

MedlinePLUS

... more References Previous Topic Mammography Next Topic Ultrasound Nuclear scans Other names include nuclear imaging , radionuclide imaging , ... to more radiation. Use of monoclonal antibodies in nuclear scans: A special type of antibody produced in ...

11

Nuclear medicine annual  

SciTech Connect

This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

Freeman, L.M.

1988-01-01

12

Nuclear Medicine: Career Information  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients For Healthcare Providers Career Center Career Information Nuclear physicians are usually based in a university or ... and have limited involvement in direct patient care. Nuclear Medicine physicians participate in the intellectual challenge presented ...

13

Society of Nuclear Medicine  

Cancer.gov

June 14, 2008 12:00 AM - June 18, 2008 12:00 AM Ernest N Morial Convention Center, Booth 419 New Orleans, LA + Add to Outlook Calendar 2008 Annual Meeting Print This Page Society of Nuclear Medicine News & Events

14

Pediatric nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1986-01-01

15

Costs of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The cost of nuclear medicine procedures in a small department run as part of a general imaging service in the financial year 1984/5, using standard commercial nomenclature and concepts (variable, semi-variable and fixed costs), are reported. The necessity for a standard costing system and the use of overhead absorption rates for all three types of cost are emphasized, and the value is shown of doing enough work to make economic use of the equipment and staff time. Nuclear medicine procedures appear to be comparable in cost to imaging procedures involving fluoroscopy. PMID:3386968

Bretland, P M

1988-01-01

16

Pediatric nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nuclear medicine as applied in pediatric patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of scintigraphy of organ systems for diagnostic purposes. The topics covered are: scintigraphy of skeleton, bone marrow spleen, liver, thyroid, lungs, urinary tract, brain, heart and cerebrospinal fluid. The pathology and scintigraphy of lacrimal glands is also covered. Other diagnostic techniques of radiology in pediatrics are also briefly discussed for comparative evaluation.

Treves, S.T.

1985-01-01

17

Pulmonary applications of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine techniques have a long history in pulmonary medicine, one that has been continually changing and growing. Even longstanding methods, such as perfusion scanning for embolic disease or for pretherapy pulmonary function evaluation, have largely withstood the test of recent careful scrutiny. Not only have these techniques remained an important part of the diagnostic armamentarium, but we have learned how to use them more effectively. Furthermore, because of technical advances, we are in a phase of expanding roles for nuclear imaging. Gallium citrate scanning for the mediastinal staging and follow-up of lymphoma has been recognized as a valuable adjunct to the anatomic information provided by CT and MRI. With the growth of PET technology in areas that have been explored in a limited fashion until now, such as noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and lung carcinoma, evaluation and management of these patients may substantially improve. Finally, in the field of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, attention is now being turned to both the diagnostic and the therapeutic problems presented by lung carcinoma. As radiolabeling methods are refined and as new and better antibodies are developed, radioimmunodetection and therapy in lung carcinoma may begin to make inroads on this common and hard to control disease.157 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Divgi, C.R. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

1991-03-01

18

Nuclear medicine annual 1990  

SciTech Connect

Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

Freeman, L.M. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, NY (US))

1990-01-01

19

Synopsis of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The application of radionuclides to medical diagnosis and treatment has a relatively short history. The phenomenon of radioactivity was originally discovered by Henri Bacquerel in 1896, whereas Pierre and Marie Curie isolated the naturally occurring element radium in 1899. The use of radium in the treatment of malignant disease was first introduced at the turn of this century, and was established by 1920. It was not until 1938, however, that the discovery of nuclear fission made possible the subsequent development of the nuclear reactor, and the large-scale production of artificial radioactive nuclides. It was immediately realised that the latter opened up great possibilities in the medical field. The radioactive isotope was chemically indistinguishable from the stable isotopes of the element, and minute quantities of it in the body could be detected externally by virtue of the radiation they emitted; it could be used as a "tracer" to follow the metabolism of a substance throughout the body. The following synopsis is a brief attempt to introduce the Kenyan medical personnel into the scope of nuclear energy in medicine. PMID:2612403

Waweru, F N; Othieno, J O

1989-10-01

20

Peptide radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This article reviews the labelling of peptides that are recognised to be of interest for nuclear medicine or are the subject\\u000a of ongoing nuclear medicine research. Applications and approaches to the labelling of peptide radiopharmaceuticals are discussed,\\u000a and drawbacks in their development considered.

D. Blok; R. I. J. Feitsma; P. Vermeij; E. J. K. Pauwels

1999-01-01

21

An all-digital nuclear medicine department.  

PubMed

An all-digital nuclear medicine department is described. Nuclear medicine images are acquired by a separate computer interfaced to each camera. The digital images are viewed, manipulated, and interpreted from remote display stations in an interpretation area. The interpretation is dictated into a Rapid Telephone Access System (RTAS), where the voice is digitized and stored. By dialing the patient's identification number, the referring physician can hear the interpretation over any telephone. The images are filed on large storage discs. The digital scans can be rapidly and easily accessed for later review by the use of several directory programs. This system has brought not only efficiency and cost savings, but the ability for remote viewing elsewhere in the hospital and telephone transmission of nuclear cardiology studies from community hospitals for interpretation in the digital nuclear medicine department. PMID:6828736

Parker, J A; Royal, H D; Uren, R F; Front, D; Bliss, J G; Rabuzzi, M; Jansons, D; Kolodny, G M

1983-04-01

22

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

Bennett, Gerald W. (East Moriches, NY); Brill, A. Bertrand (Shoreham, NY); Bizais, Yves J. C. (Upton, NY); Rowe, R. Wanda (Upton, NY); Zubal, I. George (Upton, NY)

1986-01-01

23

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab  

SciTech Connect

Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging. His talk was presented July 5, 2006.

Thomas Budinger

2008-03-04

24

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging. His talk was presented July 5, 2006.

Thomas Budinger

2010-01-08

25

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab  

ScienceCinema

Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging. His talk was presented July 5, 2006.

Thomas Budinger

2013-06-12

26

Nuclear medicine imaging system  

DOEpatents

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

1983-03-11

27

Nuclear Medicine Imaging System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of th...

G. W. Bennett A. B. Brill Y. J. C. Bizais R. W. Rowe I. G. Zubal

1983-01-01

28

Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

NONE

2001-04-01

29

Nuclear medicine: the Philippine Heart Center experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following is a report of a three (3) months on-the-job training in Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Philippine Heart Center. The hospital has current generation nuclear medicine instruments with data processor and is capable ...

E. L. Cancino

1994-01-01

30

Nuclear medicine in NET.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are, despite increasing incidence, still rare, usually slow growing neoplasms with resemblance to nerve cells and the endocrine capability of hormone production. In contrast to commonly used conventional imaging procedures, nuclear imaging is feasible to visualize the presence of molecular biomarkers, particularly the overexpression of somatostatin receptors (sstr) with high diagnostic accuracy which has led to the establishment of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) as essential component and gold standard of functional imaging in the workup of NET. Another major feature is the selection of patients with inoperable or metastasized tumors showing sufficient uptake for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). While somatostatin receptor PET and PET/CT using Ga-68-labeled SSR analogs represents the consistent further development of SRS, FDG-PET can only be used in tumors with high proliferative activity but not on a routine basis for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. (18)F-DOPA represents an alternative PET tracer worth mentioning currently under assessment for NET imaging. PMID:22810487

Sorschag, Manfred; Malle, Phillip; Gallowitsch, Hans-Jürgen

2012-10-01

31

Licensing criteria for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of radioactive materials in medicine is one of the most highly regulated areas the physician has to deal with. There are three basic types of licenses for use of radioactive material defined in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), chapter 10, part 35. These are the general license, which is mainly applicable to small volume in vitro work; the specific license, which is used in most medical facilities; and the broad license, which is suited for larger research-oriented practices. Licensing requires proof of competence of the user and of adequate provision for protection of public health. Materials used in medicine are grouped for convenience into three diagnostic categories and two therapeutic categories. A sixth group, for sealed implants, is not generally applicable in nuclear medicine. Training and experience of users may be documented in a number of ways, including board certification in nuclear medicine. Therapeutic applications require additional proof of direct personal experience. The radiation safety officer is a pivotal individual in the licensing procedure, being directly responsible for carrying out the highly detailed requirements for protection of personnel and patients. A radiation safety program based on the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept requires personal monitoring, inventory control, detection and control of contamination, and strict adherence to licensing rules. Training of personnel and proper maintenance of equipment and facilities are also vital parts of the licensing process. The requirements of licensing and for renewal are clearly spelled out by the various regulatory agencies and require meticulous record keeping with documentation that all prescribed procedures have been followed and duly recorded.

Westerman, B.R.

1986-07-01

32

Towards the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures for better spatial resolution, sensitivity, scan image quality and quantitation measurements by using a new Monte Carlo model featuring PET imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a Monte-Carlo model that can be used for the optimization of positron emission tomography (PET) procedures and image quality metrics. This model was developed using the Monte Carlo package of Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) and the software for tomographic image reconstruction (STIR) with cluster computing to obtain reconstructed images. The PET scanner used in this study was the General Electric Discovery-ST (US). The GATE model was validated by comparing results obtained in accordance with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NEMA-NU-2-2001 protocol [Mawlawi et al (2004) and Bettinardi et al (2004)]. All images were reconstructed with the commonly used 2D filtered back projection and the 3D reprojection algorithms. We found that the simulated spatial resolution in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) agreed within less than 3.29% in 2D and less than 2.51% in 3D with published data of others, respectively. The 2D values for the sensitivity, scatter fraction and count-rate were found to agree within less than 0.46%, 4.59% and 7.86%, respectively with these published values. Accordingly, our study showed that the corresponding 3D values were found to agree to less than 1.62%, 2.85% and 9.13%, respectively with Mawlawi et al (2004) published values. Sensitivity, which was also estimated without the presence of attenuation material by simulating an ideal source, showed differences between the extrapolated and the ideal source values (with and without attenuation) ranging in 2D from 0.04% to 0.82% (radial location R=0cm) and 0.52% to 0.67% in 3D mode (radial locations R=10cm). The simulated noise equivalent count rate was found to be 94.31kcps in 2D and 66.9kcps in 3D at 70 and 15kBq/mL respectively, compared to 94.08kcps in 2D and 70.88kcps in 3D at 54.6kBq/mL and 14kBq/mL respectively, from the published by others values. The simulated image quality was found in excellent agreement with these published values. In conclusion, our study showed that our Monte Carlo model can be used to assess, optimize, simplify and reduce the simulation time for the quality control procedure of PET scanners. By using this model, sensitivity can be obtained in a more simplified procedure. Reconstructed images by STIR can be also used to obtain radiopharmaceutical distribution of images and direct dose maps, quite useful to nuclear medicine practitioners. PMID:23687642

Karpetas, George E; Michail, Christos M; Fountos, George P; Valsamaki, Pipitsa N; Kandarakis, Ioannis S; Panayiotakis, George S

2013-01-01

33

Experience with nuclear medicine information system.  

PubMed

Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487446

Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Sahin, Figen; Babeko?lu, Vahide; U?ur, Omer

2012-12-01

34

Experience with Nuclear Medicine Information System  

PubMed Central

Objective: Radiology information system (RIS) is basically evolved for the need of radiologists and ignores the vital steps needed for a proper work flow of Nuclear Medicine Department. Moreover, CT/MRI oriented classical PACS systems are far from satisfying Nuclear Physicians like storing dynamic data for reprocessing and quantitative analysis of colored images. Our purpose was to develop a workflow based Nuclear Medicine Information System (NMIS) that fulfills the needs of Nuclear Medicine Department and its integration to hospital PACS system. Material and Methods: Workflow in NMIS uses HL7 (health level seven) and steps include, patient scheduling and retrieving information from HIS (hospital information system), radiopharmacy, acquisition, digital reporting and approval of the reports using Nuclear Medicine specific diagnostic codes. Images and dynamic data from cameras of are sent to and retrieved from PACS system (Corttex©) for reprocessing and quantitative analysis. Results: NMIS has additional functions to the RIS such as radiopharmaceutical management program which includes stock recording of both radioactive and non-radioactive substances, calculation of the radiopharmaceutical dose for individual patient according to body weight and maximum permissible activity, and calculation of radioactivity left per unit volume for each radionuclide according their half lives. Patient scheduling and gamma camera patient work list settings were arranged according to specific Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine images and reports can be retrieved and viewed from HIS. Conclusion: NMIS provides functionality to standard RIS and PACS system according to the needs of Nuclear Medicine. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Volkan-Salanci, Bilge; Sahin, Figen; Babekoglu, Vahide; Ugur, Omer

2012-01-01

35

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

New Trends and Possibilities in Nuclear Medicine provides an examination of the latest developments in the field of nuclear medicine. This volume reviews advances made in imaging techniques and presents a detailed overview of many new imaging procedures and their clinical applications, e.g.,the oncological applications of immunoscintigraphy. This book also elucidates the various diagnostic capabilities of nuclear imaging in a wide range of disciplines, including cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, nephrology, oncology, and hematology.

Schmidt, H.A.E.; Csernay, L

1988-01-01

36

Enhancing laboratory activities in nuclear medicine education.  

PubMed

Hands-on or active learning is important in nuclear medicine education. As more curricula start to require greater standards and as distance education expands, the effective use of laboratories in nuclear medicine education remains important in physics, instrumentation, and imaging but is often overlooked or underutilized. Laboratory exercises are a unique opportunity for nuclear medicine educators to facilitate students' critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a manner that often cannot occur in lectures or during online education. Given the lack of current laboratory tools and publications, there exists a requirement for nuclear medicine educators to develop, enhance, and monitor educational tools for laboratory exercises. Expanding technologies, variations in imaging and measurement systems, and the need to ensure that the taught technology is relevant to nuclear medicine students are issues faced by nuclear medicine educators. This article, based on principles of instructional design, focuses on the components and development of effective and enhanced nuclear medicine laboratories in our current educational environment. PMID:19914977

Grantham, Vesper; Martin, Chris; Schmitz, Casey

2009-12-01

37

The role of nuclear medicine in differentiated thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

In differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) nuclear medicine is able to cover the spectrum from diagnosis and treatment to follow up keeping patient's management in one institution. Nowadays, DTC is often diagnosed per chance, presenting as small indolent nodule diagnosed on routinely performed ultrasound. Ultrasound and ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy together with scintigraphy are probably the most adequate tools for diagnosis. After thyroidectomy, treatment with iodine-131 is routinely performed in a nuclear medicine therapy institution as a standard procedure in most of the cases with regard to histology. In case of iodine positive metastases, repeated therapies can be performed in order to reduce tumour burden. In the follow up of DTC thyroglobulin (tumour marker), ultrasound and diagnostic whole body scan are established procedures. With the development of SPECT/CT and PET/CT ((18)F-FDG, (68)Ga-somatostatin receptor) combining functional and anatomic imaging the nuclear medicine spectrum has further increased. PMID:22815124

Kohlfürst, Susanne

2012-10-01

38

Nuclear medicine imaging in rhabdomyolysis  

SciTech Connect

A case of severe rhabdomyolysis is reported in which, some seven and one-half weeks after its occurrence, a gallium scan was strongly positive, due to abscess formation in the damaged muscle. A bone scan was weakly positive in the same area, due to gallium photons. A review of the the reported cases reveals that bone scans are a very sensitive indicator of acute muscle damage and are useful to monitor its repair.

Cornelius, E.A.

1982-10-01

39

Nuclear scan-guided rib biopsy  

SciTech Connect

The bone scan is a sensitive screening device that is frequently used to stage the condition of patients with known or suspected malignant disease. Abnormal findings on bone scan are associated with corresponding normal findings on radiographs in approximately 50% of cases. Definitive tissue diagnosis of the bone lesion is often needed to determine optimal therapy, but localization of the lesion is imprecise unless it is palpable. Use of the nuclear scan to localize and mark the rib enhances the precision of the biopsy procedure. Thirty-three consecutive patients with cancer who had bone scans suggestive of rib abnormalities underwent nuclear scan-guided biopsy. Each patient had a repeat localizing scan with a maximum permissible dose of technetium 99m radionuclide on the day of the planned biopsy. The site of abnormality was marked with methylene blue injected into the skin overlying the lesion and down to the periosteum at the specific site. The patient was then taken to the operating room and the marked area was excised through a small incision. Pathologic abnormality was identified in all but one of the resected specimens, an accuracy rate of 97%. Despite a presumed or proved diagnosis of cancer in 33 patients, 16 specimens (48%) were benign. There were no complications associated with this technique, which reduces the morbidity and increases the precision of rib biopsy.

Moores, D.W.; Line, B.; Dziuban, S.W. Jr.; McKneally, M.F. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

1990-04-01

40

Nuclear Medicine Reporting System for Microcomputers  

PubMed Central

Description: In this paper we present a completely user-defined reporting system for nuclear medicine. It is inexpensive, highly flexible and can be adapted for general radiology. Equipment: Apple II with 2 disc drives and printer. Language: Microsoft basic with microcode subroutines Availability: Pending

Ochs, Daniel; Haberman, Seth

1982-01-01

41

Perspectives in nuclear medicine: pulmonary studies  

SciTech Connect

Since the introduction of I-131 labeled macroaggregates in 1964, noninvasive techniques involving injection of radiolabeled agents and remote detection of emitted radiation have become well established in detecting pulmonary disorders in routine clinical medicine. In the past, pulmonary nuclear medicine has been dominated by studies that depict the distribution of pulmonary perfusion and/or ventilation-perfusion balance (e.g., for the detection of pulmonary embolism, obstructive airway disease, lung carcinoma). With the recent development of emission tomography and the potential for new, function-oriented radiopharmaceuticals, however, pulmonary nuclear medicine is entering a new era. The status of contemporary pulmonary nuclear medicine is briefly reviewed in several areas of major interest and applications and focus on areas where new developments are needed and seem feasible in the near future. Several important regional physiological processes measurable by these techniques include: (a) the presence or absence of pulmonary embolism, (b) relative pulmonary blood flow, (c) permeability to specific molecules, (d) lung tissue metabolism, (e) ventilation distribution and (f) the relationship between ventilation and blood flow (perfusion). (JMT)

Budinger, T.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); McNeil, B.J.; Alderson, P.O.

1982-01-01

42

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2012-04-01

43

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2014-04-01

44

21 CFR 892.1350 - Nuclear scanning bed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1350 Nuclear scanning bed. (a) Identification. A nuclear scanning...

2011-04-01

45

Impact of Operator on Determining Functional Parameters of Nuclear Medicine Procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study was designed to assess the significance of the interoperator variability in theestimation of functional parameters forfour nuclear medicine procedures. Materials andMethods: Three nuclear medicine technologists with varying years of experience processed the following randomly selected 20 cases with diverse functions of each study type: renography, renal cortical scans, myocardial perfusion gated single-photon emission computed tomography (MP-GSPECT) and

A. M. Mohammed; S. Y. Naddaf; F. S. Mahdi; Q. I. Al-Mutawa; H. A. Al-Dossary; A. H. Elgazzar

2006-01-01

46

Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

1989-01-01

47

Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

1989-11-01

48

(Coordinated research programs in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler visited the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, West Germany, to review, organize, and plan collaborative studies. He also met with the editorial board of the journal NucCompact -- European/American Communications in Nuclear Medicine, on which he serves as US editor. He also visited colleagues at the Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) at the University of Liege, Belgium, to coordinate clinical applications of the ultrashort-lived iridium-191m radionuclide obtained from the osmium-190/iridium-191m generator system. The traveler planned and coordinated continuing collaboration with colleagues at the CRC for further applications of this generator system. He also visited the University of Metz, Metz, France, to organize a three-center project for the synthesis and evaluation of various receptor-specific cerebral imaging agents, involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CRC, and the University of Metz.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1990-10-03

49

Introduction to suspension levels: nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

In 2007, the European Commission (EC) commissioned a group of experts to undertake the revision of Report Radiation Protection (RP) 91, written in 1997, on 'Criteria for acceptability of radiological (including radiotherapy) and nuclear medicine installations'. The revised draft report was submitted to the EC. Before publication, the EC issued this document for public consultation and has commissioned the same group of experts to consider the comments of the public consultation in further improving the revised report. The EC intends to publish the final report under its Radiation Report Series with the number RP 162. This paper introduces the project and presents the methodology adopted to devise the criteria of acceptability/suspension levels for nuclear medicine equipment. PMID:23175644

Christofides, Stelios; Malone, Lesley; Mattson, Soren; Horton, Pat

2013-02-01

50

Technetium in chemistry and nuclear medicine, 2  

SciTech Connect

This book documents the dramatic progress in the design, evaluation, and clinical use of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. Included are recent studies of the chemicals and physico-chemical properties of technetium, reports on the production of new technetium molecules suitable for use as radiopharmaceuticals, and analyses of the biological properties of these molecules. Coverage is given to nuclear medicine clinical investigations employing technetium, as well as to the development of apparatus for data acquisition.

Nicolini, M.; Bandoli, G.; Uderico, M.

1986-01-01

51

Solid state detectors in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Since Nuclear Medicine diagnostic applications are growing fast, room temperature semiconductor detectors such CdTe and CdZnTe either in the form of single detectors or as segmented monolithic detectors have been investigated aiming to replace the NaI scintillator. These detectors have inherently better energy resolution that scintillators coupled to photodiodes or photomultiplier tubes leading to compact imaging systems with higher spatial resolution and enhanced contrast. Advantages and disadvantages of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors in imaging systems are discussed and efforts to develop semiconductor-based planar and tomographic cameras as well as nuclear probes are presented. PMID:12072840

Darambara, D G; Todd-Pokropek, A

2002-03-01

52

[Nuclear medicine diagnosis of focal liver lesions].  

PubMed

Confirmation and exclusion of benign focal liver lesions are the main object of liver studies in nuclear medicine. Hepatobiliary sequence scintigraphy (focal nodular hyperplasia, adenoma), blood pool scintigraphy (hemangioma) and, in some cases, colloid scintigraphy are the methods most frequently employed. Receptor scintigraphy with octreopeptides, immunoscintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies, PET and gamma camera scintigraphy with 18FDG, are used to solve special diagnostic problems, particularly in oncology. A stepwise diagnostic approach needs to be used for a successful classification of focal liver lesions and an extensive knowledge of indications for additional supplementary diagnostic procedures is required. PMID:8371998

Trampert, L; Benz, P; Ruth, T; Oberhausen, E

1993-08-01

53

Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

2014-08-01

54

Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

1984-06-01

55

Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

56

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2009-10-01

57

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section 482.53... Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet...

2010-10-01

58

42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. 482.53 Section...482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services...

2013-10-01

59

Contemporary nuclear medicine imaging of neuroendocrine tumours.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are rare, heterogeneous, and often hormonally active neoplasms. Nuclear medicine (NM) imaging using single photon- and positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals allows sensitive and highly specific molecular imaging of NETs, complementary to anatomy-based techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy is a whole-body imaging technique widely used for diagnosis, staging and restaging of NETs. The increasing availability of hybrid single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT cameras now offers superior accuracy for localization and functional characterization of NETs compared to traditional planar and SPECT imaging. The potential role of positron-emission tomography (PET) tracers in the functional imaging of NETs is also being increasingly recognized. In addition to 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), newer positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)F-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and (68)Ga-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) peptides, show promise for the future. This article will summarize the role of current and emerging radiopharmaceuticals in NM imaging of this rare but important group of tumours. PMID:22633086

Wong, K K; Waterfield, R T; Marzola, M C; Scarsbrook, A F; Chowdhury, F U; Gross, M D; Rubello, D

2012-11-01

60

TL measurement of ambient dose at a Nuclear Medicine Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of ambient dose at the Nuclear Medicine Department, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologìa, Mexico, was performed using two types of thermoluminescent dosemeters: TLD-100 and TLD-900. In addition, ambient dose was measured at the outside corridor of the hospitalization room for 137Cs brachytherapy patients. Radionuclides used at the Nuclear Medicine Department are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl. Main gamma

O. Avila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa-deBuen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

61

Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

Katz, J. I.

2014-05-01

62

Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

Olivier, Pierre

2004-07-01

63

Distinction of Nuclear Spin States with the Scanning Tunneling Microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate rotational excitation spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope for physisorbed H2 and its isotopes HD and D2. The observed excitation energies are very close to the gas phase values and show the expected scaling with the moment of inertia. Since these energies are characteristic for the molecular nuclear spin states we are able to identify the para and ortho species of hydrogen and deuterium, respectively. We thereby demonstrate nuclear spin sensitivity with unprecedented spatial resolution.

Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald

2013-10-01

64

Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed Central

The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war.

Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

1983-01-01

65

Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

1988-01-01

66

Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging.

Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

2012-01-01

67

Further progress for a fast scanning of nuclear emulsions with Large Angle Scanning System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LASSO (Large Angle Scanning System for OPERA) is a scanning system designed in the framework of the OPERA experiment as a result of several R&Ds aimed to improve the performance of the European Scanning System (ESS) by increasing the scanning speed, the angular acceptance and the efficiency in microtrack reconstruction. The novel Continuous Motion (CM) scanning approach allows to double the ESS nominal speed without any changes in the hardware set-up. The LASSO modular design makes the system easily adaptable to new hardware. The novel microtrack reconstruction algorithm has been developed to be efficient in both standard Stop&Go (SG) and CM modes, performing a number of corrections during the processing like corrections for vibrations, optical distortions, field of view curvature. As an intermediate step it reconstructs silver grains positions inside emulsion layer to make a transition from 2D images to real 3D traces of a charged particle. This allows the algorithm to have no internal limits on the slope of microtracks being equally efficient on all angles. The LASSO has been used for about one year for mass production scanning of emulsion films of OPERA, Muon Radiography and also of films employed to study nuclear fragmentation of ion beams used in medical physics. More than 50000 cm2 of the emulsion surface have been analyzed during this period.

Alexandrov, A.; Tioukov, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

2014-02-01

68

Historic Images in Nuclear Medicine: 1976: The First Issue of Clinical Nuclear Medicine and the First Human FDG Study.  

PubMed

In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline. PMID:24978339

Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

2014-08-01

69

Electron Accelerator's Production of Technetium99m for Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technetium-99m provides up to 90nuclear medicine at present. His generator Mo-99 is mainly produced in nuclear reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation. One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in Mo-100 under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of Tc-99m production. Report contents both an analysis of

V. L. Uvarov; N. P. Dikiy; A. N. Dovbnya; Ye. P. Medvedyeva; G. D. Pugachov; Yu. D. Tur; L. P. Abramova; V. P. Staren'ky

1997-01-01

70

Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area.

Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dangelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

2014-01-01

71

Is there a place for music in nuclear medicine?  

PubMed

Music, since the time of ancient Greek Asclepieia is well-known for its influence on men's behavior. Nuclear Medicine can study the effect of music in humans' brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown brain areas to be activated after colored hearing vs after hearing to words. Furthermore, PET studies gave evidence that visual imagery of a musical stave is used by some musically untrained subjects in a pitch discrimination task. Listening to music combines intellect and emotion by intimate anatomical and functional connexions between temporal lobe, hippocampus and limbic system. Mozart's music is considered the best for bringing favorable music effects to men. This is called "the Mozart's effect" and by some is attributed to the fact that this kind of music's sequences tend to repeat regularly every 20-30sec, which is about the same length of time as brain-wave patterns. It may be useful to suggest that a certain kind of music played in the waiting room and/or in the examining room of a Nuclear Medicine Department may support patients ' cooperation with their physicians, especially in cardiac nuclear medicine. Furthermore, patients should be calm and not afraid of radioactivity. A long DVD program to be played during working hours can be decided between a music therapist and the Nuclear Medicine physician. PMID:23227458

Giannouli, Vaitsa; Lytras, Nikolaos; Syrmos, Nikolaos

2012-01-01

72

Restoration and functional analysis of nuclear medicine images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear medicine physician uses visual interpretation of a movie-like display of the beating human heart to detect wall motion abnormalities which might be related to impaired cardiac function. The present work is directed toward extracting more information from the heart motion study, and presenting it in a useful manner. A spatially adaptive smoothing routine using a quadtree image representation

Wendt

1982-01-01

73

Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

2014-07-18

74

Eigen Analysis of Limited Angle Tomography Systems in Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is developed to characterize imaging systems in the field of nuclear medicine. The method is applied to three limited angle tomographic imaging devices: the seven pin hole collimator, the rotating slant hole collimator, and an eighteen pin hole coded aperture. Attenuation and scatter are neglected, the system is assumed linear, and a sampling interval of two of four

Wesley William Wooten

1982-01-01

75

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed

Fernanda Carla Lima Ferreira; Divanizia Do Nascimento Souza

2011-01-01

76

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...education in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy...examination in radiography, nuclear medicine technology, or radiation therapy technology shall be utilized to...licensed Radiographer, Nuclear Medicine...

2010-10-01

77

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2009-10-01

78

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part...Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship...safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation...

2010-10-01

79

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...examination shall be licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or...

2012-10-01

80

42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation...examination shall be licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or...

2013-10-01

81

Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

Alberto, Roger

2012-06-01

82

Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

SciTech Connect

The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (USA))

1989-11-01

83

Improving patient access in nuclear medicine: a case study of PET scanner scheduling.  

PubMed

We used the systems engineering technique of discrete event simulation modeling to assist in increasing patient access to positron emission tomographic examinations in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at Mayo Clinic, Rochester. The model was used to determine the best universal slot length to address the specific access challenges of a destination medical center such as Mayo Clinic. On the basis of the modeling, a new schedule was implemented in April 2012 and our before and after data analysis shows an increase of 2.4 scans per day. This was achieved without requiring additional resources or negatively affecting patient waiting, staff satisfaction (as evaluated by day length), or examination quality. PMID:24088878

Marmor, Yariv N; Kemp, Bradley J; Huschka, Todd R; Ruter, Royce L; McConnell, Daniel M; Rohleder, Thomas R

2013-01-01

84

ELECTRON ACCELERATOR'S PRODUCTION OF TECHNETIUM99m FOR NUCLEAR MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present Technetium-99m provides up to 90% isotopic products used in nuclear medicine (1). His generator Molybdenum-99 is mainly produced in fission reactors. Most of reactors used for this production are approaching the end of their exploitation (2). One suggests to use photonuclear reactions in 100Mo under influence of bremsstrahlung of powerful electron accelerator as an alternative method of 99m

V. L. Uvarov; N. P. Dikiy; A. N. Dovbnya; P. Medvedyeva; G. D. Pugachov; D. Tur

1998-01-01

85

Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests  

SciTech Connect

Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2005-05-04

86

Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images  

PubMed Central

The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images.

Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

2012-01-01

87

Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 {+-} 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico and Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados CIMAV, A.C. Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Diagnostico Integral del Noroeste, Luis Donaldo Colosio 23 83000 Centro Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A.P. 1626 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora. A. P. 5-088 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

2012-10-23

88

Liver phantom for quality control and training in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine, liver scintigraphy aims to verify organ function based on the radionuclide concentration in the liver and bile flow and is also used to detect tumors. Therefore it is necessary to perform quality control tests in the gamma camera before running the exam to prevent false results. Quality control tests of the gamma camera should thus be performed before running the exam to prevent false results. Such tests generally use radioactive material inside phantoms for evaluation of gamma camera parameters in quality control procedures. Phantoms can also be useful for training doctors and technicians in nuclear medicine procedures. The phantom proposed here has artifacts that simulate nodules; it may take on different quantities, locations and sizes and it may also be mounted without the introduction of nodules. Thus, its images may show hot or cold nodules or no nodules. The phantom consists of acrylic plates hollowed out in the centre, with the geometry of an adult liver. Images for analyses of simulated liver scintigraphy were obtained with the detector device at 5 cm from the anterior surface of the phantom. These simulations showed that this object is suitable for quality control in nuclear medicine because it was possible to visualize artifacts larger than 7.9 mm using a 256×256 matrix and 1000 kcpm. The phantom constructed in this work will also be useful for training practitioners and technicians in order to prevent patients from repeat testing caused by error during examinations.

Lima Ferreira, Fernanda Carla; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

2011-10-01

89

The role of nuclear medicine in modern therapy of cancer.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine is a multidisciplinary field that develops and uses instrumentation and tracers (radiopharmaceuticals) to study physiological processes and noninvasively diagnose, stage, and treat diseases. Particularly, it offers a unique means to study cancer biology in vivo and to optimize cancer therapy for individual patients. A tracer is either a radionuclide alone, such as iodine-131 or a radiolabel in a carrier molecule such as (18)F in fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG), or other feasible radionuclide attached to a drug, a protein, or a peptide, which when introduced into the body, would accumulate in the tissue of interest. Nuclear medicine imaging, including single-photon emission computer tomography and positron emission tomography, can provide important quantitative and functional information about normal tissues or disease conditions, in contrast to conventional, anatomical imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging. For treatment, tumor-targeting agents, conjugated with therapeutic radionuclides, may be used to deposit lethal radiation at tumor sites. This review outlines the role of nuclear medicine in modern cancer therapy. PMID:22446937

Kramer-Marek, Gabriela; Capala, Jacek

2012-06-01

90

American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

NONE

1991-12-31

91

Photons across medicine: relating optical and nuclear imaging  

PubMed Central

The Optics in the Life Sciences conference sponsored by the Optical Society of America was held in Waikoloa Beach, HI on April 14 – 18, 2013. Papers were presented in the areas of Bio-Optics: Design & Application, Novel Techniques in Microscopy, Optical Molecular Probes, Imaging & Drug Delivery, and Optical Trapping Applications. A focal point of the meeting was a special symposium entitled “Photons Across Medicine”, organized by Adam Wax, Duke University, highlighting activities of joint interest between the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the Society for Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI). This paper is a synopsis of the presentations made at this joint symposium. Central to the special symposium presentations was the fact that the optical and nuclear imaging communities share common interests and challenges. These are highlighted in this article. Also discussed was the fact that the nuclear technologies in imaging have found their way into general clinical utility, a feat that has yet to be achieved by optical methods. Because of the common ground shared by the two technologies, coordination between the two societies should be planned.

Nordstrom, Robert; Cherry, Simon; Azhdarinia, Ali; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; VanBrocklin, Henry

2013-01-01

92

Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting  

SciTech Connect

The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

Williams, Lawrence E. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States)

2008-07-15

93

Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting  

PubMed Central

The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography?computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography?CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated.

Williams, Lawrence E.

2008-01-01

94

Prediction of tumour hypoxia and radioresistance with nuclear medicine markers.  

PubMed Central

Second-generation nuclear medicine markers of tumour hypoxia have been synthesised and screened for hypoxic marking activity in cell cultures and in mouse tumours (EMT-6). Markers of the iodinated azomycin nucleoside class with greater water solubility and faster plasma clearance rates relative to iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) were of particular interest. The test systems used to characterise hypoxic marking activity of compounds included (1) covalent linkage of radiolabelled markers to cells in suspension culture equilibrated with specific O2 concentrations; (2) biodistribution of radiolabelled markers in EMT-6 tumour-bearing mice; and (3) biodistribution in R3327-AT tumour-bearing rats by nuclear medicine procedures. Of the iodinated azomycin nucleosides produced to date, beta-D-iodoazomycin galactoside (beta-D-IAZG) and beta-D-iodoazomycin xylopyranoside (beta-D-IAZXP) exhibited high metabolism-dependent hypoxic cell uptake, rapid clearance kinetics from the blood and excellent tumour marking activity in vivo. Tumour-blood (T/B) ratio (a measure of tumour hypoxic fraction) was dependent upon EMT-6 tumour size and implantation site. The radioresistance of individual tumours was measured by in vivo/in vitro assay and correlated well with the T/B ratio of hypoxic marker. These studies have identified beta-D-IAZG and beta-D-IAZXP as effective hypoxic markers for planar and single photon emission computerised tomography (SPECT) imaging studies of tumour oxygenation.

Chapman, J. D.; Coia, L. R.; Stobbe, C. C.; Engelhardt, E. L.; Fenning, M. C.; Schneider, R. F.

1996-01-01

95

Application of mathematical methods in dynamic nuclear medicine studies.  

PubMed

Dynamic nuclear medicine studies can generate large quantities of data, and their analysis consists essentially of a reduction of these data to a small number of relevant parameters which will assist in clinical decision making. This review examines some of the mathematical techniques that have been used in the process of data reduction and attempts to explain the principles behind their application. It particularly identifies the techniques that have stood the test of time and demonstrated their usefulness, many of which are now available as standard tools on nuclear medicine processing computers. These include curve processing tools such as smoothing, fitting and factor analysis, as well as tools based on empirical models, such as the Patlak/Rutland plot and deconvolution. Compartmental models and vascular models are also examined and the review finishes with a summary of some functional images and condensed images. It is concluded that an appreciation of the principles and limitations of these mathematical tools is valuable for their correct usage and interpretation of the results produced. PMID:10232797

Lawson, R S

1999-04-01

96

Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

2000-05-01

97

The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

Kotz, D.

1995-08-01

98

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

Dilmanian, F. Avraham (Yaphank, NY); Packer, Samuel (Great Neck, NY); Slatkin, Daniel N. (Sound Beach, NY)

1996-12-10

99

Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using  

DOEpatents

A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

1996-12-10

100

Conceptual plan to link nuclear medicine and the MDIS radiology PACS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System (MDIS) is a project to install PACS systems at several medical sites in the military. The configuration calls for links to nuclear medicine in the near future but to date no definite system has been devised. This presentation describes a scenario in which a nuclear medicine department acts as a mini-PACS system with a

John Bauman; Steve Budd; Neil Katz; Michael A. Cawthon; John R. Romlein; John C. Weiser; Robert G. Leckie

1993-01-01

101

(In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-01-01

102

[In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine]. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

The overall goals of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. We are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides.

Not Available

1989-12-31

103

General comparison of functional imaging in nuclear medicine with other modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

New (noninvasive) diagnostic procedures in medicine (ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computed tomography (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) create a need for a review of the clinical utility of functional imaging in nuclear medicine. A general approach that is valid for all imaging procedures is not possible. For this reason, an individual assessment for each class of functional imaging

W ADAM

1987-01-01

104

Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

2010-01-01

105

A method and device for automatic scanning of nuclear emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed method of automatic scanning of emulsions exposed to a beam ; of charged particles allows rapid automatic location of events. The emuision is ; scanned by an optical-mechanical scanning unit. The information from several ; consecutive layers is accumulated in an analog memory device, and the accumulated ; information is processed by a logical anaiysis system. When the

Yu. A. Bychkov; von Chun Vi; A. M. Frolov; E. Katz; T. Pacuraru; V. A. Petukhov; O. M. Tsislyak; V. Ya. Volkov

1963-01-01

106

Bone scanning in otolaryngology.  

PubMed

Modern radionuclide bone scanning has introduced a new concept in physiologic and anatomic diagnostic imaging to general medicine. As otolaryngologists must diagnose and treat disease in relation to the bony and/or cartilaginous supporting structures of the neurocranium and upper airway, this modality should be included in the otolaryngologist's diagnostic armamentarium. It is the purpose of this manuscript to study the specific applications of bone scanning to our specialty at this time, based on clinical experience over the past three years. This thesis describes the development of bone scanning in general (history of nuclear medicine and nuclear physics; history of bone scanning in particular). General concepts in nuclear medicine are then presented; these include a discussion of nuclear semantics, principles of radioactive emmissions, the properties 99mTc as a radionuclide, and the tracer principle. On the basis of these general concepts, specific concepts in bone scanning are then brought forth. The physiology of bone and the action of the bone scan agents is presented. Further discussion considers the availability and production of the bone scan agent, patient factors, the gamma camera, the triphasic bone scan and the ultimate diagnostic principle of the bone scan. Clinical applications of bone scanning in otolaryngology are then presented in three sections. Proven areas of application include the evaluation of malignant tumors of the head and neck, the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders, the diagnosis of facial fractures, the evaluation of osteomyelitis, nuclear medicine imaging of the larynx, and the assessment of systemic disease. Areas of adjunctive or supplementary value are also noted, such as diagnostic imaging of meningioma. Finally, areas of marginal value in the application of bone scanning are described. PMID:470539

Noyek, A M

1979-09-01

107

Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging of the pediatric chest: current practical imaging assessment.  

PubMed

In the chest, the indications for nuclear medicine studies are broader and more varied in children than in adults. In children, nuclear medicine studies are used to evaluate congenital and developmental disorders of the chest, as well as diseases more typical of adults. In the chest, pediatric nuclear medicine uses the same radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques as used in adults to evaluate cardiac and pulmonary disease, aerodigestive disorders, and pediatric malignancies. The introduction of PET (mostly using (18)F-FDG) has transformed pediatric nuclear oncology, particular for imaging malignancies in the chest. PMID:21889020

Grant, Frederick D; Treves, S Ted

2011-09-01

108

Radiation protection and regulations for the nuclear medicine physician.  

PubMed

As authorized users of radioactive material, nuclear medicine (NM) physicians play a leading role in the use and management of these agents. Regarding patient management, NM physicians are responsible for ensuring both the appropriateness of exams and the associated patient doses. Along with radiologists, NM physicians are the ones developing and implementing processes that provide guidance to and dialog with referring physicians to ensure that patients receive the most appropriate type of imaging exams. Regarding regulatory compliance, in collaboration with radiation safety officers, NM physicians are the ones educating their staff about principles of radiation protection and radiation safety with adherence to regulations from agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Food and Drug Administration. On occasion, these regulations and standards can be difficult to comprehend. This article is intended to serve as a condensed guide for NM physicians who are in the process of applying for a radioactive materials license, establishing a new radiation protection program, or want to ensure continued compliance and maintenance of safety and security of licensed materials in the clinical or research settings. PMID:24832587

Chen, Man Yu

2014-05-01

109

Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review*  

PubMed Central

This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (“thyroid”) uptake probe, ?-camera, SPECT and SPECT/CT scanner, and PET and PET/CT scanner. It should be particularly useful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and their respective frequencies are presented only as general guidelines.

Zanzonico, Pat

2009-01-01

110

42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d) Radiation physics; (e) Nuclear instrumentation; (f) Statistics; (g) Radionuclide chemistry; (h) Radiopharmacology; (i) Departmental organization and function; (j)...

2012-10-01

111

Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ? 3mm.

Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

2014-03-01

112

Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine  

PubMed Central

Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 ?Sv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 ?Sv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared.

Gultekin, Salih Sinan; Sahmaran, Turan

2013-01-01

113

Importance of bladder radioactivity for radiation safety in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 ?Sv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 ?Sv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Sahmaran, Turan

2013-12-01

114

Staging of primary cervical cancers: the role of nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

In nuclear medicine, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG PET) and lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) may significantly improve the staging of primary cervical cancers. Indeed, the disease progresses in a 'level by level' fashion to regional nodes through the lymphatic channels, and also to extra-nodal sites via the hematogenous stream. Additionally, the sub-optimal efficacy of routine radiological protocols, while new combined therapies are proving to be more efficient, stresses the need for alternative staging procedures. Current data suggest that LM/SL accurately reflects the regional lymph node status in early stage cervical cancers, and thus could avoid unnecessary complete lymphadenectomies. Also, whole body 18FDG PET may provide valuable insights on extra-pelvic and distant tumor spreading, with a significant impact on treatment choices. If these promising results are confirmed on large controlled trials, LM/SL and 18FDG PET imaging could be incorporated in the routine staging work-up of primary cervical cancers. PMID:12791427

Belhocine, Tarik; Kridelka, Frédéric; Thille, Alain; De Barsy, Caroline; Foidart-Willems, Jacqueline; Hustinx, Roland; Rigo, Pierre

2003-06-01

115

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements. PMID:25071885

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-07-28

116

Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future  

PubMed Central

Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography(SPECT)/electronic computer X-ray tomography technique (CT) and the availability of fluorine-18 fluoride PET suggests that the diagnostic paradigm may be shifting again. By providing the anatomic information lacking in conventional radionuclide studies, there is renewed interest in bone scintigraphy, performed as a SPECT/CT procedure, for detecting joint instability, mechanical loosening and component malpositioning. Fluoride-PET may provide new insights into periprosthetic bone metabolism. The objective of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the evolution of nuclear medicine imaging of joint replacements.

Palestro, Christopher J

2014-01-01

117

A computer program for calculation of approximate embryo/fetus radiation dose in nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

Objective: In this study, we aimed to make a computer program that calculates approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Material and Methods: Radiation dose values per MBq-1 received by embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications were gathered from literature for various stages of pregnancy. These values were embedded in the computer code, which was written in Fortran 90 program language. Results: The computer program called nmfdose covers almost all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine applications. Approximate radiation dose received by embryo/fetus can be calculated easily at a few steps using this computer program. Conclusion: Although there are some constraints on using the program for some special cases, nmfdose is useful and it provides practical solution for calculation of approximate dose to embryo/fetus in nuclear medicine applications. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23487527

Bayram, Tuncay; Sönmez, Bircan

2012-04-01

118

The 2011 nuclear medicine technology job analysis project of the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists.  

PubMed

The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) conducts periodic job analysis projects to update the content and eligibility requirements for all certification examinations. In 2009, the ARRT conducted a comprehensive job analysis project to update the content specifications and clinical competency requirements for the nuclear medicine technology examination. ARRT staff and a committee of volunteer nuclear medicine technologists designed a job analysis survey that was sent to a random sample of 1,000 entry-level staff nuclear medicine technologists. Through analysis of the survey data and judgments of the committee, the project resulted in changes to the nuclear medicine technology examination task list, content specifications, and clinical competency requirements. The primary changes inspired by the project were the introduction of CT content to the examination and the expansion of the content covering cardiac procedures. PMID:21078779

Anderson, Dan; Hubble, William; Press, Bret A; Hall, Scott K; Michels, Ann D; Koenen, Roxanne; Vespie, Alan W

2010-12-01

119

Current Status of Diagnostic Counting and Imaging Techniques Used in Nuclear Medicine: A Sketch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diagnostic procedures used in Nuclear Medicine are designed to provide information about the static and/or dynamic distribution of some particular stable or radioactive material within the patient, as well as the quantity of the material present. Thus, th...

R. N. Beck

1975-01-01

120

NCRP report 160 and what it means for medical imaging and nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to briefly explain report 160 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement and the significance of the report to medical imaging as a whole and nuclear medicine specifically. The implications of the findings of report 160 have had repercussions and will continue to affect all of ionizing radiation medical imaging. The nuclear medicine community should have an understanding of why and how report 160 is important. After reading this article, the nuclear medicine technologist will be familiar with the main focus of report 160, the significant change that has occurred since the 1980s in the ionizing radiation exposure of people in the United States, the primary background source of ionizing radiation in the United States, the primary medical exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States, trends in nuclear medicine procedures and patient exposure, and a comparison of population doses between 2006 and the early 1980s as outlined in report 160. PMID:24179182

Bolus, Norman E

2013-12-01

121

Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

Budinger, Thomas (LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging)

2011-10-04

122

Hardware performance of a scanning system for high speed analysis of nuclear emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of nuclear emulsions in very large physics experiments is now possible thanks to the recent improvements in the industrial production of emulsions and to the development of fast automated microscopes. In this paper the hardware performances of the European Scanning System (ESS) are described. The ESS is a very fast automatic system developed for the mass scanning of

L. Arrabito; E. Barbuto; C. Bozza; S. Buontempo; L. Consiglio; D. Coppola; M. Cozzi; J. Damet; N. D’Ambrosio; G. De Lellis; M. De Serio; F. Di Capua; D. Di Ferdinando; D. Di Marco; L. S. Esposito; G. Giacomelli; G. Grella; M. Hauger; F. Juget; I. Kreslo; M. Giorgini; M. Ieva; I. Laktineh; K. Manai; G. Mandrioli; A. Marotta; S. Manzoor; P. Migliozzi; P. Monacelli; M. T. Muciaccia; A. Pastore; L. Patrizii; C. Pistillo; M. Pozzato; P. Royole-Degieux; G. Romano; G. Rosa; N. Savvinov; A. Schembri; L. Scotto Lavina; S. Simone; M. Sioli; C. Sirignano; G. Sirri; G. Sorrentino; P. Strolin; V. Tioukov; T. Waelchli

2006-01-01

123

A dynamic renal phantom for nuclear medicine studies.  

PubMed

Dynamic radionuclide renal study (renography) provides functional and structural information of the kidney and urinary tract noninvasively. Our purpose in this study is to describe the construction and test results of a dynamic renal phantom with different clinical features of radionuclide renography. The phantom consisted of five pieces of different shaped Plexiglas boxes: Two kidneys, one liver, two square shaped boxes (one heart and one bladder). The bladder was internally divided into two compartments in order to collect each kidney output separately. The dynamic circulation of the phantom was maintained under a hydrostatic pressure approximately equal to 13.3 kPa (average human blood pressure). The standard dose distribution among different organs and different renographic parameters were calculated from series of normal patients study (91 with 99mTc-DTPA, 68 with 99mTc-EC). All the studies were performed with same camera (Siemens Orbiter Digitrac 7500) equipped with LEAP (low energy all purpose) collimator using ADAC Pegasys II analytic package program under the same clinical procedure. Different regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn for concerning organs and counts per second (CPS) were collected for each ROI. The series of renogram curves were generated by phantom-studies with different flow rates for left kidney (LK) and right kidney (RK). The renal index (RI) for an individual study was calculated as the product of two indexes: "Relative Renal Function" (RRF) (water-volume of LK/RK) and "Relative Renal Time" (RRT) (Tmax of LK/RK). The most significant correlation was found in total CPS for LK and RK between the EC group and phantom studies (p < 0.001). The calculated RI values were used to simulate the patients' study with different clinical features. The dynamics were found reproducible. The phantom is suitable for using in calibration and quality control protocols of the renogram procedure used in Nuclear Medicine. PMID:15789599

SabbirAhmed, A S M; Demir, Mustafa; Kabasakal, Levent; Uslu, Ilhami

2005-02-01

124

An application of nuclear emulsions with automatic scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It will be shown that emulsions can be mass produced and automatically scanned in large quantities. CHORUS demonstrated the first large-scale application. Emulsions can be used to search for rare events in a high track density environment like DONUT. Heavy target masses as in OPERA are possible. The use of emulsions is getting more and more easier.

Stiegler, Ulrich

2000-11-01

125

A FAST METHOD OF SCANNING OF NUCLEAR PHOTO-EMULSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flying spot'' method of scanning photo-emulsions is described. The ; instrument is whown schematically. A micro-oscillograph of suitable dimensions ; and low persistence is placed above a photo-emulsion to be g regime is ; established. An image of the flying spot'' is produced within the emulsion by ; means of a lens system. This image is recorded by a

Petukhov

1957-01-01

126

Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.  

PubMed

The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

Cuocolo, A

2011-06-01

127

Nuclear reprogramming: A key to stem cell function in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of regenerative medicine is to restore form and function to damaged tissues. One potential therapeutic approach involves the use of autologous cells derived from the bone marrow (bone marrow-derived cells, BMDCs). Advances in nuclear transplantation, experimental heterokaryon formation and the observed plasticity of gene expression and phenotype reported in multiple phyla provide evidence for nuclear plasticity. Recent observations

Jason Pomerantz; Helen M. Blau

2004-01-01

128

Determination of scanning efficiencies in experiments using nuclear emulsion sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During their exposure, nuclear emulsion sheets detect both tracks from experiment-related particles, as well as a considerable amount of background tracks, mainly due to cosmic rays. Unless the exposure has been fairly short, it is therefore fairly likely that a fraction of the tracks that have been identified as belonging to the particles the experiment is interested in, are really due to background. A method, which allows measurement of this fraction reliably directly from the data, is described.

Brooijmans, G.

2000-08-01

129

Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: The incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care.  

PubMed

The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15-19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,670 abstracts were received. Of these, 1,399 were accepted for oral or poster presentations, with a rejection rate of 16.2%. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine, and addressed particularly advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well-established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, nephrology, and infection and inflammation. It is noteworthy that a number of studies presented at this congress focussed on the quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, and identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and management. These and many other studies presented at the congress demonstrate once more the crucial role that nuclear medicine has to play in contemporary medicine. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress proceedings book, published as volume 32, supplement 1 of the Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in September 2005. PMID:16538466

Cuocolo, Alberto; Acampa, Wanda; Varrone, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco

2006-03-01

130

Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)  

SciTech Connect

The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

Kieffer, C.T. (Children's Hospital of Buffalo, NY); Suto, P.A.

1983-03-01

131

Triggering radiation alarm at security checks. Patients should be informed even after diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures.  

PubMed

During the last few years an increasing number of nuclear medicine patients in various countries evoked a radiation alarm after therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, and even after passive exposure. A prospective calculation of activity retention in the patient's body is difficult due to extremely high variation of uptake and kinetics. Furthermore, different sensitivities and distances of the detectors make a prospective calculation even more difficult. In this article a number of cases are being reported, related problems are discussed and the surprisingly very limited literature reviewed. In order to minimize problems after eventually triggering alarms, we strongly recommend that each patient receives a certificate providing personal data, tracer, dose, half-life of the radionuclide, type and date of procedure applied as well as the nuclear medicine unit to contact for further information. Furthermore, a closer cooperation and exchange of information between the authorities and local nuclear medicine societies, would be welcome. PMID:19330183

Palumbo, Barbara; Neumann, Irmgard; Havlik, Ernst; Palumbo, Renato; Sinzinger, Helmut

2009-01-01

132

(In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. We are utilizing these endpoints to examine sets of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of medical procedures. The cohorts we are studying include: nuclear medicine technicians, two set of nuclear medicine patients, sets of controls and a new set of Hodgkins disease patients. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, and mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described in this report in more detail.

Not Available

1990-01-01

133

The scanning laser ophthalmoscope—a review of its role in bioscience and medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) offers the potential for retinal imaging that is complementary both to that of the fundus camera and also the newly developing technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT). It has the ability to produce rapid images at low light levels using light of specific wavelengths. This permits temporal studies of fluorescent-labelled cells which offer a unique insight into inflammatory processes in the eye. The facility to image with several different wavelengths simultaneously offers the potential for spectral imaging of retinal tissue with the aim of revealing those early changes in tissue perfusion that indicate the onset of retinal disease, so increasing the probability of successful therapy.

Sharp, P. F.; Manivannan, A.; Xu, H.; Forrester, J. V.

2004-04-01

134

Trends of population radiation adsorbed dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran: 1985-1989  

SciTech Connect

In view of the rapid expansion of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Iran, this study was undertaken to examine trends of nuclear medicine practice in the country and to determine the mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita. Comprehensive national data covering 93% of all nuclear medicine centers in 1985-1989 were obtained. The total number of nuclear medicine examinations inc teased by 42% during these years. The relative frequency of thyroid investigations was 84% followed by liver/spleen and bone procedures (7% and 6%, respectively). {sup 99m}Tc was the radionuclide of choice for 86% of investigation while {sup 131}I alone accounted for 59% of collective effective dose equivalent. The annual average number of nuclear medicine procedures per 1,000 people was 1.9. For the thyroid, the highest number (48%) of patients investigated was in the 15-29 y age group and the lowest (3%) was in the >64 y age group. The male to female ratio of thyroid and cardiac patient was 0.18 and 3.64, respectively. The numbers of males and females studied for the remaining eight procedures were less frequent and about the same. The mean effective dose equivalent per patient and per capita was about 4.3 mSv and 8 {mu}Sv, respectively. {sup 131}I was responsible for most of collective effective dose equivalent produced by nuclear medicine. Therefore, future efforts should be concentrated on dose reduction for diagnostic {sup 131}I tests.

Mohammadi, H.; Tabeie, F.; Saghari, M. [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1995-04-01

135

The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.  

PubMed

The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

2013-05-01

136

Nuclear microscopy. Its role and future in medicine and trace-element biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological improvement has occurred for micron and submicron nuclear probes. However, the nuclear microprobe has not yet been fully appreciated in the medical society. Some examples of recent applications in neurotoxicology and immunotoxicology will be presented. Specimen preparation is a crucial step before subjecting samples to nuclear microprobe analysis. Different ways of maintaining specimen integrity will be discussed. Although being time consuming, nuclear microprobe analyses often present a huge data set, and sometimes unexpected results are obtained. The scanning nuclear microprobes rapidly approach the practical resolution of electron microprobes with far better analytical sensitivity. Therefore, the adequate use of the technique at all levels of spatial resolution has to be discussed.

Lindh, Ulf

1991-03-01

137

Study of nuclear medicine practices in Portugal from an internal dosimetry perspective.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine practices involve the handling of a wide range of pharmaceuticals labelled with different radionuclides, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This work intends to evaluate the potential risks of internal contamination of nuclear medicine staff in several Portuguese nuclear medicine services and to conclude about the requirement of a routine internal monitoring. A methodology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), providing a set of criteria to determine the need, or not, for an internal monitoring programme, was applied. The evaluation of the risk of internal contaminations in a given set of working conditions is based on the type and amount of radionuclides being handled, as well as the safety conditions with which they are manipulated. The application of the IAEA criteria showed that 73.1% of all the workers included in this study should be integrated in a routine monitoring programme for internal contaminations; more specifically, 100% of workers performing radioimmunoassay techniques should be monitored. This study suggests that a routine monitoring programme for internal exposures should be implemented in Portugal for most nuclear medicine workers. PMID:21795254

Bento, J; Teles, P; Neves, M; Santos, A I; Cardoso, G; Barreto, A; Alves, F; Guerreiro, C; Rodrigues, A; Santos, J A M; Capelo, C; Parafita, R; Martins, B

2012-05-01

138

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

139

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in computerized tomography. A portion of the research effort is directed toward the development of new synthetic methods for the preparation of boron-containing neutron therapy agents. The uniqueness of the UT program

Kabalka

1991-01-01

140

Nuclear medicine in the 1990s: a quantitative physiological approach.  

PubMed

This paper describes the potential advantages to medical diagnosis and treatment that might be obtained from the wider application of positron emission tomography as a clinical tool. Developments along the lines suggested here will require a radical change in thinking from both clinicians and the medically related scientific community in the UK and some enlightened and resourceful funding from a mixture of charitable, industrial and government sources. If these ideas are to be pursued successfully, then the work must start now on a much wider scale than is presently perceived in the UK, and close collaboration between physicists, engineers, chemists, biochemists, clinicians and industrialists is needed. Furthermore, it is imperative that the scientific developments now underway in silicon technology, parallel data processors, biochemical and pharmacological processes and even high-temperature superconductors be kept under close and constant review by those associated with the technological advancements of medicine, so that the value of such developments is rapidly transferred to applications to medicine. This must include closer relationships between academic medicine and science than is the general rule in the UK at present. In conclusion, the scenario presented here includes the installation of regional cyclotron facilities to provide a large number of institutions in the UK with positron-emitter labelled radiopharmaceuticals. Additionally, agents labelled with radionuclides from in-house generators and other already existing higher-energy cyclotrons will provide a versatile and valuable range of radiopharmaceuticals for the study of human disease. These developments must be supported by the manufacture of lower-cost positron camera systems, as suggested here, connected to high-data-rate parallel processors to provide images of body function and to determine the effects brought about by disease. These images may then be processed using algorithms based on kinetic models of the body systems to provide information about the basic biochemical and physiological processes of the body. Such a development could have a profound effect on our knowledge of human disease and on our ability to control and treat it successfully. PMID:2785428

Ott, R J

1989-05-01

141

Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine  

PubMed Central

Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long?held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases.

2012-01-01

142

``THE UNVEILED HEART'' a teaching program in cardiovascular nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional investigation of cardiac diseases using nuclear techniques involves several variables, such as myocardial perfusion, cellular viability or mechanical contraction. The combined, topographical and quantitative assessment of these variables can characterize the functional state of the heart in terms of normal myocardium, ischemia, hibernation or necrosis. The teaching program, "The Unveiled Heart", has been designed in order to help nuclear physicians or cardiologists approaching these concepts and their implications for diagnosis of coronary artery disease, optimization of therapeutic strategies and prognosis evaluation. Anatomical correlations with coronary angiographic results obtained during balloon occlusion at the time of coronary angioplasty demonstrate the complementary role of imaging techniques and highlight the patient to patient variability of risk areas. A sectorial model derived from a polar projection of the myocardium presents for each sector the probability of involvement of a given coronary artery.

Itti, Roland; Merabet, Yasmina; Roca, Ramona; Bontemps, Laurence; Itti, Emmanuel

2004-07-01

143

Identification of medicinal mushroom species based on nuclear large subunit rDNA sequences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop molecular identification method for medical mushrooms and their preparations based on the nucleotide sequences of nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA. Four specimens were collected of each of the three representative medicinal mushrooms used in Korea: Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, and Fomes fomentarius. Fungal material used in these experiments included two different mycelial cultures and two different fruiting bodies from wild or cultivated mushrooms. The genomic DNA of mushrooms were extracted and 3 nuclear LSU rDNA fragments were amplified: set 1 for the 1.1-kb DNA fragment in the upstream region, set 2 for the 1.2-kb fragment in the middle, and set 3 for the 1.3-kb fragment downstream. The amplified gene products of nuclear large subunit rDNA from 3 different mushrooms were cloned into E. coli vector and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination. The sequence thus determined revealed that the gene sequences of the same medicinal mushroom species were more than 99.48% homologous, and the consensus sequences of 3 different medicinal mushrooms were more than 97.80% homologous. Restriction analysis revealed no useful restriction sites for 6-bp recognition enzymes for distinguishing the 3 sequences from one another, but some distinctive restriction patterns were recognized by the 4-bp recognition enzymes AccII and HhaI. This analysis was also confirmed by PCR-RFLP experiments on medicinal mushrooms. PMID:16554714

Lee, Ji Seon; Lim, Mi Ok; Cho, Kyoung Yeh; Cho, Jung Hee; Chang, Seung Yeup; Nam, Doo Hyun

2006-02-01

144

[Imaging in oncology and international rules for evaluation: the nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

The growing success of isotopic explorations in oncology is related to the number of growing radiotracers and progress in the methods for detection and imaging. Today, the nuclear medicine is able to answer important questions raised by biology and therapeutic progress results from this. The new radiopharmaceutical compounds are able to explore in vivo the metabolism, the proliferation, the hypoxia and the expression of some receptors or antigens in tumor cells. This progress in radiopharmaceuticals design can be combined with the new tools for detection, such as the cameras coupled to a tomodensitometer (TEMP-TDM and TEP-TDM), the new gamma cameras with semiconductors, and the peroperative gamma probes. The nuclear medicine can now be used to determine the initial staging of tumours, the evaluation of residual disease, the detection of recurrence, the evaluation and the prediction of response to treatments, i.e. chemotherapy, radiotherapy and now targeted treatments. This led to very promising prospects in the therapeutic adaptation and in the patient follow-up, as clearly shown in the malignant lymphomas. Standardized international criteria are set up for the therapeutic evaluation in TEP-FDG. Today, the nuclear medicine belongs to the family of "markers of substitution", participating more and more to the personalized medicine field. PMID:19854694

Bourre, Jean-Cyril; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe

2009-11-01

145

Dosimetry of Radiopharmaceuticals for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

A standard formalism for radionuclide internal radiation dosimetry was developed in the 1960s and continues to be refined today. Early work was based on a mathematical phantom but this is being replaced by phantoms developed from whole-body CT scans to give more realistic dose estimates. The largest contributors to the uncertainties in these dose estimates are the errors associated with in vivo activity quantitation, the variability of the biokinetics between patients and the limited information that can be obtained on these kinetics in individual patients. Despite these limitations, pre-treatment patient-specific dosimetry is being increasing used, particularly to limit the toxicity to non-target organs such as the bone marrow.

Smart, Richard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217 (Australia)

2011-05-05

146

Application of nuclear particle tracks: A scanning x-ray microscope  

SciTech Connect

The scanning x-ray microscope (SXM) is a short-wavelength analog of a near-field optical-scanning microscope, promising spatial resolution of {approximately}100{angstrom} up to {approximately}5 keV x-ray energy. A portion of a synchrotron x-ray beam streams through an etched nuclear particle track in an opaque membrane and impinges on an object within the narrow stream. Scattered or transmitted x-rays are detected with a photon counter. The SXM is feasible because a useful number of synchrotron x-rays, even from a bend magnet, will stream through a small diameter pore. The properties and limitations of the SXM are discussed together with other submicroscopic applications of nuclear particle tracks. 14 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Ebert, P.J.

1991-09-30

147

An observation model for motion correction in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method of using a tracking system to track the upper part of the anterior surface during scanning for developing patient-specific models of respiration. In the experimental analysis, the natural variation in the anterior surface during breathing will be modeled to reveal the dominant pattern in the breathing cycle. The main target is to produce a patient-specific set of parameters that describes the configuration of the anterior surface for all respiration phases. These data then will be linked to internal organ motion to identify the effect of the morphology of each on motion using particle filter to account for previously unseen patterns of motion. In this initial study, a set of volunteers were imaged using the Codamotion infrared marker-based system. In the marker-based system, the temporal variation of the respiratory motion was studied. This showed that for the 12 volunteer cohort, the mean displacement of the thorax surface TS (abdomen surface AS) region is 10.7+/-5.6 mm (16.0+/-9.5mm). Finally, PCA was shown to capture the redundancy in the data set with the first principal component (PC) accounting for more than 96% of the overall variance in both AS and TS datasets. A fitting to the dominant modes of variation using a simple piecewise sinusoid has suggested a maximum error of about 1.1mm across the complete cohort dataset.

Alnowami, Majdi R.; Lewis, E.; Guy, M.; Wells, K.

2010-03-01

148

Epigenetic stochasticity, nuclear structure and cancer: the implications for medicine.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to summarize an evolution of thinking about the epigenetic basis of human cancer, from the earliest studies of altered DNA methylation in cancer to the modern comprehensive epigenomic era. Converging data from epigenetic studies of primary cancers and from experimental studies of chromatin in development and epithelial-mesenchymal transition suggest a role for epigenetic stochasticity as a driving force of cancer, with Darwinian selection of tumour cells at the expense of the host. This increased epigenetic stochasticity appears to be mediated by large-scale changes in DNA methylation and chromatin in domains associated with the nuclear lamina. The implications for diagnosis include the potential to identify stochastically disrupted progenitor cells years before cancer develops, and to target drugs to epigenetic drivers of gene expression instability rather than to mean effects per se. PMID:24635672

Feinberg, A P

2014-07-01

149

Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (?e?e) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

2012-10-01

150

[Diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the endocrine system: new trends in nuclear medicine].  

PubMed

Diagnosis and therapy of endocrine disorders in nuclear medicine has been improved through the implementation of new techniques especially with positron emission tomography (PET). In modern concepts of parathyroid gland surgery an exact anatomic localisation of adenomas is necessary, which may be achieved with MIBI-Scintigraphy being the most sensitive method in primary hyperparathyroidism. The optimal access to localise adenomas is the investigation with combined SPECT/X-CT systems. The use of such systems for diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal system may also be helpful. For neoplasms of the adrenal gland PET systems could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant entities or to detect primary tumours. In case of incidentalomas J131-Norcholesterol and MIGB-scintigraphy has been proven helpful. Indications for nuclear medicine studies to detect abnormalities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal system are established rarely. PMID:15518138

Kienast, Oskar; Kainberger, Franz; Kurtaran, Amir

2003-01-01

151

MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

2010-11-01

152

Nuclear medicine - factors influencing the choice and use of radionuclides in diagnosis and therapy  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses the many factors which influence the choice of the proper radiopharmaceutical drug product for the diagnosis or treatment of a specific disease or condition in a human subject. The Report examines the historical factors that influence the choice of radionuclides, the factors that influence the localization of radionuclides in tissues, the factors that influence the choice of instruments, and include an evaluation of the nuclear medicine procedures that could be selected and their clinical usefulness. In examining these factors the desirable characteristics of the radiopharmaceutical drug products of the measurement systems are identified. The methods of dose determination and the assumptions used in determination of dose are developed. There is also a section on radiation effects. A chapter on guidelines for procedures in nuclear medicine and some general and specific recommendations for protection of patients conclude the body of the text.

Not Available

1983-01-01

153

The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine -- recent advances and future perspectives  

SciTech Connect

Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1998-03-01

154

Optimizing bioimpedance measurement configuration for dual-gated nuclear medicine imaging: a sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion artefacts due to respiration and cardiac contractions may deteriorate the quality of nuclear medicine imaging leading\\u000a to incorrect diagnosis and inadequate treatment. Motion artefacts can be minimized by simultaneous respiratory and cardiac\\u000a gating, dual-gating. Currently, only cardiac gating is often performed. In this study, an optimized bioimpedance measurement\\u000a configuration was determined for simultaneous respiratory and cardiac gating signal acquisition.

Tuomas Koivumäki; Marko Vauhkonen; Jyrki T. Kuikka; Mikko A. Hakulinen

2011-01-01

155

Development of a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a patient-specific dosimetry estimation system in nuclear medicine examination using a SimSET-based Monte Carlo code. We added a dose deposition routine to store the deposited energy of the photons during their flights in SimSET and developed a user-friendly interface for reading PET and CT images. Dose calculated on ORNL phantom was used

H. H. Lin; S. L. Dong; H. J. Yang; Sharon Chen; C. T. Shih; K. S. Chuang; C. H. Lin; W. J. Yao; M. L. Jan

2011-01-01

156

Short- and long-term responses to molybdenum-99 shortages in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

Most nuclear medicine studies use 99Tcm, which is the decay product of 99Mo. The world supply of 99Mo comes from only five nuclear research reactors and availability has been much reduced in recent times owing to problems at the largest reactors. In the short-term there are limited actions that can be taken owing to capacity issues on alternative imaging modalities. In the long-term, stability of 99Mo supply will rely on a combination of replacing conventional reactors and developing new technologies.

Ballinger, J R

2010-01-01

157

Digital Filtering of Scintigrams and an Investigation into the Application of the Fresnel Zone Plate in Nuclear Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By lack of media large enough to obtain a gamma-lens gamma radiation imaging detectors are based on collimation by absorbence. At present, routine static studies in Nuclear Medicine generally make use of gamma cameras equiped with conventional collimators...

C. J. M. van den Berg

1976-01-01

158

Nuclear Medicine and Imaging Research. Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation. Progress Report, January 15, 1984-January 14, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program addresses problems involving the basic science and technology of radioactive tracer methods as they relate to nuclear medicine and imaging. The broad goal is to develop new instruments and methods for image formation, processing, quantitation...

R. N. Beck M. D. Cooper

1984-01-01

159

Healthcare Inspection: Alleged Residency Training Issues in Nuclear Medicine Service, Northport VA Medical Center, Northport, New York.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

VA's Office of Inspector General (OIG) Office of Healthcare Inspections (OHI) conducted an inspection to determine the validity of allegations regarding Northport, NY VA Medical Center's (VAMC's) Nuclear Medicine Service. These allegations particularly pe...

2010-01-01

160

An Intercomparison of Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasonography, and Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Liver Disease: A Retrospective Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature review was conducted to intercompare nuclear medicine, ultrasonography, and computed tomography on the basis of their ability to aid in the differential diagnosis of the various focal liver lesions and diffuse hepatic diseases. Each imaging m...

J. A. Siegel C. D. Evans A. B. McIntyre

1981-01-01

161

Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research: Positron Computed Tomography Assessment. Final Report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are reported of the final phase of the study effort generally titled Evaluative Studies in Nuclear Medicine Research. The previous work is reviewed and extended to an assessment providing perspectives on medical applications of positron emission t...

E. J. Potchen G. I. Harris D. A. R. D. Gift J. E. Siebert

1983-01-01

162

Nuclear medicine dynamic investigations in the diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the hepatic hemodynamics in the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) using per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) and liver angioscintigraphy (LAS). METHODS: Fourteen consecutive patients with BCS were evaluated by PRPS between 2003 and 2012. Ten of them underwent LAS and liver scan (LS) with Tc-99m colloid. Eleven patients had clinical manifestations and three were asymptomatic, incidentally diagnosed at PRPS. The control group included 15 healthy subjects. We used new parameters at PRPS, the liver transit time of portal inflow and the blood circulation time between the right heart and liver. PRPS offered information on the hepatic areas missing venous outflow or portal inflow, length and extent of the lesions, open portosystemic shunts (PSS), involvement of the caudate lobe (CL) as an intrahepatic shunt and flow reversal in the splenic vein. LAS was useful in the differential diagnosis between the BCS and portal obstructions, highlighting the hepatic artery buffer response and reversed portal flow. LS offered complementary data, especially on the CL. RESULTS: We described three hemodynamic categories of the BCS with several subtypes and stages, based on the finding that perfusion changes depend on the initial number and succession in time of the hepatic veins (HVs) obstructions. Obstruction of one hepatic vein (HV) did not cause opening of PSS. The BCS debuted by common obstruction of two HVs had different hemodynamic aspects in acute and chronic stages after subsequent obstruction of the third HV. In chronic stages, obstruction of two HVs resulted in opening of PSS. The BCS, determined by thrombosis of the terminal part of the inferior vena cava, presented in the acute stage with open PSS with low speed flow. At least several weeks are required in the obstructions of two or three HVs for the spontaneous opening of dynamically efficient PSS. The CL seems to have only a transient important role of intrahepatic shunt in several types of the BCS. CONCLUSION: Dynamic nuclear medicine investigations assess the extent and length of hepatic venous obstructions, open collaterals, areas without portal inflow, hemodynamic function of the CL and reverse venous flow.

Dragoteanu, Mircea; Balea, Ioan-Adrian; Piglesan, Cecilia-Diana

2014-01-01

163

Parathyroid nuclear scan. A focused review on the technical and biological factors affecting its outcome  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective Technetium Parathyroid Scintigraphy (TS) is the most popular noninvasive localization procedure in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Awareness of various factors involved in technetium uptake helps understand the outcome of TS. Methods We utilize a case of changing TS scans in a patient to review the literature on the various biological and technical factors involved in technetium uptake by the abnormal parathyroid tissue. A 56 year female was diagnosed with PHPT and osteopenia. An initial scan using 99mTc-Tetrofosmin showed no definite areas of abnormal parathyroid tissue. Patient refused surgical exploration, was started on Bisphosponates and subsequently monitored. Five years later she suffered fracture of her right wrist. A repeat TS using 99mTc-Sestamibi revealed hypervascular parathyroid lesion in the right lower neck. She underwent successful removal of a right lower parathyroid adenoma. Results Technical factors like the type of Tc isotope used, imaging techniques and biological factors like biochemical parameters (calcium, vitamin D levels), adenoma size, content of oxyphilic cells, vascularity can affect the outcome of the scan. Conclusion Clinicians should be aware of technical and biological factors that could result in negative scan in parathyroid nuclear scintigraphy.

Kannan, Subramanian; Milas, Mira; Neumann, Donald; Parikh, Rikesh T.; Siperstein, Alan; Licata, Angelo

2014-01-01

164

An Experiment to Study S = -2 Nuclear System PS-E373 (kek) -- for Fully Automated Scanning of ?-TRACKS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment to study S = -2 nuclear sytems by emulsion-scintillating fiber hybrid method is presented. To search for ten times or more ?? hypernuclei events than that of the previous experiments, we developed and improved several detectors which will be reported. We will discuss the background tracks for the fully automated scanning system for nuclear emulsion beased on the preliminary analysis.

Tanaka, H.; Ushida, N.; Kim, J. Y.; Kim, S. J.; Iwata, Y.; Kaneko, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Park, H. M.; Ra, Y. S.; Torikai, S.; Park, I. G.; Song, J. S.; Yoon, C. J.; Nagoshi, C.; Akaishi, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Ieiri, M.; Noumi, H.; Sekimoto, M.; Aoki, S.; Rhee, J. T.; Baik, K. M.; Chung, M. S.; Kim, C. O.; Sim, K. S.; Yang, J. T.; Ahn, J. K.; Akikawa, H.; Ichikawa, A.; Imai, K.-I.; Kanda, H.; Kondo, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Tojo, J.; Torii, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yosoi, M.; Takeutchi, F.; Hoshino, K.; Kawai, T.; Yasuda, N.; Yoshida, T.; Motoba, T.; Okabe, H.; Ohyama, K.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takahashi, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Davis, D. H.; Tovee, D. N.; Bahk, S. Y.

2000-09-01

165

Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach-Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach-Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift 35Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO3, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

Nesprías, F.; Debray, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Kreiner, A. J.; Vega, N.; de la Fournière, E.

2013-04-01

166

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The technetium-99m(/sup 99m/Tc)-labelled diphosophonate bone scan remains the most frequently requested investigation in any nuclear medicine department because of its exquisite sensitivity for lesion detection. It has a wide, and apparently ever-increasing, range of applications in clinical practice and the purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive review of the use of bone scanning. In addition, important topics of current interest, such as single photon emission computed tomography, quantitation of bone uptake of diphosphonate and bone mineral measurements by photon absorptiometry, are included. The emphasis is on the clinical use of bone scanning.

Fogelman, I.

1987-01-01

167

ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity\\u000a and high-energy cyclotron.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy\\u000a and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of

Ferid Haddad; Ludovic Ferrer; Arnaud Guertin; Thomas Carlier; Nathalie Michel; Jacques Barbet; Jean-François Chatal

2008-01-01

168

Principles of nuclear medicine imaging: planar, SPECT, PET, multi-modality, and autoradiography systems.  

PubMed

The underlying principles of nuclear medicine imaging involve the use of unsealed sources of radioactivity in the form of radiopharmaceuticals. The ionizing radiations that accompany the decay of the administered radioactivity can be quantitatively detected, measured, and imaged in vivo with instruments such as gamma cameras. This paper reviews the design and operating principles, as well as the capabilities and limitations, of instruments used clinically and preclinically for in vivo radionuclide imaging. These include gamma cameras, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners, and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. The technical basis of autoradiography is reviewed as well. PMID:22364319

Zanzonico, Pat

2012-04-01

169

Nuclear medicine in the era of genomics and proteomics: lessons from annexin V.  

PubMed

In the past decade, genomics and proteomics have begun to develop many new targets for potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. Among the life sciences, nuclear medicine is also deeply involved in the field of clinical investigation. Experience with radiolabeled annexin V highlights the many steps required to translate a good basic-science concept into the clinical setting. This model also emphasizes the value of synergy between basic and medical specialties in developing and optimizing a clinically useful product initially derived from basic investigation. PMID:15253415

Belhocine, Tarik Z; Tait, Jonathan F; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc; Li, Chun; Blankenberg, Francis G

2004-01-01

170

Nuclear imaging in pediatrics  

SciTech Connect

The author's intent is to familiarize practicing radiologists with the technical aspects and interpretation of nuclear medicine procedures in children and to illustrate the indications for nuclear medicine procedures in pediatric problems. Pediatric doses, dosimetry, sedation, and injection techniques, organ systems, oncology and infection, testicular scanning and nuclear crystography, pediatric endocrine and skeletal systems, ventilation and perfusion imaging of both congenital and acquired pediatric disorders, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, reticuloendothelial studies, and central nervous system are all topics which are included and discussed.

Siddiqui, A.R.

1985-01-01

171

Dose equivalent rate constants and barrier transmission data for nuclear medicine facility dose calculations and shielding design.  

PubMed

A primary goal of nuclear medicine facility design is to keep public and worker radiation doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). To estimate dose and shielding requirements, one needs to know both the dose equivalent rate constants for soft tissue and barrier transmission factors (TFs) for all radionuclides of interest. Dose equivalent rate constants are most commonly calculated using published air kerma or exposure rate constants, while transmission factors are most commonly calculated using published tenth-value layers (TVLs). Values can be calculated more accurately using the radionuclide's photon emission spectrum and the physical properties of lead, concrete, and/or tissue at these energies. These calculations may be non-trivial due to the polyenergetic nature of the radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, the effects of dose equivalent rate constant and transmission factor on nuclear medicine dose and shielding calculations are investigated, and new values based on up-to-date nuclear data and thresholds specific to nuclear medicine are proposed. To facilitate practical use, transmission curves were fitted to the three-parameter Archer equation. Finally, the results of this work were applied to the design of a sample nuclear medicine facility and compared to doses calculated using common methods to investigate the effects of these values on dose estimates and shielding decisions. Dose equivalent rate constants generally agreed well with those derived from the literature with the exception of those from NCRP 124. Depending on the situation, Archer fit TFs could be significantly more accurate than TVL-based TFs. These results were reflected in the sample shielding problem, with unshielded dose estimates agreeing well, with the exception of those based on NCRP 124, and Archer fit TFs providing a more accurate alternative to TVL TFs and a simpler alternative to full spectral-based calculations. The data provided by this paper should assist in improving the accuracy and tractability of dose and shielding calculations for nuclear medicine facility design. PMID:24849904

Kusano, Maggie; Caldwell, Curtis B

2014-07-01

172

[The nuclear medicine department and the TEP/Biomedical Cyclotron unit].  

PubMed

During the last 25 years, the clinical and experimental activity in nuclear medicine at Erasme hospital has been influenced by the implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) in 1990 as a method of brain functional investigation. The activity of the PET/biomedical cyclotron unit has been dedicated to various subjects in neurology, neurosciences, psychiatry, oncology and cardiology. This has been made possible by developments in radiochemistry. The radiochemistry laboratory has designed and produced original tracers such as 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)-methyl]guanine (FHPG), a tracer of viral thymidine kinase activity in gene therapy protocols. We have brought new applications of PET, such as its integration into stereotactic neurosurgical and radioneurosurgical techniques in order to improve their diagnostic and therapeutic performance in neurooncology. We have also conducted multiple studies on brain physiology and pathophysiology, in particular with the use of functional and metabolic brain mapping methods and the use of tracers of neurotransmission systems. The Department of nuclear medicine has also performed studies on bone metabolism and investigated in vivo imaging methods of infectious and immune processes. PMID:12584923

Goldman, S; Schoutens, A; Blocklet, D; Dumarey, N; Egrise, D; Lipschutz, B; Monclus, M; Moreno-Reyes, R; Schmitz, F; Van Naemen, J; Wikler, D

2002-01-01

173

Depicting Medullary Thyroid Cancer Recurrence: The Past and the Future of Nuclear Medicine Imaging  

PubMed Central

Context: Inherited and sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is an uncommon and medically challenging malignancy. Even if the extent of initial surgery is deemed adequate, the recurrence rate remains high, up to 50% in most series. Measurement of serum calcitonin is important in the follow-up of patients with MTC, and reliably reflects the existence of the disease. Evidence Acquisition: There is no single sensitive diagnostic imaging method to reveal all MTC recurrences or metastases. Conventional morphologic imaging methods (U/S, CT, and MRI) and several methods of nuclear medicine have been used for this purpose with variable accuracy. Results: The main role of nuclear medicine imaging is the detection of residual or recurrent tumor in the postoperative follow-up. In this review we present the radiopharmaceuticals used in the diagnosis of MTC recurrence, and comparison among them. Conclusions: The most used radiopharmaceuticals labelled with ? emitters are: Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), labelled with 131I or 123I, 111In-pentetreotide (Octreoscan), 99mTc-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA), and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-Octreotide ( Tektrotyd). The radiopharmaceuticals labelled with a positron-emitting radionuclide (?+), suitable for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), 18F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (18F-DOPA), and 68Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues (68Ga-DOTATATE or DOTATOC).

Skoura, Evangelia

2013-01-01

174

Role of nuclear medicine in the management of cutaneous malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

Malignant melanoma of the skin is one of the most lethal cancers. The disease may spread either locally or regionally and to distant sites through predictable or unpredictable metastatic pathways. Accurate staging and restaging of disease are required for appropriate treatment decision making. Routine protocols based on clinical examinations and traditional radiologic evaluations are not cost-effective for the detection of systemic disease. In the last decade, nuclear medicine techniques, such as lymphoscintigraphy-directed lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy and (18)F-FDG PET, have played key roles in nodal and distant staging of melanoma. More recently, anatomic-functional imaging has been improved with the development of integrated PET/CT devices or combined SPECT/CT systems. (18)F-FDG-sensitive intraoperative probes have been specifically designed to detect small nodal and visceral metastases from melanoma and may become important tools for the cancer surgeon. In this article, we review the role of nuclear medicine in the assessment of malignant melanoma. PMID:16741305

Belhocine, Tarik Z; Scott, Andrew M; Even-Sapir, Einat; Urbain, Jean-Luc; Essner, Richard

2006-06-01

175

Nanoscale Mechanism of Molecular Transport through the Nuclear Pore Complex as Studied by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the proteinaceous nanopore that solely mediates molecular transport across the nuclear envelope between the nucleus and cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. Small molecules (<40 kDa) diffuse through the large pore of this multiprotein complex. A passively impermeable macromolecule tagged with a signal peptide is chaperoned through the nanopore by nuclear transport receptors (e.g., importins) owing to their interactions with barrier-forming proteins. Presently, this bimodal transport mechanism is not well understood and is described by controversial models. Herein, we report on a dynamic and spatially resolved mechanism for NPC-mediated molecular transport through nanoscale central and peripheral routes with distinct permeabilities. Specifically, we develop a nanogap-based approach of scanning electrochemical microscopy to precisely measure the extremely high permeability of the nuclear envelope to a small probe molecule, (ferrocenylmethyl)trimethylammonium. Effective medium theories indicate that the passive permeability of 5.9 × 10?2 cm/s corresponds to the free diffusion of the probe molecule through ~22 nanopores with a radius of 24 nm and a length of 35 nm. Peripheral routes are blocked by wheat germ agglutinin to yield two-fold lower permeability for 17 nm-radius central routes. This lectin is also used in fluorescence assays to find that importins facilitate the transport of signal-tagged albumin mainly through the 7 nm-thick peripheral route rather than through the sufficiently large central route. We propose that this spatial selectivity is regulated by the conformational changes in barrier-forming proteins that transiently and locally expand the impermeably thin peripheral route while blocking the central route.

Kim, Jiyeon; Izadyar, Anahita; Nioradze, Nikoloz; Amemiya, Shigeru

2013-01-01

176

BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique involved in dosimetry (for instance activity quantitation). Nevertheless, there are some minor remarks to be made, about the goal and general organization of the discussion. First, the book could not be considered to be strictly about the Monte Carlo method, but maybe also internal dosimetry and related Monte Carlo issues. Then, it must be noted that the discussion would sometimes have been clearer if SI units had been used instead of rad, or mCi, especially for European readers. There are some confusing features, which could lead to misconceptions, since sometimes authors refer to treatment planning softwares as Monte Carlo codes. If the precious contribution of a software like MIRDOSE to the field of radiation protection dosimetry must be underlined, it should not be considered, strictly speaking, as a Monte Carlo code. It would have been more interesting and relevant to provide a more exhaustive review of Monte Carlo codes (history of the code, transport algorithm, pros and cons), and to make a separate chapter for treatment planning and radiation protection softwares (3D-ID, MABDOS, MIRDOSE3) which are of clinical routine interest. However, this book is very interesting, of practical interest, and it should have its utility in all modern nuclear medicine departments interested in dosimetry, providing up-to-date data and references. It should be viewed as a good and well-documented handbook, or as a general introduction for beginners and students.

Coulot, J.

2003-08-01

177

Occult radiographic fractures of the chest wall identified by nuclear scan imaging: report of seven cases.  

PubMed

Between 1985 and 1990 the enactment of state mandatory seat belt laws has reduced the risk of death from auto accident by at least 40% and the risk of moderate to severe injury by 45%. Although head and facial trauma has also been significantly reduced, there has not been a decrease in injuries to other parts of the body. We evaluated seven restrained drivers who complained of persistent anterior and/or lateral chest wall pain after being in motor vehicle accidents. All had normal x-rays of the osseous thorax. Nuclear scan imaging subsequently revealed that all seven had a healing fracture of either the sternum or ribs. In each instance, direct trauma to the sternum and ribs anteriorly by the chest strap itself and/or laterally displaced bending forces transmitted to the postero lateral rib margins was sufficient to produce x-ray occult fractures. PMID:8129591

LaBan, M M; Siegel, C B; Schutz, L K; Taylor, R S

1994-03-01

178

The utilization of Gleason grade as the primary criterion for ordering nuclear bone scan in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients.  

PubMed

Utilization of nuclear bone scans for staging newly diagnosed prostate cancer has decreased dramatically due to PSA-driven stage migration. The current criteria for performing bone scans are based on limited historical data. This study evaluates serum PSA and Gleason grade in predicting positive scans in a contemporary large series of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. Eight hundred consecutive cases of newly diagnosed prostate cancer over a 64-month period underwent a staging nuclear scan. All subjects had histologically confirmed cancer. The relationship between PSA, Gleason grade, and bone scan was examined by calculating series of crude, stratified, and adjusted odds ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Four percent (32/800) of all bone scans were positive. This proportion was significantly lower in patients with Gleason score or=8 (18.8%, p < 0.001). Among patients with Gleason score scans was 70-fold higher when the PSA was >30 ng/ml compared to or=8, the rate was significantly higher (27.9 vs. 0%) when PSA was >10 ng/ml compared to scans in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. The PSA threshold for ordering bone scans should be adjusted according to Gleason score. For patients with Gleason scores scan if the PSA is >30 ng/ml. However, for patients with a high Gleason score (8-10), we recommend a bone scan if the PSA is >10 ng/ml. PMID:19802499

Ritenour, Chad W M; Abbott, John T; Goodman, Michael; Alazraki, Naomi; Marshall, Fray F; Issa, Muta M

2009-01-01

179

Technical errors in planar bone scanning.  

PubMed

Optimal technique for planar bone scanning improves image quality, which in turn improves diagnostic efficacy. Because planar bone scanning is one of the most frequently performed nuclear medicine examinations, maintaining high standards for this examination is a daily concern for most nuclear medicine departments. Although some problems such as patient motion are frequently encountered, the degraded images produced by many other deviations from optimal technique are rarely seen in clinical practice and therefore may be difficult to recognize. The objectives of this article are to list optimal techniques for 3-phase and whole-body bone scanning, to describe and illustrate a selection of deviations from these optimal techniques for planar bone scanning, and to explain how to minimize or avoid such technical errors. PMID:15347693

Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Collier, B David; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Khalil, Magdy M

2004-09-01

180

Dose to patients through nuclear medicine procedures in a department in northern Greece.  

PubMed

Diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in a large hospital in northern Greece during 1984-1988 have been surveyed in order to estimate the radiation burden to the patients. The mean effective dose equivalent (EDE) was found to be 1.96 mSv/examination and 2.46 mSv/patient, allowing for the fact that a number of patients underwent more than one examination. Apart from EDE, absorbed dose has been calculated for bone marrow, thyroid, gonads, kidneys and bladder. Patients undergoing multiple examinations have been used to calculate true 'patient dose distribution' as well as 'patient time-weighted dose distribution'. Because of the predominance of renal examinations, 8.5 fatal renal malignancies are expected per 100,000 patients. PMID:2083554

Papadopoulos, G; Okkalides, D

1990-01-01

181

Assessment of metabolic bone disease: review of new nuclear medicine procedures  

SciTech Connect

In the management of patients with metabolic bone disease, nuclear medicine laboratories offer two nontraumatic procedures of potential clinical importance: bone mineral measurements and bone scintigraphy. Bone mineral measurements from the radius, lumbar spine, and hip obtained with use of absorptiometry or computed tomography can be used to predict the risk of fracture at these skeletal sites, can determine the severity of bone loss for the assessment of a benefit-versus-risk ratio on which appropriate therapy can be based, and can substantiate the effectiveness of therapy over time. Bone scintigraphy with use of labeled diphosphonate allows assessment of focal and, in defined circumstances, of total skeletal bone turnover in patients with normal kidney function. Both of these techniques have been used successfully in studies of population groups for the evaluation of trends. Their application to the management of individual patients is currently being evaluated. 41 references.

Wahner, H.W.

1985-12-01

182

One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

1991-07-01

183

Recently revised diagnostic reference levels in nuclear medicine in Bulgaria and in Finland.  

PubMed

An EU twinning project entitled 'Strengthening of administrative structures for radiation protection and safe use of ionising radiation in diagnostics and therapy' was established between Bulgaria and Finland, lasting from June 2008 to May 2009. One component of the project was to improve the optimisation of patient protection in nuclear medicine (NM) through revising diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). The revised DRLs are based on national surveys on the numbers of NM procedures and activities given to the patients in different procedures. The survey in Bulgaria was carried out in 2008 and that in Finland in 2007. National DRLs were established for the most frequent and dose-relevant examinations. The proposed DRLs in both countries are in good agreement with other national recommendations in Europe. PMID:20142277

Korpela, H; Bly, R; Vassileva, J; Ingilizova, K; Stoyanova, T; Kostadinova, I; Slavchev, A

2010-01-01

184

A new nuclear medicine scintillation camera based on image-intensifier tubes.  

PubMed

A large-field scintilation camera for nuclear medicine application has recently been developed by Old Delft. The system is based on a large-field image-intensifier tube preceded by a scintillator mosaic. A comparison is made with present state-of-the-art scintillation cameras in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF) and sensitivity. These parameters, which determine the performance of scintillation cameras, are not independent of each other. Therefore, a comparative evaluation should be made under well-defined and identical conditions. The new scintillation camera achieves considerable improvement in image quality. In fact, the intrinsic MTF of the new camera is rather close to unity in the spatial frequency range up to 1 line pair per centimeter (1p/cm). Further improvement would require a fundamentally new approach to gamma imaging, free of the limitations of conventional collimators (e.g., coded-aperture imaging techniques). PMID:978249

Mulder, H; Pauwels, E K

1976-11-01

185

[Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].  

PubMed

Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased. PMID:22277821

Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

2012-01-01

186

Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Infection in Cancer Patients (With Emphasis on FDG-PET)  

PubMed Central

Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Timely and adequate diagnosis of infection is very important. This article provides clinicians as well as nuclear medicine specialists with a concise summary of the most important and widely available nuclear medicine imaging techniques for infectious and inflammatory diseases in cancer patients with an emphasis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). 67Ga-citrate has many unfavorable characteristics, and the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals has resulted in the replacement of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy by scintigraphy with labeled leukocytes or FDG-PET for the majority of conditions. The sensitivity of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in non-neutropenic cancer patients is comparable with that in patients without malignancy. The specificity, however, is lower because of the uptake of labeled leukocytes in many primary tumors and metastases, most probably as a result of their inflammatory component. In addition, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy cannot be used for febrile neutropenia because of the inability to harvest sufficient peripheral leukocytes for in vitro labeling. FDG-PET has several advantages over these conventional scintigraphic techniques. FDG-PET has shown its usefulness in diagnosing septic thrombophlebitis in cancer patients. It has also been shown that imaging of infectious processes using FDG-PET is possible in patients with severe neutropenia. Although larger prospective studies examining the value of FDG-PET in cancer patients suspected of infection, especially in those with febrile neutropenia, are needed, FDG-PET appears to be the most promising scintigraphic technique for the diagnosis of infection in this patient group.

Vos, Fidel J.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

2011-01-01

187

Nuclear medicine techniques for the imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine plays a pivotal role in the imaging and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide has proven its role in the diagnosis and staging of gastroenteropancreatic NETs (GEP-NETs). New techniques in somatostatin receptor imaging include the use of different radiolabelled somatostatin analogues with higher affinity and different affinity profiles to the somatostatin receptor subtypes. Most of these analogues can also be labelled with positron-emitting radionuclides that are being used in positron emission tomography imaging. The latter imaging modality, especially in the combination with computed tomography, is of interest because of encouraging results in terms of improved imaging quality and detection capabilities. Considerable advances have been made in the imaging of NETs, but to find the ideal imaging method with increased sensitivity and better topographic localisation of the primary and metastatic disease remains the ultimate goal of research. This review provides an overview of the currently used imaging modalities and ongoing developments in the imaging of NETs, with the emphasis on nuclear medicine and puts them in perspective of clinical practice. The advantage of SRS over other imaging modalities in GEP-NETs is that it can be used to select patients with sufficient uptake for treatment with radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising new tool in the management of patients with inoperable or metastasised NETs as it can induce symptomatic improvement with all Indium-111, Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177-labelled somatostatin analogues. The results that were obtained with [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide and [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate are even more encouraging in terms of objective tumour responses with tumour regression and documented prolonged time to progression. In the largest group of patients receiving PRRT, treated with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate, a survival benefit of several years compared with historical controls has been reported. PMID:22005114

Teunissen, Jaap J M; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Valkema, R; Krenning, Eric P

2011-10-01

188

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

189

Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine  

PubMed Central

International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

2011-01-01

190

Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010,

S. Koumna; Ch Yiannakkaras; P. Avraamides; O. Demetriadou

2011-01-01

191

Chest CT Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... against the possible risks. Rarely, people have allergic reactions to the contrast dye that's sometimes used during chest CT scans. If this happens, medicine is given to relieve the symptoms. Rate This Content: Chest CT Scan Clinical Trials Clinical ...

192

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51+/-0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05+/-0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2010-12-01

193

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)

2010-12-07

194

Design and operation of gamma scan and fission gas sampling systems for characterization of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

One of the primary objectives of the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) is to acquire and characterize spent fuels used in waste form testing related to nuclear waste disposal. The initial steps in the characterization of a fuel rod consist of gamma scanning the rod and sampling the gas contained in the fuel rod (referred to as fission gas sampling). The gamma scan and fission gas sampling systems used by the MCC are adaptable to a wide range of fuel types and have been successfully used to characterize both boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rods. This report describes the design and operation of systems used to gamma scan and fission gas sample full-length PWR and BWR fuel rods. 1 ref., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Knox, C.A.; Thornhill, R.E.; Mellinger, G.B.

1989-09-01

195

Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

2012-10-01

196

Phase equilibria of cholesterol\\/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures: sup 2 H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry are used to map the phase boundaries of mixtures of cholesterol and chain-perdeuteriated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at concentrations from 0 to 25 mol % cholesterol. These distinct phases can be identified: the L{sub α} or liquid-crystalline phase, the gel phase, and a high cholesterol concentration phase, which we call the β phase. The

Margus R. Vist; James H. Davis

1990-01-01

197

Nonionic surfactant concentration profiles in undamaged and damaged hair fibres determined by scanning ion beam nuclear reaction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) was used with a scanning MeV 3He ion microbeam to determine the extent of permeation and segregation of a deuterated non-ionic surfactant (dC12E5) into virgin (undamaged) and alkalinic perm damaged hair fibres. 2-D concentration maps show an accumulation of deuterated surfactant in the cortex and medulla of both the virgin and damaged hair. By normalising to

P. M. Jenneson; A. S. Clough; J. L. Keddie; J. R. Lu; P. Meredith

1997-01-01

198

Comparison of multiple-scan direct and lock-in detection in magnetic resonance: Application to nuclear acoustic resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical expressions are derived for the signal-to-noise ratios in magnetic resonance experiments for the lock-in and multiple-scan direct detection schemes. Effects of noise character, post-spectrometer filters, and modulation frequency are included in the analysis. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with experiment for the specific case of nuclear acoustic resonance in a metal single crystal.

Ashton, G. R.; Hsu, D. K.; Leisure, R. G.

1980-04-01

199

Knowledge-based factor analysis of multidimensional nuclear medicine image sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a knowledge-based approach to analyzing dynamic nuclear medicine data sets using factor analysis. Prior knowledge is used as constraints to produce factor images and their associated time functions which are physically and physiologically realistic. These methods have been applied to both planar and tomographic image sequences acquired using various single-photon emitting and positron emitting radiotracers. Computer-simulated data, non-human primate studies, and human clinical studies have been used to develop and evaluate the methodology. The organ systems studied include the kidneys, heart, brain, liver, and bone. The factors generated represent various isolated aspects of physiologic function, such as tissue perfusion and clearance. In some clinical studies, the factors have indicated the potential to isolate diseased tissue from normally functioning tissue. In addition, the factor analysis of data acquired using newly developed radioligands has shown the ability to differentiate the specific binding of the radioligand to the targeted receptors from the non-specific binding. This suggests the potential use of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of radiolabeled compounds as well as in the investigation of specific receptor systems and their role in diagnosing disease.

Yap, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Cooper, Malcolm; Treffert, Jon D.

1994-05-01

200

Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.  

PubMed

Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S

2011-11-01

201

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Processing of enriched tungsten-186 oxide targets after long irradiations (> 2 cycles) in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has resulted in specific activities significantly lower than the theoretical values, with the concomitant formation of varying amounts of highly radioactive black insoluble material to total tungsten-188 yield, 5% sodium hypochlorite solution has been found to dissolve this black material. Yields for longer irradiation periods (> 2 cycles) have nearly doubled. As an alternative, more simple approach, enriched tungsten-186 metallic targets have also now been irradiated. Following irradiation, these targets were dissolved in hydrogen peroxide/NaOH solution with no evidence of any residual black insoluble material remaining. Yields for a 2-cycle (e.g. 42 days) HFIR irradiation have thus now significantly increased, for example, from 5--6 mCi {sup 188}W/mg of {sup 186}W, to 10 mCi/mg (43 days) and 12.9 mCi/mg (53 days). Large clinical scale (< 1 Ci) generators fabricated from tungsten-188 prepared from such metal targets have exhibited the expected high {sup 188}Re yield and low {sup 188}W breakthrough. Also during this period, a systematic evaluation of the production yields of a number of radioisotopes of current interest in nuclear medicine were evaluated by irradiation of targets in the Hydraulic Tube Facility (HT) of the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Small samples were irradiated for short periods, and the radioactive contents of the sealed sources then analyzed by gamma spectroscopy.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.; Hsieh, B.T.

1994-01-01

202

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

SciTech Connect

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. (Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Center)

1991-01-01

203

A high-speed, pressurised multi-wire gamma camera for dynamic imaging in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High count rate detectors are of particular interest in nuclear medicine as they permit lower radiation doses to be received by the patient and allow dynamic images of high statistical quality to be obtained. We have developed a high-speed gamma camera based on a multi-wire proportional chamber. The chamber is filled with a xenon gas mixture and has been operated at pressures ranging from 5 to 10 bar. With an active imaging area of 25 cm×25 cm, the chamber has been equipped with an advanced, high rate, digital, electronic read-out system which carries out pulse shaping, energy discrimination, XY coincidence and cluster selection at speeds of up to a few megahertz. In order to ensure stable, long-term operation of the camera without degradation in performance, a gas purification system was designed and integrated into the camera. Measurements have been carried out to determine the properties and applicability of the camera using photon sources in the 20-120 keV energy range. We present some design features of the camera and selected results obtained from preliminary measurements carried out to measure its performance characteristics. Initial images obtained from the camera will also be presented.

Barr, A.; Bonaldi, L.; Carugno, G.; Charpak, G.; Iannuzzi, D.; Nicoletto, M.; Pepato, A.; Ventura, S.

2002-01-01

204

The role of compact PSPMTs for image quality enhancement in nuclear medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact gamma cameras based on arrays of compact Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMTs) (Hamamatsu R7600-C8/12) were recently developed by several research groups. The previous generation of dedicated gamma cameras (5 in. PSPMT) demonstrated the clinical benefit and general diagnostic value for functional breast imaging in comparison with conventional nuclear medicine technique (Anger Camera prone scintimammography and 99mTc Sestamibi administration). The aim of this paper is to investigate how scintillation material and pixel size of crystal arrays can improve image contrast and tumor SNR values. In this paper we compare tumor Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) results obtained by imagers based on CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) array, respectively, by means of a liquid and solid breast phantom. The data collected by NaI(Tl) array show a improvement of SNR values for small tumor size (less than 8 mm). The improvement is also evident in small camera, even though for tumor size less than 6 mm the results are near visibility limit.

Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Cusanno, F.; Campanini, R.; Lanconelli, N.; Riccardi, A.; Zavattini, G.; Di Domenico, G.; Belcari, N.; Bencivelli, W.; Motta, Alfonso; Vaiano, Angela; Del Guerra, A.

2003-06-01

205

[The indication for radiosynoviorthesis. From the perspective of the nuclear medicine expert, rheumatic orthopedist and internist].  

PubMed

Radiosynovectomy or radiosynoviorthesis (RSO), the intra-articular injection of beta-emitting radionuclides (e.g. colloidal preparations of 90-Yttrium, 186-Rhenium or 169-Erbium), is an approved, reliable and easily performed therapy for the treatment of chronic synovitis without harmful side effects. The best clinical results have been obtained in patients with predominantly inflammatory joint disease such as rheumatoid arthritis or reactive arthritis. But RSO is also established to treat pain and persistent effusions after total knee replacement. It also represents an adjuvant therapy in patients with pigmented villonodular synovitis to protect against recurrence following synovectomy. In patients with hemophilia and arthropathy a reduction in joint bleeding is seen and the use of coagulation factor is reduced. The indication for RSO should be made in close cooperation between the referring physician, the rheumatologist and the nuclear medicine expert in the context of a multimodal therapy concept. In this way, success rates of over 80%, with only few side effects, can be achieved, particularly in rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis and hemophilic arthropathy. PMID:21267739

Linke, R; Gelse, K; Schuch, F

2011-01-01

206

Role of nuclear medicine in neuroHIV: PET, SPECT, and beyond.  

PubMed

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain among the most common clinical disorders encountered in people infected with HIV despite widespread use of antiretroviral therapy. There is an enormous need for further evaluation and early diagnosis of HAND. The variety of PET agents such as FDG, C-PiB and [C]-R-PK11195 as well as SPECT agents Tc-HMPAO, I-FP-CIT and I-IBZM have been investigated for the diagnosis of HAND, for distinguishing between demented and nondemented HIV patients, for differentiation between HAND and nonHIV related dementia, as well as for assessing the influence of coinfection with the other viral pathogens on the brain functionality. In spite of some interesting results, none of these tracers have been specifically created for HAND and none can be recommended for HAND diagnosis. Specialized tracers need to be developed for better diagnosis and management of HAND. The potential role of therapeutic nuclear medicine as part of the curative strategies for HIV is also discussed. PMID:24781008

Sathekge, Mike; McFarren, Alicia; Dadachova, Ekaterina

2014-08-01

207

Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.  

PubMed

The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall. PMID:23816980

Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

2013-12-01

208

Imaging of EGFR and EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Overexpression in Tumors by Nuclear Medicine Modalities  

PubMed Central

Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play a pivotal role in signal transduction pathways and in the development and maintenance of various cancers. They are involved in multiple processes such as transcription, cell cycle progression, proliferation, angiogenesis and inhibition of apoptosis. Among the PTKs, the EGFR is one of the most widely studied and has emerged as a promising key target for the treatment of cancer. Indeed, several drugs directed at this receptor are FDA-approved and many others are at various stages of development. However, thus far, the therapeutic outcome of EGFR-targeted therapy is suboptimal and needs to be refined. Quantitative PET molecular imaging coupled with selective labelled biomarkers may facilitate in vivo EGFR-targeted drug efficacy by noninvasively assessing the expression of EGFR in tumor, guiding dose and regime by measuring target drug binding and receptor occupancy as well as potentially detecting the existence of a primary or secondary mutation leading to either drug interaction or failure of EGFR recognition by the drug. This review describes the attempts to develop labelled EGFR molecular imaging agents that are based either on low molecular weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies directed to the extracellular binding domain of the receptor to be used in nuclear medicine modalities.

Mishani, Eyal; Abourbeh, Galith; Eiblmaier, Martin; Anderson, Carolyn J

2008-01-01

209

The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed.

Knapp, F. F., Jr.; Callahan, A. P.; Mirzadeh, S.; Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M.

210

NOTE: Externally triggered gating of nuclear medicine acquisitions: a useful method for partitioning data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physiological gating in nuclear medicine image acquisition was introduced over 30 years ago to subdivide data from the beating heart into short time frames to minimize motion blurring and permit evaluation of contractile parameters. It has since been widely applied in planar gamma camera imaging, SPECT, positron tomography (PET) and anatomical modalities such as x-ray CT and MRI, mostly for cardiac or respiratory investigations. However, the gating capability of gamma cameras and PET scanners can be employed to produce multiply partitioned, statistically independent projection data that can be used in various ways such as to study the effect of varying total acquired counts or time, or administered radioactivity, on image quality and multiple observations for statistical image analyses. Externally triggered gating essentially provides 'something for nothing' as no data are lost and a 'non-gated' data set is easily synthesized post hoc, and there are few reasons for not acquiring the data in this manner (e.g., slightly longer processing time, extra disk space, etc). We present a number of examples where externally triggered gating and partitioning of image data has been useful.

Bailey, Dale L.; Kalemis, Antonis

2005-04-01

211

Scene setting: criteria for acceptability and suspension levels in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The EC (European Commission) Directive on radiation protection of patients requires that Criteria for Acceptability of Equipment in Diagnostic Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy be established throughout the member states. This paper reviews the background to this requirement and to its implementation in practice. It notes parallel requirements in the EC medical devices directive and International Electrotechnical Commission standards. It is also important to be aware and that both sets of requirements should ideally be harmonised due to the global nature of the equipment industry. The paper further reviews the type of criteria that can be well applied for the above purposes, and defines qualitative criteria and suspension levels suitable for application. Both are defined and relationships with other acceptance processes are considered (including acceptance testing at the time of purchase, commissioning and the issue of second-hand equipment). Suspension levels are divided into four types, A, B, C and D, depending on the quality of evidence and consensus on which they are based. Exceptional situations involving, for example, new or rapidly evolving technology are also considered. The publication and paper focuses on the role of the holder of the equipment and related staff, particularly the medical physics expert and the practitioner. Advice on how the criteria should be created and implemented and how this might be coordinated with the supplier is provided for these groups. Additional advice on the role of the regulator is provided. PMID:23173218

Malone, Jim; Faulkner, Keith; Christofides, Stelios; Lillicrap, Stephen; Horton, Patrick

2013-02-01

212

Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators—A tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131I, 201Tl and 99mTc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed.In this paper, the participants’ performance is assessed by mean of a statistical

P. Oropesa; A. T. Hernández; R. Serra; C. Varela

2005-01-01

213

The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0

Mark F. Smith; Ronald J. Jaszczak

1997-01-01

214

Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine  

SciTech Connect

The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J. (comps.)

1989-05-01

215

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

1993-07-01

216

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus_minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

1992-08-01

217

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

1992-08-01

218

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

219

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

1992-02-01

220

Efficient quality assurance programs in radiology and nuclear medicine in Ostergotland, Sweden.  

PubMed

Owners of imaging modalities using ionising radiation should have a documented quality assurance (QA) program, as well as methods to justify new radiological procedures to ensure safe operation and adequate clinical image quality. This includes having a system for correcting divergences, written imaging protocols, assessment of patient and staff absorbed doses and a documented education and training program. In this work, how some aspects on QA have been implemented in the County of Ostergötland in Sweden, and efforts to standardise and automate the process as an integrated part of the radiology and nuclear medicine QA programs were reviewed. Some key performance parameters have been identified by a Swedish task group of medical physicists to give guidance on selecting relevant QA methods. These include low-contrast resolution, image homogeneity, automatic exposure control, calibration of air kerma-area product metres and patient-dose data registration in the radiological information system, as well as the quality of reading stations and of the transfer of images to the picture archive and communication system. IT-driven methods to automatically assess patient doses and other data on all examinations are being developed and evaluated as well as routines to assess clinical image quality by use of European quality criteria. By assessing both patient absorbed doses and clinical image quality on a routine basis, the medical physicists in our region aim to be able to spend more time on imaging optimisation and less time on periodic testing of the technical performance of the equipment, particularly on aspects that show very few divergences. The role of the Medical Physics Expert is rapidly developing towards a person doing advanced data-analysis and giving scientific support rather than one performing mainly routine periodic measurements. It is concluded that both the European Council directive and the rapid development towards more complex diagnostic imaging systems and procedures support this changing role of the medical physics professional. PMID:20181648

Sandborg, Michael; Althén, Jonas Nilsson; Gustafsson, Agnetha

2010-01-01

221

Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

1995-12-31

222

Development of a radiopharmaceutical dose calculator for pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: It is important to ensure that as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) concept during the radiopharmaceutical (RPH) dose administration in pediatric patients. Several methods have been suggested over the years for the calculation of individualized RPH dose, sometimes requiring complex calculations and large variability exists for administered dose in children. The aim of the present study was to develop a software application that can calculate and store RPH dose along with patient record. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the literature to select the dose formula and used Microsoft Access (a software package) to develop this application. We used the Microsoft Excel to verify the accurate execution of the dose formula. The manual and computer time using this program required for calculating the RPH dose were compared. Results: The developed application calculates RPH dose for pediatric patients based on European Association of Nuclear Medicine dose card, weight based, body surface area based, Clark, Solomon Fried, Young and Webster's formula. It is password protected to prevent the accidental damage and stores the complete record of patients that can be exported to Excel sheet for further analysis. It reduces the burden of calculation and saves considerable time i.e., 2 min computer time as compared with 102 min (manual calculation with the calculator for all seven formulas for 25 patients). Conclusion: The software detailed above appears to be an easy and useful method for calculation of pediatric RPH dose in routine clinical practice. This software application will help in helping the user to routinely applied ALARA principle while pediatric dose administration.

Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Sharma, Punit; Gupta, Priyanka; Kumar, Rakesh

2013-01-01

223

Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.  

PubMed

Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time period was 4.22 mSv for Hp(10)a and 67.7 mSv for Hp(0.07)a. In 2011 no case of exceeding the allowed dose limits was noted. PMID:24068634

Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, S?awomir; Krajewski, Pawe?

2013-01-01

224

Data acquisition and scan control system for nuclear microprobe and other multiparameter experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multipurpose data acquisition and beam control system was developed for use on a personal computer (PC) in an MS Windows graphical environment. Data acquisition is performed via a FAST MPA/PC adapter card and MPA/LBB large bus-box by a host computer. Beam and sample positioning are controlled from another computer connected to the host. Applications in the nuclear microprobe and experimental nuclear physics are presented.

Bogovac, M.; Bogdanovi?, I.; Fazini?, S.; Jakši?, M.; Kukec, L.; Wilhelm, W.

1994-05-01

225

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

SciTech Connect

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute San Fernando Avenue No.22, Col. Section XVI (Mexico)

2012-10-23

226

Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (Rin) was 4.67 +/- 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (Sext), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (Urot), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 +/- 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (Utomo), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 +/- 1.53 and 4.18 +/- 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the service. This proposal can be used to develop a similar QAP in other facilities and may serve as a precedent for the proposed regulations for quality assurance (QA) teams in MN.

Moreno, A. Montoya; Laguna, A. Rodríguez; Zamudio, Flavio E. Trujillo

2012-10-01

227

Design and optimization of a Compton camera for nuclear medicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major limitation in conventional SPECT imaging is the poor sensitivity. The lead collimators used in Anger cameras allow the detection of approximately 1 out of every 10000 photons that arrive to the front face of the collimator. Consequently, to offset this disadvantage, the radiation dosage given to the patient can be considerable. It is apparent that the performance of the camera will improve if the collimator is removed. A completely redesigned camera, without the lead collimator, has been introduced, and is referred to as a Compton camera. The Compton camera, in addition to increased sensitivity, can allow, from a single position, the simultaneous acquisition of data from multiple angular views. This reduces the possibility of artifacts due to camera motion and also eliminates the time wasted between angular positions. The increased sensitivity allows the use of lower activity levels and isotopes with shorter half- lives. The essential design of a Compton camera consists of 2 detectors. The function of the first detector is to cause and detect Compton scattered events. The material that this detector is comprised of is usually chosen from silicon (Si), germanium (Ge) or argon (Ar). The latter have high Compton scatter cross sections in the range 100-600 keV. The second detector's function is to absorb any incident radiation via the photoelectric process. Typical material choices are sodium iodide (NaI), and xenon (Xe) due to their high photo absorption cross sections. The scope of the current thesis is to determine the optimal design and configuration of a Compton camera for use in nuclear medicine applications. This is investigated by simulating the transport of the photon flux from the source to the detectors, with the camera design serving as a constraint. The physics behind such simulation is quite complex, requiring the Boltzmann photon transport equation to be solved at every instance in the phase space. There are, however, several other unsettled issues pertaining to the design and performance of this instrument. These can be broadly classified into two categories-geometry and physics of radiation measurement. The former would include the configuration, the materials to be used and the overall shape. The latter are inherent constraints such as Doppler effects in the energy measurement, absorption and scattering (Compton and Rayleigh) processes, and gamma ray polarization issues. Unless these problems are addressed, the mechanics of the Compton camera can not be fully understood nor can its design and manufacture be optimized for clinical use.

Chelikani, Sudhakar

228

Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital  

SciTech Connect

A building project of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

De Jesus, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Oaxaca, Aldama S/N, Paraje el 'Tule', San Bartolo Coyotepec. A.P. 71256, Oaxaca (Mexico)

2010-12-07

229

Nuclear delivery of NFiB-assisted DNA\\/polymer complexes: plasmid DNA quantitation by confocal laser scanning microscopy and evidence of nuclear polyplexes by FRET imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of a plasmid DNA (pDNA) and inves- tigation of its polymer-associated state in the nucleus are crucial to evaluate the effectiveness of a gene-delivery system. This study was conducted with p3NF-luc-3NF, a pDNA-bearing optimized iB motif to favour NFiB-driven nuclear import. Here, a quantification of pDNA copies in the nucleus was performed by real-time confocal laser scanning microscopy in

Gilles Breuzard; Magdalena Tertil; Cristine Goncalves; Philippe Geguan; Chantal Pichon; Patrick Midoux

230

Medicine and nuclear war: from Hiroshima to mutual assured destruction to abolition 2000.  

PubMed

To determine how physicians might participate in the prevention of nuclear war in the post-Cold War era, we review, from a medical perspective, the history of the nuclear weapons era since Hiroshima and the status of today's nuclear arsenals and dangers. In the 1950s, physicians were active partners in governmental civil defense planning. Since 1962, physicians have stressed prevention of nuclear war as the only effective medical intervention. Public advocacy by physicians helped end both atmospheric nuclear testing in the 1960s and superpower plans for fighting a nuclear war in the 1980s. Today's dangers include nuclear arms proliferation, an increasing risk of nuclear terrorism, and the 35000 warheads that remain in superpower-nuclear arsenals, many still on hair-trigger alert. Physicians have recently joined with military and political leaders and over 1000 citizens' organizations in calling for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. Global medical collaboration in support of a verifiable and enforceable Nuclear Weapons Convention would be a major contribution to safeguarding health in the 21st century. PMID:9701082

Forrow, L; Sidel, V W

1998-08-01

231

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known

O. Ávila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa de Buen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

2010-01-01

232

False positive bone scan due to skin fold artifact: case report  

SciTech Connect

A number of hot and cold imaging artifacts can be encountered in nuclear medicine practice. An artifact can be produced by skin folds in technetium-99m (/sup 99m/Tc)-methylene diphosphonate bone scanning. Because of the reliability of results (high sensitivity), bone scanning has become the most requested study in nuclear medicine today. The most common indication for a bone scan is to rule out metastatic bone disease. Bony metastases are noted as an area of increased or decreased uptake within the skeletal system. Photon scatter or attenuation can produce respective areas of increased or decreased activity and possibly confuse interpretation. The authors recently noted effects of photon scatter caused by skin folds during bone scanning in two patients, resulting in false-positive scans.

Popilock, R.M.; Kim, S.M.; Park, C.H.

1987-03-01

233

Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologi´a Department of Nuclear Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologi´a, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologi´a, to known

O. A´vila; C. L. Torres-Ulloa; L. A. Medina; F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; I. Gamboa de Buen; A. E. Buenfil; M. E. Brandan

2010-01-01

234

Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The discrepancies between fluka and the other codes are of the same order of magnitude than those observed when comparing the other codes among them, which can be referred to the different simulation algorithms. When considering the beta spectra, discrepancies notably reduce: within 0.9·X90, fluka and penelope differ for less than 1% in water and less than 2% in bone with any of the isotopes here considered. Complete data of fluka DPKs are given as Supplementary Material as a tool to perform dosimetry by analytical point kernel convolution.Conclusions: fluka provides reliable results when transporting electrons in the low energy range, proving to be an adequate tool for nuclear medicine dosimetry.

Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G

2011-06-01

235

Estimated collective effective dose to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations in Finland.  

PubMed

The collective effective doses to the population from X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) examinations in Finland in 2008 and 2009, respectively, were estimated. The estimated collective effective dose per inhabitant was 0.45 mSv from X-ray examinations and 0.03 mSv from NM examinations. The collective effective doses per inhabitant have not changed substantially during the last 10 y. However, proportional dose due to CT examinations has increased from 50 % in 2005 to 58 % in 2009 of the total collective effective dose from all X-ray examinations and proportional dose of PET examinations from 7 to 13 % of the total collective effective dose from NM examinations. The collective effective dose from conventional plain radiography was over 20 % higher when estimated using the new (ICRP 103) tissue weighting factors than that obtained using the old (ICRP 60) tissue weighting factors. PMID:21816721

Bly, R; Järvinen, H; Korpela, M H; Tenkanen-Rautakoski, P; Mäkinen, A

2011-09-01

236

Feasibility and Merits of Performing Preclinical Imaging on Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Systems  

PubMed Central

Aim. Researchers have limited access to systems dedicated to imaging small laboratory animals. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility and merits of performing preclinical imaging on clinical systems. Materials and Methods. Scans were performed on rat and mouse models of diseases or injuries on four radiology systems, tomosynthesis, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), based on the availability at the author's institute. Results. Tomosysthesis delineated soft tissue anatomy and hard tissue structure with superb contrast and spatial resolution at minimal scan time and effort. CT allowed high resolution volumetric visualization of bones. Molecular imaging with PET was useful for detecting cancerous tissue in mouse but at the expense of poor resolution. MRI depicted abnormal or intervened tissue at quality and resolution sufficient for experimental studies. The paper discussed limitations of the clinical systems in preclinical imaging as well as challenges regarding the need of additional gadgets, modifications, or upgrades required for longitudinally scanning animals under anesthesia while monitoring their vital signs. Conclusion. Clinical imaging technologies can potentially make cost-effective and efficient contributions to preclinical efforts in obtaining anatomical, structural, and functional information from the underlying tissue while minimally compromising the data quality in certain situations.

Bilgen, Mehmet

2013-01-01

237

Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET, SPECT, and BNCT agents. Comprehensive progress report, March 1, 1989-February 29, 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of the DOE Nuclear Medicine Program at The University of Tennessee is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in computerized tomography. A portion of the research effort is directed towar...

G. W. Kabalka

1991-01-01

238

Preventive medicine in nuclear emergencies and the role of the physician in national defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The likelihood of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons being used ; in war necessitates the peacetime training of the general practitioner in ; recognizing the symptoms of injuries caused by such weapons. He must also be ; able to treat the victims, institute prophylactic measures before an attack, and ; understand the effect of these weapons on the environment, particularly

Pejuskovic

1971-01-01

239

Nuclear medicine imaging in a case of hyperfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma associated with a parathyroid adenoma.  

PubMed

This report describes a rare case of parathyroid carcinoma associated with an adenoma. Nuclear imaging provided the most specific information about localization of the primary carcinoma and cervical metastasis, but failed to demonstrate evidence of a parathyroid adenoma. This could be explained by a partial inhibition of hormonal biosynthesis due to the high level of circulating parathormone produced by the carcinoma. PMID:8521661

Ceriani, L; Giovanella, L C; Salvadore, M; Roncari, G

1995-09-01

240

Skeletal Scintigraphy (Bone Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Risks Allergic reactions to radiopharmaceuticals may occur but are extremely rare and are usually mild. Nevertheless, you should inform the nuclear medicine personnel of any allergies you may have ...

241

Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes  

SciTech Connect

Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

Brill, D.R.

1983-03-01

242

Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.  

PubMed

We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

2001-02-01

243

NUCLEAR MEDICINE'S DOUBLE HAZARD Imperiled Treatment and the Risk of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the production of metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), the world's most important radiopharmaceutical, focusing on reliability of supply and risks of nuclear terrorism. Only four producers manufactured about 95 percent of the world's Tc-99m; a closure of any of them could cause worldwide shortfalls. Moreover, all four employ highly enriched uranium in their production process, in a form relatively

Cristina Hansell

244

Scanning, Scanning, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses uses of scanning (process of copying or converting text, images, and objects into information that the computer can recognize and manipulate) in schools and notes possible desktop publishing projects. Describes popular scanners and ways to edit a scanned image. A sidebar gives costs and telephone numbers for nine scanners. (AEF)

Ekhaml, Leticia; Myers, Brenda

1997-01-01

245

A Network Model and Computational Approach for the Mo-99 Supply Chain for Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technetium-99m, produced from the decay of Molybdenum-99, is the most commonly used radioisotope for medical imaging, specifically in cardiac and cancer diagnostics. The MO-99 is produced in a small number of reactors and is processed and distributed worldwide. We have developed a tractable network model and computational approach for the design and redesign of the MO-99 supply chains. This topic is of special relevance to medical physics given the product's widespread use and the aging of the nuclear reactors where it is produced. This generalized network model, for which we derived formulae for the arc and path multipliers that capture the underlying physics of radioisotope decay, includes total operational cost minimization, and the minimization of cost associated with nuclear waste disposal, coupled with capacity investment (or disinvestment) costs. Its solution yields the optimal link capacities as well as the optimal MO-99 flows so that demand at the medical facilities is satisfied. We illustrate the framework with a Western Hemisphere case study. The framework provides the foundation for further empirical research and the basis for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks for other very time-sensitive medical products.

Nagurney, Ladimer; Nagurney, Anna

2011-11-01

246

Is there a role for Nuclear Medicine in diagnosis and management of patients with primary aldosteronism?  

PubMed

Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. The diagnosis of PA is of clinical importance for choosing the appropriate treatment, meaning, surgery for the unilateral disease, and inclusion of aldosterone antagonists in the antihypertensive treatment for the bilateral disease. Current diagnostic approaches showed that the prevalence of PA is much higher than previously estimated. There is still controversy regarding the true prevalence of PA in hypertensive patients. The gold standard for differentiating between unilateral and bilateral disease is the adrenal vein sampling (AVS), a method that is invasive and is performed accurately in only few dedicated centers. Non invasive methods (imaging) for discriminating the two entities are: the CT scan, MRI and iodocholesterol (NP-59) scintigraphy performed under dexamethasone suppression. But the accuracy of imaging compared to AVS is suboptimal and can result in wrong therapeutic decisions. NP-59 scintigraphy is a non-invasive functional imaging technique that reveals the adrenal cortical autonomic function and could have of incremental value over anatomical imaging. In conclusion, in previous years NP-59 scintigraphy was used infrequently, but recently with the advent of hybrid single photon emission tomography (SPET/CT) systems the interest in NP-59 scintigraphy has been renewed. Studies comparing NP-59 SPET/CT imaging with AVS are warranted in order to establish its diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23865085

Spyridonidis, Trifon J; Apostolopoulos, Dimitris J

2013-01-01

247

Comparison of measured and calculated dose rates near nuclear medicine patients.  

PubMed

Widely used release criteria for patients receiving radiopharmaceuticals (NUREG-1556, Vol. 9, Rev.1, Appendix U) are known to be overly conservative. The authors measured external exposure rates near patients treated with I, Tc, and F and compared the measurements to calculated values using point and line source models. The external exposure dose rates for 231, 11, and 52 patients scanned or treated with I, Tc, and F, respectively, were measured at 0.3 m and 1.0 m shortly after radiopharmaceutical administration. Calculated values were always higher than measured values and suggested the application of "self-shielding factors," as suggested by Siegel et al. in 2002. The self-shielding factors of point and line source models for I at 1 m were 0.60 ± 0.16 and 0.73 ± 0.20, respectively. For Tc patients, the self-shielding factors for point and line source models were 0.44 ± 0.19 and 0.55 ± 0.23, and the values were 0.50 ± 0.09 and 0.60 ± 0.12, respectively, for F (all FDG) patients. Treating patients as unshielded point sources of radiation is clearly inappropriate. In reality, they are volume sources, but treatment of their exposures using a line source model with appropriate self-shielding factors produces a more realistic, but still conservative, approach for managing patient release. PMID:23799503

Yi, Y; Stabin, M G; McKaskle, M H; Shone, M D; Johnson, A B

2013-08-01

248

Phase equilibria of cholesterol/dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures: sup 2 H nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry are used to map the phase boundaries of mixtures of cholesterol and chain-perdeuteriated 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine at concentrations from 0 to 25 mol % cholesterol. These distinct phases can be identified: the L{sub {alpha}} or liquid-crystalline phase, the gel phase, and a high cholesterol concentration phase, which we call the {beta} phase. The liquid-crystalline phase is characterized by highly flexible phospholipid chains with rapid axially symmetric reorientation; the gel phase has much more rigid lipid chains, and the motions are no longer axially symmetric on the {sup 2}H NMR time scale; the {beta} phase is characterized by highly ordered (rigid) chains and rapid axially symmetric reorientation. In addition, the authors identify three regions of two-phase coexistence. The first of these is a narrow L{sub {alpha}}/gel-phase coexistence region lying between 0 and about 6 mol % cholesterol at temperatures just below the chain-melting transition of the pure phospholipid/water dispersions, at 37.75{degree}C. The dramatic changes in the {sup 2}H NMR line shape which occur on passing through the phase transition are used to map out the boundaries of this narrow two-phase region. The boundaries of the second two-phase region are determined by {sup 2}H NMR difference spectroscopy, one boundary lying near 7.5 mol % cholesterol and running from 37 down to at least 30{degree}C; the other boundary lies near 22 mol % cholesterol and covers the same temperature range. The third two-phase lies above 37{degree}C, beginning at a eutectic point somewhere between 7.5 and 10 mol% cholesterol and ending at about 20 mol %. In this region, the L{sub {alpha}} and {beta} phases are in equilibrium.

Vist, M.R.; Davis, J.H. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

1990-01-16

249

A starch-based microparticulate system dedicated to diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine applications.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to develop a new microparticulate system able to form a complex with radionuclides with a high yield of purity for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Owing to its properties potato starch was chosen as starting material and modified by oxidization and coupling of a ligand (polyamine) enabling modified starch to chelate radionuclides. The choice of suitable experiments was based on a combination of a Rechtschaffner experimental design and a surface response design to determine the influence of experimental parameters and to optimize the final product. Starch-based microparticle formulations from the experimental plans were compared and characterized through particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis and, for the most promising formulations, by in vitro labeling stability studies and determination of free polyamine content or in vivo imaging studies. The mechanism of starch-based microparticle degradation was identified by means of size measurements. The results of the Rechtschaffner design showed the positive qualitative effect of the temperature and the duration of coupling reaction whereas surface response analysis clearly showed that, by increasing the oxidization level and starch concentration, the nitrogen content in the final product is increased. In vitro and in vivo characterization led to identification of the best formulation. With a size around 30 ?m, high radiochemical purity (over 95%) and a high signal-to-noise ratio (over 600), the new starch-based microparticulate system could be prepared as ready-to-use kits and sterilized without modification of its characteristics, and thus meet the requirement for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:21788070

Lacoeuille, F; Hindré, F; Venier-Julienne, M C; Sergent, M; Bouchet, F; Jouaneton, S; Denizot, B; Askienazy, S; Benoit, J P; Couturier, O F; Le Jeune, J J

2011-11-01

250

A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging. PMID:22964063

Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

2013-06-01

251

Multivendor nuclear medicine PACS provide fully digital clinical operation at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to improve patient care while considering cost-effectiveness, we developed a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), which combines imaging cameras, computers and other peripheral equipment from multiple nuclear medicine vectors. The PACS provides fully-digital clinical operation which includes acquisition and automatic organization of patient data, distribution of the data to all networked units inside the department and other remote locations, digital analysis and quantitation of images, digital diagnostic reading of image studies and permanent data archival with the ability for fast retrieval. The PACS enabled us to significantly reduce the amount of film used, and we are currently proceeding with implementing a film-less laboratory. Hard copies are produced on paper or transparent sheets for non-digitally connected parts of the hospital. The PACS provides full-digital operation which is faster, more reliable, better organized and managed, and overall more efficient than a conventional film-based operation. In this paper, the integration of the various PACS components from multiple vendors is reviewed, and the impact of PACS, with its advantages and limitations on our clinical operation is analyzed.

Georgiou, Mike F.; Sfakianakis, George N.; Johnson, Gary; Douligeris, Christos; Scandar, Silvia; Eisler, E.; Binkley, B.

1994-05-01

252

Using nuclear medicine imaging in clinical practice: update on PET to guide treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.  

PubMed

As we enter the era of personalized medicine, tests that can inform on molecular mechanisms of cancer, and on breast cancer in particular, are in high demand. We currently use DNA- or RNA-based tests of gene expression and/or immunohistochemistry to better characterize a given breast cancer and aid the clinician in selecting the best treatment options. In breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) are established biomarkers. There are several ways to obtain information on these biomarkers, including invasive testing (biopsy), which can be challenging depending on the location. However, not all tumors that express targets identified by tissue assay will respond to directed therapy. Nuclear imaging tests can be useful in these situations. They can be used as a noninvasive method for detecting tumor, obtaining information about the biology of the tumor, and predicting which tumors will respond to targeted therapies. Here, we will review how radiolabeled glucose and estrogen analogs can be used in breast cancer patients. We focus this review on the application of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to ER-positive metastatic breast cancer as an example of how imaging can guide breast cancer treatment. PMID:25004657

Clark, Amy S; McDonald, Elizabeth; Lynch, M Camilla; Mankoff, David

2014-05-01

253

Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

Heineman, W.R.

1993-05-03

254

Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010, with a maximum time interval of ± 9 months between the two types of medical exams. For 51 patients, the indication was the detection of CAD. For 45 patients, the indication was to assess viability and/or ischemia after MI, PCI or CABG. Out of 84 patients with CAD confirmed by angiography, 80 patients resulted in abnormal MPI (sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 98%). Out of 12 patients with normal coronaries, 10 patients resulted in normal MPI (specificity of 83% and negative predictive value of 71%).In conclusion, for the patients with abnormal MPI and confirmed CAD, MPI was a useful aid for further therapy management.

Koumna, S.; Yiannakkaras, Ch; Avraamides, P.; Demetriadou, O.

2011-09-01

255

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

256

Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

1992-12-01

257

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients) b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients) and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 +/- 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 +/- 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 +/- 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

2006-09-01

258

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

SciTech Connect

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, 14080, D.F. (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, 01000 D.F. (Mexico)

2006-09-08

259

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR\\/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients) b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185

F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; E. Gómez-Argumosa; E. Estrada-Lobato; L. A. Medina

2006-01-01

260

Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR\\/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185

F. E. Trujillo-Zamudio; E. Go´mez-Argumosa; E. Estrada-Lobato; L. A. Medina

2006-01-01

261

Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: how effective is preoperative sestamibi scanning?  

PubMed

Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) guided by preoperative sestamibi scanning has been shown to reduce operative time, hospital stay, and cost in treating primary hyperparathyroidism. However, controversy exists over routine preoperative sestamibi scanning. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of sestamibi scanning at our institution as part of the MIP protocol and to analyze calcium and parathyroid hormone levels as possible predictors of successful sestamibi scanning. Charts of 37 consecutive patients undergoing MIP at our institution were reviewed, and age, sex, preoperative calcium, and parathyroid (PTH) levels, invasiveness of procedure, and pathologic diagnosis were recorded. Sestamibi scans were reviewed and scored by 4 nuclear medicine faculty based on the level of suspicion for parathyroid adenoma. Neither calcium nor PTH correlated significantly with sestamibi scan score (Spearman coefficient, r = 0.075, P = 0.67 and r = 0.277, P = 0.10, respectively). Receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis showed sestamibi scanning to have sensitivity and specificity in predicting MIP completion (87% and 68%). Logistic regression showed only sestamibi scan (P = 0.038), not calcium or PTH (P = 0.977 and P = 0.767) to be predictive of MIP completion. In conclusion, sestamibi scanning effectively predicted the ability to perform MIP. However, preoperative calcium and PTH predicted neither sestamibi scan results nor completion of MIP. PMID:14700297

Vassy, W Matthew; Nelson, Henry S; Mancini, Matthew L; Timaran, Carlos H; Hall, Nathan C; Smith, Gary T

2003-12-01

262

Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques  

SciTech Connect

Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

1994-06-01

263

PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

... pulmonary neoplasms. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: ... neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: ...

264

A Photothermal Line-Scanning System for NDT of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings of Nuclear Power Plant Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main pump of the nuclear power plant primary circulation system is one of the most important and critical components of the pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant. For instance, the failure of plasma-sprayed coatings on the pump's shaft seal rings leads to shutdown of the entire reactor. However, suitable methods for NDT of these coatings have not been

R. Lehtiniemi; J. Rantala; J. Hartikainen

1995-01-01

265

CAT Scan  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... reviews the benefits and risks of this scan. Test A CT scan uses x-ray technology and ... the scanning. This allows for sharper pictures. The test takes from a few minutes to approximately half ...

266

What Is Nuclear Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... body’s own functions to determine disease status. Medical Imaging Modalitites and Their Range of Detection CT/X-ray US MRI PET/NM Optical Anatomy Physiology Metabolism Molecular Yes. For instance, thousands ...

267

Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/ ... in your body. Hybrid imaging techniques (PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used ...

268

General Nuclear Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... making single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/ ... performed using either single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET). The gamma camera, ...

269

Nuclear medicine therapy  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 18 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiobiology: Biologic Effects of Ionizing Radiations; Absorbed Dose Calculation; Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Pain; Radioidodine Therapy of Hyperthryoidism; and Radiocolloid Therapy in Joint Diseases.

Harbert, J.C.; Robertson, J.S.; Held, K.D.

1987-01-01

270

Automated segmentation of tumors on bone scans using anatomy-specific thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of overall tumor area on bone scans may be a potential biomarker for treatment response assessment and has, to date, not been investigated. Segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans is a fundamental step for this response marker. In this paper, we propose a fully automated computerized method for the segmentation of bone metastases on bone scans, taking into account characteristics of different anatomic regions. A scan is first segmented into anatomic regions via an atlas-based segmentation procedure, which involves non-rigidly registering a labeled atlas scan to the patient scan. Next, an intensity normalization method is applied to account for varying levels of radiotracer dosing levels and scan timing. Lastly, lesions are segmented via anatomic regionspecific intensity thresholding. Thresholds are chosen by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis against manual contouring by board certified nuclear medicine physicians. A leave-one-out cross validation of our method on a set of 39 bone scans with metastases marked by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians yielded a median sensitivity of 95.5%, and specificity of 93.9%. Our method was compared with a global intensity thresholding method. The results show a comparable sensitivity and significantly improved overall specificity, with a p-value of 0.0069.

Chu, Gregory H.; Lo, Pechin; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Ramakrishna, Bharath; Gjertson, David; Poon, Cheryce; Auerbach, Martin; Goldin, Jonathan; Brown, Matthew S.

2012-02-01

271

A photothermal line-scanning system for NDT of plasma-sprayed coatings of nuclear power plant components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main pump of the nuclear power plant primary circulation system is one of the most important and critical components of\\u000a the pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant. For instance, the failure of plasma-sprayed coatings on the pump's\\u000a shaft seal rings leads to shutdown of the entire reactor. However, suitable methods for NDT of these coatings have not been

R. Lehtiniemi; J. Rantala; J. Hartikainen

1994-01-01

272

Plasma metabonomic analysis with 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance revealing the relationship of different tumors and the disease homology theory of traditional Uyghur medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the plasma samples obtained from tumor patients using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and find the biochemical foundation of abnormal Savda described in traditional\\u000a Uyghur medicine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 170 tumor patients with abnormal Savda syndrome who were confirmed clinically were enrolled in this study, and\\u000a 50 healthy volunteers were set up as controls. The plasma 1H

Batur Mamtimin; Halmurat Upur; Fu-hua Hao; Aynur Matsidik; Rena Rahim

2011-01-01

273

Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

1999-05-13

274

Diabetes Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

275

COPD Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here: Health Information > Medications > COPD COPD Medicine Your doctor may prescribe medicine to control the ... Learn how to manage your medications . Signs the Medicine Is Helping How can you work with your ...

276

[New aspects of nuclear medicine diagnosis of kidney function: improved potential by pharmacologic intervention and quantitative analytic procedures].  

PubMed

In nuclear medicine new trends in the diagnosis of renal function are based on the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals, improvements in the methodological part of the procedure and precise pharmacological intervention in response to given indications. Tc99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc99m MAG3) was tested as replacement for I123 orthoiodohippuric acid (I123 oIH) both in the form of a HPLC purified substance and as an impure kit preparation. HPLC purified Tc99m MAG3 clearance determinations in anuric patients showed a low extrarenal excretion amounting to only about 5% of the total clearance in normal patients. Kit preparations yielded about 90% of the labelled product; impurities were pertechnetate, reduced hydrolyzed Tc99m and chemically unidentified labelled products which showed a significantly lower renal, but increased hepatobiliary excretion in comparison with Tc99m MAG3. The renal clearance with kit preparations of Tc99m MAG3 was 55% of the clearance with oIH at a comparable urinary excretion. Significantly higher protein binding and therefore, a decrease in the distribution volume of Tc99m was found in comparison with I123 oIH. No difference was recorded between the two substances with respect to the renogram curves in normal subjects, apart from a modest delay in the elimination of Tc99m MAG3. For clinical purposes kit preparations of Tc99m MAG3 proved equal to I123 oIH. The influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (captopril) leads to characteristic changes in the renograms of patients with Goldblatt hypertension. Quantitative criteria for the evidence of haemodynamically significant renal artery stenosis were derived from investigations without and with captopril (25 mg) (I123 oIH and Tc99m DTPA) in 21 patients with essential hypertension. The criteria were defined as follows: a delay in peak activity (Tmax) in the I123 oIH captopril renogram exceeding 2 minutes as compared with the baseline value and/or a lower uptake of Tc99m DTPA in comparison with the uptake of I123 oIH (uptake quotient I123 oIH/Tc99m DTPA greater than 1.2). The diagnostic and prognostic potential of the captopril renogram was compared with that of the captopril test by investigating 34 patients with renal artery stenosis (23 uni-, 11 bilateral) (atherosclerosis: 23, fibromuscular hyperplasia: 11). The captopril renogram was positive more often (n = 12) than the captopril test (n = 4) in patients without renal functional impairment of the stenosed kidney. Similar results were obtained with both methods in patients with atrophic kidneys: captopril renography was positive in all cases with a positive captopril test.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2977026

Kletter, K

1988-01-01

277

Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography. Literature scanned from April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985. First edition, Supplement 1  

SciTech Connect

The literature cited cover data on collisions in which the incident particle energy has a minimum energy of less than 100 MeV in the laboratory system, the data including excitation functions, or thick target or product yields leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state. Such quantities are included as fission yields, isomeric ratios, and excitation functions for specific particle groups where such data readily yield information on the excitation functions or thick target yields for the ground or metastable state. Selected compilations, evaluations, and reviews of charged-particle nuclear data are also listed. The bibliography is indexed by target and by residuals. (LEW)

Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1985-04-01

278

Kinetic model building using advanced nuclear medicine techniques: the kinetics of chromium(III) in the human body. [¹Cr  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a valid index of chromium (III) nutritional status can be determined with satisfaction through in vivo kinetic analysis. Three normal subjects and three patients suffering from hemochromatosis were periodically scanned with the Donner Laboratory computerized whole body scanners, starting seconds after radiochromium(III) was administered intravenously, up to a period of 84

1978-01-01

279

Utility of ?H2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.  

PubMed

There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, ?H2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of ?H2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy. PMID:22191615

Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

2011-01-01

280

Gallium scanning in lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis of children with AIDS  

SciTech Connect

Lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is a frequent pulmonary complication in the child with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We report the gallium scan findings in two children with AIDS and LIP. Gallium scintigraphy in both children demonstrated increased radionuclide concentration throughout the lungs, a pattern indistinguishable scintigraphically from that of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This should alert nuclear medicine practitioners and referring physicians to another cause of diffusely increased gallium uptake in the lungs of patients with AIDS.

Schiff, R.G.; Kabat, L.; Kamani, N.

1987-12-01

281

Family Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The role, functions, and potential of family medicine are examined in a discussion drawing on observations of the University of Rochester Family Medicine Program at Highland Hospital, Rochester, New York. The discussion opens with a review of the factors ...

P. S. Warren

1970-01-01

282

Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Alternative Medicine en Español email Send this article to a friend by filling out the fields below: Your name: ... Send Thanks for emailing that article! Tweet Alternative medicine may be defined as non-standard, unconventional treatments ...

283

Medicine Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described as a survival manual for Indian women in medicine, this collected work contains diverse pieces offering inspiration and practical advice for Indian women pursuing or considering careers in medicine. Introductory material includes two legends symbolizing the Medicine or Spirit Woman's role in Indian culture and an overview of Indians Into…

Beiswenger, James N., Ed.; Jeanotte, Holly, Ed.

284

Osteopathic Medicine: About Osteopathic Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside the AOA About the AOA AOA Membership ... DOs Licensed? How Are DOs Certified? About Osteopathic Medicine Page Content You are more than just the ...

285

[Evolutionary medicine].  

PubMed

Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. PMID:24343183

Wjst, M

2013-12-01

286

Slow Scan Telemedicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

1984-01-01

287

Nuclear medicine imaging of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The key role of cellular differentiation and tumor grade: from theory to clinical practice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Nuclear medicine imaging is a powerful diagnostic tool for the management of patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, mainly developed considering some cellular characteristics that are specific to the neuroendocrine phenotype. Hence, overexpression of specific trans membrane receptors as well as the cellular ability to take up, accumulate, and decarboxylate amine precursors have been considered for diagnostic radiotracer development. Moreover, the glycolytic metabolism, which is not a specific energetic pathway of neuroendocrine tumors, has been proposed for radionuclide imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. The results of scintigraphic examinations reflect the pathologic features and tumor metabolic properties, allowing the in vivo characterization of the disease. In this article, the influence of both cellular differentiation and tumor grade in the scintigraphic pattern is reviewed according to the literature data. The relationship between nuclear imaging results and prognosis is also discussed. Despite the existence of a relationship between the results of scintigraphic imaging and cellular differentiation, tumor grade and patient outcome, the mechanism explaining the variability of the results needs further investigation.

Rust, Edmond; Hubele, Fabrice; Marzano, Ettore; Goichot, Bernard; Pessaux, Patrick; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel

2012-01-01

288

Renal scan  

MedlinePLUS

... radioactive material (radioisotope) is used to measure the function of the kidneys. ... blood pressure medications. These drugs might affect the test. You may be asked to drink additional fluids before the scan.

289

Bone scan  

MedlinePLUS

... abnormal scan will show “hot spots” and/or “cold spots” as compared to surrounding bone. Hot spots are ... is an increased accumulation of the radioactive material. Cold spots are areas that have taken up less of ...

290

MRI Scans  

MedlinePLUS

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

291

Ion permeability of the nuclear pore complex and ion-induced macromolecular permeation as studied by scanning electrochemical and fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

Efficient delivery of therapeutic macromolecules and nanomaterials into the nucleus is imperative for gene therapy and nanomedicine. Nucleocytoplasmic molecular transport, however, is tightly regulated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) with the hydrophobic transport barriers based on phenylalanine and glycine repeats. Herein, we apply scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to quantitatively study the permeability of the NPCs to small probe ions with a wide range of hydrophobicity as a measure of their hydrophobic interactions with the transport barriers. Amperometric detection of the redox-inactive probe ions is enabled by using the ion-selective SECM tips based on the micropipet- or nanopipet-supported interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. The remarkably high ion permeability of the NPCs is successfully measured by SECM and theoretically analyzed. This analysis demonstrates that the ion permeability of the NPCs is determined by the dimensions and density of the nanopores without a significant effect of the transport barriers on the transported ions. Importantly, the weak ion-barrier interactions become significant at sufficiently high concentrations of extremely hydrophobic ions, i.e., tetraphenylarsonium and perfluorobutylsulfonate, to permeabilize the NPCs to naturally impermeable macromolecules. Dependence of ion-induced permeabilization of the NPC on the pathway and mode of macromolecular transport is studied by using fluorescence microscopy to obtain deeper insights into the gating mechanism of the NPC as the basis of a new transport model. PMID:24460147

Kim, Jiyeon; Izadyar, Anahita; Shen, Mei; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Amemiya, Shigeru

2014-02-18

292

BioChroma - A New and Patented Technology for Processing Radioactive Wastewater from Nuclear Medicine Therapy Facilities in Hospitals and Clinics.  

PubMed

After undergoing radionuclide therapy, patients generate wastewater with a considerable amount of radioactivity, which can reach levels of as much as 90% of the administered dose. Due to the risk of accumulation after discharge into the sewer, it is advisable to collect this effluent for its treatment prior to final discharge. Delay and decay (natural decomposition of the isotope) is the most commonly used technical method of abating radioactive iodine, but it is frequently criticized as being complex and very expensive. BioChroma is a technology that has been developed as an alternative to these complicated and expensive systems. This paper describes this new technology and presents, as an example, a system that was installed and successfully commissioned in the middle of 2008 in a nuclear medicine ward with 12 beds in Stuttgart (Germany). Based on existing legislation, the responsible authorities and the company that operated the hospital agreed on a maximum activity level of 5 Bq/l. If a typical delay and decay system would have been installed, the 180 m(3) treatment plant that was already available in the hospital cellar would have to be extended by additional 150 m(3). By implementing the patented BioChroma process, the space requirements were reduced by 75%. For instance, since the new system was integrated into the existing installation, tanks accounting for 120 m³ could be used as buffering volume in the new wastewater treatment plant. The operation of the referred plant is currently producing very good results with values below the specified limit of 5 Bq/l for the isotope (131)I. In addition, (90)Y has been reported to be eliminated at the same time. Over the past 2 years of operation, the wastewater treatment plant has been able to achieve a maximum processing capacity of more than 2,000 l/day, which equates to a nuclear medicine ward with approx. 20 beds. The highest level recorded during the test period (of 180 days after start-up) was a peak of nearly 2,800 l/day. PMID:22942776

Rodríguez, José Canga

2012-01-01

293

Cough Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report in the journal Pediatrics questioned the effectiveness of over-the-counter children's cough medicines. In this Science Update, you'll hear more about the study, and why some medicines may have escaped this sort of rigorous testing.

Science Update;

2004-08-16

294

Vulnerable Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

Bochner, Arthur P.

2009-01-01

295

Aerospace Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.

Davis, Jeffrey R.

2006-01-01

296

Bioenergetic medicine.  

PubMed

Here we discuss a specific therapeutic strategy we call 'bioenergetic medicine'. Bioenergetic medicine refers to the manipulation of bioenergetic fluxes to positively affect health. Bioenergetic medicine approaches rely heavily on the law of mass action, and impact systems that monitor and respond to the manipulated flux. Since classically defined energy metabolism pathways intersect and intertwine, targeting one flux also tends to change other fluxes, which complicates treatment design. Such indirect effects, fortunately, are to some extent predictable, and from a therapeutic perspective may also be desirable. Bioenergetic medicine-based interventions already exist for some diseases, and because bioenergetic medicine interventions are presently feasible, new approaches to treat certain conditions, including some neurodegenerative conditions and cancers, are beginning to transition from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:24004341

Swerdlow, Russell H

2014-04-01

297

Permeability of gloves used in nuclear medicine departments to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose: radiation protection considerations.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the safety of the individual protection devices, the permeability of four different types of disposable gloves, commonly used in hospitals, was tested in relation to [(99m)Tc]-pertechnetate and to [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([(18)F]-FDG). From these radiopharmaceutical solutions, a drop was deposited on the external surface of the glove which was opened and stretched with the external surface placed upward. The smear test technique permitted to evaluate the activity onto the inner surface of the glove at different times. The smear tests were measured in a well sodium iodide detector calibrated in efficiency for (99m)Tc and (18)F. The permeability was tested on ten samples of each type of gloves and was expressed as the ratio of the activity onto the inner surface at each time interval to the activity deposited on the external surface of the glove. For each type of gloves and for each sampling time, mean value, standard deviation and percentage coefficient of variation of permeability were evaluated. One type of gloves showed a low resistance to permeation of both radiopharmaceuticals, while another one only to pertechnetate. The other gloves were good performers. The results of this study suggest to test permeability for gloves used for handling radiopharmaceuticals, before their adoption in the clinical routine. This practice will provide a more careful service of radiation protection for nuclear medicine department staff. PMID:23419926

Ridone, S; Matheoud, R; Valzano, S; Di Martino, R; Vigna, L; Brambilla, M

2013-09-01

298

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch's research group for heart and brain imaging.

Heineman, W.R.

1992-01-24

299

Appropriate use criteria for amyloid PET: a report of the Amyloid Imaging Task Force, the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, and the Alzheimer's Association.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) of brain amyloid ? is a technology that is becoming more available, but its clinical utility in medical practice requires careful definition. To provide guidance to dementia care practitioners, patients, and caregivers, the Alzheimer's Association and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging convened the Amyloid Imaging Taskforce (AIT). The AIT considered a broad range of specific clinical scenarios in which amyloid PET could potentially be used appropriately. Peer-reviewed, published literature was searched to ascertain available evidence relevant to these scenarios, and the AIT developed a consensus of expert opinion. Although empirical evidence of impact on clinical outcomes is not yet available, a set of specific appropriate use criteria (AUC) were agreed on that define the types of patients and clinical circumstances in which amyloid PET could be used. Both appropriate and inappropriate uses were considered and formulated, and are reported and discussed here. Because both dementia care and amyloid PET technology are in active development, these AUC will require periodic reassessment. Future research directions are also outlined, including diagnostic utility and patient-centered outcomes. PMID:23359661

Johnson, Keith A; Minoshima, Satoshi; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Donohoe, Kevin J; Foster, Norman L; Herscovitch, Peter; Karlawish, Jason H; Rowe, Christopher C; Carrillo, Maria C; Hartley, Dean M; Hedrick, Saima; Pappas, Virginia; Thies, William H

2013-03-01

300

CT Scans  

Cancer.gov

An arm or chest radiograph looks all the way through a body without being able to tell how deep anything is. A CT scan is three-dimensional. By imaging and looking at several three-dimensional slices of a body (like slices of bread) a doctor could not only tell if a tumor is present, but roughly how deep it is in the body.

301

Complementary medicine.  

PubMed Central

The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques, often explored by patients without discussion with their primary care physician, is seen as a request from patients for care as well as cure. In this article, we discuss the reasons for the growth of and interest in complementary and alternative medicine in an era of rapidly advancing medical technology. There is, for instance, evidence of the efficacy of supportive techniques such as group psychotherapy in improving adjustment and increasing survival time of cancer patients. We describe current and developing complementary medicine programs as well as opportunities for integration of some complementary techniques into standard medical care.

Spiegel, D; Stroud, P; Fyfe, A

1998-01-01

302

The use of CT scanning in forensic autopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postmortem computed tomography (CT) is being used more frequently in forensic medicine. This review discusses 100 deceased\\u000a individuals who underwent CT scanning, as well as a standard autopsy. The CT scan was performed and interpreted by a forensic\\u000a medicine specialist. In 11 cases, important findings discovered during the CT scan were not found at autopsy, and in 58 cases,\\u000a important

Peter Mygind Leth

2007-01-01

303

[Travel medicine].  

PubMed

Travel Medicine was inherited from Tropical Medicine and was organised around the development of intercontinental travels. It concerns all types of travellers, especially tourists, migrants and expatriates. It must be universal, scientific, but first of all preventive. Its aims to the information of all professionals concerned by health and tourism. Its goal is also the training of physicians and the education of travellers regarding their own responsibilities. PMID:7819786

Armengaud, M

1993-01-01

304

Effective radiation dose to the patient and to the general population from nuclear medicine procedures: variations in the last twenty-year period.  

PubMed

We have evaluated how changes in nuclear medicine (NM) techniques over the last twenty-year period have modified radiation exposure to the patient and population. For this purpose, we estimated the variations in the mean effective dose to the patient, and both the collective and the per capita effective dose to the population of the province of Varese, derived from radioisotope examinations carried out in the four NM Centers of this province in the years 1972, 1981, and 1991. Dosimetric calculations were based on ICRP Publication 53 for most of the radiopharmaceuticals used, and tissue weighting factors were based on ICRP Publication 60. The total number of NM exams carried out was 19,744 in 1972, 31,973 in 1981, and 23,623 in 1991. Between 1972 and 1991 there has been a substantial decrease in the effective irradiation to the patient and to the general population (mean effective dose to the patient: from 21.2 to 6 mSv; per capita mean effective dose: from 0.58 to 0.18 mSv), and in the per capita equivalent dose to some target organs, such as the thyroid (9.6-->1.5 mSv) and liver (0.51-->0.07 mSv). At the same time, there has been a significant increase in the per capita equivalent dose to the bladder (0.05-->0.48 mSv), skeleton (0.08-->0.36 mSv), and testes (0.02-->0.15 mSv), and a less marked increase to the ovaries (0.03-->0.06 mSv). The per capita equivalent dose to red marrow (0.13-->0.1 mSv) and to the large intestine (0.1-->0.12 mSv) did not change significantly. PMID:8574811

Garancini, S; Bianchi, L; Conte, L; Monciardini, M; Roncari, G

1995-06-01

305

Nuclear ventriculography  

MedlinePLUS

... Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology ... Nuclear imaging tests carry a very low risk of complications. Exposure to the radioisotope delivers a small amount of ...

306

Automatic classification of DMSA scans using an artificial neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DMSA imaging is carried out in nuclear medicine to assess the level of functional renal tissue in patients. This study investigated the use of an artificial neural network to perform diagnostic classification of these scans. Using the radiological report as the gold standard, the network was trained to classify DMSA scans as positive or negative for defects using a representative sample of 257 previously reported images. The trained network was then independently tested using a further 193 scans and achieved a binary classification accuracy of 95.9%. The performance of the network was compared with three qualified expert observers who were asked to grade each scan in the 193 image testing set on a six point defect scale, from ‘definitely normal’ to ‘definitely abnormal’. A receiver operating characteristic analysis comparison between a consensus operator, generated from the scores of the three expert observers, and the network revealed a statistically significant increase (? < 0.05) in performance between the network and operators. A further result from this work was that when suitably optimized, a negative predictive value of 100% for renal defects was achieved by the network, while still managing to identify 93% of the negative cases in the dataset. These results are encouraging for application of such a network as a screening tool or quality assurance assistant in clinical practice.

Wright, J. W.; Duguid, R.; Mckiddie, F.; Staff, R. T.

2014-04-01

307

Mesopotamian medicine.  

PubMed

Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots. PMID:17378276

Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

2007-01-01

308

Medicine and Madison Avenue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the National Humanities Center, the Digital Scriptorium, and Duke University, this online exhibit examines "the complex relationship between modern medicine and modern advertising." Containing over 600 documents dating from 1913 to 1963, the collection contains different printed advertisements organized around categories such as personal and oral hygiene and household products. Perhaps the most compelling of these categories are the supplementary documents that include scanned images of internal reports from different marketing companies, along with editorials and articles from medical journals during the period. The site is rounded out with some suggestions on using these primary documents in the classroom, including materials for both teachers and students.

2002-01-01

309

(Radiopharmacokinetics: Utilization of nuclear medicine)  

SciTech Connect

The work performed in the 1986/1989 period can be characterized as one of testing and documenting that the Radiopharmacokinetic technique is both feasible and applicable to human studies, as well as developing spectroscopic methods for undertaking noninvasive human studies. Main accomplishments include studies which: show that drug targeting can be monitored noninvasively using radiolabeled drugs. The study that documented this finding involved an analysis of the comparative kinetics of biodistribution of {sup 195m}Pt-cisplatin to brain tumors, when administered intravenously and intra-arterially; show that such differential targeting of Platinum represents a differential quantity of drug and a differential amount of the active component reaching the target site; show that in vivo NMRS studies of drugs are possible, as documented by our studies of 5-fluorouracil; show that 5-fluorouracil can be trapped in tumors, and that such trapping may be directly correlatable to patient response; show that the radiopharmacokinetic technique can also be used effectively for the study of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging, as documented in our studies with {sup 99m}T{sub c}-DMSA.

Wolf, W.

1989-01-01

310

Nuclear Medicine Environmental Discharge Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or ther...

T. F. Gesell H. M. Prichard E. M. Davis O. L. Pirtle W. DiPietro

1975-01-01

311

Nuclear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

312

Clinical medicine  

PubMed Central

With the December issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, I announce the launch of a new category of manuscript called “Clinical Medicine,” along with new editorial board members to adjudicate the peer-review process. With this initiative, the journal aims to publish the highest quality human research that reports early-stage, effective new therapies that impact disease outcomes.

Rockman, Howard A.

2012-01-01

313

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

314

Maritime Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a fascinating look at the practice of medicine aboard commercial and military ships in the 18th and early 19th centuries. Contemporary medical practice believed all diseases were created by one of four "humors." In spite of this, and the constant presence of disease, most seamen led relatively healthy lives. (MJP)

Estes, J. Worth

1996-01-01

315

A dose point kernel database using GATE Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for nuclear medicine applications: Comparison with other Monte Carlo codes  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: GATE is a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit based on the Geant4 package, widely used for many medical physics applications, including SPECT and PET image simulation and more recently CT image simulation and patient dosimetry. The purpose of the current study was to calculate dose point kernels (DPKs) using GATE, compare them against reference data, and finally produce a complete dataset of the total DPKs for the most commonly used radionuclides in nuclear medicine. Methods: Patient-specific absorbed dose calculations can be carried out using Monte Carlo simulations. The latest version of GATE extends its applications to Radiotherapy and Dosimetry. Comparison of the proposed method for the generation of DPKs was performed for (a) monoenergetic electron sources, with energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV, (b) beta emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 177}Lu, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 32}P, and (c) gamma emitting isotopes, e.g., {sup 111}In, {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Point isotropic sources were simulated at the center of a sphere phantom, and the absorbed dose was stored in concentric spherical shells around the source. Evaluation was performed with already published studies for different Monte Carlo codes namely MCNP, EGS, FLUKA, ETRAN, GEPTS, and PENELOPE. A complete dataset of total DPKs was generated for water (equivalent to soft tissue), bone, and lung. This dataset takes into account all the major components of radiation interactions for the selected isotopes, including the absorbed dose from emitted electrons, photons, and all secondary particles generated from the electromagnetic interactions. Results: GATE comparison provided reliable results in all cases (monoenergetic electrons, beta emitting isotopes, and photon emitting isotopes). The observed differences between GATE and other codes are less than 10% and comparable to the discrepancies observed among other packages. The produced DPKs are in very good agreement with the already published data, which allowed us to produce a unique DPKs dataset using GATE. The dataset contains the total DPKs for {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 90}Y, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, {sup 124}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re generated in water, bone, and lung. Conclusions: In this study, the authors have checked GATE's reliability for absorbed dose calculation when transporting different kind of particles, which indicates its robustness for dosimetry applications. A novel dataset of DPKs is provided, which can be applied in patient-specific dosimetry using analytical point kernel convolution algorithms.

Papadimitroulas, Panagiotis; Loudos, George; Nikiforidis, George C.; Kagadis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece) and Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Instruments Technology, Technological Educational institute of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos Street, Egaleo GR 122 10, Athens (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Rion, GR 265 04 (Greece)

2012-08-15

316

Oxidation kinetic studies of oils derived from unmodified and genetically modified vegetables using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of oxidative stability of a series of vegetable oils and oils derived from genetically modified vegetables were carried out using pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC). The purpose of including the genetically modified oils along with other oils were to illustrate the effect of high oleic and linoleic content on the thermal and oxidative behavior of these oils. Kinetic and

A. Adhvaryu; S. Z. Erhan; Z. S. Liu; J. M. Perez

2000-01-01

317

Medicine safety and children  

MedlinePLUS

... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. Do not call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...

318

Using Medicines Wisely  

MedlinePLUS

... of Medicine Sepa cómo tomar sus medicamentos Use Medicines Wisely Print and Share (PDF 2.43MB) Medicines ... or foods should I avoid? 2. Keep a Medicine List Write down the important facts about each ...

319

Pregnancy and Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

320

V/Q scanning using SPECT and SPECT/CT.  

PubMed

Planar ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning is often used to investigate pulmonary embolism; however, it has well-recognized limitations. SPECT overcomes many of these through its ability to generate 3-dimensional imaging data. V/Q SPECT has higher sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy than planar imaging and a lower indeterminate rate. SPECT allows for new ways to display and analyze data, such as parametric V/Q ratio images. Compared with CT pulmonary angiography, SPECT has higher sensitivity, a lower radiation dose, fewer technically suboptimal studies, and no contrast-related complications. Any nuclear medicine department equipped with a modern hybrid scanner can now perform combined V/Q SPECT with CT (using low-dose protocols) to further enhance diagnostic accuracy. V/Q SPECT (with or without CT) has application in other pulmonary conditions and in research. PMID:23907760

Roach, Paul J; Schembri, Geoffrey P; Bailey, Dale L

2013-09-01

321

Wilderness medicine.  

PubMed

Wilderness medicine is not a single entity. It encompasses clinical practice, instruction, and research as they pertain to wilderness settings. Clinical practice often takes place in removed settings far from traditional medical resources and facilities. Many of the conditions treated are unique to wilderness medicine. Decisions commonly are based on limited information. Practitioners of wilderness medicine must combine specialized training, resourcefulness, and improvisation. Instruction and research in wilderness medicine often are directed at clinical practice, with the focus on maximizing patient outcome. Preparation and planning are the best methods of reducing illness and injury; these involve conditioning and choosing clothing and equipment, including the medical kit. Conditioning should mimic the type of trip or activity, because choice will depend on the type, complexity, and duration of the trip, the anticipated environmental conditions, and specific needs of the group. Equipment should be designed for the type of activity, in good working condition, and familiar to the members of the group. The medical kit should include basic medical supplies, with additional supplies and equipment depending on the specific trip, the anticipated needs of the group, and their level of medical training and expertise. Once in the wilderness, the focus shifts from preparation and planning to prevention of illness and injury. This includes the use of safety equipment, appropriate shelter, water treatment, and location knowledge. The most common methods of water treatment are mechanical filters, chemicals, and heat. When an injury or illness does occur in the wilderness, proper assessment of the patient is essential to determine both the appropriate treatment and the need for evacuation to definitive care. This is best accomplished with an organized, systematic approach. The decision of what treatment should be initiated and if the patient requires evacuation to definitive care often is difficult. There are four phases of an SAR event: location, access, stabilization, and evacuation. Evacuation may require the assistance of organized search and rescue services. PMID:12687905

Townes, David Andrew

2002-12-01

322

Transfusion medicine  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application.

Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

1986-01-01

323

Physical control and monitoring in modern medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is devoted to the role of fundamental physical achievements in advanced technologies of control and monitoring used in modern medicine. It contains the analysis of diagnostic methods based on physical phenomena: X-ray examination, nuclear medicine, ultrasound test, the method of electronic paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray- and positron-emission computer tomography, endoscopy, thermography, luminescent analysis, electrocardiography, biomagnetism

V. K. Kournykov

2003-01-01

324

Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians and scientists should be actively engaged in fundamental and applied research designed to ensure that it is safe for humans to routinely and repeatedly stay and work in the microgravity environment of space.

Pool, Sam L.

2000-01-01

325

Herbal Medicines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this open-ended multicultural lab activity, learners investigate the effectiveness of herbal remedies. Learners prepare extracts from plants that are used in a variety of herbal medicines; they test the antibiotic effects of the herbs on gram positive and gram negative bacteria, and look for antifungal effects using common molds. The effectiveness of the herbal extracts is compared with traditional antibiotic and antifungal preparations. Each group is in charge of their experimental design; variables include types of herbs chosen, methods of preparing extracts, microbes tested, and type of exposure of microorganisms to the extract (applied to agar surface, on sensitivity disks, in agar itself, heated, cooled, etc.). Adult supervision recommended.

Powers, Cheryl

2009-01-01

326

Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an application of the Mössbauer Effect designed to retrieve specific information on the magnetic response of iron-containing materials. It consists in the measurement of the nuclear absorption of gamma-rays as a function of an external magnetic field for a specific nuclear transition between magnetically-split nuclear levels. The experiments, here termed Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments, were carried out recording the absorption of 57Fe 14.4 keV gamma-ray in ?-Fe at constant Doppler energies coincident with some of the spectral lines of the magnetically split Mössbauer spectrum. Due to the dependence of the transition probabilities on the relative orientation between the nuclear magnetic moment and the gamma-ray direction, the present application results in a useful method to study the magnetic-field evolution of the distribution of atomic-magnetic-moment orientations. The proposed technique inherit from the Mössbauer Spectroscopy the chemical-element selectiveness as well as the ability to differentiate responses from iron atoms located at inequivalent site or at different phases. In this work, we show that the data analysis for these experiments depends on the sample thickness that the gamma-ray has to cross. For thin samples (i.e.samples with Mössbauer effective thicknesses lower than one) the magnetic-field dependence of the second-order-moment of the orientation distribution in the direction of the gamma ray is obtained. On the other hand, for thicker samples, although the data analysis is more complex, the dependences of the three second-order-moments of the orientation distribution are obtained. The experiments were performed on two ?-Fe foils of different Mössbauer effective thicknesses. They were chosen to represent the cases of thin and thick Mössbauer absorbers. The magnetic evolution of the orientations distribution is compared with results obtained from magnetometric measurements showing a good agreement as well indicating the complementarity of both techniques. A complete description of the experimental set up and the formalism for Mössbauer Magnetic Scan data analysis are presented.

Pasquevich, G. A.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Lencina, A.; Veiga, A.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Sánchez, F. H.

2014-06-01

327

Interpretive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the recognition of quality in interpretation and knowledge generation within the qualitative research field, I propose a framework by which to evaluate the quality of knowledge generated within generalist, interpretive clinical practice. I describe three priorities for research in developing this model further, which will strengthen and preserve core elements of the discipline of general practice, and thus promote and support the health needs of the public.

Reeve, Joanne

2010-01-01

328

Coronary Calcium Scan  

MedlinePLUS

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

329

Paralympic medicine.  

PubMed

Paralympic medicine describes the health-care issues of those 4500 or so athletes who gather every 4 years to compete in 20 sports at the Summer Paralympic Games and in five sports at the Winter Paralympic Games. Paralympic athletes compete within six impairment groups: amputation or limb deficiencies, cerebral palsy, spinal cord-related disability, visual impairment, intellectual impairment, or a range of physically impairing disorders that do not fall into the other classification categories, known as les autres. The variety of impairments, many of which are severe, fluctuating, or progressive disorders (and are sometimes rare), makes maintenance of health in thousands of Paralympians while they undertake elite competition an unusual demand on health-care resources. The increased physical fitness of athletes with disabilities has important implications for cardiovascular risk reduction in a population for whom the prevalence of risk factors can be high. PMID:22770458

Webborn, Nick; Van de Vliet, Peter

2012-07-01

330

[Translational medicine].  

PubMed

Translational medicine is the emerging scientific discipline of the last decade which will set the benchmark for the pharmaceutical industry research and development, integrates inputs from the basic sciences of computer modeling and laboratory research through the pre-clinical and clinical phases of human research to the assimilation of new therapies and treatments into everyday practice of patient care and prevention. With this brief insight authors tried in their humble way to summarize the underlying basis, the present and the potential future of this emerging view, to draw attention to some of the challenges and tasks it faces and to highlight some of the promising approaches, trends and model developments and applications. PMID:22042316

Antal, János; Timár, Attila

2011-11-20

331

Plasma Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword R. Satava and R. J. Barker; Part I. Introduction to Non-equilibrium Plasma, Cell Biology, and Contamination: 1. Introduction M. Laroussi; 2. Fundamentals of non-equilibrium plasmas M. Kushner and M. Kong; 3. Non-equilibrium plasma sources M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 4. Basic cell biology L. Greene and G. Shama; 5. Contamination G. Shama and B. Ahlfeld; Part II. Plasma Biology and Plasma Medicine: 6. Common healthcare challenges G. Isbary and W. Stolz; 7. Plasma decontamination of surfaces M. Kong and M. Laroussi; 8. Plasma decontamination of gases and liquids A. Fridman; 9. Plasma-cell interaction: prokaryotes M. Laroussi and M. Kong; 10. Plasma-cell interaction: eukaryotes G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 11. Plasma based wound healing G. Isbary, G. Morfill and W. Stolz; 12. Plasma ablation, surgery, and dental applications K. Stalder, J. Woloszko, S. Kalghatgi, G. McCombs, M. Darby and M. Laroussi; Index.

Laroussi, M.; Kong, M. G.; Morfill, G.; Stolz, W.

2012-05-01

332

Physical medicine and rehabilitation  

MedlinePLUS

Physical medicine and rehabilitation are services that can help people regain body functions they lost due to ... or developmental disorders Speech disorders and language problems Physical medicine and rehabilitation services also include sports medicine ...

333

Is Marijuana Medicine?  

MedlinePLUS

... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised April 2014 The marijuana ... Isn’t the Marijuana Plant an FDA-Approved Medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies in large ...

334

Preventing HIV with Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

335

Storing medicine safely  

MedlinePLUS

Medicine storage ... actually one of the worst places to keep medicine. Bathroom cabinets tend to be warm and humid, ... Being exposed to heat and moisture can make medicines less potent before their expiration date. For example, ...

336

Managing Your Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Apr 22,2014 If you have heart ... Tools & Resources NEW from Heart Insight: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

337

Blood Pressure Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

338

National Farm Medicine Center  

MedlinePLUS

Farm Medicine, Rural Health & Safety National Farm Medicine Center Established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic, the National Farm Medicine Center ...

339

Medicine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... New Moms Registries Help Moms Measure Medication Risks Medicine and Pregnancy Print and Share (PDF 201KB) En Español Get the facts before you take any medicines during pregnancy. Many pregnant women take prescription medicines ...

340

[Estimation of cost-saving for reducing radioactive waste from nuclear medicine facilities by implementing decay in storage (DIS) in Japan].  

PubMed

DIS has not yet been implemented in Japan as of 2011. Therefore, even if risk was negligible, medical institutions have to entrust radioactive temporal waste disposal to Japan Radio Isotopes Association (JRIA) in the current situation. To decide whether DIS should be implemented in Japan or not, cost-saving effect of DIS was estimated by comparing the cost that nuclear medical facilities pay. By implementing DIS, the total annual cost for all nuclear medical facilities in Japan is estimated to be decreased to 30 million yen or less from 710 million yen. DIS would save 680 million yen (96%) per year. PMID:22516599

Kida, Tetsuo; Hiraki, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Watanabe, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

341

Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia.

Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

2014-01-01

342

Development of Career Opportunities for Technicians in the Nuclear Medicine Field, Phase I. Interim Report Number 1: Survey of Job Characteristics, Manpower Needs and Training Resources, July 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Phase I of a multiphase research program in progress at the Technical Education Research Center, Inc., was conducted to analyze needs and resources in terms of job performance tasks, career opportunities, and training requirements for nuclear medical technicians. Data were gathered through personal interviews with 203 persons, mostly physicians,…

Technical Education Research Center, Cambridge, MA.

343

Scan-Based BIST Using an Improved Scan Forest Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scan forest is an efficient scan architecture which can reduce the test application cost, test power of scan testing and test data volume greatly. The scan forest is modified for scan-based BIST. Techniques are used to make the existing scan forest architecture to an improved scan forest that is more suitable for BIST. A scan flip-flop regrouping technique is introduced

Dong Xiang; Ming-jing Chen; Kai-wei Li; Yu-liang Wu

2004-01-01

344

Osteoid osteoma - the role of bone scans in diagnosis and surgery  

SciTech Connect

Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor which is most often seen in young males. Several imaging techniques have been used for the detection of osteoid osteoma lesions. Conventional x-ray was found to detect only two-thirds of lesions. Computerized tomography has been used to determine the extent of the osteoid osteoma's progress, particularly the soft tissue involvement. In this study, the radionuclide three-phase bone scan was positive in all six patients with surgically proven osteoid osteoma. In addition, nuclear medicine scans of bone specimens may be used to predict whether all of the tumor has been removed. Incomplete excision will likely result in recurrence. Since /sup 99m/Tc-MDP (methylene diphosphonate) is blood borne, it reflects blood flow to the tumor site. It also adsorbs onto the hydroxyapatite crystal. Its concentration is proportional to osteoblastic activity. A study was undertaken to evaluate the use of the three-phase bone scan in patient's referred with possible osteoid osteoma. In addition, scans of bone samples were used during the surgical procedures to evaluate complete tumor renewal.

Matiets, M.

1986-09-01

345

Lung PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

346

Visual scanning behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the results and knowledge of scan behavior gained in various simulation and laboratory studies. Results were obtained through various analysis techniques such as real-time viewing of the pilot's scanning behavior and quantitative analysis of scan behavior performance parameters (average dwell time, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell histograms, and entropy rate measures). Pilot scan behavior is discussed in the following areas; scanning is a subconscious conditioned activity, scanning is situation dependent, pilots' scanning pattern is centered around a home base. Scanning behavior data have been shown to be useful in determining pilot's workload, evaluating pilot's strategy and role, determining the rate of information transfer of various displays, and aiding in pilot training.

Harris, R. L., Sr.; Spady, A. A., Jr.

1985-01-01

347

Visual scanning behavior  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the results and knowledge of scan behavior gained in various simulation and laboratory studies. Results were obtained through various analysis techniques such as real-time viewing of the pilot's scanning behavior and quantitative analysis of scan behavior performance parameters (average dwell time, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell percentages, instrument transition paths, dwell histograms, and entropy rate measures). Pilot scan behavior is discussed in the following areas; scanning is a subconscious conditioned activity, scanning is situation dependent, pilots' scanning pattern is centered around a home base. Scanning behavior data nave been shown to be useful in determining pilot's workload, evaluating pilot's strategy and role, determining the rate of information transfer of various displays, and aiding in pilot training.

Harris, R. L., Sr.; Spady, A. A., Jr.

1985-01-01

348

Electrooptical scanning of film  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scan-in scan-out flying spot scanning system recognizes three different levels of transmissivity within a frame. It selectively acts on these levels either to intensify the illumination or to extend the duration of the illuminating spot to any picture element. Thus it improves the ratio of signal to tube noise in the cameras output.

Billingsley, F. C.; Volkoff, J. J.

1969-01-01

349

Scanning Seismic Intrusion Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning seismic intrusion detector employs array of automatically or manually scanned sensors to determine approximate location of intruder. Automatic-scanning feature enables one operator to tend system of many sensors. Typical sensors used with new system are moving-coil seismic pickups. Detector finds uses in industrial security systems.

Lee, R. D.

1982-01-01

350

Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

1969-01-01

351

Linear scan register allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new algorithm for fast global register allocation called linear scan. This algorithm is not based on graph coloring, but allocates registers to variables in a single linear-time scan of the variables' live ranges. The linear scan algorithm is considerably faster than algorithms based on graph coloring, is simple to implement, and results in code that is almost

Massimiliano Poletto; Vivek Sarkar

1999-01-01

352

Radiographic scanning agent  

SciTech Connect

A composition and method for the preparation of a technetium-99m -based scanning agent are disclosed. The scanning agent is prepared from /sup 99m/Tc, in a +3, +4 and/or +5 oxidation state, and a methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone-seeking agent which carries the radionuclide to bone mineral. The methanehydroxydiphosphonate agent provides scan sharpness equivalent or superior to commercial scanning agents, and is superior for detecting myocardial infarcts, as compared with commercial scanning agents such as ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and methanediphosphonate.

Bevan, J.A.

1981-01-27

353

Radiographic scanning agent  

SciTech Connect

A composition and method for the preparation of a technetium-99m-based scanning agent are disclosed. The scanning agent is prepared from /SUP 99m/ Tc, in a +3, +4 and/or +5 oxidation state, and a methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone-seeking agent which carries the radionuclide to bone mineral. The methanehydroxydiphosphonate agent provides scan sharpness equivalent or superior to commercial scanning agents, and is superior for detecting myocardial infarcts, as compared with commercial scanning agents such as ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate and methanediphosphonate.

Bevan, J.A.

1984-02-21

354

Rapid frequency scan EPR.  

PubMed

In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

2011-08-01

355

Rapid Frequency Scan EPR  

PubMed Central

In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

2011-01-01

356

Sports Medicine Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

Ryan, Allan J.

1978-01-01

357

Take Your Medicines Safely  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... is approximately $75 billion spent annually on prescription medicine. All too often, however, we overlook the vital ... between prescription and over-the-counter remedies. Prescription medicine is prescribed by a doctor for a specific ...

358

Cold and Cough Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting plenty of rest, you may want to take medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal ...

359

Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is ... such as nurses and physical therapists, practice. Complementary medicine is used together with standard medical care. An ...

360

Medicines for Preterm Labor  

MedlinePLUS

... treatments are right for you. What kinds of medicines are used during preterm labor? There are three ... you to stay in bed all day. Do medicines used during preterm labor have side effects for ...

361

HIV/AIDS Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

362

The Home Medicine Cabinet  

PubMed Central

The home medicine cabinet contains both drug and non-drug poisons, of varying toxicity. The more seriously toxic ones and old medications, should be removed, since the `steps' of toilet and sink make medicine cabinets accessible even to young children. This article describes the degree of toxicity of items commonly found in medicine cabinets, and recommends storage methods which prevent accidents. Ipecac syrup should be in every medicine cabinet of every home in which there are children.

McGuigan, Michael A.

1983-01-01

363

Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)  

PubMed Central

Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, 123I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease.

Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma. Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark

2014-01-01

364

Nuclear medicine in the management of patients with heart failure: guidance from an expert panel of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).  

PubMed

Heart failure is increasing worldwide at epidemic proportions, resulting in considerable disability, mortality, and increase in healthcare costs. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography or PET imaging is the most prominent imaging modality capable of providing information on global and regional ventricular function, the presence of intraventricular synchronism, myocardial perfusion, and viability on the same test. In addition, I-mIBG scintigraphy is the only imaging technique approved by various regulatory agencies able to provide information regarding the adrenergic function of the heart. Therefore, both myocardial perfusion and adrenergic imaging are useful tools in the workup and management of heart failure patients. This guide is intended to reinforce the information on the use of nuclear cardiology techniques for the assessment of heart failure and associated myocardial disease. PMID:24781009

Peix, Amalia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Paez, Diana; Pereira, Carlos Cunha; Felix, Renata; Gutierrez, Claudia; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Soares, Jose; Olaya, Pastor; Rodriguez, Ma Victoria; Flotats, Albert; Giubbini, Raffaele; Travin, Mark; Garcia, Ernest V

2014-08-01

365

Images from the History of Medicine (IHM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On February 24, the National Library of Medicine announced that approximately 60,000 rescanned images had been placed on the Images from the History of Medicine Website (originally reviewed in the June 17, 1994 Scout Report). These new images have been scanned directly from archival slides at a high (2700 dpi) resolution rate. Because of the quality of these images, they have been watermarked. Users can browse or search the image collection by keyword. Returns include a large thumbnail image, author, title, and physical description. Copyright and ordering information are provided at the site.

366

Cytomics in regenerative medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytomics is the high-content analysis of cell-systems [6, 78]. The area of Cytomics and Systems Biology received great attention during the last years as it harbours the promise to substantially impact on various fields of biomedicine, drug discovery, predictive medicine [6] and may have major potential for regenerative medicine. In regenerative medicine Cytomics includes process control of cell preparation and

Attila Tárnok; Arkadiusz Pierzchalski

2008-01-01

367

Performing Narrative Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

Langellier, Kristin M.

2009-01-01

368

Behavioral sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the knowledge base in sleep disorders medicine has broadened, a subspecialty that we will refer to as “behavioral sleep medicine” area is emerging. This article will define this subspecialty area, provide some historical context for its emergence, review issues related to specialty training and clinical practice, and suggest needs for future research.The term “behavioral sleep medicine” was selected because

Edward J Stepanski; Michael L Perlis

2000-01-01

369

Activities Report of the Institute of Nuclear Physics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research in experimental nuclear physics; theoretical nuclear physics; atomic and surface physics; nuclear solid state physics; nuclear medicine; environmental physics; and cyclotron based areas is summarized. Instrumentation and electronics, and data ana...

J. F. W. Jansen R. A. R. L. Malfliet

1984-01-01

370

To intercompare and to test all the Nuclear Medicine procedures used in the Department of Nuclear Medicine for diagnostic and research purposes starting with and giving particular importance to the procedures for liver disease. Final report for the period 1985 - 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study had the purpose to evaluate solitary liver defects with Tc-99m sulfur colloid and to assess the additional benefits by combining routine liver scan with liver blood pool image and Ga-67 liver imaging. 103 patients with various liver diseases hav...

S. Asghar

1988-01-01

371

An image pre-processing automatic system for bone scan metastasis evaluation.  

PubMed

Scintigraphic images provide morphologic and functional information referring to pointed human body tissues and organs. Depending on the ability and experience of the nuclear medicine physician and the degree of scintigram complexity, the diagnosis process becomes very difficult sometimes. Image processing might decrease subjectivity and help physicians in decision making in complex cases as bone metastasis diagnosis based on scintigraphic explorations. The aim of this paper is to describe the compulsory steps of a pre-processing method in order to build a database for an automatic final appreciation of pathologic bone scan areas as a percentage of the total bone scintigraphic surface. This may include the scintigraphic result in some metastasis probability category with more accuracy than a simple, subjective appreciation of the scintigram, especially in doubtful cases. This paper points to the steps of the processing method of the database used in the rule-based nuclear medicine aide-decision expert system (NMADES). The objective evaluation of the pathological sites requires image preprocessing operations in a number of steps: histogram transforms, correlated superposition of direct and reversed incidences to reinforce the uptake sites, smoothing by pseudo-cepstrum methods, symmetry axes extraction by robust linear regression and symmetric areas search with fuzzy methods. Some for and against's are underlined in the last section, devoted to conclusions and future work. PMID:19292101

Stef?nescu, Cipriana; Rusu, V; Costin, Mihaela; Zbancioc, M

2006-01-01

372

Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

373

Homodyne scanning holography  

PubMed Central

We have developed a modified version of a scanning holography microscope in which the Fresnel Zone Plates (FZP) are created by a homodyne rather than a heterodyne interferometer. Therefore, during the scanning the projected pattern on the specimen is frozen rather than varied as previously. In each scanning period the system produces an on-axis Fresnel hologram. The twin image problem is solved by a linear combination of at least three holograms taken with three FZPs with different phase values.

Rosen, Joseph; Indebetouw, Guy; Brooker, Gary

2006-01-01

374

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, September 1, 1989--January 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research program is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents, each of which has properties optimized to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. The specific objectives during the period (9/1/89 to 8/31/92) include: (1) Development of strategies for improving yields of specific Tc-diphosphonate complexes with optimum imaging properties; (2) Development of electrodes for rapid in situ electrochemical generation of skeletal imaging agents; (3) Development of electrochemical sensors for {Tc} and Re imaging agents; (4) Characterization of stable {Tc}- and Re-diphosphonate complexes obtainable in high yield by structural studies with techniques such as NMR, EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy; (5) Development of improved separation techniques for the characterization of diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents; (6) Evaluation of the effect of the biological milieu on {Tc}-diphosphonate complexes; and (7) Electrochemical studies of technetium and rhenium complexes synthesized by Professor Deutsch`s research group for heart and brain imaging.

Heineman, W.R.

1992-01-24

375

Development of more efficacious Tc-99, organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1987-August 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. These objectives are being met by the development of analytical techniques which are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. Three areas have been investigated during the second year of this project. (1) A chromatographic procedure has been developed for the separation of technetium dicarboxypropane diphosphonate (DPD) complexes. Tc-DPD complexes have been isolated from radiopharmaceutical preparations. The concentration of each complex in the preparation varies significantly depending on the pH of the preparation, the concentration of technetium, the presence or absence of oxygen, and the time interval after preparation. A single Tc-DPD complex has been isolated which shows good skeletal uptake and rapid soft tissue clearance. (2) An HPLC procedure for analyzing urine for Tc-Diphosphonate complexes has been developed. A Tc-HEDP complexd injected into a dog was found to concentrate rapidly in the bladder in the same chemical form. (3) An HPLC technique for the determination of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/ in disphosphonate radiopharmaceuticals and biological samples has been developed. 15 refs., 2 figs.

Heineman, W.R.

1988-04-01

376

Development of more efficacious {Tc}-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

Heineman, W.R.

1993-05-03

377

Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures: Progress report for period September 1, 1986-August 31, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The long-range objective of this research is the development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The author developed analytical techniques that are capable of separating radiopharmaceutical mixtures into their component technetium complexes for subsequent evaluation. During this one-year period, a chromatographic procedure has been developed for the separation of technetium phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) complexes and five Tc-PAA complexes have been isolated from radiopharmaceutical preparations. The concentration of each complex in the preparation varies significantly depending on the pH of the preparation. Radiopharmaceutical preparations based on the ligand methylene diphosphonate (MDP) have been prepared by electrochemical reduction of TcO/sub 4//sup -/. The yields of different Tc-MDP complexes are affected by the potential applied to the electrochemical cell. The control of both potential and pH enables a specific Tc-MDP complex to be produced in purer form and higher yield than by chemical reduction. An EXAFS spectrum of a solution of chromatographically isolated Tc-HEDP (hydroxyethylidine diphosphonate) complex shows evidence for a Tc-Tc bond, which is supportive of the postulated oligomeric/polymeric nature of these complexes. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Heineman, W.R.

1987-06-01

378

The white blood cell scan in orthopedics  

SciTech Connect

A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

1982-08-01

379

Environmental Scanning Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes Truckee Meadows Community College's (Nevada) environmental scanning process and results. The college decided that environmental scanning and forecasting techniques should be used to plan for both short-term and long-term external factors that impact programs, enrollment, and budgets. Strategic goals include: (1) keeping pace…

Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

380

Nuclear analytical chemistry  

SciTech Connect

This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

1984-01-01

381

Clinical Space Medicine Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

382

Potential pitfalls in the nuclear medicine imaging: Experimental models to evaluate the effect of natural products on the radiolabeling of blood constituents, bioavailability of radiopharmaceutical and on the survival of Escherichia coli strains submitted to the treatment with stannous ion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) allows studies of physiological or pathological processes. Red blood cells labeled with technetium-99m ( 99mTc-RBC) are used as a radiopharmaceutical in several evaluations. The radiolabeling efficiency and bioavailability of radiopharmaceuticals can be altered by natural/synthetic drugs and may induce pitfalls in the analysis of the nuclear medicine imaging. The labeling with 99mTc requires a reducing agent and stannous chloride (SnCl 2) is widely utilized. However, SnCl 2 presents a citotoxic and/or genotoxic potential in Escherichia coli ( E. coli) strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of aqueous extracts of Baccharis genistelloides (BG), Terminalia chebula (TC), Maytenus ilicifolia (MI), Cassia angustifolia (CA) and Equisetum arvense (EA) on (i) radiolabeling of blood constituents, (ii) bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate(Na 99mTcO 4) radiopharmaceutical, (iii) survival of E. coli. In vitro labeling of RBC was performed with blood ( Wistar rats) incubated with each extract, SnCl 2 and Na 99mTcO 4. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, another aliquots precipitated and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions isolated and counted. In the bioavailability of Na 99mTcO 4, Wistar rats were treated (7 days) with aqueous extract or with 0.9%NaCl, the radiopharmaceutical was administered, the animals sacrificed, the organs isolated, weighted and radioactivity counted. To evaluate the effect on the bacterial survival, E. coli was treated with: (a) SnCl 2; (b) 0.9% NaCl; (c) vegetal extract; or (d) SnCl 2 and vegetal extract. Radiolabeling efficiency showed a significantly decrease (ANOVA/Tukey post-test, p<0.05) after treatment with BG, TC, MI and CA extracts. The bioavailability results showed that the uptake of Na 99mTcO 4 was altered significantly (unpaired t-student test, p<0.05) in blood, lungs (CA/TC extracts), bone, heart, ovary (EA /TC), spleen, kidney (TC) , pancreas, thyroid (CA) and liver (all the extracts). The alterations promoted by TC extract could be related to cardiotonic, antidiabetes and renal toxicity. The alteration in liver in EA and CA extracts could be related to its hepatoprotective activities. The extracts (EA, MI, BG) were not capable to interfere in the survival of E. coli. Moreover, these extracts have protected the E. coli against the SnCl 2 action and this fact can be related to the free radical scavenging properties of the chemical compounds of the extracts. In conclusion these findings could be worthwhile to try to understand and to avoid some pitfalls in the nuclear medicine.

Soares, Scheila F.; Brito, Lavínia C.; Souza, Deise E.; Bernardo, Luciana C.; Oliveira, Joelma F.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

2006-12-01

383

Medicine, Technology and Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medical science is intimately tied to our view of ourselves and our bodies. Traditional Chinese medicine is based upon a different world view than is Western medicine. Yet, ancient Chinese techniques such as acupunture, meditation and the use of herbal medications are influencing health care in contemporary America. How are we to understand and evaluate these alternative approaches to healing? In this unit students are asked to compare and contrast traditional Chinese and contemporary Western approaches to medicine, to bring a rational and scientific approach to the evaluation of alternative medicines, and to develop a view of medical practices as technologies with historical and cultural, as well as scientific, components.

David Form (Minuteman Tech. REV)

1994-07-30

384

Photothermal imaging scanning microscopy  

DOEpatents

Photothermal Imaging Scanning Microscopy produces a rapid, thermal-based, non-destructive characterization apparatus. Also, a photothermal characterization method of surface and subsurface features includes micron and nanoscale spatial resolution of meter-sized optical materials.

Chinn, Diane (Pleasanton, CA); Stolz, Christopher J. (Lathrop, CA); Wu, Zhouling (Pleasanton, CA); Huber, Robert (Discovery Bay, CA); Weinzapfel, Carolyn (Tracy, CA)

2006-07-11

385

Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

2010-01-01

386

Brain PET scan  

MedlinePLUS

... Tell the difference between Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders Several PET scans may be taken to determine ... to: Alzheimer’s disease or dementia Brain tumors Epilepsy Movement disorders (such as Parkinson’s disease )

387

Cervical MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

388

Arm MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the the upper and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

389

Leg MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

390

Knee MRI scan  

MedlinePLUS

... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

391

Scanning electron microscopy techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has become as standard a tool for IC failure analysis as the optical microscope, with improvements in existing SEM techniques and new techniques being reported regularly. This tutorial has been designed to benefit bo...

E. I. Cole

1992-01-01

392

Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1981, the age of the scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) began when Binnig, Rohrer, and cowokers developed the first scanning\\u000a tunneling microscope (STM) [1]. Their setup was based on measuring an electrical tunneling current between a sharp metal tip\\u000a and a conducting sample. For the first time, a sample surface could be imaged with true atomic resolution in real space.

Johannes Rheinlaender; Tilman E. Schäffer

393

Scanning Hall probe microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the implementation of a scanning Hall probe microscope of outstanding magnetic field sensitivity (?0.1 G) and unprecedented spatial resolution (?0.35 ?m) to detect surface magnetic fields at close proximity to a sample. Our microscope combines the advantages of a submicron Hall probe fabricated on a GaAs\\/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructure chip and the scanning tunneling microscopy technique for precise positioning. We

A. M. Chang; H. D. Hallen; L. Harriott; H. F. Hess; H. L. Kao; J. Kwo; R. E. Miller; R. Wolfe; J. van der Ziel; T. Y. Chang

1992-01-01

394

Wide scanning spherical antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel method for calculating the surface shapes for subreflectors in a suboptic assembly of a tri-reflector spherical antenna system is introduced, modeled from a generalization of Galindo-Israel's method of solving partial differential equations to correct for spherical aberration and provide uniform feed to aperture mapping. In a first embodiment, the suboptic assembly moves as a single unit to achieve scan while the main reflector remains stationary. A feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan thereby eliminating the need to oversize the main spherical reflector. In an alternate embodiment, both the main spherical reflector and the suboptic assembly are fixed. A flat mirror is used to create a virtual image of the suboptic assembly. Scan is achieved by rotating the mirror about the spherical center of the main reflector. The feed horn is tilted during scan to maintain the illuminated area on the main spherical reflector fixed throughout the scan.

Shen, Bing (Inventor); Stutzman, Warren L. (Inventor)

1995-01-01

395

Check Your Medicines: Tips for Using Medicines Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Guide to Using Them Safely Check Your Medicines Tips for Using Medicines Safely Use this checklist to help avoid medication ... a list or a bag with all your medicines when you go to your doctor's office, the ...

396

Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY The concept that the mind is important in health and illness ... and effects of stress on health. Mind-body medicine focuses on: The interactions among the brain, the ...

397

Preventive Medicine Redefined.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Departments of preventive medicine can survive through unity, which can be achieved through majority agreement on a new and specific definition of preventive medicine. A definition is proposed that is based on a review and analysis of recent progress in the prevention of the major causes of mortality. (MLW)

Moore, George

1981-01-01

398

Alternative Medicine: A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reflection on the scientific behavior of adherents of conventional medicine toward one form of alternative medicine—homeopa- thy—teaches us that physicians do reject seemingly solid evidence because it is not compatible with theory. Further reflection, how- ever, shows that physicians do the same within conventional medical science: Sometimes they discard a theory because of new facts, but at other times

Jan P. Vandenbroucke; Anton J. M. de Craen

2001-01-01

399

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:24795413

2014-05-01

400

Handheld Computing in Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use

Sandra Fischer; Thomas E Stewart; Sangeeta Mehta; Randy Wax; Stephen E Lapinsky

2003-01-01

401

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:24993713

2014-07-01

402

Bioprospecting: Medicine Quest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The thought provoking interview reflects on how it is crucial to protect biodiversity because nature can provide: medicines from natural products, new antiobiotics and organisms that fight antiobiotic resistance, models for medical research, and knowledge about how all living things depend on each other.The interview is accompanied by excerpts from Dr. Plotkin's book, Medicine Quest: In Search of Nature's Healing Secrets.

Mark Plotkin (Amazon Conservation Team;)

2000-10-01

403

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:24903173

2014-06-01

404

Az-Tech Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Created in 1552 as a gift for Spain's king, the Badianus Manuscript is a repository of Aztec traditional medicinal knowledge and contains the earliest surviving illustrations of New World plants. At the College of Santa Cruz (Mexico City) for Aztec nobility, an Aztec healer who became the college physician compiled plant descriptions and medicinal

Nicholson, Rob

2000-01-01

405

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:24700007

2014-04-01

406

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:24578431

2014-03-01

407

Veterinary medicines: product update.  

PubMed

The following information has been produced for Veterinary Record by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) to provide an update for veterinary surgeons on recent changes to marketing authorisations for veterinary medicines in the UK and on other relevant issues. PMID:24097881

2013-10-01

408

Medicines from Marine Invertebrates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

Davies-Coleman, Mike

2011-01-01

409

Webinar: Nanotechnology in Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webinar from the Nanotechnology Applications & Career Knowledge Center (NACK) illustrates the applications and implications of nanotechnology in medicine. The webinar aims to provide an overview of the impact nanotechnology is having on medicine. This webinar was held on April 29th, 2011. The password "networks" should be entered, which will allow users to download and view the recorded webinar.

2011-07-28

410

Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the six issues of the "Wilderness Medicine Newsletter" issued during 1995. The newsletter addresses issues related to the treatment and prevention of medical emergencies in the wilderness. Issues typically include feature articles, interviews with doctors in the field of wilderness medicine, product reviews, notices of…

Weber, Holly, Ed.; Thompson, Ken, Ed.

1995-01-01

411

Maimonides' Appreciation for Medicine  

PubMed Central

Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A) The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B) medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C) as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed.

Gesundheit, Benjamin

2011-01-01

412

Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research  

SciTech Connect

A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

Vogt, J R [ed.

1980-01-01

413

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

MedlinePLUS

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

414

Copper radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry, radiochemistry, radiobiology, and radiopharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals containing copper radionuclides are reviewed. Copper radionuclides offer application in positron emission tomography, targeted radiotherapy, and single photon imaging. The chemistry of copper is relatively simple and well-suited to radiopharmaceutical application. Current radiopharmaceuticals include biomolecules labelled via bifunctional chelators primarily based on cyclic polyaminocarboxylates and polyamines, and pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (PTSM) and its analogues.

Philip J. Blower; Jason S. Lewis; Jamal Zweit

1996-01-01

415

Nuclear medicine imaging of inflammatory bowel disease  

SciTech Connect

With the availability of indium-labeled white blood cells, radionuclide imaging studies have a definite role in the diagnosis and staging of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The In-/sup 111/ white blood cell study is particularly helpful in evaluating recurrent disease in patients with severe intercurrent diseases and in screening patients without the need for barium examinations.

Froelich, J.W.

1987-01-01

416

Vector generator scan converter  

DOEpatents

High printing speeds for graphics data are achieved with a laser printer by transmitting compressed graphics data from a main processor over an I/O channel to a vector generator scan converter which reconstructs a full graphics image for input to the laser printer through a raster data input port. The vector generator scan converter includes a microprocessor with associated microcode memory containing a microcode instruction set, a working memory for storing compressed data, vector generator hardware for drawing a full graphic image from vector parameters calculated by the microprocessor, image buffer memory for storing the reconstructed graphics image and an output scanner for reading the graphics image data and inputting the data to the printer. The vector generator scan converter eliminates the bottleneck created by the I/O channel for transmitting graphics data from the main processor to the laser printer, and increases printer speed up to thirty fold. 7 figs.

Moore, J.M.; Leighton, J.F.

1988-02-05

417

Breast scanning system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A breast scanning system configured to scan a breast of a patient includes a table configured to receive the patient thereon. The table has an aperture formed therein configured to receive the breast of the patient pendant therethrough and positionable over and into a bath configured to contain a medium. An armature is movably disposable in the bath. The armature carries transducer arrays that are disposable in the bath, and configured to transmit and receive acoustic and/or ultrasound signals. A manual control is operatively coupled to the armature to manually move the armature and thus the transducer arrays within the bath.

2013-02-05

418

Present Concepts in Internal Medicine. Volume IV. Number 11. Medical Literature Symposium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The issue of Present Concepts in Internal Medicine is devoted to Medical Literature. A through search of the literature, including a MEDLARS scan, produced only five scientific analyses of medical journal article content. The results of these studies sugg...

C. C. Peck L. Applewhite

1971-01-01

419

Environmental Scanning Report, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the change in the provincial economy from natural-resource-based industries to service-oriented industries, Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia (BC) conducted an environmental scan of the social and economic trends in the college's service region that will most likely affect prospective students' educational and…

Yao, Min

420

Teaching the SCANS Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SCANS (the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills) provides definitions of the knowledge students and workers need for workplace success and methods for applying these principles in communities throughout the United States. This document contains six articles that give education and training practitioners practical suggestions for…

Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.

421

Scanning Electron Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Museum of Science features an introduction to scanning electron microscopy and is suitable for high school or introductory college audiences. It includes resources for teachers, an image gallery, a self paced tour, links, and a QuickTime animation.

Network, Science L.; Science, Museum O.

422

Improved vertical scanning interferometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical scanning interferometers are routinely used for the measurement of optical fiber connectors. There are increasing needs for measurements of such items as machined surfaces, contact lenses, paint texture, cell structure, and integrated circuit devices, to name a few. These structures have too much depth, or are too rough, to measure with standard interferometry methods. Phase- measurement interferometry methods are

Akiko Harasaki; Joanna Schmidt; James C. Wyant

2000-01-01

423

The Scanning Tunneling Microscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Physics Department at Davidson College presents an overview of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) as well as the results of an experiment conducted by the authors. They discuss the construction of two different types of probe tips and their use for imaging graphite and molybdenum disulfide. A section of images they obtained using the STM is also included.

Jr., John A.; Neumann, Doug; College, Davidson

424

Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes work done in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) since 2000 with an emphasis on new applications and important trends, such as nanometer-sized tips. SECM has been adapted to investigate charge transport across liquid\\/liquid interfaces and to probe charge transport in thin films and membranes. It has been used in biological systems like single cells to study ion transport

Shigeru Amemiya; Allen J. Bard; Fu-Ren F. Fan; Michael V. Mirkin; Patrick R. Unwin

2008-01-01

425

Scanning Probe Microscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This DURIP allowed us to purchase a Digital Instruments Dimension 3100 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), which is a versatile tool that can serve dual functions, both as an AFM and a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) . The AFM and the STM are separated uni...

M. R. Melloch

2001-01-01

426

DSQ Scanning Information: Westat  

Cancer.gov

Westat, Inc. provides scanning and intelligent data capture for the Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ). Services include providing printed questionnaires for data collection and processing completed questionnaires. Westat can provide a modified version of the DSQ for customized data collections. A verified data file along with images of the processed DSQ questionnaires are provided after processing.

427

Essentials of Periodontal Medicine in Preventive Medicine  

PubMed Central

Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra

2013-01-01

428

Medicines for Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... will stay healthy and feel good. All About Insulin The most common diabetes medicine is insulin, which ... your blood sugar how long they last Continue Insulin Table The table below shows the types of ...

429

Medicine Bow wind project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

Nelson, L. L.

1982-05-01

430

Medicines: Use Them Safely  

MedlinePLUS

... and talk with the pharmacist. Generic or Brand Name? When getting a prescription filled, sometimes you can choose between either a generic or brand-name drug. Generic and brand-name medicines are alike ...

431

[Market oriented occupational medicine].  

PubMed

The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities. PMID:22951411

Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

2012-09-01

432

Medicines for ADHD  

MedlinePLUS

ADHD is a problem that most often affects children. People with ADHD may have problems with: Being able to focus ... control behavior Medicines can help improve symptoms of ADHD. Talk or behavioral therapy can also help.You ...

433

Giving Medicine to Children  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... la batalla. back to top - For More Information Pediatrics Medicines in My Home (MIMH) 10 tips for ... Concentration Before Giving Acetaminophen to Infants Children and Asthma: The Goal Is Control Know Active Ingredients in ...

434

Health and Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated listing of various Internet sites, many that are starting points for exploration of specific health subject areas. Special considerations for locating and selecting health and medicine resources are also provided. (Author)

Schnell, Eric H.

1997-01-01

435

Preventive Medicine 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of Preventive Medicine 2003 were to enable attendees to: 1. Acquire the information necessary to convey accurately and effectively to collogues, patients, the media, and the public, the latest advances and current recommendations in prevent...

J. H. Richland

2003-01-01

436

Women in Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature written since 1973 about the individual woman physician and the situation of United States women in medicine is examined and reviewed. Discrimination problems, identity conflicts, and a "typical" personality profile are some of the issues addressed. (Author/ KR)

Mandelbaum, Dorothy Rosenthal

1978-01-01

437

3-D Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Visible Human Project of the National Library of Medicine that links the print library of functional-physiological knowledge with the image library of structural-anatomical knowledge into one unified resource. (JOW)

Reese, Susan

2001-01-01

438

Medicines for osteoporosis  

MedlinePLUS

... fractures, your doctor may ask you to take parathyroid hormone. This medicine is given through daily shots under ... how to give yourself these shots at home. Parathyroid hormone works better if you have never taken bisphosphonates. ...

439

Traveling Safely with Medicines  

MedlinePLUS

Planes, trains, cars – even boats and bikes. For many Americans, summer means vacation, and vacation means taking ... medicine, and The bag storage area of the plane can get very hot or very cold—this ...

440

Occupational Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

Tarver, William J.

2012-01-01

441

Estrogenicity of Medicinal Botanicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medicinal botanicals PLANT EXTRACTS have been used for centuries to relieve various gynecological symptoms, and are of increasing interest to those seeking alternative health care and self-treatment. However, women who have or are at risk for breast cance...

P. K. Eagon

1998-01-01

442

Handheld Computing in Medicine  

PubMed Central

Handheld computers have become a valuable and popular tool in various fields of medicine. A systematic review of articles was undertaken to summarize the current literature regarding the use of handheld devices in medicine. A variety of articles were identified, and relevant information for various medical fields was summarized. The literature search covered general information about handheld devices, the use of these devices to access medical literature, electronic pharmacopoeias, patient tracking, medical education, research, business management, e-prescribing, patient confidentiality, and costs as well as specialty-specific uses for personal digital assistants (PDAs). The authors concluded that only a small number of articles provide evidence-based information about the use of PDAs in medicine. The majority of articles provide descriptive information, which is nevertheless of value. This article aims to increase the awareness among physicians about the potential roles for handheld computers in medicine and to encourage the further evaluation of their use.

Fischer, Sandra; Stewart, Thomas E.; Mehta, Sangeeta; Wax, Randy; Lapinsky, Stephen E.

2003-01-01

443

Opioid Peptides: Medicinal Chemistry,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The monograph presents contributions in the various aspects of the medicinal chemistry of the opioid peptides and the opiates. A number of presentations are on structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the opioid peptides; the SAR of enkephalins; morphice...

R. S. Rapaka G. Barnett R. L. Hawks

1986-01-01

444

Bone scanning in clinical practice  

SciTech Connect

The topics covered in this book include the history of bone scanning, mechanisms of uptake of diphosphonate in bone, the normal bone scan, and the role of bone scanning in clinical practice. The aim of this book is to provide a source of reference relating to bone scan imaging for all those who are interested in the skeleton.

Fogelman, I. (Guys Hospital, London (GB))

1987-01-01

445

[Bioethics and internal medicine].  

PubMed

Medicine should concern also with theoretical and practical aspects of Bioethics. In fact, in medical research and in clinical practice Bioethics knowledges are essential. A cultural project is underlined. We will neglect the method of reductionism, whereas we will consider the holistic one. We will consider also the real significance of specialisations, so that their role become ancillary to Internal Medicine. Particularly, we should try to find and define some fundamental principles which consider the man on a realistic anthropology, a point of view, where the whole has its importance. Medicine should be seen sub specie totius. In fact the best ethical theory seems to be the ontologically founded personalism, which, through its principles, represents the classic and realistic conception of the man. The person is unity, the whole and not a part of the whole. Furthermore, we propose to discover the virtues ethic. The physicians should not ask themselves: "What have I to do?", but "What kind of physicians do I want to become?" The relations between medicine and Bioethics will produce important results, which through the integral Humanism of medicine, will be reflect on the integral physic and psychic health of each patient and on the integrity of our profession. For these reasons Internal Medicine, which is structured on an holistic epistemology, with its cultural and experimental traditions, should not disappoint to concern with Bioethics and its problems. PMID:10052250

Soldini, M

1998-01-01

446

Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Pharmacovigilance is essential for developing reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines as used in Europe and the US. The existing systems were developed for synthetic medicines and require some modification to address the specific differences of medicinal herbs. Traditional medicine from many different cultures is used in Europe and the US which adds to the complexities and difficulties of even basic questions such as herb naming systems and chemical variability. Allied to this also is the perception that a 'natural' or herbal product must be safe simply because it is not synthetic which means that the safety element of monitoring for such medicines can be overlooked because of the tag associated with such products. Cooperation between orthodox physicians and traditional practitioners is needed to bring together the full case details. Independent scientific assistance on toxicological investigation, botanical verification can be invaluable for full evaluation of any case report. Systematic pharmacovigilance is essential to build up reliable information on the safety of herbal medicines for the development of appropriate guidelines for safe effective use. PMID:22342381

Shaw, Debbie; Graeme, Ladds; Pierre, Duez; Elizabeth, Williamson; Kelvin, Chan

2012-04-10

447

The natural history of venous thromboembolism: impact on ventilation/perfusion scan reporting.  

PubMed

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are separate but related aspects of the same dynamic disease process known as venous thromboembolism (VTE). Recent community studies have shown that VTE is a major health issue for the developed world, with at least 201,000 new cases each year in the United States, comprising 107,000 with DVT and 94,000 with PE. A quarter of PE cases die within 7 days, some so rapidly that treatment or intervention is impossible. Despite the availability of heparin prophylaxis, the annual incidence of VTE has remained constant at 1 event per 1,000 person-years since 1979 but reaches 1 event per 100 person-years for the over-85-year-olds. The most important risk factors for VTE are hemostatic and environmental. The recent discoveries of factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210A, and high concentrations of factor VIII have highlighted the increasing importance of a genetic predisposition to thrombophilia. Acquired hemostatic factors include pregnancy and the puerperium, oral contraception, hormone-replacement therapy, malignant tumors, and antiphospholipid syndromes. Important environmental risk factors include hospitalization with previous surgery or trauma, confinement in a care facility, neurologic disease or paraplegia after stroke, current or recent central venous catheter or transvenous pacemaker, and long airplane flights. Internists may be confused about the risk of PE after ventilation/perfusion (VQ) imaging. This may well arise from their use of the relative risk of PE after a low-probability category scan rather than the absolute risk obtained by incorporating the PE prevalence for their particular patient in the risk analysis. Ideally, personal communication with an experienced referring physician provides this clinical information for nuclear medicine. Diagnostic tools or checklists can be used as an alternative. A general knowledge of the natural history of VTE will encourage the nuclear medicine physician to provide an appropriate clinical signal to complement VQ categorical analysis. Combination of these 2 dynamic elements of the art and science of VQ scan reporting-the clinical pretest probability of PE and lung scan category-will permit an accurate prediction of the absolute risk of PE posttest. PMID:12105797

Gray, Henry W

2002-07-01

448

Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine is a comprehensive listing of international publications in clinical aerospace medicine, operational aerospace medicine, aerospace physiology, environmental medicine/physiology, diving medicine...

M. J. Antunano

1993-01-01

449

Medicines That May Cause Bone Loss  

MedlinePLUS

... here Home » Medicines that May Cause Bone Loss Medicines that May Cause Bone Loss Some medicines can ... that may cause bone loss. Osteoporosis and Steroid Medicines While steroid medicines can be lifesaving treatments for ...

450

HERBAL MEDICINES IN EUROPEAN REGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbal medicines are assuming large use in the primary healthcare of individuals and communities consistently with the growing interest in traditional and alternative systems of medicine in many developed countries. Consumer surveys show a positive public attitude to complementary medicine.The regulation of herbal medicines is characterized by large differences depending on the ethnological, medical, and historical background of each country.

GIANNI BENZI; ADRIANA CECI

1997-01-01

451

Contributions of Sasang Constitutional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sasang Constitutional Medicine (SCM), also referred to as 'integrative medicine', constitutes a unique contribu- tion to the growing field of complementary and alterna- tive medicine. Like all other ancient cultures—including those from India, (Ayurveda) China (TCM), Japan (Kampo), Korea (TKM) and the Mediterranean (TAIM)—there is an emerging fascination with, and indeed use of, these approaches as adjuncts to Western medicine

Edwin L. Cooper

2009-01-01

452

Scan? Cure? Sure!  

PubMed Central

Presentation of The Case A 61-year-old man undergoes a sigmoid colectomy for a T3N1 (two of 18 nodes) adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon. He recovers well and receives 6 months of adjuvant FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) uneventfully. At his first follow-up visit, the oncologist recommended every 3 month visits for a physical, liver function tests, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) measurement; every 6 month chest, abdomen, and pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans for 3 years; and aspirin, vitamin D supplementation, and exercise. Is CT scanning appropriate in the follow-up of colon cancer patients? (This case was presented at Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center.)

2011-01-01

453

Scanning thermal plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over a three-year period 800 thermal line scans of power plant plumes were made by an airborne scanner, with ground truth measured concurrently at the plants. Computations using centered finite differences in the thermal scanning imagery show a lower bound in the horizontal temperature gradient in excess of 1.6 C/m. Gradients persist to 3 m below the surface. Vector plots of the velocity of thermal fronts are constructed by tracing the front motion in successive thermal images. A procedure is outlined for the two-point ground calibration of a thermal scanner from an equation describing the scanner signal and the voltage for two known temperatures. The modulation transfer function is then calculated by input of a thermal step function and application of digital time analysis techniques using Fast Fourier Transforms to the voltage output. Field calibration tests are discussed. Data accuracy is limited by the level of ground truth effort chosen.

Scarpace, F. L.; Madding, R. P.; Green, T., III

1975-01-01

454

The optical scanning technology in laser scanning and tracking system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser scanning and tracking technology has been widely used in many applications. For a laser scanning and tracking system, a two-dimensional scanning mirror is usually combined with a plane array detector to detect and track the object. The scanning process and quality of acquired images from the detector are two key factors and they are both correlated with the choice of scanning mode, which is a known hard problem and little has been done in the subject. Based on this deficiency, this paper analyzes and compares two common two-dimensional scan mode-continuous scan and step scan, from a theoretical point of view. As we known, the continuous scan can acquire data quickly and is easy to implement. But the acquired images may blur severely due to the fast continuous scan velocity. The step scan can produce highquality images, but it takes much longer time and is more difficult to control. Formulas are proposed in this paper to quantitatively measure the characteristics of each mode and evaluate the parameters that affect the scanning process. These results can be provided as a reference for the proper choice of scanning mode. Moreover, through analysis of imaging characteristics of the detector, an improved raster scan pattern is presented to reduce the number of dead zones and enhance the performance of the system.

Li, Shu-Ying; Zhou, Shi-Chun

2009-07-01

455

Scanned beam medical imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a conceptual design and feasibility demonstration for a scanned beam endoscope, with advantages over present CCD imaging technology in image resolution and quality, light source power, and package diameter. Theoretical calculations were made by optical modeling and finite element analysis of the performance projected for a design meeting size constraints. To verify the design target of 5 mm for the endoscope diameter, we conducted a design study of the deformation and resolution characteristics of a scan mirror small enough to fit within a 2.5 mm capsule within the endoscope. The results show that performance similar to the test system can be achieved. A functional prototype was then built and tested to validate the theory used. The test system consisted of a photonics module with red (635 nm), green (532 nm) and blue (473 nm) lasers, combined by dichroic mirrors and launched to a single mode fiber. The light emerging from the fiber is formed into a beam and reflected from a commercially available bi-axial MEMS scanner with a 1.56 mm square mirror, and a scan angle of 6 degrees zero to peak mechanical, at a frequency of 19.7 kHz. Scanned beam power from 1 to 3 mw impinges the test object at a range from 10 to 100 mm, and the scattered light is collected by several 3 mm diameter multimode fibers and conducted one-meter to detectors. The detected light was digitized and then reconstructed to form an image of the test object, with 800 by 600 output pixels. Several such images will be presented.

Lewis, John R.; Holton, Mark; Kykta, Martin; Malik, Amjad; Metting, Frank; Ryerson, Chris; Wiklof, Chris; Xu, Jianhua

2004-01-01

456

Controlled Scanning Probe Lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for real-time monitoring of the quality and quantity of silicon oxide grown on silicon using conducting-tip scanning probe lithography has been developed. The sub-picoampere tip-sample currents measured during lithography in ambient conditions are shown to be proportional to the amount of silicon oxide being grown. In addition, we have demonstrated the ability to control the composition of the

Todd G. Ruskell; Dror Sarid; Richard K. Workman; Jason L. Pyle

1997-01-01

457

Scanning electrochemical microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The H+\\/H2 redox couple was investigated as a mediator system for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) with proton reduction from a 0.01 M HClO4 solution at a Pt tip. The feedback behavior of the mediator was examined at different substrates (Pt, Au). Unlike the one-electron outer-sphere redox couples usually used as mediators in SECM, this mediator system is sensitive to the

Junfeng Zhou; Yanbing Zu; Allen J Bard

2000-01-01

458

LASER SCANNING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser scanning confocal microscopy has become an invaluable tool for a wide range of investigations in the biological and medical sciences for imaging thin optical sections in living and fixed specimens ranging in thickness up to 100 micrometers. Modern instruments are equipped with 3-5 laser systems controlled by high-speed acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), which allow very precise regulation of wavelength

Nathan S. Claxton; Thomas J. Fellers; Michael W. Davidson

459

Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy  

PubMed Central

Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

2010-01-01

460

[Emergency medicine today].  

PubMed

Anaesthesiology has given essential impulses to emergency medicine during the last decades. Therefore emergency medicine has become the "third column" of this speciality. As a "generalist with special skills" the anaesthetist fulfils the requirements of an emergency physician to a high degree. The scientific field of emergency medicine is subjected to a considerable amount of changes and requires qualified training and further education; in this context the guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation are of outstanding importance. In the governmental-controlled emergency care system, the emergency physician and the chief emergency physician are responsible for both the individual treatment of patients and the management of major incidents and catastrophes. Moreover, the interhospital transfer is gaining increasing importance. Even though a high quality standard of the German emergency medicine system can be stated, there are still clear deficits such as the lack of integrated dispatch centers and the lack of the position of a medical physician as emergency care leader in each area. A leading structure for the management of major incidents and disasters is established to a great extent, nevertheless personal and material deficits exist in this field especially considering a rising terroristic threat. In the in-hospital emergency medicine anaesthetists are of essential importance for the interdisciplinary teamwork in the resuscitation room, medical treatment of in-hospital emergencies on the wards and outside on the hospital ground, and for internal as well as external major incidents and disasters. This is not always recognized in public opinion, so that the interdisciplinary integration must be secured and reinforced. In conclusion: A major goal is to preserve emergency medicine as the third column of anaesthesiology and to protect achieved standards, to reinforce research in preclinical and clinical emergency medicine, and to take up new challenges in the future. PMID:12658571

Adams, H A; Maisch, S; Standl, Th

2003-04-01