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Sample records for nuclear plant bridgman

  1. Bridgman`s concern

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman`s static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman`s concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman`s 1956 concerns.

  2. Bridgman's concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns.

  3. Lesser scaup forage on zebra mussels at Cook nuclear plant, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Carlson, J.

    1993-01-01

    Nineteen of 21 Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) entrained while foraging at the water intake structures of Cook Nuclear Plant, Bridgman, Michigan had consumed zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The average number of zebra mussels in the upper gastrointestinal tract was 260; maximum number was 987. Migrating Lesser Scaup found this new food source during the first winter following settlement of zebra mussels on the water intake structures of the power plant.

  4. Bridgman Growth of Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.

    1997-01-01

    The high-magnetic-field crystal growth facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center will be briefly described. This facility has been used to grow bulk germanium by the Bridgman technique in magnetic fields up to 5 Tesla. The results of investigations of ampoule material on the interface shape and thermal field applied to the melt on stability against convection will be discussed.

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  7. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  8. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  9. Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Frederick

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this theoretical research effort was to improve the understanding of the growth of Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te and especially how crystal quality could be improved utilizing the microgravity environment of space. All theoretical growths are done using the vertical Bridgman method. It is believed that improved single crystal yields can be achieved by systematically identifying and studying system parameters both theoretically and experimentally. A computational model was developed to study and eventually optimize the growth process. The model is primarily concerned with the prediction of the thermal field, although mass transfer in the melt and the state of stress in the crystal were of considerable interest. The evolution is presented of the computer simulation and some of the important results obtained. Diffusion controlled growth was first studied since it represented a relatively simple, but nontheless realistic situation. In fact, results from this analysis prompted a study of the triple junction region where the melt, crystal, and ampoule wall meet. Since microgravity applications were sought because of the low level of fluid movement, the effect of gravitational field strength on the thermal and concentration field was also of interest. A study of the strength of coriolis acceleration on the growth process during space flight was deemed necessary since it would surely produce asymmetries in the flow field if strong enough. Finally, thermosolutal convection in a steady microgravity field for thermally stable conditions and both stable and unstable solutal conditions was simulated.

  10. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  11. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  12. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  13. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities.

  14. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  15. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  16. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  17. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  18. Post-growth annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe crystals for room-temperature nuclear radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander A.; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Giuseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-06-01

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, so causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 μm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on the conditions in local regions, such as composition and structure, as well as on the annealing conditions.

  19. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an ordermore » of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.« less

  20. Post-Growth Annealing of Bridgman-grown CdZnTe and CdMnTe Crystals for Room-temperature Nuclear Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Egarievwe, Stephen U.; Yang, Ge; Egarievwe, Alexander; Okwechime, Ifechukwude O.; Gray, Justin; Hales, Zaveon M.; Hossain, Anwar; Camarda, Guiseppe S.; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; James, Ralph B.

    2015-02-11

    Bridgman-grown cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) and cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe or CMT) crystals often have Te inclusions that limit their performances as X-ray- and gamma-ray-detectors. We present here the results of post-growth thermal annealing aimed at reducing and eliminating Te inclusions in them. In a 2D analysis, we observed that the sizes of the Te inclusions declined to 92% during a 60-h annealing of CZT at 510 °C under Cd vapor. Further, tellurium inclusions were eliminated completely in CMT samples annealed at 570 °C in Cd vapor for 26 h, whilst their electrical resistivity fell by an order of 102. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CMT at 730 °C and an 18 °C/cm temperature gradient for 18 h in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar, we observed the diffusion of Te from the sample, causing a reduction in size of the Te inclusions. For CZT samples annealed at 700 °C in a 10 °C/cm temperature gradient, we observed the migration of Te inclusions from a low-temperature region to a high one at 0.022 μm/s. During the temperature-gradient annealing of CZT in a vacuum of 10-5 mbar at 570 °C and 30 °C/cm for 18 h, some Te inclusions moved toward the high-temperature side of the wafer, while other inclusions of the same size, i.e., 10 µm in diameter, remained in the same position. These results show that the migration, diffusion, and reaction of Te with Cd in the matrix of CZT- and CMT-wafers are complex phenomena that depend on certain conditions.

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  2. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  3. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  4. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David A. Petti

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear- based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950°C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications (see Figure 1). The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to other nuclear technologies.

  5. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  6. Simulation of solidification in a Bridgman cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakhoul, Y. M.; Farmer, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Bridgman-type crystal growth techniques are attractive methods for producing homogeneous, high-quality infrared detector and junction device materials. However, crystal imperfections and interface shapes still must be controlled through modification of the temperature and concentration gradients created during solidification. The objective of this investigation was to study the temperature fields generated by various cell and heatpipe configurations and operating conditions. Continuum's numerical model of the temperature, species concentrations, and velocity fields was used to describe the thermal characteristics of Bridgman cell operation.

  7. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  8. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  9. Nuclear Plant/Hydrogen Plant Safety: Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its agents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, is working on developing the technologies to enable the large scale production of hydrogen using nuclear power. A very important consideration in the design of a co-located and connected nuclear plant/hydrogen plant facility is safety. This study provides an overview of the safety issues associated with a combined plant and discusses approaches for categorizing, quantifying, and addressing the safety risks.

  10. Introduction and overall description of nuclear power plant. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this volume include content and purpose of booklets; how to study; producing electricity; the fossil fuel power plant; the nuclear power plant; the nuclear reactor; generating steam in a nuclear power plant; using the steam in a nuclear power plant; nuclear power station facilities; and special features of nuclear power plants.

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  13. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  14. Plant nuclear proteomics for unraveling physiological function.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaojian; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-09-25

    The nucleus is the subcellular organelle that functions as the regulatory hub of the cell and is responsible for regulating several critical cellular functions, including cell proliferation, gene expression, and cell survival. Nuclear proteomics is a useful approach for investigating the mechanisms underlying plant responses to abiotic stresses, including protein-protein interactions, enzyme activities, and post-translational modifications. Among abiotic stresses, flooding is a major limiting factor for plant growth and yields, particularly for soybean. In this review, plant nuclei purification methods, modifications of plant nuclear proteins, and recent contributions to the field of plant nuclear proteomics are summarized. In addition, to reveal the upstream regulating mechanisms controlling soybean responses to flooding stress, the functions of flooding-responsive nuclear proteins are reviewed based on the results of nuclear proteomic analysis of soybean in the early stages of flooding stress. PMID:27004615

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  16. Meniscus Shapes in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K

    2010-01-01

    In detached Bridgman crystal growth, most of the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically 1-100 micrometers. A liquid free surface, or meniscus, bridges across this gap at the position of the melt-crystal interface. Meniscus shapes have been calculated for the case of detached Bridgman growth in cylindrical ampoules by solving the Young-Laplace equation. Key parameters affecting meniscus shapes are the growth angle, contact angle of the meniscus to the ampoule wall, the pressure differential across the meniscus, and the Bond number, a measure of the ratio of gravitational to capillary forces. In general, for specified values of growth and contact angles, solutions exist only over a finite range of pressure differentials. For intermediate values of the Bond number, there are multiple solutions to the Young-Laplace equations. There are also cases where, as a function of pressure differential, existence intervals alternate with intervals where no solutions exist. The implications of the meniscus shape calculations on meniscus stability are discussed.

  17. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  18. Fighting the Epidemic of Nuclear Plant Leaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udell, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    The current epidemic of steam generator tube leaks alone should put to rest the rosy future once envisioned for nuclear power. It is impossible to regulate quality into a nuclear plant; it must be built and designed that way. The economic impact of the leaks is discussed. (RM)

  19. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  20. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  1. Improvements in plant performance [Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lorek, M.J.

    1999-11-01

    The improvements in plant reliability and performance at Sequoyah in the last two years can be directly attributed to ten key ingredients; teamwork, management stability, a management team that believes in teamwork, clear direction from the top, a strong focus on human performance, the company wide STAR 7 initiative, strong succession planning, a very seasoned and effective outage management organization, an infrastructure that ensures that the station is focused on the right hardware priorities, and a very strong line organization owned self-assessment program. Continued focus on these key ingredients and realization on a daily basis that good performance can lead to complacency will ensure that performance at Sequoyah will remain at a very high level well into the 21st century.

  2. Crystal Shape Evolution in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detached (or dewetted) Bridgman crystal growth defines that process in which a gap exists between a growing crystal and the crucible wall. Existence of the gap provides several advantages, including no sticking of the crystal to the crucible wall, reduced thermal and mechanical stresses, reduced dislocations, and no heterogeneous nucleation by the crucible. Numerical calculations are used to determine the conditions in which a gap can exist. According to crystal shape stability theory, only some of these gap widths will be dynamically stable. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, the transient crystal growth process is analyzed. In microgravity, dynamic stability depends only on capillary effects and is decoupled from heat transfer. Depending on the initial conditions and growth parameters, the crystal shape will evolve towards the crucible wall, towards a stable gap width, or towards the center of the crucible, collapsing the meniscus. The effect of a tapered crucible on dynamic stability is also described.

  3. Crystal Shape Evolution in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2013-01-01

    Detached (or dewetted) Bridgman crystal growth defines that process in which a gap exists between a growing crystal and the crucible wall. Existence of the gap provides several advantages, including no sticking of the crystal to the crucible wall, reduced thermal and mechanical stresses, reduced dislocations, and no heterogeneous nucleation by the crucible. Numerical calculations are used to determine the conditions in which a gap can exist. According to crystal shape stability theory, only some of these gap widths will be dynamically stable. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, the transient crystal growth process is analyzed. In microgravity, dynamic stability depends only on capillary effects and is decoupled from heat transfer. Depending on the initial conditions and growth parameters, the crystal shape will evolve towards the crucible wall, towards a stable gap width, or towards the center of the crucible, collapsing the meniscus. The effect of a tapered crucible on dynamic stability is also described

  4. On Transients in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    In detached Bridgman growth, a gap exists between the growing crystal and the crucible wall. According to crystal shape stability theory, only specific gap widths will be dynamically stable. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, the transient crystal growth process is analyzed. The transient shapes are calculated assuming that the growth angle is constant. Anisotropy and dynamic contact angle effects are considered. In microgravity, dynamic stability depends only on capillary effects and is decoupled from heat transfer. However, heat transfer will influence the crystal-melt interface shape. The local angles and the crystal-melt-vapor triple junction are analyzed and the applicability of the Herring formula is discussed. A potential microgravity experiment is proposed which would enhance our understanding of the detached growth dynamic stability problem.

  5. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  6. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested.

  8. Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Randolph L

    2009-11-01

    An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

  9. Modelling melt-solid interfaces in Bridgman growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, Patrick G.; Berry, Robert F.; Debnam, William J.; Fripp, Archibald F.; Huang, YU

    1989-01-01

    Doped epoxy models with abrupt interfaces were prepared to test radiographic and computer enhancement procedures used to study the images of melt-solid interfaces during crystal growth in Bridgman furnaces. A column averaging procedure resulted in improved images that faithfully reproduced the positions and shapes of interfaces even at very low density differences. These techniques were applied to lead tin telluride growing in Bridgman furnaces.

  10. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Standard review plan-draft section revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear...

  11. Optimization of nuclear plant preventive maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    McClymonds, S.L.; Winge, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted that preventive maintenance can achieve greater equipment reliability. Most would also agree that the taking of precautions and checking reduces the need to perform corrective maintenance. In the nuclear industry, however, preventive maintenance has not been completely successful in sustaining equipment reliability levels. This paper presents methods for developing an optimum preventive maintenance program for nuclear power plants, one which will contribute to high plant availability by concentrating resources on those maintenance tasks that are directly applicable to equipment reliability.

  12. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  13. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  14. Modeling Tritium Life cycle in Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hussey, D.; Saunders, P.; Morey, D.; Pitt, N.; Wilson, J.; Claes, B.

    2006-07-01

    The mathematical development of a tritium model for nuclear power plants is presented. The model requires that the water and tritium material balance be satisfied throughout normal operations and shutdown. The model results obtained at the time of publishing include the system definitions and comparison of the model predictions of tritium generations compared to the observed plant data of the Braidwood station. A scenario that models using ion exchange resin to remove coolant boron demonstrates the tritium concentration levels are manageable. (authors)

  15. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  16. The Advanced BWR Nuclear Plant: Safe, economic nuclear energy

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The safety and economics of Advanced BWR Nuclear Power Plants are outlined. The topics discussed include: ABWR Programs: status in US and Japan; ABWR competitiveness: safety and economics; SBWR status; combining ABWR and SBWR: the passive ABWR; and Korean/GE partnership.

  17. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

  18. Modesty garment use at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.E. ); Johnstone, G. )

    1990-02-01

    This article presents the results of a telephone survey of modesty garment use at U.S. nuclear power plants. Modesty garments are launderable or disposable lightweight garments worn in radiological areas under cloth protective clothing (PCs). The types of modesty garments used, the benefits they provide, and other issues related to their used are discussed.

  19. Finding the flaws in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, E.

    1982-09-01

    Describes how nondestructive, remote testing techniques are being devised to improve the operational safety of nuclear plants. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques developed by the EPRI include high-energy, portable X-ray systems; ultrasonic methods; advanced eddy-current inspection; and automated inspection. References for further information on NDE are given.

  20. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69...

  1. Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Volz, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The meniscus shape depends on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, the gas pressure differential, the Weber number describing the rotation rate of the crucible, and the Bond number. Only some of the meniscus shapes are stable and the stability criterion is the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The effects of confined gas volumes above and below the melt and crucible rotation are evaluated. The analysis is applicable to the non-stationary case where the crystal radius changes during growth. Static stability maps (crystal radius versus pressure differential) are obtained for a series of Bond numbers, growth angles and Weber numbers. Also, the specific cases of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions, are analyzed. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  2. FIREDATA. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Database

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelis, W.T.

    1986-08-01

    FIREDATA contains raw fire event data from 1965 through June 1985. These data were obtained from a number of reference sources including the American Nuclear Insurers, Licensee Event Reports, Nuclear Power Experience, Electric Power Research Institute Fire Loss Data and then collated into one database developed in the personal computer database management system, dBASE III. FIREDATA is menu-driven and asks interactive questions of the user that allow searching of the database for various aspects of a fire such as: location, mode of plant operation at the time of the fire, means of detection and suppression, dollar loss, etc. Other features include the capability of searching for single or multiple criteria (using Boolean `and` or `or` logical operations), user-defined keyword searches of fire event descriptions, summary displays of fire event data by plant name or calendar date, and options for calculating the years of operating experience for all commercial nuclear power plants from any user-specified date and the ability to display general plant information.

  3. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  4. Global nuclear radiation monitoring using plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Kostov, Dan; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Hussey, Daniel S.; Baltic, Eli; Jacobson, David L.; Gu, Jerry; Choa, Fow-Sen

    2005-05-01

    Plants exhibit complex responses to changes in environmental conditions such as radiant heat flux, water quality, airborne pollutants, soil contents. We seek to utilize the natural chemical and electrophysiological response of plants to develop novel plant-based sensor networks. Our present work focuses on plant responses to high-energy radiation - with the goal of monitoring natural plant responses for use as benchmarks for detection and dosimetry. For our study, we selected a plants cactus, Arabidopsis, Dwarf mango (pine), Euymus and Azela. We demonstrated that the ratio of Chlorophyll a to Chlorophyll b of the leaves has changed due to the exposure gradually come back to the normal stage after the radiation die. We used blue laser-induced blue fluorescence-emission spectra to characterize the pigment status of the trees. Upon blue laser excitation (400 nm) leaves show a fluorescence emission in the red spectral region between 650 and 800nm (chlorophyll fluorescence with maxima near 690nm and 735 nm). Sample tree subjects were placed at a distance of 1m from NIST-certified 241AmBe neutron source (30 mCi), capable of producing a neutron field of about 13 mrem/h. This corresponds to an actual absorbed dose of ~ 1 mrad/h. Our results shows that all plants are sensitive to nuclear radiation and some take longer time to recover and take less. We can use their characteristics to do differential detection and extract nuclear activity information out of measurement results avoid false alarms produced environmental changes. Certainly the ultimate verification can be obtained from genetic information, which only need to be done when we have seen noticeable changes on plant optical spectra, mechanical strength and electrical characteristics.

  5. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  6. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  7. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  8. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role.

  9. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  10. Polyphophoinositides components of plant nuclear membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, K.W.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    The polyphosphoinositides, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), have been shown to be important components in signal transduction in many animal cells. Recently, these lipids have been found to be associated with plasma membrane but not microsomal membrane isolated from fusogenic wild carrot cells; however, in that study the lipids of the nuclear membrane were not analyzed. Since polyphosphoinositides had been shown to be associated with the nuclear membranes as well as the plasma membrane in some animal cells, it was important to determine whether they were associated with plant nuclear membranes as well. Cells were labeled for 18h with (/sup 3/H) inositol and the nuclei were isolated by a modification of the procedure of Saxena et al. Preliminary lipid analyses indicate lower amount of PIP and PIP/sub 2/ in nuclear membranes compared to whole protoplasts. This suggests that the nuclear membranes of carrot cells are not enriched in PIP and PIP/sub 2/; however, the Triton X-100 used during the nuclear isolation procedure may have affected the recovery of the lipids. Experiments are in progress to determine the effects of Triton X-100 on lipid extraction.

  11. Improved Economics of Nuclear Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Bond, Joseph W D.

    2007-07-31

    The adoption of new on-line monitoring, diagnostic and eventually prognostics technologies has the potential to impact the economics of the existing nuclear power plant fleet, new plants and future advanced designs. To move from periodic inspection to on-line monitoring for condition based maintenance and eventually prognostics will require advances in sensors, better understanding of what and how to measure within the plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new predictive models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real world deployments; quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems and integration of enhanced condition based maintenance/prognostics philosophies into new plant designs, operation and O&M approaches. The move to digital systems in petrochemical, process and fossil fuel power plants is enabling major advances to occur in the instrumentation, controls and monitoring systems and approaches employed. The adoption within the nuclear power community of advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics has the potential for the reduction in costly periodic surveillance that requires plant shut-down , more accurate cost-benefit analysis, “just-in-time” maintenance, pre-staging of maintenance tasks, move towards true “operation without failures” and a jump start on advanced technologies for new plant concepts, such as those under the International Gen IV Program. There are significant opportunities to adopt condition-based maintenance when upgrades are implemented at existing facilities. The economic benefit from a predictive maintenance program based upon advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics can be demonstrated from a cost/benefit analysis. An analysis of the 104 US legacy systems has indicated potential savings at over $1B per year when applied to all key equipment; a summary of the supporting analysis is provided in this paper.

  12. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  13. 75 FR 16869 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, LLC; Palisades Nuclear Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, LLC; Palisades Nuclear Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear... operation of Palisades Nuclear Plant (PNP). The license provides, among other things, that the facility...

  14. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Consideration (73 FR 17148; March 31, 2008), states that ``Plant emergencies are extraordinary circumstances... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

  15. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP),...

  16. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  17. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  18. THE NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT GRAPHITE PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Windes; Timothy D. Burchell; Robert L. Bratton

    2008-09-01

    Developing new nuclear grades of graphite used in the core of a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the critical development activities being pursued within the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program. Graphite’s thermal stability (in an inert gas environment), high compressive strength, fabricability, and cost effective price make it an ideal core structural material for the HTGR reactor design. While the general characteristics necessary for producing nuclear grade graphite are understood, historical “nuclear” grades no longer exist. New grades must be fabricated, characterized, and irradiated to demonstrate that current grades of graphite exhibit acceptable non-irradiated and irradiated properties upon which the thermo-mechanical design of the structural graphite in NGNP is based. The NGNP graphite R&D program has selected a handful of commercially available types for research and development activities necessary to qualify this nuclear grade graphite for use within the NGNP reactor. These activities fall within five primary areas; 1) material property characterization, 2) irradiated material property characterization, 3) modeling, and 4) ASTM test development, and 5) ASME code development efforts. Individual research and development activities within each area are being pursued with the ultimate goal of obtaining a commercial operating license for the nuclear graphite from the US NRC.

  19. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  20. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diercks, D. R.

    1993-12-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power- gener-ating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive compo-nents are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in serv-ice. The failures discussed are (1) intergranular stress- corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (2) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressurized water reactor, (3) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (4) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor.

  2. Cesium Removal at Fukushima Nuclear Plant - 13215

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, James L.; Barker, Tracy A.

    2013-07-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that took place on March 11, 2011 created a number of technical challenges at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. One of the primary challenges involved the treatment of highly contaminated radioactive wastewater. Avantech Inc. developed a unique patent pending treatment system that addressed the numerous technical issues in an efficient and safe manner. Our paper will address the development of the process from concept through detailed design, identify the lessons learned, and provide the updated results of the project. Specific design and operational parameters/benefits discussed in the paper include: - Selection of equipment to address radionuclide issues; - Unique method of solving the additional technical issues associated with Hydrogen Generation and Residual Heat; - Operational results, including chemistry, offsite discharges and waste generation. Results show that the customized process has enabled the utility to recycle the wastewater for cooling and reuse. This technology had a direct benefit to nuclear facilities worldwide. (authors)

  3. Nuclear power-plant safety functions

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R. III; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, P.F.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of safety functions is discussed. Ten critical safety functions and the multiple success paths available for accomplishing them are described. Use of the safety function concept in the development of emergency procedures, operator training, and control-room displays provides a systematic approach and a hierarchy of protection that an operator can use to mitigate the consequences of an event. The safety function concept can also be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear plant systems and to the evaluation of past expierience.

  4. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. PMID:21977961

  5. BN-800 advanced nuclear power plant with fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shishkin, A.N.; Kuzavkov, N.G.; Sobolev, V.A.; Shestakov, G.V.; Bagdasarov, Yu.E.; Kochetkov, L.A.; Matveyev, V.I.; Poplavsky, V.M.

    1993-12-31

    Bn-800 reactor plant with fast reactor and sodium coolant in the primary and secondary circuits is designed for operation as part of the power units in the Yuzhno-Uralskaya nuclear power plant scheduled to be constructed in Chelyabinsk region and as part unit 4 in the Beloyarskaya nuclear power plant. Reactor operations are described.

  6. Condenser performance recovery in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, G. Jr.; Putman, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Fouling of the tubes in the main condenser can have a significant impact on nuclear plant performance. Recent experiences suggest that the effects of fouling have been underestimated and that the results of an effective tube cleaning can be measured in improved unit capacity. In particular two nuclear power plants have reported recovery of 20 and 25 MW respectively. While the types of deposition often vary as they did in these two cases, the deposit elements were accurately identified, the deposits` impact on heat transfer was evaluated and an effective cleaning methodology was developed for successful deposit removal. These experiences have prompted the development of a number of diagnostic monitoring and inspection methods which can be utilized in the field or in the laboratory; to detect, identify and quantify the presence of fouling and its impact on heat transfer, to determine the relative effectiveness of a cleaning method and to evaluate condenser performance as related to MW capacity for both single and multiple compartment condensers.

  7. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  8. Storage of mixed waste at nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bodine, D.

    1995-05-01

    The problems posed by waste that is both radioactive and classified as hazardous by 40CFR261 include storage, proper treatment and disposal. An Enforcement Action issued by the State of Tennessee required that Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) either find a means to remove its mixed waste from onsite storage or obtain Part B Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility by March 1, 1994. Generators of hazardous waste cannot store the material for longer than 90 days without obtaining a Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility (TSDF) permit. To complicate this regulation, there are very few permitted TSDFs that can receive radioactive waste. Those facilities that can receive the waste have only one year to store it before treatment. Limited treatment is available for mixed waste that will meet the Land Ban requirements.

  9. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  10. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  11. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34). PMID:24378494

  12. On Favorable Thermal Fields for Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analyses [14] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Burchell, Timothy D; Corwin, William R; Fisher, Stephen Eugene; Forsberg, Charles W.; Morris, Robert Noel; Moses, David Lewis

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  14. On favorable thermal fields for detached Bridgman growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Volz, Martin P.; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-06-01

    The thermal fields of two Bridgman-like configurations, representative of real systems used in prior experiments for the detached growth of CdTe and Ge crystals, are studied. These detailed heat transfer computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analysis [C. Stelian, A. Yeckel, J.J. Derby, Influence of thermal phenomena on crystal reattachment during the dewetted Bridgman growth, J. Cryst. Growth, in press] that posited a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. Computational results indicate that heat transfer conditions that led to successful detached growth in both of these systems are in accordance with our prior assertion, namely that the prevention of crystal reattachment to the crucible wall requires the avoidance of any undercooling of the melt meniscus during the growth run. Significantly, relatively simple process modifications that promote favorable thermal conditions for detached growth may overcome detrimental factors associated with meniscus shape and crucible wetting. Thus, these ideas may be important to advance the practice of detached growth for many materials.

  15. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power. PMID:22514916

  16. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14637; dated March 26, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations,...

  17. Some aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khvostova, M. S.

    2012-03-15

    The major factors influencing the choice of a national concept for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants are examined. The operating lifetimes of power generating units with nuclear reactors of various types (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK-1000, EGP-6, and BN-600) are analyzed. The basic approaches to decommissioning Russian nuclear power plants and the treatment of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are discussed. Major aspects of the ecological and radiation safety of personnel, surrounding populations, and the environment during decommissioning of nuclear installations are identified.

  18. 76 FR 40403 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, R.E. Ginna Independent Spent.... Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), currently held by R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner...

  19. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  20. Use of neurals networks in nuclear power plant diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing transients or abnormal conditions in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of sensor outputs or instrument readings that can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault, problem, or transient condition of the plant. A demonstration of the ability of this technique to identify causes of perturbations in the steam generator of a nuclear plant is presented. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  2. Nuclear thiol redox systems in plants.

    PubMed

    Delorme-Hinoux, Valérie; Bangash, Sajid A K; Meyer, Andreas J; Reichheld, Jean-Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Thiol-disulfide redox regulation is essential for many cellular functions in plants. It has major roles in defense mechanisms, maintains the redox status of the cell and plays structural, with regulatory roles for many proteins. Although thiol-based redox regulation has been extensively studied in subcellular organelles such as chloroplasts, it has been much less studied in the nucleus. Thiol-disulfide redox regulation is dependent on the conserved redox proteins, glutathione/glutaredoxin (GRX) and thioredoxin (TRX) systems. We first focus on the functions of glutathione in the nucleus and discuss recent data concerning accumulation of glutathione in the nucleus. We also provide evidence that glutathione reduction is potentially active in the nucleus. Recent data suggests that the nucleus is enriched in specific GRX and TRX isoforms. We discuss the biochemical and molecular characteristics of these isoforms and focus on genetic evidences for their potential nuclear functions. Finally, we make an overview of the different thiol-based redox regulated proteins in the nucleus. These proteins are involved in various pathways including transcriptional regulation, metabolism and signaling. PMID:26795153

  3. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  4. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  5. Efficient plant male fertility depends on vegetative nuclear movement mediated by two families of plant outer nuclear membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao; Meier, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nuclear migration is important for eukaryotic development. Although nuclear migration is conserved in plants, its importance for plant development has not yet been established. The most extraordinary plant nuclear migration events involve plant fertilization, which is starkly different from that of animals. Instead of evolving self-propelled sperm cells (SCs), plants use pollen tubes to deliver SCs, in which the pollen vegetative nucleus (VN) and the SCs migrate as a unit toward the ovules, a fundamental but barely understood process. Here, we report that WPP domain-interacting proteins (WIPs) and their binding partners the WPP domain-interacting tail-anchored proteins (WITs) are essential for pollen nuclear migration. Loss-of-function mutations in WIT and/or WIP gene families resulted in impaired VN movement, inefficient SC delivery, and defects in pollen tube reception. WIPs are Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 Homology (KASH) analogs in plants. KASH proteins are key players in animal nuclear migration. Thus, this study not only reveals an important nuclear migration mechanism in plant fertilization but also, suggests that similar nuclear migration machinery is conserved between plants and animals. PMID:25074908

  6. Mesoscale to plant-scale models of nuclear waste reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, David Frederick; O'Hern, Timothy John; Moffat, Harry K.; Nemer, Martin B.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick

    2010-09-01

    Imported oil exacerabates our trade deficit and funds anti-American regimes. Nuclear Energy (NE) is a demonstrated technology with high efficiency. NE's two biggest political detriments are possible accidents and nuclear waste disposal. For NE policy, proliferation is the biggest obstacle. Nuclear waste can be reduced through reprocessing, where fuel rods are separated into various streams, some of which can be reused in reactors. Current process developed in the 1950s is dirty and expensive, U/Pu separation is the most critical. Fuel rods are sheared and dissolved in acid to extract fissile material in a centrifugal contactor. Plants have many contacts in series with other separations. We have taken a science and simulation-based approach to develop a modern reprocessing plant. Models of reprocessing plants are needed to support nuclear materials accountancy, nonproliferation, plant design, and plant scale-up.

  7. EMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DISASTERS

    PubMed Central

    Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and over-utilization of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that nonmental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics. PMID:24378494

  8. Numerical Optimization of the Thermal Field in Bridgman Detached Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, C.; Volz, M. P.; Derby, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The global modeling of the thermal field in two vertical Bridgman-like crystal growth configurations, has been performed to get optimal thermal conditions for a successful detached growth of Ge and CdTe crystals. These computations are performed using the CrysMAS code and expand upon our previous analysis [1] that propose a new mechanism involving the thermal field and meniscus position to explain stable conditions for dewetted Bridgman growth. The analysis of the vertical Bridgman configuration with two heaters, used by Palosz et al. for the detached growth of Ge, shows, consistent with their results, that the large wetting angle of germanium on boron nitride surfaces was an important factor to promote a successful detached growth. Our computations predict that by initiating growth much higher into the hot zone of the furnace, the thermal conditions will be favorable for continued detachment even for systems that did not exhibit high contact angles. The computations performed for a vertical gradient freeze configuration with three heaters representative of that used for the detached growth of CdTe, show favorable thermal conditions for dewetting during the entirely growth run described. Improved thermal conditions are also predicted for coated silica crucibles when the solid-liquid interface advances higher into the hot zone during the solidification process. The second set of experiments on CdTe growth described elsewhere has shown the reattachment of the crystal to the crucible after few centimeters of dewetted growth. The thermal modeling of this configuration shows a second solidification front appearing at the top of the sample and approaching the middle line across the third heater. In these conditions, the crystal grows detached from the bottom, but will be attached to the crucible in the upper part because of the solidification without gap in this region. The solidification with two interfaces can be avoided when the top of the sample is positioned below

  9. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  10. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2015-01-01

    A theory describing the shape evolution of detached Bridgman crystals in microgravity has been developed. A starting crystal of initial radius r0 will evolve to one of the following states: Stable detached gap; Attachment to the crucible wall; Meniscus collapse. Only crystals where alpha plus omega is great than 180 degrees will achieve stable detached growth in microgravity. Results of the crystal shape evolution theory are consistent with predictions of the dynamic stability of crystallization (Tatarchenko, Shaped Crystal Growth, Kluwer, 1993). Tests of transient crystal evolution are planned for ICESAGE, a series of Ge and GeSi crystal growth experiments planned to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS).

  11. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  12. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  13. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... January 1998 (63 FR 2426; January 15, 1998), because the underlying basis standard, ANSI N15.8-1974... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  14. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 14638). This exemption is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background...

  15. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Information DG-5028, was published in the Federal Register on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28407), for a 60-day public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  16. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  17. Hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  19. Radiological impact of power plants: coal vs nuclear

    SciTech Connect

    Styron, C.E.

    1981-12-23

    A definitive comparison of the radiological impact of coal power plants with that of (normally operating) nuclear power plants is quite difficult because of (1) insufficient data on both types of plants; (2) the diversity in design and performance of coal-fired plants and emission control systems; and (3) the relatively low concentrations of radionuclides to be measured. Radiation doses to the public estimated for coal and normally operating nuclear power plants are quite small when compared to natural background, and the level of uncertainty associated with estimates of radiological impact is so large that it is not possible at this time to demonstrate a significant difference between radiological risks of coal and nuclear power.

  20. Performance evaluation of fiber optic components in nuclear plant environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, M.C.; Miller, D.W.; James, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    Over the past several years, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has funded several projects to evaluate the performance of commercially available fiber optic cables, connective devices, light sources, and light detectors under environmental conditions representative of normal and abnormal nuclear power plant operating conditions. Future projects are planned to evaluate commercially available fiber optic sensors and to install and evaluate performance of instrument loops comprised of fiber optic components in operating nuclear power plant applications. The objective of this research is to assess the viability of fiber optic components for replacement and upgrade of nuclear power plant instrument systems. Fiber optic instrument channels offer many potential advantages: commercial availability of parts and technical support, small physical size and weight, immunity to electromagnetic interference, relatively low power requirements, and high bandwidth capabilities. As existing nuclear power plants continue to replace and upgrade I&C systems, fiber optics will offer a low-cost alternative technology which also provides additional information processing capabilities. Results to date indicate that fiber optics are a viable technology for many nuclear applications, both inside and outside of containments. This work is funded and manage& under the Operations & Maintenance Cost Control research target of EPRI`s Nuclear Power Group. The work is being performed by faculty and students in the Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Departments and the staff of the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory of the Ohio State University.

  1. Major factors impacting costs of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Z.A.; James, D.W.

    1985-11-01

    China is striving to complete construction of 10,000 MWe of nuclear power plants by the year 2000. The Chinese government is concerned about the costs and is interested in minimizing the economic risks. The paper discusses the problems of cost control in the US and the special problems expected as China begins its nuclear power development.

  2. Children's reactions to the threat of nuclear plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, M; Schwebel, B

    1981-04-01

    In the wake of Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident, questionnaire and interview responses of children in elementary and secondary schools revealed their perceptions of the dangers entailed in the continued use of nuclear reactors. Results are compared with a parallel study conducted close to 20 years ago, and implications for mental health are examined. PMID:7223871

  3. Towards appropriate seismic margins in nuclear plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Chokshi, N.C.; Chen, W.P.

    1996-12-01

    Some results of ongoing research being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC) are reported. These results include the development of a methodology for establishing and estimating appropriate seismic margins in nuclear plant piping.

  4. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that NRC staff considers acceptable to implement the requirements related to an access authorization...

  5. Boron control system for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.W.; Van der Schoot, M.R.

    1980-09-30

    Ion exchangers which reversibly store borate ions in a temperature dependent process are combined with evaporative boric acid recovery apparatus to provide a boron control system for controlling the reactivity of nuclear power plants. A plurality of ion exchangers are operated sequentially to provide varying amounts of boric acid to a nuclear reactor for load follow operations. Evaporative boric acid recovery apparatus is utilized for major changes in the boron concentration within the nuclear reactor.

  6. Conceptual design study. Standard Floating Nuclear Power Plant on inshore site and Modified Floating Nuclear Power plant on upriver site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    Both plants/designs are technically feasible. Both compare favorably with conventional nuclear plants with respect to licensability, quality of construction, reliability of operation, and safety. Both offer considerable reductions in construction schedule over conventional nuclear plants. It was estimated that if project durations were reduced by three years the cost of a 1100 MWe nuclear unit could be decreased by $260 million to $450 million. The allowance for funds during construction (AFDC) was estimated to be $929 million for a 1260 MWe nuclear plant with a commercial operation date in 1992. Reducing the schedule from 12 to 9 years, a reduction of 25%, implies a savings in AFDC alone of approximately $230 million. .DLN : Killed, superseded by N85-21597 NASA patent

  7. Early warning indicators for monitoring nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company`s (FP&L`s) Nuclear Division has developed a set of early warning indicators that are used to provide precursor indications of future plant performance. These indicators are monitored by management and safety committees to enable early detection of negative performance so that corrective actions may be taken prior to experiencing a significant decline in plant performance.

  8. Development of an Integrity Evaluation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Choi, Jae-Boong; Lee, Joon-Seong; Jun, Hyun-Kyu; Park, Youn-Won

    This paper describes the structure and development strategy for integrity evaluation system for nuclear power plants called NPP-KINS/SAFE. NPP-KINS/SAFE consists of three different programs covering the integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessel, pipings, and pressure tubes, respectively. The system has been developed based on currently available codes and standards, and includes a number of databases, expert systems, and numerical analysis schemes. NPP-KINS/SAFE is applicable for various types of nuclear power plants constructed in Korea with the aid of attached database systems including plant specific data. Case studies for the developed system are also provided.

  9. Instrumentation and control upgrade plan for Browns Ferry nuclear plant

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, M.R.; Langley, D.T. ); Torok, R.C.; Wilkinson, C.D. ); Stanley, L. )

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive upgrade of the instrumentation and control (I C) systems at a power plant represents a formidable project for any utility. For a nuclear plant, the extra safety and reliability requirements along with regulatory constraints add further complications and cost. The need for the upgrade must, therefore, be very compelling, and the process must be well planned from the start. This paper describes the steps taken to initiate the I C upgrade process for Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA's) Browns Ferry 2 nuclear plant. It explains the impetus for the upgrade, the expected benefits, and the process by which system upgrades will be selected and implemented.

  10. Analysis of valve failure data for LWR nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    A computer analysis of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) data file, compiled from Licensee Event Report (LER) data sheets, has been performed to characterize and highlight valve failures in light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants and provide guidance for valve improvement programs. The analysis is based on data from 1975 through 1978. Over this period, 889 valve citations were reported for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plants and 891 for boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. This report presents the pertinent LER data in a manner which indicates valve performance areas toward which improvement efforts may be directed.

  11. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  12. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald

    2003-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project will demonstrate emissions-free nuclearassisted electricity and hydrogen production by 2015. The NGNP reactor will be a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with a design goal outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. The reactor thermal power and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during hypothetical accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. This paper provides a description of the project to build the NGNP at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The NGNP Project includes an overall reactor design activity and four major supporting activities: materials selection and qualification, NRC licensing and regulatory support, fuel development and qualification, and the hydrogen production plant. Each of these activities is discussed in the paper. All the reactor design and construction activities will be managed under the DOE’s project management system as outlined in DOE Order 413.3. The key elements of the overall project management system discussed in this paper include the client and project management organization relationship, critical decisions (CDs), acquisition strategy, and the project logic and timeline. The major activities associated with the materials program include development of a plan for managing the selection and qualification of all component materials required for the NGNP; identification of specific materials alternatives for each system component; evaluation of the needed testing, code work, and analysis required to qualify each identified material; preliminary selection of component materials; irradiation of needed sample materials; physical, mechanical, and chemical testing of unirradiated and irradiated materials; and documentation of final materials selections. The NGNP will be licensed by the NRC under 10 CFR 50 or 10

  13. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  14. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  15. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  16. Nuclear Power Plant NDE Challenges - Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S. R.

    2007-03-21

    The operating fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants was built to fossil plant standards (of workmanship, not fitness for service) and with good engineering judgment. Fortuitously, those nuclear power plants were designed using defense-in-depth concepts, with nondestructive examination (NDE) an important layer, so they can tolerate almost any component failure and still continue to operate safely. In the 30+ years of reactor operation, many material failures have occurred. Unfortunately, NDE has not provided the reliability to detect degradation prior to initial failure (breaching the pressure boundary). However, NDE programs have been improved by moving from prescriptive procedures to performance demonstrations that quantify inspection effectiveness for flaw detection probability and sizing accuracy. Other improvements include the use of risk-informed strategies to ensure that reactor components contributing the most risk receive the best and most frequent inspections. Another challenge is the recent surge of interest in building new nuclear power plants in the United States to meet increasing domestic energy demand. New construction will increase the demand for NDE but also offers the opportunity for more proactive inspections. This paper reviews the inception and evolution of NDE for nuclear power plants over the past 40 years, recounts lessons learned, and describes the needs remaining as existing plants continue operation and new construction is contemplated.

  17. Electromagnetic compatibility in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cirillo, J.; Prussel, M.

    1986-02-01

    EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) is being largely ignored in the design of nuclear power instrumentation and control systems. As a result, EMI (electromagnetic interference) is causing costly startup delays and spurious reactor trips. This paper describes existing problems, basic causes, and approaches to their solutions.

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Containment Pressure Boundary Research

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.C.; Costello, J.F.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1999-09-15

    Research to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants is summarized. This research is aimed at understanding the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containment and liners of concrete containment. This understanding will lead to improvements in risk-informed regulatory decision making. Containment pressure boundary components are described and potential aging factors identified. Quantitative tools for condition assessments of aging structures to maintain an acceptable level of reliability over the service life of the plant are discussed. Finally, the impact of aging (i.e., loss of shell thickness due to corrosion) on steel containment fragility for a pressurized water reactor ice-condenser plant is presented.

  19. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering changes to the Emergency Plan, pursuant to 10 CFR 50.54,...

  20. Bridgman crystal growth in low gravity - A scaling analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. I. D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The results of an order-of-magnitude or scaling analysis are compared with those of numerical simulations of the effects of steady low gravity on compositional nonuniformity in crystals grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. In particular, the results are examined of numerical simulations of the effect of steady residual acceleration on the transport of solute in a gallium-doped germanium melt during directional solidification under low-gravity conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of the relevant dimensionless groups associated with the process, and scaling techniques are evaluated by comparing their predictions with the numerical results. It is demonstrated that, when convective transport is comparable with diffusive transport, some specific knowledge of the behavior of the system is required before scaling arguments can be used to make reasonable predictions.

  1. Mathematical model for the Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. O.

    1986-01-01

    In a major technical breakthrough, a computer model for Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth was developed. The model includes melt convection, solute effects, thermal conduction in the ampule, melt, and crystal, and the determination of the curved moving crystal-melt interface. The key to the numerical method is the use of a nonuniform computational mesh which moves with the interface, so that the interface is a mesh surface. In addition, implicit methods are used for advection and diffusion of heat, concentration, and vorticity, for interface movement, and for internal gracity waves. This allows large time-steps without loss of stability or accuracy. Numerical results are presented for the interface shape, temperature distribution, and concentration distribution, in steady-state crystl growth. Solutions are presented for two test cases using water, with two different salts in solution. The two diffusivities differ by a factor of ten, and the concentrations differ by a factor of twenty.

  2. Design of a High Thermal Gradient Bridgman Furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeCroy, J. E.; Popok, D. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) is a Bridgman-Stockbarger microgravity processing facility, designed and manifested to first fly aboard the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2) Space Shuttle mission. The AADSF was principally designed to produce high axial thermal gradients, and is particularly suitable for metals solidification experiments, including non-dilute alloys. To accommodate a wider range of experimental conditions, the AADSF is equipped with a reconfigurable gradient zone. The overall design of the AADSF and the relationship between gradient zone design and furnace performance are described. Parametric thermal analysis was performed and used to select gradient zone design features that fulfill the high thermal gradient requirements of the USMP-2 experiment. The thermal model and analytical procedure, and parametric results leading to the first flight gradient zone configuration, are presented. Performance for the USMP-2 flight experiment is also predicted, and analysis results are compared to test data.

  3. Interface Shape Control Using Localized Heating during Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Croll, A.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical calculations were performed to assess the effect of localized radial heating on the melt-crystal interface shape during vertical Bridgman growth. System parameters examined include the ampoule, melt and crystal thermal conductivities, the magnitude and width of localized heating, and the latent heat of crystallization. Concave interface shapes, typical of semiconductor systems, could be flattened or made convex with localized heating. Although localized heating caused shallower thermal gradients ahead of the interface, the magnitude of the localized heating required for convexity was less than that which resulted in a thermal inversion ahead of the interface. A convex interface shape was most readily achieved with ampoules of lower thermal conductivity. Increasing melt convection tended to flatten the interface, but the amount of radial heating required to achieve a convex interface was essentially independent of the convection intensity.

  4. Improved radial segregation via the destabilizing vertical Bridgman configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonda, Paul; Yeckel, Andrew; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    We employ a computational model to revisit the classic crystal growth experiments conducted by Kim et al. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 119 (1972) 1218) and Müller et al. (J. Crystal Growth 70 (1984) 78), which were among the first to clearly document the effects of flow transitions on segregation. Analysis of the growth of tellerium-doped indium antimonide within a destabilizing vertical Bridgman configuration reveals the existence of multiple states, each of which can be reached by feasible paths of process operation. Transient growth simulations conducted on the different solution branches reveal striking differences in hydrodynamic and segregation behavior. We show that crystals grown in the destabilizing configuration exhibit considerably better radial segregation than those grown in the stabilizing configuration, a result which challenges conventional wisdom and practice.

  5. Development of model-based control for Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonda, Paul; Yeckel, Andrew; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Derby, Jeffrey. J.

    2004-05-01

    We study the feasibility of using crucible rotation with feedback control to suppress oscillatory flows in two prototypical vertical Bridgman crystal growth systems—a stabilizing configuration driven by a time-oscillatory furnace disturbance and a thermally destabilized configuration, which exhibits inherent time-varying flows. Proportional controllers are applied to the two systems, with volume-averaged flow speed chosen as the single controlled output and crucible rotation chosen as the manipulated input. Proportional control is able to significantly suppress oscillations in the stabilizing configuration. For the destabilized case, control is effective for small-amplitude flows but is generally ineffective, due to the exacerbating effect of crucible rotation on the time-dependent flows exhibited by this system.

  6. Effect of variable thermal conductivity on isotherms in Bridgman growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1983-01-01

    A change in thermal conductivity associated with melting or solidification can have a profound influence on the isotherms near the solidification interface if the material is being directionally solidified in an ampoule whose walls carry a substantial portion of the heat. This analysis was prompted by a recent discovery that the thermal conductivity of Hg(1-x)CD(x)Te increased dramatically as the material is heated above the solidus curve. An illustrative example is shown in which the sample is approximated as an infinite cylinder with constant but diffferent thermal properties in the solid and melt. The boundary conditions are fixed on the surface by a conductive ampoule in a two-zone Bridgman furnace with an adiabatic region separating the two zones. The effect of the adiabatic zone in this case is to intensify the curvature of the interface rather than to lessen it.

  7. Modeling of convection phenomena in Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, F. M.; Eraslan, A. H.; Sheu, J. Z.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal convection phenomena in a vertically oriented Bridgman-Stockbarger apparatus were modeled by computer simulations for different gravity conditions, ranging from earth conditions to extremely low gravity, approximate space conditions. The modeling results were obtained by the application of a state-of-the art, transient, multi-dimensional, completely densimetrically coupled, discrete-element computational model which was specifically developed for the simulation of flow, temperature, and species concentration conditions in two-phase (solid-liquid) systems. The computational model was applied to the simulation of the flow and the thermal conditions associated with the convection phenomena in a modified Germanium-Silicon charge enclosed in a stationary fused-silica ampoule. The results clearly indicated that the gravitational field strength influences the characteristics of the coherent vortical flow patterns, interface shape and position, maximum melt velocity, and interfacial normal temperature gradient.

  8. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2015-01-01

    Detached (or dewetted) Bridgman crystal growth defines that process in which a gap exists between a growing crystal and the crucible wall. In microgravity, the parameters that influence the existence of a stable gap are the growth angle of the solidifying crystal, the contact angle between the melt and the crucible wall, and the pressure difference across the meniscus. During actual crystal growth, the initial crystal radius will not have the precise value required for stable detached growth. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, numerical calculations are used to analyze the transient crystal growth process. Depending on the initial conditions and growth parameters, the crystal shape will either evolve towards attachment at the crucible wall, towards a stable gap width, or inwards towards eventual collapse of the meniscus. Dynamic growth stability is observed only when the sum of the growth and contact angles exceeds 180 degrees.

  9. Bridgman Growth of Germanium Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Szofran, F. R.; Cobb, S. D.; Schweizer, M.; Walker, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    A series of (100)-oriented gallium-doped germanium crystals has been grown by the vertical Bridgman method and under the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF). Time-dependent flow instabilities occur when the critical magnetic Taylor number (Tm(sup c)) is exceeded, and this can be observed by noting the appearance of striations in the grown crystals. Tm(sup c) decreases as the aspect ratio of the melt increases, and approaches the theoretical limit expected for an infinite cylinder. Intentional interface demarcations are introduced by pulsing the RMF on and off The RMF has a marked affect on the interface shape, changing it from concave to nearly flat as the RMF strength is increased.

  10. Bridgman Growth of Germanium Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Walker, J. S.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A series of (100)-oriented gallium-doped germanium crystals have been grown by the Bridgman method and under the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The RMF has a marked affect on the interface shape, changing it from concave to nearly flat. The onset of time-dependent flow instabilities occurs when the critical magnetic Taylor number is exceeded, and this can be observed by noting the appearance of striations in the grown crystals. The critical magnetic Taylor number is a sensitive function of the aspect ratio and, as the crystal grows under a constant applied magnetic field, the induced striations change from nonperiodic to periodic, undergo a period-doubling transition, and then cease to exist. Also, by pulsing the RMF on and off, it is shown that intentional interface demarcations can be introduced.

  11. Bridgman Growth of Germanium Crystals in a Rotating Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Walker, J. S.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2004-01-01

    A series of (100)-oriented gallium-doped germanium crystals have been grown by the Bridgman method and under the influence of a rotating magnetic field (RMF). Time-dependent flow instabilities occur when the critical magnetic Taylor number (Tm(sup c) is exceeded, and this can be observed by noting the appearance of striations in the grown crystals. The experimental data indicate that Tm(sup c) increases as the aspect ratio of the melt decreases. Modeling calculations predicting Tm(sup c) as a function of aspect ratio are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The RMF has a marked affect on the interface shape, changing it from concave to nearly flat as the RMF strength is increased. Also, by pulsing the RMF on and off, it is shown that intentional interface demarcations can be introduced.

  12. Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, H.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants.

  13. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. A dynamical systems model for nuclear power plant risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Stephen Michael

    The recent transition to an open access generation marketplace has forced nuclear plant operators to become much more cost conscious and focused on plant performance. Coincidentally, the regulatory perspective also is in a state of transition from a command and control framework to one that is risk-informed and performance-based. Due to these structural changes in the economics and regulatory system associated with commercial nuclear power plant operation, there is an increased need for plant management to explicitly manage nuclear safety risk. Application of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to model plant hardware has provided a significant contribution to understanding the potential initiating events and equipment failures that can lead to core damage accidents. Application of the lessons learned from these analyses has supported improved plant operation and safety over the previous decade. However, this analytical approach has not been nearly as successful in addressing the impact of plant processes and management effectiveness on the risks of plant operation. Thus, the research described in this dissertation presents a different approach to address this issue. Here we propose a dynamical model that describes the interaction of important plant processes among themselves and their overall impact on nuclear safety risk. We first provide a review of the techniques that are applied in a conventional probabilistic risk assessment of commercially operating nuclear power plants and summarize the typical results obtained. The limitations of the conventional approach and the status of research previously performed to address these limitations also are presented. Next, we present the case for the application of an alternative approach using dynamical systems theory. This includes a discussion of previous applications of dynamical models to study other important socio-economic issues. Next, we review the analytical techniques that are applicable to analysis of

  15. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  16. DOE`s nuclear energy plant optimization program

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.; Savage, C.D.; Singh, B.P.

    1999-09-01

    In December 1997, the United States agreed to the Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change that outlines specific greenhouse gas emissions reduction requirements. A key element of this protocol is binding emissions targets and timetables. The Protocol calls for the United States to reach emissions targets 7% below 1990 emissions levels over the 5-yr period from 2008 to 2012. A key element to achieving this goal will be the continued safe and economic operation of the Nation`s 104 nuclear power plants. These plants provide >20% of the Nation`s electricity, and nearly one-half of the 50 states receive >25% of their electricity from nuclear power. DOE`s current Strategic Plan specifies that the United States maintain its nuclear energy option and improve the efficiency of existing plants as part of its energy portfolio, in the interest of national security. As a result, DOE proposed two new nuclear energy R and D programs for fiscal year (FY) 1999: the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI), a peer-reviewed, competitively selected R and D program in advanced concepts, and the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization Program (NEPO). NERI was authorized and received initial funding of $19 million for its first year. NEPO was not funded in 1999 but has been reintroduced in the FY 2000 budget request. NEPO will be a jointly funded R and D program with industry through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and will address those issues that could hinder continued safe operation of the Nation`s operating nuclear power plants. The FY 2000 funding request to Congress for NEPO is $5 million.

  17. Evaluation of site characteristics for Guangdong nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ruming, Z.; Dizhong, W.; Zhongmin, Y.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the features of the site of Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant in general and in particular evaluates the outstanding site characteristics related to nuclear safety and public health. It is composed of two parts: the first part describes the seismo-geologic conditions of the site and the other treats the atmospheric dispersion conditions. It also contains the discussion why the possibility of inhabitancy within 5km from the exclusion area boundary would not be affected.

  18. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  19. Heterogonous Nanofluids for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alammar, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear reactions can be associated with high heat energy release. Extracting such energy efficiently requires the use of high-rate heat exchangers. Conventional heat transfer fluids, such as water and oils are limited in their thermal conductivity, and hence nanofluids have been introduced lately to overcome such limitation. By suspending metal nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity in conventional heat transfer fluids, thermal conductivity of the resulting homogeneous nanofluid is increased. Heterogeneous nanofluids offer yet more potential for heat transfer enhancement. By stratifying nanoparticles within the boundary layer, thermal conductivity is increased where temperature gradients are highest, thereby increasing overall heat transfer of a flowing fluid. In order to test the merit of this novel technique, a numerical study of a laminar pipe flow of a heterogeneous nanofluid was conducted. Effect of Iron-Oxide distribution on flow and heat transfer characteristics was investigated. With Iron-Oxide volume concentration of 0.009 in water, up to 50% local heat transfer enhancement was predicted for the heterogeneous compared to homogeneous nanofluids. Increasing the Reynolds number is shown to increase enhancement while having negligible effect on pressure drop. Using permanent magnets attached externally to the pipe, an experimental investigation conducted at MIT nuclear reactor laboratory for similar flow characteristics of a heterogeneous nanofluid have shown upto 160% enhancement in heat transfer. Such results show that heterogeneous nanofluids are promising for augmenting heat transfer rates in nuclear power heat exchanger systems.

  20. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success. PMID:16832974

  1. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  2. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  3. St. Lucie nuclear plant's instrument setpoint control program

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, B.A. )

    1991-01-01

    In the past several years, instrument setpoint control has become an issue of significant utility focus and concern. Various nuclear industry initiatives have contributed to shaping the current environment. Florida Power and Light Company's St. Lucie nuclear plant maintains a proactive approach to implementing an instrument setpoint control program. St. Lucie's timely response to prevailing setpoint issues ensures that an effective setpoint program is the end result. Florida Power and Light (FP and L) initiated a setpoint control program at St. Lucie, a two-unit Combustion Engineering plant, in 1985. The plan's development was the result of obsolete equipment modifications, setpoint changes, and regulatory inquiries.

  4. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  6. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  7. Neural networks and their application to nuclear power plant diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present a survey of artificial neural network-based computer systems that have been proposed over the last decade for the detection and identification of component faults in thermal-hydraulic systems of nuclear power plants. The capabilities and advantages of applying neural networks as decision support systems for nuclear power plant operators and their inherent characteristics are discussed along with their limitations and drawbacks. The types of neural network structures used and their applications are described and the issues of process diagnosis and neural network-based diagnostic systems are identified. A total of thirty-four publications are reviewed.

  8. Protective clothing laundering and monitoring at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J.M. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Miller, M.L. , Inc., Albuquerque, NM ); Brehm, L.E.; Peterson, S.K. )

    1988-02-01

    This paper reports that a small but significant number of skin contamination incidents at Northern States Power Company's Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant were believed to have been caused by residual contamination in laundered, clean protective clothing. Since very little information was available on this mode of skin contamination, a two-part study was undertaken to evaluate it more fully. The first part of this study consisted of a survey of protective clothing laundering and monitoring practices at 24 nuclear power plants. The second part of the study was a simple experiment to evaluate the effect of perspiration on the transfer of residual contamination from laundered clothing.

  9. Ground-based testing of space nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.G.

    1990-10-22

    Small nuclear power plants for space applications are evaluated according to their testability in this two part report. The first part introduces the issues involved in testing these power plants. Some of the concerns include oxygen embrittlement of critical components, the test environment, the effects of a vacuum environment on materials, the practically of racing an activated test chamber, and possible testing alternative the SEHPTR, king develop at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that are acceptable to the...

  11. 78 FR 35330 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG), 1.68, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants... Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer...

  12. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland. The NRC has prepared an Environmental Assessment... dated September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP) submitted an application...

  13. Aging assessment of large electric motors in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Villaran, M.; Subudhi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Large electric motors serve as the prime movers to drive high capacity pumps, fans, compressors, and generators in a variety of nuclear plant systems. This study examined the stressors that cause degradation and aging in large electric motors operating in various plant locations and environments. The operating history of these machines in nuclear plant service was studied by review and analysis of failure reports in the NPRDS and LER databases. This was supplemented by a review of motor designs, and their nuclear and balance of plant applications, in order to characterize the failure mechanisms that cause degradation, aging, and failure in large electric motors. A generic failure modes and effects analysis for large squirrel cage induction motors was performed to identify the degradation and aging mechanisms affecting various components of these large motors, the failure modes that result, and their effects upon the function of the motor. The effects of large motor failures upon the systems in which they are operating, and on the plant as a whole, were analyzed from failure reports in the databases. The effectiveness of the industry`s large motor maintenance programs was assessed based upon the failure reports in the databases and reviews of plant maintenance procedures and programs.

  14. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  15. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  16. Application of Nuclear Energy for Seawater Desalination: Design Concepts of Nuclear Desalination Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Faibish, R.S.; Konishi, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2002-07-01

    Nuclear energy is playing an important role in electricity generation, producing 16% of the world's electricity. However, most of the world's energy consumption is in the form of heat, in which case nuclear energy could also play an important role. In particular, process heat for seawater desalination using nuclear energy has been of growing interest to some Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency over the past two decades. This growing interest stems from increasingly acute freshwater shortages in many arid and semi-arid zones around the world. Indeed, several national and international nuclear desalination demonstration programs are already under way or being planned. Of particular interest are projects for seawater nuclear desalination plants in coastal regions, where saline feed water can serve the dual purpose of cooling water for the nuclear reactor and as feed water for the desalination plant. In principle any nuclear reactor can provide energy (low-grade heat and/or electricity), as required by desalination processes. However, there are some additional requirements to be met under specific conditions in order to introduce nuclear desalination. Technical issues include meeting more stringent safety requirements (nuclear reactors themselves and nuclear-desalination integrated complexes in particular), and performance improvement of the integrated systems. Economic competitiveness is another important factor to be considered for a broader deployment of nuclear desalination. For technical robustness and economic competitiveness a number of design variants of coupling configurations of nuclear desalination integrated plant concepts are being evaluated. This paper identifies and discusses various factors, which support the attractiveness of nuclear desalination. It further summarizes some of the key approaches recommended for nuclear desalination complex design and gives an overview of various design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, which

  17. Peach Bottom and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    A dramatic and extraordinary instance of state and local government control of nuclear power, the purchase by New York of the Shoreham plant is nonetheless indicative of the political demands that some states confront for additional involvement in the regulation of the radiological hazards associated with commercial nuclear power plants. Although the Supreme Court has appeared to expand, in the eight years since PG&E and Silkwood, the acceptable extent of state regulation, some states, in addition to New York, have acquired, with the acquiescence of the NRC, a degree of involvement that exceeds the role for state and local governments provided by the Court. For example, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania concluded with the Philadelphia Electric Company (PECO) in June 1989 an agreement that commits PECO to various initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, for the safe operation of the Peach Bottom nuclear power plant in Pennsylvania. In July 1991 the State of Vermont and Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corporation (Vermont Yankee) concluded an agreement similar to that concluded between Pennsylvania and PECO. The agreement also commits Vermont Yankee to certain initiatives, not otherwise required under NRC regulations, related to its operation of the Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant in Vermont. The agreement was precipitated by a challenge to an application, submitted to the NRC by Vermont Yankee in April 1989, to amend the Vermont Yankee plant license to extend its expiration date from December 11, 2007 to March 21, 2012. The amendment would allow the Vermont Yankee plant to operate for forty full years.

  18. Safety/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, K.R.; Brown, P.J.; Norderhaug, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions during scheduled emergency preparedness exercises, examining security and operational response procedures, and interviewing plant personnel, the team has identified instances where safety/security conflicts can occur. 2 refs.

  19. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  20. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  1. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  2. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  3. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1983-05-01

    The NUREG 0700 recommendations were assessed for implementation in the control rooms of Finnish nuclear power plants. Direct conclusions drawn from the American situation are misleading, because of differences in, for example, procurement of instruments or personnel training. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) is successful. It can also be used during planning to observe small discrepancies.

  4. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  5. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  6. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kross, Brian J.; Lee, Seung Joo; McKisson, John E.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, A.S.; Reid, C.D.; Smith, Mark

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  7. Aging of nuclear power plant safety cables

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Salazar, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an extensive aging program on polymeric materials stripped from unused nuclear reactor safety cables are described. Mechanical damage was monitored after room temperature aging in a Co-60 gamma radiation source at various humidities and radiation dose rates ranging from 1.2 Mrad/h to 2 krad/h. For chloroprene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and silicone materials, the mechanical degradation was found to depend only on the total integrated radiation dose, implying that radiation dose rate effects are small. On the other hand, strong evidence for radiation dose rate effects were found for an ethylene propylene rubber material and a cross-linked polyolefin material. Humidity effects were determined to be insignificant for all the materials studied.

  8. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  9. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  10. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  11. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1986-10-04

    For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

  12. Online Monitoring of Plant Assets in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Lybeck; Vivek Agarwal; Binh Pham; Richard Rusaw; Randy Bickford

    2013-10-01

    Today’s online monitoring technologies provide opportunities to perform predictive and proactive health management of assets within many different industries, in particular the defense and aerospace industries. The nuclear industry can leverage these technologies to enhance safety, productivity, and reliability of the aging fleet of existing nuclear power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is collaborating with the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Long-Term Operations program to implement online monitoring in existing nuclear power plants. Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using EPRI’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software, a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures used to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. Fault signatures are developed based on the results of detailed technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The Diagnostic Advisor of the FW-PHM Suite software matches developed fault signatures with operational data to provide early identification of critical faults and troubleshooting advice that could be used to distinguish between faults with similar symptoms. This research is important as it will support the automation of predictive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  13. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  14. Calibration of radiation monitors at nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreau, L.; Miller, A.D.; Naughton, M.D.

    1994-03-01

    This work was performed to provide guidance to the utilities in the primary and secondary calibration of the radiation monitoring systems (RMS) installed in nuclear power plants. These systems are installed in nuclear power plants to monitor ongoing processes, identify changing radiation fields, predict and limit personnel radiation exposures and measure and control discharge of radioactive materials to the environment. RMS are checked and calibrated on a continuing basis to ensure their precision and accuracy. This report discusses various approaches towards primary and secondary calibrations of the RMS equipment in light of accepted practices at typical power plants and recent interpretations of regulatory guidance. Detailed calibration techniques and overall system responses, trends, and practices are discussed. Industry, utility, and regulatory sources were contacted to create an overall consensus of the most reasonable approaches to optimizing the performance of this equipment.

  15. Nuclear driven water decomposition plant for hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, G. H.; Brecher, L. E.; Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    The conceptual design of a hydrogen production plant using a very-high-temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR) to energize a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical system for water decomposition has been prepared. A graphite-moderated helium-cooled VHTR is used to produce 1850 F gas for electric power generation and 1600 F process heat for the water-decomposition process which uses sulfur compounds and promises performance superior to normal water electrolysis or other published thermochemical processes. The combined cycle operates at an overall thermal efficiency in excess of 45%, and the overall economics of hydrogen production by this plant have been evaluated predicated on a consistent set of economic ground rules. The conceptual design and evaluation efforts have indicated that development of this type of nuclear-driven water-decomposition plant will permit large-scale economic generation of hydrogen in the 1990s.

  16. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: an interactive TRAC/RELAP Power-Plant Simulation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, R.; Booker, C.; Giguere, P.; Liles, D.; Mahaffy, J.; Turner, M.; Wiley, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a computer-software interface for executing the TRAC or RELAP5 power-plant systems codes. The NPA is designed to use advanced supercomputers, long-distance data communications, and a remote workstation terminal with interactive computer graphics to analyze power-plant thermal-hydraulic behavior. The NPA interface simplifies the running of these codes through automated procedures and dialog interaction. User understanding of simulated-plant behavior is enhanced through graphics displays of calculational results. These results are displayed concurrently with the calculation. The user has the capability to override the plant's modeled control system with hardware adjustment commands. This gives the NPA the utility of a simulator, and at the same time, the accuracy of an advanced, best-estimate, power-plant systems code for plant operation and safety analysis.

  17. Los Alamos Nuclear Plant Analyzer: an interactive power-plant simulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, R.; Booker, C.; Giguere, P.; Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.; Turner, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a computer-software interface for executing the TRAC or RELAP5 power-plant systems codes. The NPA is designed to use advanced supercomputers, long-distance data communications, and a remote workstation terminal with interactive computer graphics to analyze power-plant thermal-hydraulic behavior. The NPA interface simplifies the running of these codes through automated procedures and dialog interaction. User understanding of simulated-plant behavior is enhanced through graphics displays of calculational results. These results are displayed concurrently with the calculation. The user has the capability to override the plant's modeled control system with hardware-adjustment commands. This gives the NPA the utility of a simulator, and at the same time, the accuracy of an advanced, best-estimate, power-plant systems code for plant operation and safety analysis.

  18. Operating nuclear plant feedback to ASME and French codes

    SciTech Connect

    Journet, J.; O`Donnell, W.J.

    1996-12-01

    The French have an advantage in nuclear plant operating experience feedback due to the highly centralized nature of their nuclear industry. There is only one utility in charge of design as well as operations (EDF) and only one reactor vendor (Framatome). The ASME Code has played a key role in resolving technical issues in the design and operation of nuclear plants since the inception of nuclear power. The committee structure of the Code brings an ideal combination of senior technical people with both broad and specialized experience to bear on complex how safe is safe enough technical issues. The authors now see an even greater role for the ASME Code in a proposed new regulatory era for the US nuclear industry. The current legalistic confrontational regulatory era has been quite destructive. There now appears to be a real opportunity to begin a new era of technical consensus as the primary means for resolving safety issues. This change can quickly be brought about by having the industry take operating plant problems and regulatory technical issues directly to the ASME Code for timely resolution. Surprisingly, there is no institution in the US nuclear industry with such a mandate. In fact, the industry is organized to feedback through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues which could be far better resolved through the ASME Code. Major regulatory benefits can be achieved by closing this loop and providing systematic interaction with the ASME Code. The essential elements of a new regulatory era and ideas for organizing US institutional industry responsibilities, taken from the French experience, are described in this paper.

  19. Licensing retrofit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not a backfit incinerator could be licensed under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 50.59, Gilbert Associates, Inc., with support from the Department of Energy, prepared, on a generic basis, typical engineering design information, accident analysis data and other documentation necessary to apply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to backfit a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in an operating nuclear power plant. The Department of Energy, serving in the role of a typical utility organization, submitted this generic report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for review and comment in a mock demonstration of the licensing process. The ultimate goal of this effort is to identify and resolve any safety issues associated with backfit incinerators so that a sufficient level of confidence in the licensability of backfit incinerators can be installed in nuclear utility management, and to encourage the industry to actually proceed with plans to install incinerators on a retrofit basis.

  20. Ecological aspects of the chernobyl nuclear plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Z A

    1986-07-01

    The partial meltdown of the 1000MW reactor in Chernobyl and the massive release of radionuclides into the environment is the first large-scale contamination of a geographically significant area by a power-generating civilian nuclear plant. It will have a long term effect on the human population, agriculture and the environment. Previous cases of accidental contamination of the environment on such a scale were connected with the disposal of reprocessed nuclear waste or the release of radioactivity from atmospheric and underground tests of nuclear weapons. One such contamination, which provides important lessons in the wake of the Chernobyl disaster, was linked with the explosion of the nuclear waste storage facility near Kyshtym in the Cheliabinsk region of the Soviet Union in 1958. It resulted in the creation of a special 'exclusion zone', resettlement of local populations and special construction projects designed to prevent the distribution of radioactivity over even larger areas. PMID:21227774

  1. In situ monitoring with Tradescantia around nuclear power plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, S

    1981-01-01

    Highly sensitive mutational responses of the stamen-hair system of some Tradescantia clones heterozygous for flower color (blue/pink, the blue being dominant) to low-level radiation and chemical mutagens, as demonstrated in the last decade, seem to endorse this system to be the most promising biological tester for detecting the genetic effects of mutagens at low levels. Two triploid (thus sterile) clones, KU 7 and KU 9, have been established as those suitable for in situ monitoring of environmental mutagens. In situ monitoring with such Tradescantia clones was first tried in 1974 around a nuclear power plant in Japan, then has been repeated until 1979 around more nuclear plants. About 260,000 to 1,570,000 stamen hairs were observed per year per nuclear plant (about 12-million hairs in total), and the data of pink mutation frequency were analyzed statistically. Significantly increased mutation frequencies were observed and were correlated to the operation periods of the nuclear facilities and to predominant wind direction, but not to other environmental factors. Considering physical monitoring data of radiation dose in the air, internal exposure due to incorporation and concentration of man-made radioactive nuclides seems to be of a greater importance in increasing mutation incidence. PMID:7460878

  2. Requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemicalseparation plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, G.; Cahalan, J.; Pfeiffer, P.; Sofu, T.; Taiwo, T.; Wei,T.; Yacout, A.; Yang, W.; Siegel, A.; Insepov, Z.; Anitescu, M.; Hovland,P.; Pereira, C.; Regalbuto, M.; Copple, J.; Willamson, M.

    2006-12-11

    This report presents requirements for advanced simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants that are of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. Justification for advanced simulation and some examples of grand challenges that will benefit from it are provided. An integrated software tool that has its main components, whenever possible based on first principles, is proposed as possible future approach for dealing with the complex problems linked to the simulation of nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants. The main benefits that are associated with a better integrated simulation have been identified as: a reduction of design margins, a decrease of the number of experiments in support of the design process, a shortening of the developmental design cycle, and a better understanding of the physical phenomena and the related underlying fundamental processes. For each component of the proposed integrated software tool, background information, functional requirements, current tools and approach, and proposed future approaches have been provided. Whenever possible, current uncertainties have been quoted and existing limitations have been presented. Desired target accuracies with associated benefits to the different aspects of the nuclear reactor and chemical processing plants were also given. In many cases the possible gains associated with a better simulation have been identified, quantified, and translated into economical benefits.

  3. Revised seismic and geologic siting regulations for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, A.J.; Chokshi, N.C.

    1997-02-01

    The primary regulatory basis governing the seismic design of nuclear power plants is contained in Appendix A to Part 50, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). General Design Criteria (GDC) 2 defines requirements for design bases for protection against natural phenomena. GDC 2 states the performance criterion that {open_quotes}Structures, systems, and components important to safety shall be designed to withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, . . . without loss of capability to perform their safety functions. . .{close_quotes}. Appendix A to Part 100, Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, has been the principal document which provided detailed criteria to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites and suitability of the plant design basis established in consideration of the seismic and geologic characteristics of the proposed sites. Appendix A defines required seismological and geological investigations and requirements for other design conditions such as soil stability, slope stability, and seismically induced floods and water waves, and requirements for seismic instrumentation. The NRC staff is in the process of revising Appendix A. The NRC has recently revised seismic siting and design regulations for future applications. These revisions are discussed in detail in this paper.

  4. Indicator system for advanced nuclear plant control complex

    DOEpatents

    Scarola, Kenneth; Jamison, David S.; Manazir, Richard M.; Rescorl, Robert L.; Harmon, Daryl L.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system (72) which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system (64) which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel (14-22, 26, 28) in the control room (10). A separate data processing system (70), which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs (84) and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board (24). The discrete indicator and alarm system (72) and the data processing system (70) receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accident conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board (24) is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof.

  5. Interaction of electromagnetic pulse with commercial nuclear-power-plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, D.M. Jr.; Strawe, D.F.; Sandberg, S.J.; Jones, V.K.; Rensner, G.D.; Shoup, R.W.; Hanson, R.J.; Williams, C.B.

    1983-02-01

    This study examines the interaction of the electromagnetic pulse from a high altitude nuclear burst with commercial nuclear power plant systems. The potential vulnerability of systems required for safe shutdown of a specific nuclear power plant are explored. EMP signal coupling, induced plant response and component damage thresholds are established using techniques developed over several decades under Defense Nuclear Agency sponsorship. A limited test program was conducted to verify the coupling analysis technique as applied to a nuclear power plant. The results are extended, insofar as possible, to other nuclear plants.

  6. Educators benefit from energy information centers at nuclear plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Krcma-Olson, L.

    1994-12-31

    While issues like dry storage, low-level waste storage, radiation, and license extension are projects with a technical perspective that need to be planned and executed at nuclear power plants, more difficult is the political perspective-gaining public acceptance to allow these projects to proceed. And public perception is predicated on the way plant neighbors and community members understand, accept, and trust the plants. Community educators are a key audience. Annually, U.S. information centers host about one million visitors; roughly half of them are school children who will soon join the ranks of voters, taxpayers, utility customers, and employees. Programs for educators and their classes vary from tours of centers that include computer games and video programs on energy-related topics to audio-visual presentations by center personnel. Some facilities have environmental activities such as hatcheries or nature trails, while others offer plant tours to specific age groups.

  7. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  8. Characterization of secondary phases in modified vertical bridgman growth czt

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, Martine

    2009-07-10

    CdZnTe or 'CZT' crystals are highly suitable for use as a room temperature based spectrometer for the detection and characterization of gamma radiation. Over the last decade, the methods for growing high quality CZT have improved the quality of the produced crystals however there are material features that can influence the performance of these materials as radiation detectors. For example, various structural heterogeneities within the CZT crystals, such as twinning, pipes, grain boundaries (polycrystallinity), and secondary phases (SP) can have a negative impact on the detector performance. In this study, a CZT material was grown by the modified vertical Bridgman growth (MVB) method with zone leveled growth without excess Te in the melt. Visual observations of material from the growth of this material revealed significant voids and SP. Three samples from this material was analyzed using various analytical techniques to evaluate its electrical properties, purity and detector performance as radiation spectrometers and to determine the morphology, dimension and elemental/structural composition of one of the SP in this material. This material was found to have a high resistivity but poor radiation spectrometer performance. It had SP that were rich in polycrystalline aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), metallic Te and polycrystalline CdZnTe and 15 to 50 {micro}m in diameter. Bulk elemental analyses of sister material from elsewhere in the boule did not contain high levels of Al so there is considerable elemental impurity heterogeneity within the boule from this growth.

  9. Existence and Stability of Menisci in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2011-01-01

    Detached growth, also referred to as dewetted growth, is a Bridgman crystal growth process in which the melt is in contact with the crucible wall but the crystal is not. A meniscus bridges the gap between the top of the crystal and the crucible wall. The Young-Laplace capillary equation was used to calculate the crystal radii of detached states as a function of the pressure differential across the meniscus. The detached states depend on the contact angle of the melt with the crucible wall, the growth angle of the melt with respect to the solidifying crystal, and the Bond number. A static stability analysis was performed on the calculated detached states. The stability criterion was the sign of the second variation of the potential energy upon admissible meniscus shape perturbations. The conditions considered corresponded to the growth of Ge and InSb, in both terrestrial and microgravity conditions. Stability was found to depend significantly on whether the interior surface was considered to be microscopically rough or smooth, corresponding to pinned or unpinned states. It was also found that all meniscus shapes which are single-valued functions of the radius are statically stable in a microgravity environment.

  10. Vertical Bridgman growth of calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xuewu; Chong, Tow-Chong; Zhang, Guangyu; Li, Minghua; Soo, Lay Hiok; Xu, Wei; Freeman, Bill

    2003-03-01

    The growth of calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (CLNGG) crystal has been carried out using platinum crucibles in a vertical Bridgman (VB) furnace with three resistance-heating zones. Transparent CLNGG crystals grown from the congruent melts with and without weight loss compensation are different in color and are 25 mm in diameter and about 70 mm in length. The phase identification of the sintered raw materials, grown crystals and white compound formed on the side surface of the grown crystal has been done using the powder X-ray diffraction method. The formation of the white compound is related to the {1 0 0} facet growth near the side surface. The naturally selected growth direction of the CLNGG crystal grown without a seed is near <1 1 1> , which is in good agreement with the morphological importance analysis according to the BFDH law. The VB-grown CLNGG also shows a cleavable feature parallel to {1 1 0} face and no absorption peaks in the wavelength range of 1100-1600 nm. The linear thermal-expansion coefficient of the CLNGG crystal along <1 1 1> direction is also reported and compared with that of CNGG, GGG and platinum crucible.

  11. Review of maintenance personnel practices at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chockie, A.D.; Badalamente, R.V.; Hostick, C.J.; Vickroy, S.C.; Bryant, J.L.; Imhoff, C.H.

    1984-05-01

    As part of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored Maintenance Qualifications and Staffing Project, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted a preliminary assessment of nuclear power plant (NPP) maintenance practices. As requested by the NRC, the following areas within the maintenance function were examined: personnel qualifications, maintenance training, overtime, shiftwork and staffing levels. The purpose of the assessment was to identify the primary safety-related problems that required further analysis before specific recommendations can be made on the regulations affecting NPP maintenance operations.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  13. Infrastructure development assistance modeling for nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, K.; Park, K. M.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model, a general frame to be utilized in assisting newcomer countries to start a nuclear power program. A nuclear power plant project involves technical complexity and high level of investment with long duration. Considering newcomers are mostly developing countries that lack the national infrastructure, key infrastructure issues may constitute the principal constraints to the development of a nuclear power program. In this regard, it is important to provide guidance and support to set up an appropriate infrastructure when we help them with the first launch of nuclear power plant project. To date, as a sole nuclear power generation company, KHNP has been invited many times to mentor or assist newcomer countries for their successful start of a nuclear power program since Republic of Korea is an exemplary case of a developing country which began nuclear power program from scratch and became a major world nuclear energy country in a short period of time. Through hosting events organized to aid newcomer countries' initiation of nuclear power projects, difficulties have been recognized. Each event had different contents according to circumstances because they were held as an unstructured and one-off thing. By developing a general model, we can give more adequate and effective aid in an efficient way. In this paper, we created a model to identify necessary infrastructures at the right stage, which was mainly based on a case of Korea. Taking into account the assistance we received from foreign companies and our own efforts for technological self-reliance, we have developed a general time table and specified activities required to do at each stage. From a donor's perspective, we explored various ways to help nuclear infrastructure development including technical support programs, training courses, and participating in IAEA technical cooperation programs on a regular basis. If we further develop the model, the next task would be to

  14. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis.

  15. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  16. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  17. Microbial-induced corrosion in nuclear power plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, George J.; Cubicciotti, Daniel

    1989-12-01

    The long construction times associated with nuclear plants and the large number of redundant or standby systems where water is allowed to remain stagnant for long periods of time produce conditions under which microbial-induced corrosion (MIC) can occur. Carbon and low-alloy steels, stainless steels and copper alloys are all susceptible to MIC in raw-water applications. Visual examination is particularly useful in performing preliminary assessments of MIC. If properly diagnosed, MIC can be effectively treated during plant construction, operation and temporary shutdowns.

  18. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1992-12-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures.

  19. Recommendations for managing equipment aging in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Subudhi, M. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1992-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large database of component and system operating, maintenance, and testing information. This database has been used to determine the susceptibility to aging of selected components, and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and availability. it has also identified methods for detecting and mitigating component and system aging. This paper describes the research recommendations on electrical components which could be applied to maintenance, testing, and inspection activities to detect and mitigate the effects of aging prior to equipment failures.

  20. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  2. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants... Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and...- basis hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should...

  3. 78 FR 46255 - Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant Operating Licenses; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 51 RIN 3150-AI42 Revisions to Environmental Review for Renewal of Nuclear Power Plant... environmental effect of renewing the operating license of a nuclear power plant. Compliance with the provisions... nuclear power plant. This document is necessary to clarify and correct the revisions made to the...

  4. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  5. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  6. 77 FR 24228 - Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... COMMISSION Condition Monitoring Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Techniques for Electric Cables Used in Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes techniques that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for condition monitoring of electric cables for nuclear power...

  7. Expert systems and their use in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. |

    1990-12-31

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, great quantities of numeric, symbolic, and quantitative information are handled by the reactor operators even during routine operation. The sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which available raw data can be converted into, and assimilated as, meaningful knowledge. In operating a nuclear power plant, people are sometimes affected by fatigue, stress, emotion, and environmental factors that may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems provide a method of removing some of the uncertainty from operator decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. 74 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Deployment of the Topaz-II space nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Standley, V.H.; Wyant, F.J.; Polansky, G.F. )

    1993-01-01

    The Topaz-II is a 5-kW(electric) Russian space nuclear power plant. The power plant resembles a shuttlecock standing 3.9 m high and is 1.4 m in diameter at the base. The reactor is at the top, the radiation shield is in the middle, and the radiator is at the bottom. The whole system weighs 1 tonne. The reactor core is 37.5 cm long and 26 cm in diameter. It contains 37 core-length, single-cell thermionic fuel elements embedded in a ZrH moderator. Each thermionic fuel cell is a cylindrical emitter inside a cylindrical collector. Nuclear fuel inside the emitter raises the emitter's temperature.

  9. 78 FR 28245 - In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0093; Docket No.: 50-348, 50-364; License No.: NPF-2, NPF-8; EA-12-145] In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Confirmatory Order I Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNC or Licensee)...

  10. Human Factors Considerations in New Nuclear Power Plants: Detailed Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Higgins, J.; Brown, W.; Fink, R.

    2008-02-14

    This Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored study has identified human-performance issues in new and advanced nuclear power plants. To identify the issues, current industry developments and trends were evaluated in the areas of reactor technology, instrumentation and control technology, human-system integration technology, and human factors engineering (HFE) methods and tools. The issues were organized into seven high-level HFE topic areas: Role of Personnel and Automation, Staffing and Training, Normal Operations Management, Disturbance and Emergency Management, Maintenance and Change Management, Plant Design and Construction, and HFE Methods and Tools. The issues where then prioritized into four categories using a 'Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table' methodology based on evaluations provided by 14 independent subject matter experts. The subject matter experts were knowledgeable in a variety of disciplines. Vendors, utilities, research organizations and regulators all participated. Twenty issues were categorized into the top priority category. This Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) technical report provides the detailed methodology, issue analysis, and results. A summary of the results of this study can be found in NUREG/CR-6947. The research performed for this project has identified a large number of human-performance issues for new control stations and new nuclear power plant designs. The information gathered in this project can serve as input to the development of a long-term strategy and plan for addressing human performance in these areas through regulatory research. Addressing human-performance issues will provide the technical basis from which regulatory review guidance can be developed to meet these challenges. The availability of this review guidance will help set clear expectations for how the NRC staff will evaluate new designs, reduce regulatory uncertainty, and provide a well-defined path to new nuclear power plant licensing.

  11. New Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, Preliminary Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-03-01

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebblebed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  12. Incidents at nuclear power plants caused by the human factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mashin, V. A.

    2012-09-15

    Psychological analysis of the causes of incorrect actions by personnel is discussed as presented in the report 'Methodological guidelines for analyzing the causes of incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants.' The types of incorrect actions and classification of the root causes of errors by personnel are analyzed. Recommendations are made for improvements in the psychological analysis of causes of incorrect actions by personnel.

  13. Decommissioning nuclear power plants - the wave of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, F.S. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    The paper discusses the project controls developed in the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Considerations are given to the contaminated piping and equipment that have to be removed and the spent and used fuel that has to be disposed of. The storage issue is of primary concern here. The cost control aspects and the dynamics of decommissioning are discussed. The effects of decommissioning laws on the construction and engineering firms are mentioned. 5 refs.

  14. Regression analysis of technical parameters affecting nuclear power plant performances

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazy, R.; Ricotti, M. E.; Trueco, P.

    2012-07-01

    Since the 80's many studies have been conducted in order to explicate good and bad performances of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs), but yet no defined correlation has been found out to be totally representative of plant operational experience. In early works, data availability and the number of operating power stations were both limited; therefore, results showed that specific technical characteristics of NPPs were supposed to be the main causal factors for successful plant operation. Although these aspects keep on assuming a significant role, later studies and observations showed that other factors concerning management and organization of the plant could instead be predominant comparing utilities operational and economic results. Utility quality, in a word, can be used to summarize all the managerial and operational aspects that seem to be effective in determining plant performance. In this paper operational data of a consistent sample of commercial nuclear power stations, out of the total 433 operating NPPs, are analyzed, mainly focusing on the last decade operational experience. The sample consists of PWR and BWR technology, operated by utilities located in different countries, including U.S. (Japan)) (France)) (Germany)) and Finland. Multivariate regression is performed using Unit Capability Factor (UCF) as the dependent variable; this factor reflects indeed the effectiveness of plant programs and practices in maximizing the available electrical generation and consequently provides an overall indication of how well plants are operated and maintained. Aspects that may not be real causal factors but which can have a consistent impact on the UCF, as technology design, supplier, size and age, are included in the analysis as independent variables. (authors)

  15. Understanding the nature of nuclear power plant risk

    SciTech Connect

    Denning, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the evolution of understanding of severe accident consequences from the non-mechanistic assumptions of WASH-740 to WASH-1400, NUREG-1150, SOARCA and today in the interpretation of the consequences of the accident at Fukushima. As opposed to the general perception, the radiological human health consequences to members of the Japanese public from the Fukushima accident will be small despite meltdowns at three reactors and loss of containment integrity. In contrast, the radiation-related societal impacts present a substantial additional economic burden on top of the monumental task of economic recovery from the nonnuclear aspects of the earthquake and tsunami damage. The Fukushima accident provides additional evidence that we have mis-characterized the risk of nuclear power plant accidents to ourselves and to the public. The human health risks are extremely small even to people living next door to a nuclear power plant. The principal risk associated with a nuclear power plant accident involves societal impacts: relocation of people, loss of land use, loss of contaminated products, decontamination costs and the need for replacement power. Although two of the three probabilistic safety goals of the NRC address societal risk, the associated quantitative health objectives in reality only address individual human health risk. This paper describes the types of analysis that would address compliance with the societal goals. (authors)

  16. Epidemiological Evidence of Childhood Leukaemia Around Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Janiak, Marek K.

    2014-01-01

    A few reports of increased numbers of leukaemia cases (clusters) in children living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (NPP) and other nuclear installations have triggered a heated debate over the possible causes of the disease. In this review the most important cases of childhood leukaemia clusters around NPPs are described and analyzed with special emphasis on the relationship between the environmental exposure to ionizing radiation and the risk of leukaemia. Since, as indicated, a lifetime residency in the proximity of an NPP does not pose any specific health risk to people and the emitted ionizing radiation is too small to cause cancer, a number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the childhood leukaemia clusters. The most likely explanation for the clusters is ‘population mixing’, i.e., the influx of outside workers to rural regions where nuclear installations are being set up and where local people are not immune to pathogens brought along with the incomers. PMID:25249830

  17. Hydrogen Production from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    M. Patterson; C. Park

    2008-03-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor that will be capable of producing hydrogen, electricity and/or high temperature process heat for industrial use. The project has initiated the conceptual design phase and when completed will demonstrate the viability of hydrogen generation using nuclear produced process heat. This paper explains how industry and the U.S. Government are cooperating to advance nuclear hydrogen technology. It also describes the issues being explored and the results of recent R&D including materials development and testing, thermal-fluids research, and systems analysis. The paper also describes the hydrogen production technologies being considered (including various thermochemical processes and high-temperature electrolysis).

  18. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  19. Regulation of nuclear shape and size in plants.

    PubMed

    Meier, Iris; Griffis, Anna Hn; Groves, Norman R; Wagner, Alecia

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear shape and size changes have long been used by cytopathologists to diagnose, stage, and prognose cancer. However, the underlying causalities and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The current eukaryotic tree of life groups eukaryotes into five supergroups, with all organisms between humans and yeast falling into the supergroup Opisthokonta. The emergence of model organisms with strong molecular genetic methodology in the other supergroups has recently facilitated a broader evolutionary approach to pressing biological questions. Here, we review what is known about the control of nuclear shape and size in the Archaeplastidae, the supergroup containing the higher plants. We discuss common themes as well as differences toward a more generalized model of how eukaryotic organisms regulate nuclear morphology. PMID:27030912

  20. Safety Second: the NRC and America's nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adato, M.; MacKenzie, J.; Pollard, R.; Weiss, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975, Congress created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Its primary responsibility was to be the regulation of the nuclear power industry in order to maintain public health and safety. On March 28, 1979, in the worst commercial nuclear accident in US history, the plant at Three Mile Island began to leak radioactive material. How was Three Mile Island possible. Where was the NRC. This analysis by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) of the NRC's first decade, points specifically to the factors that contributed to the accident at Three Mile Island. The NRC, created as a watchdog of the nuclear power industry, suffers from problems of mindset, says the UCS. The commission's problems are political, not technical; it repeatedly ranks special interests above the interest of public safety. This book critiques the NRC's performance in four specific areas. It charges that the agency has avoided tackling the most pervasive safety issues; has limited public participation in decision making and power plant licensing; has failed to enforce safety standards or conduct adequate regulation investigations; and, finally, has maintained a fraternal relationship with the industry it was created to regulate, serving as its advocate rather than it adversary. The final chapter offers recommendations for agency improvement that must be met if the NRC is to fulfill its responsibility for safety first.

  1. Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingwood, B.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves.

  2. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation for Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2008-09-01

    There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet, and these have an average age greater than 20 years. These NPPs had design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants and consideration is now being given to the concept of “life-beyond-60,” a further period of license extension from 60 to 80 years, and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. There is a growing urgency as a number of plants face either approvals for license extension or shut down, which will require deployment of new power plants. In support of NPP license extension over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper reports part of the work performed in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program. The paper concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD, its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics and provides an assessment of some the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed.

  3. NEXT GENERATION NUCLEAR PLANT LICENSING BASIS EVENT SELECTION WHITE PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Holbrook

    2010-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a licensed commercial high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plant capable of producing the electricity and high temperature process heat for industrial markets supporting a range of end-user applications. The NGNP Project has adopted the 10 CFR 52 Combined License (COL) application process, as recommended in the Report to Congress, dated August 2008, as the foundation for the NGNP licensing strategy. NRC licensing of the NGNP plant utilizing this process will demonstrate the efficacy of licensing future HTGRs for commercial industrial applications. This white paper is one in a series of submittals that will address key generic issues of the COL priority licensing topics as part of the process for establishing HTGR regulatory requirements.

  4. The Meteorological Monitoring program at a former nuclear weapons plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Meteorological Monitoring program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is to provide meteorological information for use in assessing the transport, and diffusion, and deposition of effluent actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by plant operations. Achievement of this objective aids in protecting health and safety of the public, employees, and environment, and directly supports Emergency Response programs at RFP. Meteorological information supports the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, remediation activities, and emergency responses. As the mission of the plant changes from production of nuclear weapons parts to environmental cleanup and economic development, smaller releases resulting from remediation activities become more likely. These possible releases could result from airborne fugitive dust, evaporation from collection ponds, or grass fires.

  5. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  6. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D

    1994-06-01

    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:8070790

  7. Nuclear power plant control room operator control and monitoring tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Bovell, C.R.; Beck, M.G.; Carter, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a research project the purpose of which is to develop the technical bases for regulatory review criteria for use in evaluating the safety implications of human factors associated with the use of artificial intelligence and expert systems, and with advanced instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPP). This report documents the results from Task 8 of that project. The primary objectives of the task was to identify the scope and type of control and monitoring tasks now performed by control-room operators. Another purpose was to address the types of controls and safety systems needed to operate the nuclear plant. The final objective of Task 8 was to identify and categorize the type of information and displays/indicators required to monitor the performance of the control and safety systems. This report also discusses state-of-the-art controls and advanced display devices which will be available for use in control-room retrofits and in control room of future plants. The fundamental types of control and monitoring tasks currently conducted by operators can be divided into four classifications: function monitoring tasks, control manipulation tasks, fault diagnostic tasks, and administrative tasks. There are three general types of controls used in today`s NPPs, switches, pushbuttons, and analog controllers. Plant I and C systems include components to achieve a number of safety-related functions: measuring critical plant parameters, controlling critical plant parameters within safety limits, and automatically actuating protective devices if safe limits are exceeded. The types of information monitored by the control-room operators consist of the following parameters: pressure, fluid flow and level, neutron flux, temperature, component status, water chemistry, electrical, and process and area radiation. The basic types of monitoring devices common to nearly all NPP control rooms include: analog meters

  8. Thermal analysis of the vertical bridgman semiconductor crystal growth technique. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The quality of semiconductor crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique is strongly influenced by the axial and radial variations of temperature within the charge. The relationship between the thermal parameters of the vertical Bridgman system and the thermal behavior of the charge are examined. Thermal models are developed which are capable of producing results expressable in analytical form and which can be used without recourse to extensive computer work for the preliminary thermal design of vertical Bridgman crystal growth systems. These models include the effects of thermal coupling between the furnace and the charge, charge translation rate, charge diameter, thickness and thermal conductivity of the confining crucible, thermal conductivity change and liberation of latent heat at the growth interface, and infinite charge length. The hot and cold zone regions, considered to be at spatially uniform temperatures, are separated by a gradient control region which provides added thermal design flexibility for controlling the temperature variations near the growth interface.

  9. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  10. Paradigm for expert display systems in nuclear plant and elsewhere

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    Display of relevant data concerning plant operation has been a concern of the nuclear industry from its beginnings. Since the incident at Three Mile Island, this matter has had much careful scrutiny. L. Beltracchi, in particular, has originated a sequence of important steps to improve the operator's ability to recognize plant states and their changes. In the early 1980's, Beltracchi (1983, 1984) proposed a display based on the Rankine cycle for light water reactors. More recently, in an unpublished work (1986b), he described an extension that includes a small, rule-based system in the display program, drawing inferences about plant operation from sensor readings, and displaying those inferences on the Rankine display. Our paper examines Beltracchi's rule-based display from the perspective of knowledge bases. Earlier (Gabriel, 1983) we noted that analytical models of system behavior are just as much a knowledge base as are the rules of a conventional expert system. The problem of finding useful displays for a complex plant is discussed from this perspective. We then present a paradigm for developing designs with properties similar to those in Beltracchi's Rankine cycle display. Finally, to clarify the issue, we give a small example from an imaginary plant.

  11. Growth and characterization of CdMnTe by the vertical Bridgman technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, U. N.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Gu, G.; Gul, R.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Egarievwe, S. U.; James, R. B.

    2016-03-01

    We grew Cd1-xMnx Te crystals with a nominal Mn concentration of 5% by the vertical Bridgman growth technique. The structural quality of the crystal was evaluated by white beam X-ray topography in the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). We observed that the crystal was free from a sub-grain boundary network, as revealed by X-ray topography and verified by our etching study. The concentration of the secondary phases, averaged over the entire ingot, was 2-3 times lower than in conventional Bridgman grown cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) crystals.

  12. Simplified tornado depressurization design methods for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N.M.; Krasnopoler, M.I.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified approach for the calculation of tornado depressurization effects on nuclear power plant structures and components is based on a generic computer depressurization analysis for an arbitrary single volume V connected to the atmosphere by an effective vent area A. For a given tornado depressurization transient, the maximum depressurization ..delta..P of the volume was found to depend on the parameter V/A. The relation between ..delta..P and V/A can be represented by a single monotonically increasing curve for each of the three design-basis tornadoes described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.76. These curves can be applied to most multiple-volume nuclear power plant structures by considering each volume and its controlling vent area. Where several possible flow areas could be controlling, the maximum value of V/A can be used to estimate a conservative value for ..delta..P. This simplified approach was shown to yield reasonably conservative results when compared to detailed computer calculations of moderately complex geometries. Treatment of severely complicated geometries, heating and ventilation systems, and multiple blowout panel arrangements were found to be beyond the limitations of the simplified analysis.

  13. Tracing airborne particles after Japan's nuclear plant explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Hisashi; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2011-11-01

    The powerful Tohoku earthquake and consequent tsunami that occurred off the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 devastated dozens of coastal cities and towns, causing the loss of more than 15,000 lives and leaving close to 4000 people still missing. Although nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, located on the Pacific coast, stopped their operation automatically upon the occurrence of the Mw 9.0 quake [Showstack, 2011], the cooling system for nuclear fuel broke down. From 12 to 16 March, vapor and hydrogen blasts destroyed the buildings that had contained the reactors, resulting in the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials such as sulfur-35, iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137, which collectively can cause harmful health effects such as tissue damage and increased risk of cancer (particularly in children), depending on dose. Most of those materials emitted from the power plant rained out onto the grounds within its vicinity and forced tens of thousands within a 20-kilometer radius to evacuate (residents to the northwest of the site within about 40 kilometers also were moved from their homes). Some of the radioactive materials were transported and then detected at such distant locations as North America and Europe, although the level of radiation dose was sufficiently low not to affect human health in any significant manner.

  14. Remote monitoring of nuclear power plants in Baden-Wuerttemberg.

    PubMed

    Neff, U; Müller, U; Mandel, C; Coutinho, P; Aures, R; Grimm, C; Hagmann, M; Wilbois, T; Ren, Y

    2014-08-01

    As part of its responsibilities as nuclear supervisory authority, the Ministry of the Environment, Climate Protection and the Energy Sector Baden-Wuerttemberg (UM) operates a computer-based system for remote monitoring of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (KFUe, Kernreaktor-Fernüberwachung). In addition to the Baden-Wuerttemberg NPPs located at Philippsburg, Neckarwestheim and the disused Obrigheim, those in foreign locations close to the border area, i.e. Fessenheim in France, and Leibstadt and Beznau in Switzerland, are monitored. The KFUe system provides several methods to evaluate and present the measured data as well as to ensure compliance of threshold limits and safety objectives. For the UM, it serves as an instrument of the nuclear supervision. In case of a radioactive release, the authorities responsible for civil protection can use dispersion calculations in order to identify potentially affected areas and to initiate protective measures for the population. Beyond the data collected at the plant sites, various international radiation and meteorological measuring networks are integrated in the KFUe. The State Institute for Environment, Measurements and Nature Protection (LUBW), the technical operator of the KFUe, runs its own special monitoring network for ambient gamma dose rate and nuclide specific activity concentration measurements in the vicinity of each NPP. This article gives an overview of the solution to combine data of different sources on a single screen: dose rate networks, dose rate traces measured by car, airborne gamma spectra of helicopters, mobile dose rate probes, grid data of weather forecasts, dispersion calculations, etc. PMID:24525946

  15. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E. )

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion.

  16. Just In-Time Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DR. Alexander G. Parlos

    2002-01-22

    The goal of this project has been to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new technology for maintenance engineering: a Just-In-Time Maintenance (JITM) system for rotating machines. The JITM system is based on several key developments at Texas A and M over the past ten years in emerging intelligent information technologies, which if integrated into a single system could provide a revolutionary approach in the way maintenance is performed. Rotating machines, such as induction motors, range from a few horse power (hp) to several thousand hp in size, and they are widely used in nuclear power plants and in other industries. Forced outages caused by induction motor failures are the reason for as much as 15% - 40% of production costs to be attributable to maintenance, whereas plant shutdowns caused by induction motor failures result in daily financial losses to the utility and process industries of $1 M or more. The basic components of the JITM system are the available machine sensors, that is electric current sensors and accelerometers, and the computational algorithms used in the analysis and interpretation of the occurring incipient failures. The JITM system can reduce the costs attributable to maintenance by about 40% and it can lower the maintenance budgets of power and process plants by about 35%, while requiring no additional sensor installation. As a result, the JITM system can improve the competitiveness of US nuclear utilities at minimal additional cost.

  17. Recent Trends in the Adequacy of Nuclear Plant Decommissioning Funding

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D. G.

    2002-02-26

    Concerned about the potential cost and sufficiency of funds to decommission the nation's nuclear power plants, the Congress asked the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) to assess the adequacy, as of December 31, 1997, of electric utilities'; funds to eventually decommission their plants. GAO's report (GAO/RCED-99-75) on this issue addressed three alternative assumption scenarios--baseline (most likely), optimistic, and pessimistic; and was issued in May 1999. This paper updates GAO's baseline assessment of fund adequacy in 1997, and extends the analysis through 2000. In 2000, we estimate that the present value cost to decommission the nation's nuclear plants is about $35 billion; utility fund balances are about $29 billion. Both our two measures of funding adequacy for utilities are on average not only much above ideal levels, but also overall have greatly improved since 1997. However, certain utilities still show less than ideal fund balances and annual contributions. We suggest that the range of these results among the individual utilities is a more important policy measure to assess the adequacy of decommissioning funding than is the funding adequacy for the industry as a whole.

  18. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl.

    PubMed Central

    Ginzburg, H M; Reis, E

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion. Images p38-a p38-b PMID:1899937

  19. Guidelines for inservice testing at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, P.

    1995-04-01

    The staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) gives licensees guidelines and recommendations for developing and implementing programs for the inservice testing of pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. The staff discusses the regulations; the components to be included in an inservice testing program; and the preparation and content of cold shutdown justifications, refueling outage justifications, and requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code requirements. The staff also gives specific guidance on relief acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information at their facilities. The staff discusses the revised standard technical specifications for the inservice testing program requirements and gives guidance on the process a licensee may follow upon finding an instance of noncompliance with the Code.

  20. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  1. [Accidents of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants and future].

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    A massive earthquake of magnitude 9 terribly happened far out at sea of Tohoku area on 11 March, 2011. After this earthquake the hugest tsunami in the history came to the hundreds km of the seashore of Tohoku area. Due to this tsunami all of the four nuclear power plants of Fukushima Daiichi lost every electric power and, soon after this, loss nuclear fuels from number 1 to 3 reactors melt through their power containers. According to this phenomena, large amount of the radio-activities have been released in the air. There were some releases but major contaminations happened at the time of the two releases in the morning of 15 March, 2011. Due to this, to the direction of the northwest until the Iitate Village over 30km zone was contaminated. In this paper I explain the time course of the accidents and that how contaminated. PMID:24568025

  2. COMMERCIAL UTILITY PERSPECTIVES ON NUCLEAR POWER PLANT CONTROL ROOM MODERNIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring; Julius J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States need to modernize their main control rooms (MCR). Many NPPs have done partial upgrades with some success and with some challenges. The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, and in particular the Advanced Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) and Information Systems Technologies Research and Development (R&D) Pathway within LWRS, is designed to assist commercial nuclear power industry with their MCR modernization efforts. As part of this framework, a survey was issued to utility representatives of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems/Technologies (II&C) Utility Working Group to obtain their views on a range of issues related to MCR modernization, including: drivers, barriers, and technology options, and the effects these aspects will have on concepts of operations, modernization strategies, and staffing. This paper summarizes the key survey results and discusses their implications.

  3. Improved tritium monitoring at the Pantex Nuclear Weapons Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brain, W.F.; Click, C.N.; Griffis, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a system capable of sampling ambient levels of both elemental and oxidized tritium in ambient air at the US Department of Energy`s Pantex Nuclear Weapons Plant. The system of monitors uses a combination of commercial laboratory equipment and custom fabricated components. Problems inherent in tritium sampling, and those specific to weather extremes in Texas, were identified and researched. Experience with the sampling network is still limited, but concentrations of oxidized tritium are presently comparable to the original sampling network.

  4. Radiation fields and dose assessments in Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young; Jeong, Woo Tae; Kim, Seok Tae

    2011-07-01

    In the primary systems of nuclear power plants (NPPs), various radionuclides including fission products and corrosion products are generated due to the complex water chemistry conditions. In particular, (3)H, (14)C, (58)Co, (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (131)I are important or potential radionuclides with respect to dose assessment for workers and the management of radioactive effluents or dose assessment for the public. In this paper, the dominant contributors to the dose for workers and the public were reviewed and the process of dose assessment attributable to those contributors was investigated. Furthermore, an analysis was carried out on some examples of dose to workers during NPP operation. PMID:21498858

  5. Fiber optic sensors for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, Murugesan; Sosamma, Samuel; BabuRao, Chelamchala; Murali, Nagarajan; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2012-05-17

    Studies have been carried out for application of Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The high temperature monitoring in sodium circuits of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is important. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in the surrounding insulation in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. The suitability of RDTS for detecting defects in ACSR overhead power cable, is also demonstrated.

  6. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Nuclear Power Plant Siting Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-28

    This database is a repository of comprehensive licensing and technical reviews of siting regulatory processes and acceptance criteria for advanced light water reactor (ALWR) nuclear power plants. The program is designed to be used by applicants for an early site permit or combined construction permit/operating license (10CFRR522, Subparts A and C) as input for the development of the application. The database is a complete, menu-driven, self-contained package that can search and sort the supplied datamore » by topic, keyword, or other input. The software is designed for operation on IBM compatible computers with DOS.« less

  7. Qualification of active mechanical components for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Mollerus, F.J.

    1983-11-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has undertaken a study of active safety related mechanical components in domestic nuclear plants to determine what qualification information exists and to establish a plan for qualification of those components. Active safety related mechanical components are those which undergo mechanical motion to perform a safety function. The overall objective of the study is to recommend appropriate methods and realistic criteria for the environmental, seismic and dynamic qualification of active mechanical components. This paper presents the results of progress in this project through May 1983.

  8. Perry Nuclear Plant's Plans for on-site storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ratchen, J.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Because of current radwaste disposal legislation and the eventual denial of access to the Barnwell, Richland, and Beatty burial sites, it was imperative for the Perry nuclear power plant to develop alternative means for handling its generated radioactive waste. The previous radwaste facilities at Perry were developed for processing, packaging, short-term storage, and shipment for burial. In order to meet the changing needs, new facilities have been constructed to handle the processing, packaging, and 5-yr interim storage of both dry active waste (DAW) and dewatered or solidified resin, filter media, etc.

  9. Automated separation process for radioanalytical purposes at nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L G; Vajda, N; Vodicska, M; Zagyvai, P; Solymosi, J

    1987-10-01

    Chemical separation processes have been developed to remove the matrix components and thus to determine fission products, especially radioiodine nuclides, in the primary coolant of WWER-type nuclear reactors. Special procedures have been elaborated to enrich long-lived nuclides in waste waters to be released and to separate and enrich caesium isotopes in the environment. All processes are based mainly on ion-exchange separations using amorphous zirconium phosphate. Automated equipment was constructed to meet the demands of the plant personnel for serial analysis. PMID:3680447

  10. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  11. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOEpatents

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  12. Impact of the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant on atmospheric radiocarbon.

    PubMed

    Povinec, P P; Sivo, A; Simon, J; Holý, K; Chudý, M; Richtáriková, M; Morávek, J

    2008-11-01

    Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO(2) have been observed at two localities in Slovakia (Bratislava and Zlkovce). Zlkovce is situated about 60 km NE from Bratislava, and only 5 km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The observed Delta(14)C levels provide a unique evidence of the long-term impact of the Bohunice NPP on the Bratislava region, as well as on the decreased fossil fuel CO(2) emissions. The radiation doses estimated to the local public have been around 3 microSv/year, 20% of the dose from global fallout (14)C present in the environment. PMID:18534859

  13. Qualification of Safety-Related Software in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G L

    2000-06-13

    Digital instrumentation and control systems have the potential of offering significant benefits over traditional analog systems in Nuclear Power Plant safety systems, but there are also significant difficulties in qualifying digital systems to the satisfaction of regulators. Digital systems differ in fundamental ways from analog systems. New methods for safety qualification, which take these differences into account, would ease the regulatory cost and promote use of digital systems. This paper offers a possible method for assisting in the analysis of digital system software, as one step in an improved qualification process.

  14. Stochastic modeling of deterioration in nuclear power plant components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xianxun

    2007-12-01

    The risk-based life-cycle management of engineering systems in a nuclear power plant is intended to ensure safe and economically efficient operation of energy generation infrastructure over its entire service life. An important element of life-cycle management is to understand, model and forecast the effect of various degradation mechanisms affecting the performance of engineering systems, structures and components. The modeling of degradation in nuclear plant components is confounded by large sampling and temporal uncertainties. The reason is that nuclear systems are not readily accessible for inspections due to high level of radiation and large costs associated with remote data collection methods. The models of degradation used by industry are largely derived from ordinary linear regression methods. The main objective of this thesis is to develop more advanced techniques based on stochastic process theory to model deterioration in engineering components with the purpose of providing more scientific basis to life-cycle management of aging nuclear power plants. This thesis proposes a stochastic gamma process (GP) model for deterioration and develops a suite of statistical techniques for calibrating the model parameters. The gamma process is a versatile and mathematically tractable stochastic model for a wide variety of degradation phenomena, and another desirable property is its nonnegative, monotonically increasing sample paths. In the thesis, the GP model is extended by including additional covariates and also modeling for random effects. The optimization of age-based replacement and condition-based maintenance strategies is also presented. The thesis also investigates improved regression techniques for modeling deterioration. A linear mixed-effects (LME) regression model is presented to resolve an inconsistency of the traditional regression models. The proposed LME model assumes that the randomness in deterioration is decomposed into two parts: the unobserved

  15. 76 FR 29279 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION NORTHERN STATES POWER COMPANY Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Plants Regarding the License Renewal of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plants, Units 1 and 2... years of operation for Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and Unit 2 (PINGP 1 and 2)....

  16. Vitrification of Polyvinyl Chloride Waste from Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Jiawei; Choi, Kwansik; Yang, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Myung-Chan; Song, Myung-Jae

    2000-02-15

    Vitrification is considered as an economical and safe treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants (NPPs). Korea is in the process of preparing for its first ever vitrification plant to handle LLW from its NPPs. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has the largest volume of dry active wastes and is the main waste stream to treat. Glass formulation development for PVC waste is the focus of study. The minimum additive waste stabilization approach has been utilized in vitrification. It was found that glasses can incorporate a high content of PVC ash (up to 50 wt%), which results in a large volume reduction. A glass frit, KEP-A, was developed to vitrify PVC waste after the optimization of waste loading, melt viscosity, melting temperature, and chemical durability. The KEP-A could satisfactorily vitrify PVC with a waste loading of 30 to 50 wt%. The PVC-frit was tolerant of variations in waste composition.

  17. Extending the lifespan of nuclear power plant structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    By the end of this decade, 63 of the 111 commercial nuclear power plants in the United States will be more than 20 years old, with some nearing the end of their 40-year operating license term. Faced with the prospect of having to replace lost generating capacity from other sources and substantial shutdown and decommissioning costs, many utilities are expected to apply to continue the service of their plants past the initial licensing period. In support of such applications, evidence should be provided that the capacity of the safety-related systems and structures to mitigate potential extreme events has not deteriorated unacceptably due to either aging or environmental stressor effects during the previous service history.

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Resilient Control System Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lynne M. Stevens

    2010-07-01

    Control Systems and their associated instrumentation must meet reliability, availability, maintainability, and resiliency criteria in order for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) to be economically competitive. Research, perhaps requiring several years, may be needed to develop control systems to support plant availability and resiliency. This report functionally analyzes the gaps between traditional and resilient control systems as applicable to HTGRs, which includes the Next Generation Nuclear Plant; defines resilient controls; assesses the current state of both traditional and resilient control systems; and documents the functional gaps existing between these two controls approaches as applicable to HTGRs. This report supports the development of an overall strategy for applying resilient controls to HTGRs by showing that control systems with adequate levels of resilience perform at higher levels, respond more quickly to disturbances, increase operational efficiency, and increase public protection.

  19. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and applicants may use to implement general design criteria (GDC) that are applicable to the ultimate......

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 50 - General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. A Appendix A to Part 50—General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants Table of Contents introduction definitions...

  1. 76 FR 32237 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of Availability of Draft Supplement 44 to the Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants and Public Meetings for the License...

  2. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  3. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  4. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  5. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  6. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  7. 26 CFR 1.468A-6 - Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power...-6 Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant. (a) In general. This section describes the... taxpayer (transferor) of all or a portion of its qualifying interest in a nuclear power plant to...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Pt. 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i. purpose General Design Criterion 2 of...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S Appendix S to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants General Information This...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Pt. 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i. purpose General Design Criterion 2 of...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S Appendix S to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants General Information This...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S Appendix S to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants General Information This...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Pt. 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i. purpose General Design Criterion 2 of...

  14. 77 FR 6598 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue Star...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... entities participating under 10 CFR 2.315(c), must be filed in accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Palisades Nuclear Plant, 27780 Blue...

  15. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment (75 FR 3761; dated January 22, 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption...

  16. 75 FR 76052 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... environment (75 FR 73135, dated November 29, 2010). This exemption is effective upon issuance. Dated at... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2;...

  17. Neural network recognition of nuclear power plant transients

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Danofsky, R.; Adams, J.; AlJundi, T.; Basu, A.; Dhanwada, C.; Kerr, J.; Kim, K.; Lanc, T.

    1993-02-23

    The objective of this report is to describe results obtained during the first year of funding that will lead to the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) fault - diagnostic system for the real - time classification of operational transients at nuclear power plants. The ultimate goal of this three-year project is to design, build, and test a prototype diagnostic adviser for use in the control room or technical support center at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC); such a prototype could be integrated into the plant process computer or safety - parameter display system. The adviser could then warn and inform plant operators and engineers of plant component failures in a timely manner. This report describes the work accomplished in the first of three scheduled years for the project. Included herein is a summary of the first year's results as, well as individual descriptions of each of the major topics undertaken by the researchers. Also included are reprints of the articles written under this funding as well as those that were published during the funded period.

  18. Comparison of Options for a Pilot Plant Fusion Nuclear Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T; Goldston, R J; El-Guebaly, L; Kessel, C; Neilson, G H; Malang, S; Menard, J E; Prager, S; Waganer, L; Titus, P; Zarnstorff, M

    2012-08-27

    A fusion pilot plant study was initiated to clarify the development needs in moving from ITER to a first of a kind fusion power plant, following a path similar to the approach adopted for the commercialization of fission. The pilot plant mission encompassed component test and fusion nuclear science missions plus the requirement to produce net electricity with high availability in a device designed to be prototypical of the commercial device. Three magnetic configuration options were developed around this mission: the advanced tokamak (AT), spherical tokamak (ST) and compact stellarator (CS). With the completion of the study and separate documentation of each design option a question can now be posed; how do the different designs compare with each other as candidates for meeting the pilot plant mission? In a pro/con format this paper will examine the key arguments for and against the AT, ST and CS magnetic configurations. Key topics addressed include: plasma parameters, device configurations, size and weight comparisons, diagnostic issues, maintenance schemes, availability influences and possible test cell arrangement schemes.

  19. The Zwilag interim storage plasma plant technology to handle operational waste from nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Heep, Walter

    2007-07-01

    The first processing of low level radioactive wastes from Swiss nuclear power plants marks the successful completion of commissioning in March 2004 of a treatment facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, which is operated with the help of plasma technology. The theoretical principles of this metallurgy-derived process technology are based on plasma technology, which has already been used for a considerable period outside of nuclear technology for the production of highly pure metal alloys and for the plasma synthesis of acetylene. The commercial operation of the Plasma Plant owned by Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) has also enabled this technology to be used successfully for the first time in the nuclear field, especially in compliance with radiation protection aspects. In addition to a brief presentation of the technology used in the plant, the melting process under operating conditions will be explained in more detail. The separation factors attained and volume reductions achieved open interesting perspectives for the further optimisation of the entire process in the future. (author)

  20. Further comments on segregation during Bridgman growth of Cd(x)Hg(1-x)Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    The authors comment on recent papers published by Capper et al. (1983) and Jones et al. (1983) which report and discuss the variation of composition with axial position in Bridgman-grown Cd(x)Hg(1-x)Te alloys. The validity of a diffusion-controlled model for non-mixing growth conditions is particularly noted.

  1. Dopant segregation during vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger growth with melt stabilization by strong axial magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthiesen, D. H.; Wargo, M. J.; Motakef, S.; Carlson, D. J.; Nakos, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    Ga-doped germanium was grown in a vertical Bridgman-Stockbarger system with melt stabilization by axial magnetic fields of 30 kG. It was found that radial segregation of gallium is negligible and that the initial transient of axial macro-segregation is in apparent compliance with the theory of diffusion controlled plane front solidification.

  2. The Detached Bridgman Process: Application for the Growth of Low-Defect Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweizer, M.; Volz, M. P.; Cobb, S. D.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During crystal growth in the vertical Bridgman process, both the melt and the growing crystal are in contact with the ampoule wall. The different thermal coefficients of expansion of the crystal and the ampoule wall can lead to stresses, crystal defects, and not rarely to cracks and/or polycrystalline growth in the crystal. The detached Bridgman process is characterized by the fact that the melt meniscus frees itself from the ampoule wall and the crystal can be grown without wall contact with the ampoule. After the effect of detachment was observed due to the reduced force of gravity during the early experiments under microgravity conditions, in the past few years the Bridgman process likewise has been successfully used to grow at least partially detached under 1g-condition. If the requirements for detaching the melt meniscus from the ampoule wall are not fulfilled by the material-specific parameters (like e.g. wetting behavior between ampoule and melt and the growth angle of the crystal), detachment can be obtained also by the imposition of suitable pressure ratios in the growth ampoule. In the context of this paper, the growth of germanium by the detached and vertical Bridgman processes in pyrolytic boron nitride crucibles will be reported, Typical gap widths between ampoule wall and detached grown crystals are approximately 10-50 microns. Compared to the crystals grown with wall contact, a reduction of the etch pit density of approximately two orders of magnitude could be obtained by growing with the detached process.

  3. Satellite Surveillance of Nuclear Plant, Assisting IAEA Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mileikowsky, Curt

    1997-01-01

    One of the great problems for world society today is what to do with the 100 000 tons of spent fuel — produced by 400 power reactors in over 30 nations — that contain 1000 tons of civilian plutonium and that will double in volume over the next 10 to 15 years. That future amount of civilian plutonium represents material for 400 000 nuclear bombs: simple ones, relatively easily made, ideal for terrorists, of the strength of 10-70% of the Hiroshima bomb. Because of this risk, spent fuel has to be safeguarded for 10 000 years. The most straightforward way to eliminate the need for safeguarding spent fuel would be to burn it. That could best be done with an accelerator-driven subcritical reactor, i.e. one that cannot function without the assistance of a 1-2.5 GeV proton accelerator supplying the lacking neutrons and which therefore makes for an extremely safe plant that cannot run amok (as Chernobyl did for example). 100 of such plant could burn all the plutonium produced by the 400 present-type reactors in the world and simultaneously produce profitable electric power. But such a scheme requires proof that the accelerators could not themselves be used for producing nuclear bomb material. That utterly important task for world society could be significantly supported by the new commercial high resolution observation satellites.

  4. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  5. Cognitive skill training for nuclear power plant operational decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Mumaw, R.J.; Swatzler, D.; Roth, E.M.; Thomas, W.A.

    1994-06-01

    Training for operator and other technical positions in the commercial nuclear power industry traditionally has focused on mastery of the formal procedures used to control plant systems and processes. However, decisionmaking tasks required of nuclear power plant operators involve cognitive skills (e.g., situation assessment, planning). Cognitive skills are needed in situations where formal procedures may not exist or may not be as prescriptive, as is the case in severe accident management (SAM). The Westinghouse research team investigated the potential cognitive demands of SAM on the control room operators and Technical Support Center staff who would be most involved in the selection and execution of severe accident control actions. A model of decision making, organized around six general cognitive processes, was developed to identify the types of cognitive skills that may be needed for effective performance. Also, twelve SAM scenarios were developed to reveal specific decision-making difficulties. Following the identification of relevant cognitive skills, 19 approaches for training individual and team cognitive skills were identified. A review of these approaches resulted in the identification of general characteristics that are important in effective training of cognitive skills.

  6. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  7. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  8. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  9. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance at nuclear power plants. 50.65 Section 50.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... Construction Permits § 50.65 Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power..., including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  10. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

  11. Thermal performance monitoring and assessment in Dukovany nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Madron, F.; Papuga, J.; Pliska, J.

    2006-07-01

    Competition in the European electricity market forces generators to achieve - in compliance with safety and environmental standards - efficiency of production as high as possible. This efficiency or heat rate is an important indicator of both the condition of the plant equipment and the quality of plant operation. Similar thermal performance indicators can also be calculated for components of the plant equipment such as heat exchangers. However, it is not easy to quantify these indicators with sufficient precision so that the results can be used for conduct of plant operation in near-real time and for predictive maintenance. This paper describes a present state of the system monitoring and evaluating thermal performance of the reactor units in Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant. The system provides information on actual and desirable (should-be) values of thermal performance indicators for control room operators, performance engineers and maintenance planners. The system is designed to monitor steady states and has two main functions: data validation and process simulation. Data validation is based on data reconciliation methodology and carried out with Recon software by Chemplant Technology. A detailed model of the secondary side for mass and heat balancing has been made up by means of the Recon's graphical editor; now it contains roughly 300 flows and employs data of about 200 measurements. Main advantages of the data reconciliation are: - reconciled data are consistent with the model, - reconciled data are more precise than data directly measured with consequence that the thermal power of steam generators is determined with substantially lower uncertainty than before - data reconciliation represents a solid basis for detection and identification of data corrupted by gross errors. Simulation is performed with a different analytical model of plant components configured into secondary side. The model has been developed by I and C Energo. Main purposes of simulation are

  12. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K.; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public’s attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies. PMID:24248341

  13. Fiber optic pressure sensors for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Black, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    In the last few years, the nuclear industry has experienced some problems with the performance of pressure transmitters and has been interested in new sensors based on new technologies. Fiber optic pressure sensors offer the potential to improve on or overcome some of the limitations of existing pressure sensors. Up to now, research has been motivated towards development and refinement of fiber optic sensing technology. In most applications, reliability studies and failure mode analyses remain to be exhaustively conducted. Fiber optic sensors have currently penetrated certain cutting edge markets where they possess necessary inherent advantages over other existing technologies. In these markets (e.g. biomedical, aerospace, automotive, and petrochemical), fiber optic sensors are able to perform measurements for which no alternate sensor previously existed. Fiber optic sensing technology has not yet been fully adopted into the mainstream sensing market. This may be due to not only the current premium price of fiber optic sensors, but also the lack of characterization of their possible performance disadvantages. In other words, in conservative industries, the known disadvantages of conventional sensors are sometimes preferable to unknown or not fully characterized (but potentially fewer and less critical) disadvantages of fiber optic sensors. A six-month feasibility study has been initiated under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the performance and reliability of existing fiber optic pressure sensors for use in nuclear power plants. This assessment will include establishment of the state of the art in fiber optic pressure sensing, characterization of the reliability of fiber optic pressure sensors, and determination of the strengths and limitations of these sensors for nuclear safety-related services.

  14. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  15. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  17. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... three nuclear plants, 11 coal-fired plants, 12 gas-fired plants, 29 hydroelectric dams, and a pumped... load generation to balance resources with the projected load requirements. Neither coal- fired nor... Unit 1 also would provide TVA more flexibility to idle existing coal plants. These conclusions...

  18. Ultrasonic waveguide sensor for acoustic monitoring of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nikov, V.I.; Khokhlov, V.N.; Duntsev, A.V.

    1988-02-01

    Waveguide sensors are being increasingly used for acoustic emission monitoring of equipment in nuclear power plants and in systems for acoustic diagnostics of the coolant. In this paper we examine the construction of a waveguide sensor for acoustic monitoring for the example of an impedance sensor for the steam content of water coolant, intended for use in the active emission-reception mode. The dynamic properties of the sensor are determined by the construction and the dimensions of the transducer, and are usually represented by its amplitude-frequency characteristic, which, as a rule, is of the resonance type. The longitudinal-wave waveguide, made from steel wire 0.8-1.2 mm in diameter, can transmit signals in the band 50-1000 kHz. To increase the reliability and the ease of maintenance of the monitoring system the transducer and the waveguide are connected in a detachable manner.

  19. Advanced interaction media in nuclear power plant control rooms.

    PubMed

    Stephane, Lucas

    2012-01-01

    The shift from analog to digital Instruments (related mainly to information visualization) and Controls in Nuclear Power Plant Main Control Rooms (NPP MCR) is a central current topic of investigation. In NPP MCR, digitalization was implemented gradually, analog and digital systems still coexisting for the two main systems related to safety--Safety Instruments and Control System (SICS) and Process Instruments and Controls System (PICS). My ongoing research focuses on the introduction of Advanced Interaction Media (AIM) such as stereoscopic 3D visualization and multi-touch surfaces in control rooms. This paper proposes a Safety-Centric approach for gathering the Design Rationale needed in the specification of such novel AIM concepts as well as their evaluation through user tests. Beyond methodological research, the final output of the current research is to build an experimental simulator aiming to enhance improvements in Human-Systems Integration (HSI). This paper provides an overview of the topics under consideration. PMID:22317419

  20. Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant implementation of improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, S.R.; Pendry, D.

    1994-12-31

    Edwin I. Hatch nuclear plant consists of two General Electric boiling water reactor/4 units, with a common control room and a common refueling floor. In March 1993, Hatch began conversion of both units` technical specifications utilizing NUREG 1433. The technical specifications amendment request was submitted February 25, 1994. Issuance is scheduled for October 21, 1994, with implementation on March 15, 1994. The current unit-1 technical specifications are in the {open_quotes}custom{close_quotes} format, and the unit-2 technical specifications are in the old standard format. Hatch previously relocated the fire protection and radiological technical specifications requirements. The Hatch conversion will provide consistency between the two units, to the extent practicable.

  1. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  2. Management of aging of nuclear power plant containment structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.; Graves, H.L. III

    1998-06-01

    Research addressing aging management of nuclear power plant concrete and steel containment structures is summarized. Accomplishments related to concrete containment structures include formation of a materials` property database; an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors; guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments; and a time-dependent reliability-based methodology for condition assessments and estimations of future performance. Under the steel containments and liners activity, a degradation assessment methodology has been developed, mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in the containment due to aggressive environmental factors have been identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis have been summarized.

  3. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard J. Bond; Pradeep Ramuhalli; Magdy S. Tawfik; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-06-01

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  4. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  5. Seismic fragility levels of nuclear power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety-related electrical and mechanical equipment used in nuclear power plants are discussed. The fragility level is defined as the vibration level corresponding to initiation of equipment malfunctions. The test response spectrum is used as a measure of this vibration level. The fragility phenomenon of an equipment is represented by a number of response spectra corresponding to various failure modes. Analysis methods are described for determination of the fragility level by use of existing test data. Useful conversion factors are tabulated to transform test response spectra from one damping value to another. Results are presented for switch-gears and motor control centers. The capacity levels of these equipment assemblies are observed to be limited by malfunctioning of contactors, motor starters, relays and/or switches. The applicability of the fragility levels, determined in terms of test response spectra, to Seismic Margin Studies and Probabilistic Risk Assessments is discussed and specific recommendations are provided.

  6. The transport of nuclear power plant components. [via airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keating, S. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of transporting nuclear power plant components to landlocked sites where the usual mode of transport by barge cannot be used are considered. Existing methods of ground-based overland transport are discussed and their costs presented. Components are described and traffic density projections made to the year 2000. Plots of units transported versus distance transported are provided for units booked in 1973 and booked and proposed in 1974. It is shown that, for these cases, overland transport requirements for the industry will be over 5,000,000 ton-miles/year while a projection based on increasing energy demands shows that this figure will increase significantly by the year 2000. The payload size, distances, and costs of existing overland modes are significant enough to consider development of a lighter than air (LTA) mode for transporting NSSS components.

  7. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  8. Excess infant mortality after nuclear plant startup in rural Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Joseph J

    2008-01-01

    In the United States, utility companies have recently begun ordering new nuclear power reactors, the first such orders in the country since 1978. One potential site would be the Grand Gulf plant near Port Gibson, Mississippi. In 1983-1984, the first two years in which the existing Grand Gulf reactor operated, significant increases were observed in local rates of infant deaths (+35.3%) and fetal deaths (+57.8%). Local infant mortality remained elevated for the next two decades. These changes match those experienced in the same five local counties during atomic bomb testing in the 1950s and 1960s. This report examines potential reasons why an indigent, largely African American community may be at higher risk than other populations from exposure to an environmental toxin such as radiation. It also considers potential health risks posed by new reactors at Grand Gulf. PMID:18459281

  9. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 Years for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Tawfik, Magdy; Lybeck, Nancy

    2011-09-23

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring instead of periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  10. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT SIMULATORS FOR SOVIET-DESIGNED NUCLEAR REACTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohut, P.; Tutu, N.K.; Cleary, E.J.; Erickson, K.G.; Yoder, J.; Kroshilin, A.

    2001-01-07

    The US Department of Energy (US DOE), under the US government's International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators, are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper.

  12. Cancer near the Three Mile Island nuclear plant: radiation emissions.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M C; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

    1990-09-01

    As a public charge, cancers among the 159,684 residents living within a 10-mile (16-km) radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant were studied relative to releases of radiation during the March 28, 1979, accident as well as to routine plant emissions. The principal cancers considered were leukemia and childhood malignancies. Estimates of the emissions delivered to small geographic study tracts were derived from mathematical dispersion models which accounted for modifying factors such as wind and terrain; the model of accident emissions was validated by readings from off-site dosimeters. Incident cancers among area residents for the period 1975-1985 (n = 5,493) were identified by a review of the records at all local and regional hospitals; preaccident and postaccident trends in cancer rates were examined. For accident emissions, the authors failed to find definite effects of exposure on the cancer types and population subgroups thought to be most susceptible to radiation. No associations were seen for leukemia in adults or for childhood cancers as a group. For leukemia in children, the odds ratio was raised, but cases were few (n = 4), and the estimate was highly variable. Moreover, rates of childhood leukemia in the Three Mile Island area are low compared with national and regional rates. For exposure to routine emissions, the odds ratios were raised for childhood cancers as a whole and for childhood leukemia, but confidence intervals were wide and included 1.0. For leukemia in adults, there was a negative trend. Trends for two types of cancer ran counter to expectation. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma showed raised risks relative to both accident and routine emissions; lung cancer (adjusted only indirectly for smoking) showed raised risks relative to accident emissions, routine emissions, and background gamma radiation. Overall, the pattern of results does not provide convincing evidence that radiation releases from the Three Mile Island nuclear facility influenced

  13. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    PubMed

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima. PMID:26197330

  14. Seismic response for qualification of valves at nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, D.

    1996-12-01

    Power-operated valves constitute about a quarter to one-third of all safety-related components at a typical US nuclear plant. While extensive work has been done in the industry to quantify amplification factors for components such as electrical cabinets, little guidance is available to estimate amplification factors that can be applied to floor or piping anchor seismic response spectra to obtain valve responses. This paper establishes bounding amplification factors from which amplified response spectra and peak acceleration values can be obtained for the seismic qualification of valves. Parametric analyses of three representative nuclear piping systems consisting of different pipe sizes and support configurations are performed by the time-history method. Parameters such as the shape, frequency and energy content of the floor seismic spectra, peak shifting, size, weight and natural frequencies of the valves, support locations, and modal and spectral damping values are varied. Based on this study, amplified response spectra at the valve location for a variety of conditions are developed for each system. Amplification factors are then obtained by comparing spectra at the valve with the floor spectra. The peak seismic accelerations, which can be used in a valve`s static analysis, are automatically obtained form these results. They are, by definition, the zero period accelerations of the amplified response spectra at the valve.

  15. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    PubMed Central

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H.

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima. PMID:26197330

  16. Nuclear Safety Risk Management in Refueling Outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meijing Wu; Guozhang Shen

    2006-07-01

    The NPP is used to planning maintenance, in-service inspection, surveillance test, fuel handling and design modification in the refueling outage; the operator response capability will be reduced plus some of the plant systems out of service or loss of power at this time. Based on 8 times refueling outage experiences of the Qinshan NPP, this article provide some good practice and lesson learned for the nuclear safety risk management focus at four safety function areas of Residual Heat Removal Capability, Inventory Control, Power availability and Reactivity control. (authors)

  17. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident. PMID:6635612

  18. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  19. Containment hydrogen removal system for a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Callaghan, V.M.; Flynn, E.P.; Pokora, B.M.

    1984-02-07

    A hydrogen removal system (10) separates hydrogen from the containment atmosphere of a nuclear power plant using a hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). Water vapor is removed by condenser (14) from a gas stream withdrawn from the containment atmosphere. The gas stream is then compressed by compressor (24) and cooled (28,34) to the operating temperature of the hydrogen permeable membrane separator (30). The separator (30) separates the gas stream into a first stream, rich in hydrogen permeate, and a second stream that is hydrogen depleted. The separated hydrogen is passed through a charcoal adsorber (48) to adsorb radioactive particles that have passed through the hydrogen permeable membrane (44). The hydrogen is then flared in gas burner (52) with atmospheric air and the combustion products vented to the plant vent. The hydrogen depleted stream is returned to containment through a regenerative heat exchanger (28) and expander (60). Energy is extracted from the expander (60) to drive the compressor (24) thereby reducing the energy input necessary to drive the compressor (24) and thus reducing the hydrogen removal system (10) power requirements.

  20. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  1. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Holloway, E.R.

    1992-06-24

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure.

  2. The Decommissioning of the Trino Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brusa, L.; DeSantis, R.; Nurden, P. L.; Walkden, P.; Watson, B.

    2002-02-27

    Following a referendum in Italy in 1987, the four Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) owned and operated by the state utility ENEL were closed. After closing the NPPs, ENEL selected a ''safestore'' decommissioning strategy; anticipating a safestore period of some 40-50 years. This approach was consistent with the funds collected during plant operation, and was reinforced by the lack of both a waste repository and a set of national free release limits for contaminated materials in Italy. During 1999, twin decisions were made to privatize ENEL and to transform the nuclear division into a separate subsidiary of the ENEL group. This group was renamed Sogin and during the following year, ownership of the company was transferred to the Italian Treasury. On formation, Sogin was asked by the Italian government to review the national decommissioning strategy. The objective of the review was to move from a safestore strategy to a prompt decommissioning strategy, with the target of releasing all of the nuclear sites by 2020. It was recognized that this target was conditional upon the availability of a national LLW repository together with interim stores for both spent fuel and HLW by 2009. The government also agreed that additional costs caused by the acceleration of the decommissioning program would be considered as stranded costs. These costs will be recovered by a levy on the kWh price of electricity, a process established and controlled by the Regulator of the Italian energy sector. Building on the successful collaboration to develop a prompt decommissioning strategy for the Latina Magnox reactor (1), BNFL and Sogin agreed to collaborate on an in depth study for the prompt decommissioning of the Sogin PWR at Trino. BNFL is currently decommissioning six NPPs and is at an advanced stage of planning for two further units, having completed a full and rigorous exercise to develop Baseline Decommissioning Plans (BDP's) for these stations. The BDP exercise utilizes the full range of

  3. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using sliding isolation bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for earthquake shaking with very long return periods. Seismic isolation is a viable strategy to protect NPPs from extreme earthquake shaking because it filters a significant fraction of earthquake input energy. This study addresses the seismic isolation of NPPs using sliding bearings, with a focus on the single concave Friction Pendulum(TM) (FP) bearing. Friction at the sliding surface of an FP bearing changes continuously during an earthquake as a function of sliding velocity, axial pressure and temperature at the sliding surface. The temperature at the sliding surface, in turn, is a function of the histories of coefficient of friction, sliding velocity and axial pressure, and the travel path of the slider. A simple model to describe the complex interdependence of the coefficient of friction, axial pressure, sliding velocity and temperature at the sliding surface is proposed, and then verified and validated. Seismic hazard for a seismically isolated nuclear power plant is defined in the United States using a uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS) at mean annual frequencies of exceedance (MAFE) of 10-4 and 10 -5. A key design parameter is the clearance to the hard stop (CHS), which is influenced substantially by the definition of the seismic hazard. Four alternate representations of seismic hazard are studied, which incorporate different variabilities and uncertainties. Response-history analyses performed on single FP-bearing isolation systems using ground motions consistent with the four representations at the two shaking levels indicate that the CHS is influenced primarily by whether the observed difference between the two horizontal components of ground motions in a given set is accounted for. The UHRS at the MAFE of 10-4 is increased by a design factor (≥ 1) for conventional (fixed base) nuclear structure to achieve a target annual frequency of unacceptable performance. Risk oriented calculations are performed for

  4. Melanoma screening in a hungarian nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Veronika; Somlai, Beáta; Hatvani, Zsófia; Szakonyi, József; Gaudi, István; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2013-04-01

    The industrial use of the ionizing radiation (IR) particularly stresses the safe work, regular health control is inevitable. Since previous occupational cohorts reported contradictory data on the incidence of melanoma among nuclear industry workers, and in few publications significant increase of it has been described, our clinic was requested by the industry to screen malignant skin tumours among the workers of a power plant. Within a year we have investigated 556 workers, 275 females and 281 males. Out of them 283, majorly males had been officially confirmed as to be employed at hazardous, but strictly controlled environment for an average of 18 years (1-32 years). To distinguish between IR and environmental UV (UVA+UVB) induced cutaneous malignancies we determined the sun and tanning bed exposure of the workers. One in situ melanoma developed in a woman with type I skin, bullous sunburns in the history, who had worked in safe environment for 26 years. Basal cell carcinoma was identified in two men, each of them worked for more than 20 years with IR (in hazardous environment). One had type I skin, the other had type II skin. These results didn't differ significantly (chi-squared test; p = 0, 2437 and 1, 0) from the national population data and the results of Euromelanoma screening campaign in Hungary. Our data clearly show, that 1./UV exposure and skin type should be evaluated in occupation cohort studies. 2./The melanoma incidence was not significantly higher among the employees of the power plant than in the general Hungarian population, according to the results of our study, the only Hungarian power plant is safe as far as the skin carcinogenesis is concerned. PMID:23242566

  5. Reduction of Sodium Nitrate Liquid Waste in Nuclear Reprocessing Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Numata, M.; Mihara, S.; Kojima, S.; Ito, H.; Kato, T.

    2006-07-01

    Sodium nitrate solution has been generated from nuclear reprocessing plant as a result of neutralization of nitric acid. The sodium nitrate has been immobilized by bitumen, cement or other material in the site and waste packages have been produced. In order to reduce an environmental impact of the waste packages from the reprocessing plant, it is preferable to decompose nitrate ion to harmless gases such as nitrogen. A combination of formic acid and catalyst has been proposed for this purpose. But, the method is inadequate for a full decomposition of the nitrate ion. In addition, a mixture of NO and NO{sub 2} is produced during the reaction. Formaldehyde and hydrazine were selected as reductants and a combined use of Pd-Cu catalyst was tried to decompose the nitrate ion. As a result, the nitrate ion can almost entirely be decomposed without any generation of NO and NO{sub 2}. The test was conducted by 1 L flask. In case of formaldehyde, nitrate ion concentration can be reduced from 0.017 mol/l to 3.9x10{sup -4} mol/l. In case of hydrazine, nitrate concentration can be decreased from 2.8 mol/l to 9.5 x 10{sup -3} mol/l and ammonium ion is detected. The ammonium ion concentration in the final solution is 0.12 mol/l when 2.8 mol/l nitrate is reduced by hydrazine. Chemical reactions for formaldehyde on the Pd-Cu catalyst are estimated as combination of: NO{sub 3-} + HCHO = NO{sub 2-} + HCOOH; 2NO{sub 2-} + 3HCOOH = N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O + 2OH-; 4NO{sub 2-} + 3HCHO = 2N{sub 2} + 3CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + 4OH-. the other hand, for hydrazine with the Pd-Cu catalyst: 3N{sub 2}H{sub 4} = 2NH{sub 3} + 2N{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2}; NO{sub 3-} + H{sub 2} = NO{sub 2-} + H{sub 2}O; NO{sub 2-} + NH{sub 3} = N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O + OH-. The fundamental research shows that the combination usage of the Pd-Cu catalyst and formaldehyde or hydrazine is applicable for the reduction of nitrate liquid waste in the nuclear reprocessing plant. (authors)

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  7. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study

  8. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using elastomeric bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manish

    Seismic isolation using low damping rubber (LDR) and lead-rubber (LR) bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 has led the nuclear community to consider seismic isolation for new large light water and small modular reactors to withstand the effects of extreme earthquakes. The mechanical properties of LDR and LR bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead-rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the horizontal displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) were investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead-rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees and ABAQUS. A series of experiments were conducted at University at Buffalo to characterize the behavior of elastomeric bearings in tension. The test data was used to validate a phenomenological model of an elastomeric bearing in tension. The value of three times the shear modulus of rubber in elastomeric bearing was found to be a reasonable estimate of the cavitation stress of a bearing. The sequence of loading did not change the behavior of an elastomeric bearing under cyclic tension, and there was no

  9. 76 FR 52356 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and... to Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1 (DCCNP-1), located in Berrien County, Michigan, in accordance with Title 10 of the Code of...

  10. 76 FR 53972 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit and serve all... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit No. 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Notice of... Facility Operating License No. DPR-72 for Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear generating Plant (CR-3),...

  11. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background... authorizes operation of the Crystal River ] Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal River). The license... under 10 CFR 55.11 from the schedule requirements of 10 CFR 55.59. Specifically for Crystal River,...

  12. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

  13. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  14. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  15. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Plants'' on May 1, 2013, (78 FR 25488) for a 60 day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC) is issuing revision 1 to regulatory guide (RG) 1.73, ``Qualification Tests for...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  19. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  2. ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES FROM STANDARDIZED NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A WIND TUNNEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to simulate radiopollutant effluents released to the atmosphere from two standard design nuclear power plants. The main objective of the study was to compare the dispersion in the wake of the standardized nuclear power plants with that in a s...

  3. Activities in support of continuing the service of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2012-01-01

    In general, nuclear power plant concrete structure s performance has been very good; however, aging of concrete structures occurs with the passage of time that can potentially result in degradation if is effects are not controlled. Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The interaction of the license renewal process and concrete structures is noted. A summary of operating experience related to aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be beneficial for aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Finally, an update on recent activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory related to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided.

  4. Use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in expert systems to advise nuclear plant operators and managers

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been modified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)/sup 3/ of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. HYBRID BRIDGMAN ANVIL DESIGN: AN OPTICAL WINDOW FOR IN-SITU SPECTROSCOPY IN LARGE VOLUME PRESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Lipp, M J; Evans, W J; Yoo, C S

    2005-07-29

    The absence of in-situ optical probes for large volume presses often limits their application to high-pressure materials research. In this paper, we present a unique anvil/optical window-design for use in large volume presses, which consists of an inverted diamond anvil seated in a Bridgman type anvil. A small cylindrical aperture through the Bridgman anvil ending at the back of diamond anvil allows optical access to the sample chamber and permits direct optical spectroscopy measurements, such as ruby fluorescence (in-situ pressure) or Raman spectroscopy. This performance of this anvil-design has been demonstrated by loading KBr to a pressure of 14.5 GPa.

  6. Effect of vertical magnetic field on convection and segregation in vertical Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Do Hyun; Adornato, Peter M.; Brown, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    A previous finite-element analysis of vertical Bridgman growth for dilute and nondilute alloys is extended to include the effect of a vertically-aligned magnetic field in the limit of zero magnetic Reynolds number. Calculations are presented for growth of a dilute gallium-germanium alloy in a vertically stabilized Bridgman-Stockbarger system and in a furnace with a uniform temperature gradient imposed along the ampoule. Steady cellular convection driven by radial temperature gradients causes good axial and radial mixing in both systems without a magnetic field. A weak magnetic field decreases the intensity of convection and the effectiveness of solute mixing. The radial nonuniformity is greatest for an intermediate field strength. Stronger fields suppress flow recirculation completely, and lead to uniform solute segregation across the crystal and to diffusion-controlled axial segregation.

  7. Bridgman bulk growth and scintillation measurements of SrI2:Eu2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawrami, R.; Glodo, J.; Shah, K. S.; Cherepy, N.; Payne, S.; Burger, A.; Boatner, L.

    2013-09-01

    Large diameter Bridgman growth of europium activated strontium iodide SrI2:Eu2+ produces crystals with light yield of up to 115,000 ph/MeV with an excellent light yield proportionality. SrI2:Eu2+ exhibits an outstanding energy resolution of better than 3% FWHM at 662 keV. Its emission is centered at 435 nm. The scintillation decays with a 1 μs time constant for small samples and up to 5 μs to larger crystals. This paper presents successful progress made in the vertical Bridgman crystal growth of SrI2:Eu2+ and its scintillator properties. Large diameter, crack-free and transparent SrI2:Eu2+single crystals with diameters of 1 in., 1.3 in., 1.5 in. and 2 in. were all successfully grown.

  8. Thermal analysis of Bridgman-Stockbarger growth. [mercury cadmium telluride single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knopf, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    A thermal analysis of a cylindrical HgCdTe sample in a Bridgman-Stockbarger crystal growth configuration was conducted with emphasis on the thermal profile, interface shape and position, and the thermal gradients at the liquid-solid interface. Alloys of HgTe and CdTe with compositions approximating 20 percent CdTe, 80 percent HgTe were used. This composition results in a bandgap suited for the detection of 10.6 micron CO2 radiation. The sensitivity of the sample thermal characteristics to important growth parameters, such as thermal diffusivities, thermal conductivities, furnace temperature profile, ampoule dimensions, and growth velocity was assessed. Numerical techniques and associated computational models necessary to analyze the heat transfer process within the sample and the Bridgman-Stockbarger boundary conditions were developed. This thermal analysis mode was programmed in FORTRAN V, and is currently operational on the MSFC Univac 1100 system.

  9. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, the Commission) is considering issuance of an exemption,...

  10. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is considering issuance of an exemption and an...

  11. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Additional Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.120 Training and qualification of nuclear...

  12. 26 CFR 1.468A-6 - Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power...-6 Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant. (a) In general. This section describes the Federal income tax consequences of a transfer of the assets of a nuclear decommissioning fund...

  13. 26 CFR 1.468A-6 - Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power...-6 Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant. (a) In general. This section describes the Federal income tax consequences of a transfer of the assets of a nuclear decommissioning fund...

  14. 26 CFR 1.468A-6 - Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power...-6 Disposition of an interest in a nuclear power plant. (a) In general. This section describes the Federal income tax consequences of a transfer of the assets of a nuclear decommissioning fund...

  15. 77 FR 73056 - Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1259, ``Initial Test Programs for Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes the general scope and depth that the staff of the NRC considers acceptable for Initial Test Programs (ITPs) for light water cooled nuclear power...

  16. Nuclear power plant simulators: their use in operator training and requalification

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Baer, D.K.; Francis, C.C.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to evaluate the capabilities and use of nuclear power plant simulators either built or being built by the US nuclear power industry; to determine the adequacy of existing standards for simulator design and for the training of power plant operators on simulators; and to assess the issues about simulator training programs raised by the March 28, 1979, accident at Three Mile Island Unit 2.

  17. Modeling of thermosolutal convection during Bridgman solidification of semiconductor alloys in relation with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Carmen; Duffar, Thierry

    2004-05-01

    Thermosolutal convection during vertical Bridgman directional solidification of Ga 1- xIn xSb alloys has been studied by numerical simulation. The transient analysis of heat, momentum and species transport has been performed by using the finite element code FIDAP ®. In the case of vertical Bridgman configuration, the thermal convection is driven by the radial temperature gradients. The solute (InSb) rejected at the solid-liquid interface, which is heavier than the GaSb component, damps the thermally driven convection. The solutal effect on the melt convection has been analyzed for low ( x=0.01) and high ( x=0.1) doped Ga 1- xIn xSb alloys. It is found that the damping effect is negligible for Ga 0.99In 0.01Sb alloy grown at low pulling rates ( V= 1 μm/s ), but cannot be neglected if the pulling rate is increased. In the case of concentrated alloys, the low level of convection intensity leads to an increase of radial segregation and interface curvature during the whole growth process as also shown by experiments. The effect of solutal buoyancy force on the melt convection is analyzed for the horizontal Bridgman configuration under microgravity conditions. An inverse but lower solutal effect on the melt convection, as compared with vertical Bridgman arrangement, is observed. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, and show that convective transport can be observed even for low (2×10 -6g0) residual gravity levels.

  18. Material and process constraints for a flat interface in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    The functional relationships between various material and process parameters necessary for a flat interface in the Bridgman-Stockbarger technique are given. In particular, two boundary condition cases are considered. The findings imply that the material and process parameters cannot be arbitrary if a flat melt-solid interface is to be achieved. The sensitivity of one parameter to changes in another parameter suggests great care should be taken in obtaining the various material parameters.

  19. Growth and characterization of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone single crystals using vertical Bridgman technique

    SciTech Connect

    Aravinth, K. Babu, G. Anandha Ramasamy, P.

    2014-04-24

    4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone (4C3N) has been grown by using vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The fluorescence spectra of grown 4C3N single crystals exhibit emission peak at 575 nm. The micro hardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical property of the grown crystal.

  20. Fifty years of safe operation of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. I.; Vitkovskii, S. L.; Vitkovskii, I. L.; Fomenko, V. I.; Loskutov, V. F.; Topchiyan, R. M.; Nikitenko, M. P.; Zhurbenko, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    Information on the experience gained from safe operation of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant from the moment its first power unit was commissioned and till now is presented. The following modifications and design solutions on improving the equipment and systems of the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant units that were introduced during plant operation are of special importance: (i) further development of the designs of fuel rods and fuel assemblies

  1. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Research Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, BNL is involved in establishing seismic fragility levels for various nuclear power plant equipment by identifying, collecting and analyzing existing test data from various sources. In Phase I of this program, BNL has reviewed approximately seventy test reports to collect fragility or high level test data for switchgears, motor control centers and similar electrical cabinets, valve actuators and numerous electrical devices of various manufacturers and models. This report provides an assessment and evaluation of the data collected in Phase I. The fragility data for medium voltage and low voltage switchgears and motor control centers are analyzed using the test response spectra (TRS) as a measure of the fragility level. The analysis reveals that fragility levels can best be described by a group of TRS curves corresponding to various failure modes. The lower-bound curve indicates the initiation of malfunctioning or structural damage; whereas, the upper-bound curve corresponds to overall failure of the equipment based on known failure modes. High level test data for some components are included in the report. These data indicate that some components are inherently strong and do not exhibit any failure mode even when tested at the vibration limit of a shake table. The common failure modes are identified in the report. The fragility levels determined in this report have been compared with those used in the PRA and Seismic Margin Studies. It appears that the BNL data better correlate with the HCLPF (High Confidence of a Low Probability of Failure) level used in Seismic Margin Studies and can improve this level as high as 60% for certain applications. Specific recommendations are provided for proper application of BNL fragility data to other studies.

  2. Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant Response to Common Mode Failure of the Digital Plant Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol Shin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2002-07-15

    The Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) has adopted the digital plant protection system (PPS) to enhance the reliability and safety of the plant. Although the digital PPS can be designed with high reliability, it is considered to be vulnerable to common mode failure (CMF) in the system software, resulting in a total loss of the built-in hardware redundancy. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation has been performed to demonstrate the intrinsic capability of the KSNP design in coping with the design-basis events concurrent with CMF in the digital PPS. Instead of the conservative bounding analysis methodology, a best-estimate analysis methodology has been developed and utilized since the design-basis events accompanied by CMF in the digital PPS are categorized as beyond-design-basis events. An additional reactor trip function on high containment pressure in the diverse protection system (DPS), which is totally diverse from the PPS and is not affected by the CMF in the digital PPS, has been proposed to meet the acceptance criteria of the evaluation results. A variety of diverse means such as the DPS, process control systems, and operator actions including design modification have been verified to be effective in mitigating the design-basis events with CMF in the digital PPS.

  3. Radial segregation induced by natural convection and melt/solid interface shape in vertical Bridgman growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. J.; Brown, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of natural convection in the melt and the shape of the melt/solid interface on radial dopant segregation are analyzed for a prototype of vertical Bridgman crystal growth system by finite element methods that solve simultaneously for the velocity field in the melt, the shape of the solidification isotherm, and the temperature distribution in both phases. Results are presented for crystal and melt with thermophysical properties similar to those of gallium-doped germanium in Bridgman configurations with melt below (thermally destabilizing) and above (stabilizing) the crystal. Steady axisymmetric flow are classified according to Rayleigh number as either being nearly the growth velocity, having a weak cellular structure or having large amplitude cellular convention. The flows in the two Bridgman configurations are driven by different temperature gradients and are in opposite directions. Finite element calculations for the transport of a dilute dopant by these flow fields reveal radial segregation levels as large as sixty percent of the mean concentration. Segregation is found most severe at an intermediate value of Rayleigh number above which the dopant distribution along the interface levels as the intensity of the flow increases.

  4. Investigation of the Crystal Growth of Dielectric Materials by the Bridgman Technique Using Vibrational Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.; Zharikov, Evgenii

    2002-01-01

    The principal goal of this ground-based program, which started on February 1, 1998 and concluded on April 30, 2002, was to investigate the influence of low frequency vibrations on the fluid flow and quality of dielectric oxide crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman method. This experimental program was a collaborative effort between Stanford University and the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, and included a strong emphasis on both physical modeling and the growth of some technologically important materials. Additionally it was carried out initially in collaboration with the theoretical and numerical investigations of A.Fedoseyev and I.Alexander (ongoing in another NASA sponsored program). This latter program involved a study of vibro-convective buoyancy-driven flows in cylindrical configurations with the expectation of being able to use vibrational flows to control buoyancy driven fluid transport to off-set the effect of "g-jitter" during microgravity Bridgman crystal growth. These two programs taken together, were designed to lead to a new parametric control variable which can be used to either suppress or control convection, and thereby heat and mass transport during Bridgman crystal growth. It was expected to be effective in either a terrestrial or space environment.

  5. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 10: Power Plant Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  6. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 13: Power Plant Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  7. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2007-01-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  11. Technical basis for staffing levels at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.; Morisseau, D.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to provide a technical basis for the establishment of criteria for minimum staffing levels of licensed and non-licensed NPP shift personnel. Minimum staffing levels for the purpose of this study, are defined as those necessary for successful accomplishment of all safety and additional functions that must be performed in order for the licensee to meet applicable regulatory requirements. This project involves a multi-faceted approach to the investigation of the issue. Relevant NRC documentation was identified and reviewed. Using the information obtained from this documentation review, a test plan was developed to aid in the collection of further information regarding the adequacy of current shift staffing levels. The test plan addresses three different activities to be conducted to provide information to the NRC for use in the assessment of current minimum staffing levels. The first activity is collection of data related to industry shift staffing practices through site visits to seven nuclear power plants. The second activity is a simulator study, which will use licensed operator crews responding to a simulated event, under two different staffing levels. Finally, workload models will be constructed for both licensed and non-licensed personnel, using a priori knowledge of the simulator scenarios with data resulting from one of the staffing levels studied in the simulator, and the data collected from the site visits. The model will then be validated against the data obtained from the second staffing level studied in the simulator. The validated model can then be used to study the impact of changing staffing-related variables on the plant shift crew`s ability to effectively mitigate an event.

  12. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  13. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  14. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ningle; Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingjiang; Fan, Xiangyong; Xu, Xiaosan; Wang, Furu

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China. Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted. Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables. Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power. Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently. PMID:22811610

  15. Design related aspects in advanced nuclear fission plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    Important issues to be considered for design of future reactors are: extrapolation of stress rupture data, creep-fatigue, negligible creep, damage monitoring. The paper highlights some new developments taking examples from a martensitic steel (mod 9% Cr), oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base superalloys. Traditional approaches to extrapolation of (thermal) stress rupture data like Larson-Miller Parameter or Monkman-Grant rule seem to be valid concepts also for advanced reactors. However, a significant influence of cyclic softening on creep rates and stress rupture data can be expected as shown for grade 91. This is particularly true for creep-fatigue interactions. Based on cyclic stress-strain behaviour it is also possible to get very good life-time predictions under creep-fatigue with a strain range separation (inelastic fatigue and creep ranges) technique which could replace the currently used linear life fraction rule. Results from in-beam irradiation creep reveal no significant influence of dispersoid size. It can be assumed that irradiation creep is a matrix property. Finally it is shown that micro-sample testing of exposed material could be used as an advanced method for damage assessment in future nuclear power plants.

  16. Reassessment of selected factors affecting siting of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.; Mubayi, V.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1997-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has performed a series of probabilistic consequence assessment calculations for nuclear reactor siting. This study takes into account recent insights into severe accident source terms and examines consequences in a risk based format consistent with the quantitative health objectives (QHOs) of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy. Simplified severe accident source terms developed in this study are based on the risk insights of NUREG-1150. The results of the study indicate that both the quantity of radioactivity released in a severe accident as well as the likelihood of a release are lower than those predicted in earlier studies. The accident risks using the simplified source terms are examined at a series of generic plant sites, that vary in population distribution, meteorological conditions, and exclusion area boundary distances. Sensitivity calculations are performed to evaluate the effects of emergency protective action assumptions on the risk of prompt fatality and latent cancers fatality, and population relocation. The study finds that based on the new source terms the prompt and latent fatality risks at all generic sites meet the QHOs of the NRC`s Safety Goal Policy by margins ranging from one to more than three orders of magnitude. 4 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs.

  17. Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used.

  18. Seismic fragility of nuclear power plant components (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Kassir, M.K.; Pepper, S.E. )

    1990-02-01

    As part of the Component Fragility Program which was initiated in FY 1985, three additional equipment classes have been evaluated. This report contains the fragility results and discussions on these equipment classes which are switchgear, I and C panels and relays. Both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been considered and a separate fragility estimate for each type is provided. Test data on cabinets from the nuclear instrumentation/neutron monitoring system, plant/process protection system, solid state protective system and engineered safeguards test system comprise the BNL data base for I and C panels (NSSS). Fragility levels have been determined for various failure modes of switchgear and I C panels, and the deterministic results are presented in terms of test response spectra. In addition, the test data have been evaluated for estimating the respective probabilistic fragility levels which are expressed in terms of a median value, an uncertainty coefficient, a randomness coefficient and an HCLPF value. Due to a wide variation of relay design and the fragility level, a generic fragility level cannot be established for relays. 7 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  20. Impacts of the Fukushima nuclear power plants on marine radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Buesseler, Ken; Aoyama, Michio; Fukasawa, Masao

    2011-12-01

    The impacts on the ocean of releases of radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants remain unclear. However, information has been made public regarding the concentrations of radioactive isotopes of iodine and cesium in ocean water near the discharge point. These data allow us to draw some basic conclusions about the relative levels of radionuclides released which can be compared to prior ocean studies and be used to address dose consequences as discussed by Garnier-Laplace et al. in this journal. The data show peak ocean discharges in early April, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. Interestingly, the concentrations through the end of July remain higher than expected implying continued releases from the reactors or other contaminated sources, such as groundwater or coastal sediments. By July, levels of (137)Cs are still more than 10,000 times higher than levels measured in 2010 in the coastal waters off Japan. Although some radionuclides are significantly elevated, dose calculations suggest minimal impact on marine biota or humans due to direct exposure in surrounding ocean waters, though considerations for biological uptake and consumption of seafood are discussed and further study is warranted. PMID:22013920

  1. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  2. Applications of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to monitoring and decision making in the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (1) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants, (2) detection of the change of mode of operation of the plant, (3) validating signals coming from detectors, (4) review of noise'' data from TVA's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant, and (5) examination of the NRC's database of Letter Event Reports'' for correlation of sequences of events in the reported incidents. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this paper. This broad based program has as its objective the definition of the state-of-the-art in using neural networks to enhance the performance of commercial nuclear power plants.

  3. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... related to operation of James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant Power Authority of the State of New...

  4. 78 FR 49305 - Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Application... Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, respectively, located in Somervell County, Texas. The...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  8. Confirmation of the seismic resistance of nuclear power plant equipment after assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznovsky, P. S.; Kaznovsky, A. P.; Saakov, E. S.; Ryasnyj, S. I.

    2013-05-15

    It is shown that the natural frequencies and damping decrements of nuclear power plant equipment can only be determined experimentally and directly at the power generation units (reactors) of nuclear power plants under real disassembly conditions for the equipment, piping network, thermal insulation, etc. A computational experimental method is described in which the natural frequencies and damping decrements are determined in the field and the seismic resistance is reevaluated using these values. This method is the basis of the standards document 'Methods for confirming the dynamic characteristics of systems and components of the generating units of nuclear power plants which are important for safety' prepared and introduced in 2012.

  9. Dose estimation for nuclear power plant 4 accident in Taiwan at Fukushima nuclear meltdown emission level.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mei-Ling; Tsuang, Ben-Jei; Kuo, Pei-Hsuan

    2016-05-01

    An advanced Gaussian trajectory dispersion model is used to evaluate the evacuation zone due to a nuclear meltdown at the Nuclear Power Plant 4 (NPP4) in Taiwan, with the same emission level as that occurred at Fukushima nuclear meltdown (FNM) in 2011. Our study demonstrates that a FNM emission level would pollute 9% of the island's land area with annual effective dose ≥50 mSv using the meteorological data on 11 March 2011 in Taiwan. This high dose area is also called permanent evacuation zone (denoted as PEZ). The PEZ as well as the emergency-planning zone (EPZ) are found to be sensitive to meteorological conditions on the event. In a sunny day under the dominated NE wind conditions, the EPZ can be as far as 100 km with the first 7-day dose ≥20 mSv. Three hundred sixty-five daily events using the meteorological data from 11 March 2011 to 9 March 2012 are evaluated. It is found that the mean land area of Taiwan in becoming the PEZ is 11%. Especially, the probabilities of the northern counties/cities (Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Taoyuan, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County and Ilan County) to be PEZs are high, ranging from 15% in Ilan County to 51% in Keelung City. Note that the total population of the above cities/counties is as high as 10 million people. Moreover, the western valleys of the Central Mountain Range are also found to be probable being PEZs, where all of the reservoirs in western Taiwan are located. For example, the probability can be as high as 3% in the far southern-most tip of Taiwan Island in Pingtung County. This shows that the entire populations in western Taiwan can be at risk due to the shortage of clean water sources under an event at FNM emission level, especially during the NE monsoon period. PMID:26913979

  10. Recommendations to the NRC on human engineering guidelines for nuclear power plant maintainability

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.V.; Fecht, B.A.; Blahnik, D.E.; Eklund, J.D.; Hartley, C.S.

    1986-03-01

    This document contains human engineering guidelines which can enhance the maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines have been derived from general human engineering design principles, criteria, and data. The guidelines may be applied to existing plants as well as to plants under construction. They apply to nuclear power plant systems, equipment and facilities, as well as to maintenance tools and equipment. The guidelines are grouped into seven categories: accessibility and workspace, physical environment, loads and forces, maintenance facilities, maintenance tools and equipment, operating equipment design, and information needs. Each chapter of the document details specific maintainability problems encountered at nuclear power plants, the safety impact of these problems, and the specific maintainability design guidelines whose application can serve to avoid these problems in new or existing plants.

  11. Nuclear power plant licensing: jurisdiction to consider foreign impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, M.

    1983-01-01

    Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), Inc. v. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) challenges NRC's approval for Westinghouse to ship a nuclear reactor and nuclear materials to the Philippines. The NRDC contends that the NRC lacks jurisdiction over political and environmental decisions in a foreign country. Background evidence indicates the Philippines would meet US nonproliferation goals, but the decision in favor of NRC does not set a precedent jeopardizing future health and safety reviews of nuclear exports. 63 references. (DCK)

  12. Assessment of next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Natesan, K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-17

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made an assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. A detailed thermal hydraulic analysis, using models developed at ANL, was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop. Two IHX designs namely, shell and straight tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in an earlier assessment. Helical coil heat exchangers were analyzed in the current report and the results were compared with the performance features of designs from industry. In addition, a comparative analysis is presented between the shell and straight tube, helical, and printed circuit heat exchangers from the standpoint of heat exchanger volume, primary and secondary sides pressure drop, and number of tubes. The IHX being a high temperature component, probably needs to be designed using ASME Code Section III, Subsection NH, assuming that the IHX will be classified as a class 1 component. With input from thermal hydraulic calculations performed at ANL, thermal conduction and stress analyses were performed for the helical heat exchanger design and the results were compared with earlier-developed results on

  13. Protein targeting to the nuclear pore. What can we learn from plants. [Nuclear pore complex

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.M.S.; Raikhel, N.V. . DOE Plant Research Lab.)

    1999-04-01

    Characteristic of eukaryotic cells are the numerous types of membrane-bound organelles or compartments found in the cytoplasm, with each type carrying out an essential function for the cell. The spatial separation of proteins and biochemical pathways typical of the various types of organelles requires selective targeting apparatuses. Because each type of organelle contains its own targeting apparatus, proteins destined for a particular organelle must contain the proper targeting signal(s) for entry. These signal-dependent targeting pathways ensure that proteins are targeted to the proper organelle. Understanding how proteins are targeted to the different types of organelles is an important goal in the field of cell biology. In plants recent studies have highlighted a number of unusual features, and as the understanding of import in plants increases, the authors have gained new insights, such as a model for the targeting of proteins from the cytoplasm to the NPC. These advances will contribute to further expansion of the knowledge of nuclear import in eukaryotes.

  14. Contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) to core melt at United States nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Giachetti, R.T. , Ann Arbor, MI )

    1989-09-01

    This report looks at WASH-1400 and several other Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) and Probabilistic Safety Studies (PSSs) to determine the contribution of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) events to the total core melt probability at eight nuclear power plants in the United States. After considering each plant individually, the results are compared from plant to plant to see if any generic conclusions regarding ATWS, or core melt in general, can be made. 8 refs., 34 tabs.

  15. Trial application of guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.; Oliver, R.; O`Connor, W.

    1993-09-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. These guidelines are published in EPRI report NP-6695, ``Guidelines for Nuclear Plant Response to an Earthquake,`` dated December 1989. This report includes two sets of nuclear plant procedures which were prepared to implement the guidelines of EPRI report NP-6695. The first set were developed by the Toledo Edison Company Davis-Besse plant. Davis-Besse is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and contains relatively standard seismic monitoring instrumentation typical of many domestic nuclear plants. The second set of procedures were prepared by Yankee Atomic Electric Company for the Vermont Yankee facility. This plant is a boiling water reactor (BWR) with state-of-the-art seismic monitoring and PC-based data processing equipment, software developed specifically to implement the OBE Exceedance Criterion presented in EPRI report NP-5930, ``A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the operating Basis Earthquake.`` The two sets of procedures are intended to demonstrate how two different nuclear utilities have interpreted and applied the EPRI guidance given in report NP-6695.

  16. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, D.L.; Rosinski, S.T.

    1993-11-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE`s Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ).

  17. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  18. Computer program for afterheat temperature distribution for mobile nuclear power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, W. G.; Vanbibber, L. E.

    1972-01-01

    ESATA computer program was developed to analyze thermal safety aspects of post-impacted mobile nuclear power plants. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 and designed for IBM 7094/7044 direct coupled system.

  19. The utilization of LANDSAT imagery in nuclear power plant siting. [in Pakistan, South Carolina, and Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggenberger, A. J.; Rowlands, D.; Rizzo, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used primarily to map geologic features such as lineaments, linears, faults, and other major geologic structures which affect site selection for a nuclear power plant. Areas studied include Pakistan, the South Carolina Piedmont, and Huelva, Spain.

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  1. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Sherrell R; Flanagan, George F; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  2. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-07-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  3. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company`s Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures.

  4. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures.

  5. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  6. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  7. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  8. Floating nuclear power plants: potential implications for radioactive pollution of the northern marine environment.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Dowdall, M; Amundsen, I; Strand, P

    2009-02-01

    Recent media reports as to the development, construction and possible deployment of floating nuclear power plants in the northern regions has generated significant interest in the matter. This paper presents background to the concept of floating nuclear power plants, information as to possible designs and iterations and some aspects of potential concern with respect to safety and the potential for environmental or other impacts as a result of the development and use of such systems in the northern regions. PMID:19111843

  9. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, L

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  10. Survey of ambient electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference levels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kercel, S.W.; Moore, M.R.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1996-11-01

    This document reports the results of a survey of ambient electromagnetic conditions in representative nuclear power plants. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research engaged the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform these measurements to characterize the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) levels that can be expected in nuclear power plant environments. This survey is the first of its kind, being based on long-term unattended observations. The data presented in this report were measured at eight different nuclear units and required 14 months to collect. A representative sampling of power plant conditions (reactor type, operating mode, site location) monitored over extended observation periods (up to 5 weeks) were selected to more completely determine the characteristic electromagnetic environment for nuclear power plants. Radiated electric fields were measured over the frequency range of 5 MHz to 8 GHz. Radiated magnetic fields and conducted EMI events were measured over the frequency range of 305 Hz to 5 MHz. Highest strength observations of the electromagnetic ambient environment across all measurement conditions at each site provide frequency-dependent profiles for EMI/RFI levels in nuclear power plants.

  11. Components of the Arabidopsis nuclear pore complex play multiple diverse roles in control of plant growth

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is a multisubunit protein conglomerate that facilitates movement of RNA and protein between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Relatively little is known regarding the influence of the Arabidopsis NPC on growth and development. Seedling development, flowering time, nuclear morphology, mRNA accumulation, and gene expression changes in Arabidopsis nucleoporin mutants were investigated. Nuclear export of mRNA is differentially affected in plants with defects in nucleoporins that lie in different NPC subcomplexes. This study reveals differences in the manner by which nucleoporins alter molecular and plant growth phenotypes, suggesting that nuclear pore subcomplexes play distinct roles in nuclear transport and reveal a possible feedback relationship between the expression of genes involved in nuclear transport. PMID:25165147

  12. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  13. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.73, dated January 1974. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator......

  14. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  15. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... (78 FR 45573) a request for public comment on NUREG/CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment...

  16. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  17. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revised regulatory guide (RG), revision 1 of RG 1.173, ``Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG endorses the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard (Std.) 1074-2006, ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life......

  18. 10 CFR 50.120 - Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training as defined in 10 CFR 55.4, and must provide for the training and qualification of the following... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel. 50.120 Section 50.120 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION...

  19. Cows, Sirens, Iodine, and Public Education about the Risks of Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosener, Judy B.; Russell, Sallie C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the activities of the California Task Force on Nuclear Emergency Response. Raises some issues that some feel should be addressed in the task force's report to the state legislature. Points out the need for further involvement by citizens and scientists in dealing with nuclear power plant safety. (TW)

  20. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  1. Student Attitudes toward Nuclear Power Plants: A Classroom Experiment in the Field of Environmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spada, Hans; And Others

    1977-01-01

    As part of a senior high school physics unit on nuclear power, changes in student attitudes toward nuclear power plants and problems of energy supply were analyzed. Tests included a situational test, semantic differentials, knowledge or achievement, and a final questionnaire. The results are discussed. (CTM)

  2. 76 FR 78702 - Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (Combined License Application for Levy County Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2) Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR...

  3. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  4. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2013-09-11

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a technique to repair aging cables that have been subjected to degradation associated with long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. The physical degradation of the aging cables manifests itself primarily as cracking and increased brittleness of the polymeric electrical insulation. Therefore, the proposed cable-repair concept comprises development of techniques to impart a softening agent within the deteriorated polymer insulation jacket so as to regain the ability of the insulation to stretch without failing and possibly to heal existing cracks in the insulation. Our approach is to use commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, demonstrate the adsorption of chemical treatments in the EPR and quantify changes in resulting physical and mechanical properties. EPR cable samples have been thermally treated in air to produce specimens corresponding to the full range of cable age-performance points from new (>350% elongation at break) to end-of-life (<50% elongation at break). The current focus is on two chemical treatments selected as candidates for restoring age-related cable elasticity loss: a rubber plasticizer and a reactive silane molecule. EPR specimens of 200, 150, 100, and 50% elongation at break have been soaked in the candidate chemical treatments and the kinetics of chemical uptake, measured by change in mass of the samples, has been determined. Mechanical properties as a function of aging and chemical treatment have been measured including ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus at 50% strain, elongation at break, and storage modulus. Dimensional changes with treatment and changes in glass transition temperature were also investigated. These ongoing experiments are expected to provide insight into the physical-chemical nature of the effect of thermal degradation on EPR rejuvenation limits and to advance novel methods for

  5. Heat transfer in vertical Bridgman growth of oxides - Effects of conduction, convection, and internal radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, S.; Derby, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the present investigation of crystalline phase internal radiation and heat conduction during the vertical Bridgman growth of a YAG-like oxide crystal, where transport through the melt is dominated by convection and conduction, heat is also noted to be conducted through ampoule walls via natural convection and enclosure radiation. The results of a quasi-steady-state axisymmetric Galerkin FEM indicate that heat transfer through the system is powerfully affected by the optical absorption coefficient of the crystal. The coupling of internal radiation through the crystal with conduction through the ampoule walls promotes melt/crystal interface shapes that are highly reflected near the ampoule wall.

  6. Convection of tin in a Bridgman system. II - An electrochemical method for detecting flow regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, B.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J., Jr.; Woodell, G. A.; Anderson, T. J.; Narayanan, R.

    1992-01-01

    An ampoule was designed in order to obtain local flow behavior of the flow fields for convection of tin in a vertical Bridgman configuration. Multiple electrochemical cells were located along the periphery of the ampoule. Oxygen was titrated into the ampoule at one of the cell locations using a potentiostat and the concentration of oxygen was monitored at the other cell locations by operating the cells in a galvanic mode. Onset of oscillations were detected by means of thermocouples. We conclude that the flows are generally three dimensional for an aspect ratio of 5. Results on oscillations concurred with those of earlier workers. Suggestions for improved designs were made.

  7. Experimental ground-based Bridgman CdTe growth in NASA's advanced automated directional solidification furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostrup, G.; Viola, J.; Gertner, E.; Aldrich, W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of gravity-induced phenomena in bulk CdTe crystal growth is studied with emphasis placed on the negative effects of buoyancy-driven convection, container effects, and hydrostatic pressure. An earth-bound crystal growth data base utilizing NASA's prototype advanced automated directional solidification furnace is described. Growth procedures that can be employed in a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle or Space Station are presented. It is found that NASA's directional solidification furnace can produce Bridgman-type CdTe and has the potential for producing it in space.

  8. Material uniformity of CdZnTe grown by low-pressure bridgman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, C. M.; Brunett, B. A.; Van Scyoc, J. M.; Schlesinger, T. E.; James, R. B.

    2001-02-01

    We have employed Low-Temperature Photoluminescence (LTPL) and Room-Temperature Photoluminescence Mapping (RTPLM) to explore the crystalline quality and material uniformity of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) radiation detector material grown by the Low-Pressure Bridgman (LPB) technique. We report on the differences in crystalline quality and uniformity of material supplied by eV Products Inc. and IMARAD Imaging Systems Ltd. In addition, we have examined the general detector response of the material supplied by IMARAD. We report on the uniformity of the detector response and the temperature dependence of this response when used as a detector.

  9. A technique for measuring the heat transfer coefficient inside a Bridgman furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, W.; Jesser, W.; Debnam, W.; Fripp, A.; Woodell, G.; Pendergrass, T. K.

    1993-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount of heat that is conducted, advected and radiated between an ampoule and the furnace is important for understanding vertical Bridgman crystal growth. This heat transfer depends on the temperature, emissivities and geometries of both the furnace and ampoule, as well as the choice of ambient gas inside the furnace. This paper presents a method which directly measures this heat transfer without the need to know any physical properties of the furnace, the ampoule, or the gaseous environment. Data are given for one specific furnace in which this method was used.

  10. High-Performance Doped Strontium Iodide Crystal Growth Using a Modified Bridgman Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Emmanuel

    The importance of gamma-ray spectroscopy---the science of determining the distribution of energy in a gamma field---can rarely be overstated. High performance scintillators for gamma-ray spectroscopy in Nuclear Nonproliferation applications and homeland security require excellent energy resolution to distinguish neighboring element and isotope lines while minimizing the time and exposure to do so. Semiconductor detectors operate by converting incident photons directly into electrical pulses, but often have problems of high costs due to constituent segregation and surface states as is the case for Cadmium Zinc Telluride. The ideal scintillator material for gamma spectrometer will therefore requires high light yield, excellent proportionality between light yield and gamma photon energy, and material uniformity. A scintillator should possess the following properties; it should convert the kinetic energy of the generated charged particles (typically K-shell electrons) into detectable visible light. This conversion should be linear-the light yield should be proportional to deposited energy over as wide a range as possible. For good light collection, the medium should be transparent to the wavelength of its own emission. The decay time of the induced luminescence should be short so that fast signal pulses can be generated. The medium should be of good optical quality and subject to manufacture in sizes large enough to be of interest as a practical detector. Its index of refraction should be near that of glass (~1.5) to permit efficient coupling of scintillation light to a photomultiplier tube or other photo-sensor. In the past decade, inorganic scintillator research has focused less on improving the characteristics of known scintillators, but rather on the search for new hosts capable of fast response and high energy resolution. Extensive searches have been made for hosts doped with lanthanide activators utilizing the allowed 5d-4f transition. These 5d-4f transitions are

  11. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies. PMID:26638017

  12. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  13. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  14. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant... [Part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and...

  15. 10 CFR 50.65 - Requirements for monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Issuance, Limitations, and Conditions of Licenses and... plants. The requirements of this section are applicable during all conditions of plant operation, including normal shutdown operations. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license for a nuclear power...

  16. 75 FR 5354 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant..., Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, 13967 (March 27, 2009)]. The licensee currently... COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental...

  17. Apros-based Kola 1 nuclear power plant compact training simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Porkholm, K.; Kontio, H.; Nurmilaukas, P.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima Oy`s subsidiary IVO International Ltd (IVO IN) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) in co-operation with Kola staff supplies the Kola Nuclear Power Plant in the Murmansk region of Russia with a Compact Training Simulator. The simulator will be used for the training of the plant personnel in managing the plant disturbance and accident situations. By means of the simulator is is also possible to test how the planned plant modifications will affect the plant operation. The simulator delivery is financed by the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The delivery is part of the aid program directed to Russia for the improvement of the nuclear power plant safety.

  18. Estimation of initiating event distribution at nuclear power plants by Bayesian procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Guangming; Chu, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Initiating events at nuclear power plants such as human errors or components failures may lead to a nuclear accident. The study of the frequency of these events or the distribution of the failure rate is necessary in probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power plants. This paper presents Bayesian modelling methods for the analysis of the distribution of the failure rate. The method can also be utilized in other related fields especially where the data is sparse. An application of the Bayesian modelling in the analysis of distribution of the time to recover Loss of Off-Site Power ( LOSP) is discussed in the paper.

  19. Prognostics Health Management and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2013-12-01

    There is growing interest in longer-term operation of the current US nuclear power plant fleet. This paper will present an overview of prognostic health management (PHM) technologies that could play a role in the safe and effective operation of nuclear power plants during extended life. A case study in prognostics for materials degradation assessment, using laboratory-scale measurements, is briefly discussed, and technical gaps that need to be addressed prior to PHM system deployment for nuclear power life extension are presented.

  20. Development of hydrogeological modelling approaches for assessment of consequences of hazardous accidents at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rumynin, V.G.; Mironenko, V.A.; Konosavsky, P.K.; Pereverzeva, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    This paper introduces some modeling approaches for predicting the influence of hazardous accidents at nuclear reactors on groundwater quality. Possible pathways for radioactive releases from nuclear power plants were considered to conceptualize boundary conditions for solving the subsurface radionuclides transport problems. Some approaches to incorporate physical-and-chemical interactions into transport simulators have been developed. The hydrogeological forecasts were based on numerical and semi-analytical scale-dependent models. They have been applied to assess the possible impact of the nuclear power plants designed in Russia on groundwater reservoirs.

  1. Aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. ); Arndt, E.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plants for continued service. In meeting this objective, a materials property data base is being developed as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, studies are well under way to review and assess inservice inspection techniques for concrete structures and to develop a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future conditions assessments of these structures. 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Crystal growth of rare-earth-doped ternary potassium lead chloride single crystals by the Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voda, M.; Al-Saleh, M.; Lobera, G.; Balda, R.; Fernández, J.

    2004-09-01

    High optical quality pure and rare-earth-doped ternary-potassium-lead-chloride (KPb 2Cl 5) single crystals have been grown using the Bridgman technique in a two-zone transparent vertical furnace. Combining the chlorination of the melt, to eliminate oxygen impurities, with a horizontal zone-refining, followed by the Bridgman growth itself using sealed silica ampoules, we successfully grew non-moisture-sensitive crystals of a high optical quality. The moisture content in the raw materials determines the quality of the resulting crystals.

  3. From NDE to Prognostics: A Revolution in Asset Management for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-06-01

    For Generation IV nuclear power plants (NPP) to achieve operational goals it is necessary to adopt new on-line monitoring and prognostic methodologies, giving operators better plant situational awareness and reliable predictions of remaining service life. Such techniques can improve plant economics, reduce unplanned outages, improve safety and provide probabilistic risk assessments. This paper reviews the state of the art and the potential impact from monitoring, diagnostics and prognostics on advanced NPP, with a focus on the needs of Generation IV systems.

  4. Use of neural networks to identify transient operating conditions in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.; Guo, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A technique using neural networks as a means of diagnosing specific abnormal conditions or problems in nuclear power plants is investigated and found to be feasible. The technique is based on the fact that each physical state of the plant can be represented by a unique pattern of instrument readings, which can be related to the condition of the plant. Neural networks are used to relate this pattern to the fault or problem. 3 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  6. Experiment of monitoring thermal discharge drained from nuclear plant through airborne infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Li, Ning

    2009-07-01

    The State Development and Planning Commission has approved nuclear power projects with the total capacity of 23,000 MW. The plants will be built in Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Guangdong, Shandong, Liaoning and Fujian Province before 2020. However, along with the nuclear power policy of accelerated development in our country, the quantity of nuclear plants and machine sets increases quickly. As a result the environment influence of thermal discharge will be a problem that can't be slid over. So evaluation of the environment influence and engineering simulation must be performed before station design and construction. Further more real-time monitoring of water temperature need to be arranged after fulfillment, reflecting variety of water temperature in time and provided to related managing department. Which will help to ensure the operation of nuclear plant would not result in excess environment breakage. At the end of 2007, an airborne thermal discharge monitoring experiment has been carried out by making use of MAMS, a marine multi-spectral scanner equipped on the China Marine Surveillance Force airplane. And experimental subject was sea area near Qin Shan nuclear plant. This paper introduces the related specification and function of MAMS instrument, and decrypts design and process of the airborne remote sensing experiment. Experiment showed that applying MAMS to monitoring thermal discharge is viable. The remote sensing on a base of thermal infrared monitoring technique told us that thermal discharge of Qin Shan nuclear plant was controlled in a small scope, never breaching national water quality standard.

  7. Incentive regulation of investor-owned nuclear power plants by public utility regulators. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, M.D.; Seely, H.E.; Merritt, C.R.; Baker, D.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) periodically surveys the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and state regulatory commissions that regulate utility owners of nuclear power plants. The NRC is interested in identifying states that have established economic or performance incentive programs applicable to nuclear power plants, how the programs are being implemented, and in determining the financial impact of the programs on the utilities. The NRC interest stems from the fact that such programs have the potential to adversely affect the safety of nuclear power plants. The current report is an update of NUREG/CR-5975, Incentive Regulation of Investor-Owned Nuclear Power Plants by Public Utility Regulators, published in January 1993. The information in this report was obtained from interviews conducted with each state regulatory agency that administers an incentive program and each utility that owns at least 10% of an affected nuclear power plant. The agreements, orders, and settlements that form the basis for each incentive program were reviewed as required. The interviews and supporting documentation form the basis for the individual state reports describing the structure and financial impact of each incentive program.

  8. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  9. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To... to Part 50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  13. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear... application is based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  15. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  16. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology /OTEC/ with nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C. S.

    The use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Related Bottoming Cycle (ORBC) to recover the waste heat generated by a large nuclear or fossil power plant is considered. To take advantage of an ORBC, a plant must be located close to cold, deep ocean water, either open-ocean or shore-based. The ORBC can also be retrofitted to existing shore-based nuclear plants or it can be a part of the design of future plants. The increased efficiency of a nuclear floating system due to the ammonia bottoming cycle and ORBC systems is shown for the example of the proposed facility in Murata, Japan. It is noted that the size of the heat exchangers and the diameter of the cold water pipe would be relatively smaller for an ORBC than for a conventional ocean thermal energy conversion system.

  17. Use Of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) In Expert Systems To Advise Nuclear Plant Operators And Managers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhrig, Robert E.

    1988-03-01

    The use of expert systems in nuclear power plants to provide advice to managers, supervisors and/or operators is a concept that is rapidly gaining acceptance. f2 Generally, expert systems rely on the expertise of human experts or knowledge that has been codified in publications, books, or regulations to provide advice under a wide variety of conditions. In this work, a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)3 of a nuclear power plant performed previously is used to assess the safety status of nuclear power plants and to make recommendations to the plant personnel. Nuclear power plants have many redundant systems and can continue to operate when one or more of these systems is disabled or removed from service for maintenance or testing. PRAs provide a means of evaluating the risk to the public associated with the operation of nuclear power plants with components or systems out of service. While the choice of the "source term" and methodology in a PRA may influence the absolute probability and consequences of a core melt, the ratio of two PRA calculations for two configurations of the same plant, carried out on a consistent basis, can readily identify the increase in risk associated with going from one configuration to the other. PRISIM,4 a personal computer program to calculate the ratio of core melt probabilities described above (based on previously performed PRAs), has been developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). When one or several components are removed from service, PRISM then calculates the ratio of the core melt probabilities. The inference engine of the expert system then uses this ratio and a constant risk criterion,5 along with information from its knowledge base (which includes information from the PRA), to advise plant personnel as to what action, if any, should be taken.

  18. ZnTeO{sub 3} crystal growth by a modified Bridgman technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nawash, Jalal M. Lynn, Kelvin G.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • ZnTeO{sub 3} single crystals were grown for the first time by a modified Bridgman method. • The growth is still possible in a system that lacks congruent melting. • A growth is best when melt is exposed to a steeper axial thermal gradient. • Optical and electrical properties were investigated for the grown crystals. - Abstract: Zinc Tellurite (ZnTeO{sub 3}) crystals were grown for the first time using a modified Bridgman method with a 2.5 kHz radio frequency (RF) furnace. Single crystal growth of ZnTeO{sub 3} was hindered by many complicating factors, such as the evaporation of TeO{sub 2} above 700 °C and the formation of more than one phase during crystal growth. While there were several successful runs that produced ZnTeO{sub 3} single crystals, it was found that large (≥10 cm{sup 3}) single ZnTeO{sub 3} crystals resulted when the crucible was exposed to a steeper vertical thermal gradient and when the temperature of the melt was raised to at least 860 °C. The results of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were in accordance with the X-ray powder diffraction file (PDF) for ZnTeO{sub 3}. Some optical, electrical and structural properties of ZnTeO{sub 3} single crystals were reported in this paper.

  19. Preparation and characterization of CdGeAs 2 crystal by modified vertical Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiyu; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Shifu; Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Yi; Du, Wenjuan; Huang, Wei; Chen, Baojun

    2011-01-01

    A large, crack-free CdGeAs 2 single crystal measuring 15 mm in diameter and 45 mm in length was grown in a vertical three-zone tubular furnace by a modified vertical Bridgman method, i.e. quasi-seed technique with small temperature gradient and descending quartz ampoule. High-purity, single phase CdGeAs 2 polycrystallite for crystal growth was synthesized using a rocking furnace with temperature oscillation techniques. Various measuring means, including X-ray diffractometer(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and Field emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM) were adopted to characterize the as-grown crystal. It is found that the cleavage plane of the as-grown crystal is {1 0 1} face; the crystal is integrated in structure and crystallized well; etch pits in the shape of pentagon on (1 1 2) face have been observed for the first time using the new preferential etchant we prepared. All these results encouragingly indicate that the modified vertical Bridgman method is a convenient and effective way for high quality CdGeAs 2 crystal growth.

  20. Melt Growth of a Nonlinear Optical Crystal Triethylphosphine Sulfide using Modified Bridgman-Stockbarger Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Choi, J.; Wang, W. S.; Lai, R. B.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1999-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of triethylphosphine sulfide (C2H5)3P(S), a potential nonlinear optical organic material has been grown from melt using Bridgman- Stockbarger method. Commercially available material triethylphosphine sulfide procured from Johnson Matthey was purified by physical vapor transport using low pressure sublimaton (about 30 mTorr). Modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique is characterized by the smallest possible quantity of product in the melt for a short period of time. The temperature gradient was chosen to be about 10 C/cm and the ampoule was lowering rate was chosen to be 0.2-0.3 mm/h. For various growth conditions, several single crystal of triethylphosphine sulfide have been grown with sizes 10X10X15mm(exp 3). The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was measured and has been found to be comparable to phase matched potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals. Further characterization of the grown single crystals is in progress and the results will be presented at the symposium.

  1. Influence of thermal phenomena on crystal reattachment during dewetted Bridgman growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelian, Camen; Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.

    2009-04-01

    A finite-element model that accounts for details of the melt meniscus, the solid-liquid interface, and heat transfer is applied to a model system representing dewetted Bridgman growth. A new mechanism involving the thermal field and the meniscus position is proposed to explain crystal reattachment during dewetted Bridgman growth method. Crystal reattachment after an initial dewetted growth is posited to proceed via a melt cooling phenomenon that occurs when the melting-point isotherm advances above the melt meniscus position. Conditions to maintain detached growth are achieved when the solidification isotherm falls below the meniscus during the whole growth process. Model results show that these conditions are difficult to meet under typical melt-ampoule wetting angles and gas pressures in a simple, constant-gradient furnace. More promising conditions to promote and maintain dewetted growth are predicted for multi-zone furnace profiles. The results are consistent with prior experiments and point to the importance of optimizing the thermal conditions for successful dewetted growth.

  2. Growth of CdZnTe Crystals the Bridgman Technique with Controlled Overpressures of Cd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hu; Lehoczky, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te crystals with x = 0.15 and 0.20, were grown in this study by closed-ampoule directional solidification (Bridgman) technique with a controlled Cd overpressure. The growth ampoule was made of quartz with inner diameter from 20 to 40 mm and a tapered length of 2.5 cm at the growth tip. Both unseeded and seeded growths were performed with total material charges up to 400 g. After the loading of starting CdZnTe material, a typical amount of 2 g of Cd was also loaded inside a Cd reservoir basket, which was attached beneath the seal-off cup. The ampoule was sealed off under a vacuum below lxl0(exp -5) Torr. The sealed ampoule was placed inside a 4-zone Bridgman furnace - a Cd reservoir zone with a heat-pipe furnace liner on the top, followed by a hot zone, a booster heating zone and a cold zone at the bottom. The Cd zone was typically 300 to 400 C below the hot zone setting. High resistivity material has been obtained without any intentional dopants but has been reproducibly obtained with In doping. The crystalline and the electrical properties of the crystals will be reported.

  3. Charge transport properties in CdZnTe detectors grown by the vertical Bridgman technique

    SciTech Connect

    Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Abbene, L.; Honkimaki, V.

    2011-12-15

    Presently, a great amount of effort is being devoted to the development of CdTe and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for a large variety of applications such as medical, industrial, and space research. We present the spectroscopic properties of some CZT crystals grown by the standard vertical Bridgman method and by the boron oxide encapsulated vertical Bridgman method, which has been recently implemented at IMEM-CNR (Parma, Italy). In this technique, the crystal is grown in an open quartz crucible fully encapsulated by a thin layer of liquid boron oxide. This method prevents contact between the crystal and the crucible, thereby allowing larger single grains with a lower dislocation density to be obtained. Several mono-electrode detectors were realized, with each having two planar gold contacts. The samples are characterized by an active area of about 7 mm x 7 mm and thicknesses ranging from 1 to 2 mm. The charge transport properties of the detectors have been studied by mobility-lifetime ({mu} x {tau}) product measurements, carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France) in the planar transverse field configuration, where the impinging beam direction is orthogonal to the collecting electric field. We have performed several fine scans between the electrodes with a beam spot of 10 {mu}m x 10 {mu}m at various energies from 60 to 400 keV. In this work, we present the test results in terms of the ({mu} x {tau}) product of both charge carriers.

  4. Station blackout at nuclear power plants: Radiological implications for nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.S.

    1986-12-01

    Recent work on station blackout is reviewed its radiological implications for a nuclear war scenario is explored. The major conclusion is that the effects of radiation from many nuclear weapon detonations in a nuclear war would swamp those from possible reactor accidents that result from station blackout.

  5. The impact of team building and leadership development on nuclear plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, P.B.; Long, R.L.; Childress, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Within the nuclear utility industry, the pressures of complex technologies, increasing regulations, and critical public scrutiny create a working environment filled with numerous pressures. The difficult nature of the industry puts a premium on effective teamwork, interdepartmental cooperation, and communication skills. A well-conceived and implemented team building and leadership development program can substantially improve the operating performance of a nuclear plant. This paper describes one such implementation effort at GPU Nuclear Corporation and at the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station (OCNGS) over an 18-month period.

  6. High-speed simulation of transients in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are 110 times larger than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times greater than real-time speed.

  7. Robots in PSE G's nuclear plants - experience and future projections

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Since the cleanup at Three Mile Island Unit 2 utilities have used robots, specifically teleoperated devices, to save significant human exposure, reduce plant downtime, and improve plant operations. Early work has centered on plant inspection, surveillance, and monitoring tasks, with future efforts likely to be directed toward operation and maintenance tasks. Public Service Electric Gas (PSE G) Company has been a pioneer in the application of this technology, gaining worldwide recognition for its work. PSE G's leadership role in this technology and their nationally recognized Applied Robotics Technology (ART) Facility has served as a model for the national and international utility industries. This paper very briefly explores the growth in utility robotic applications; discusses in detail PSE G's use of robotic devices; examines the role of the ART Facility in PSE G's success; and projects the potential role of robots in the power plant of the future.

  8. Use of neural networks in the operation of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Application of neural networks to the operation of nuclear power plants is being investigated under a US Department of Energy sponsored program at the University of Tennessee. Projects include the feasibility of using neural networks for the following tasks: (a) diagnosing specific abnormal conditions, (b) detection of the change of mode of operation, (c) signal validation, (d) monitoring of check valves, (e) modeling of the plant thermodynamics, (f) emulation of core reload calculations, (g) analysis of temporal sequences in NRC's licensee event report,'' (h) monitoring of plant parameters, and (i) analysis of plant vibrations. Each of these projects and its status are described briefly in this article. the objective of each of these projects is to enhance the safety and performance of nuclear plants through the use of neural networks. 6 refs.

  9. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  10. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    Preparedness of nuclear power plants to beyond design base external effects became high importance after 11th of March 2011 Great Tohoku Earthquakes. In case of some nuclear power plants constructed at the soft soil sites, liquefaction should be considered as a beyond design basis hazard. The consequences of liquefaction have to be analysed with the aim of definition of post-event plant condition, identification of plant vulnerabilities and planning the necessary measures for accident management. In the paper, the methodology of the analysis of liquefaction effects for nuclear power plants is outlined. The case of Nuclear Power Plant at Paks, Hungary is used as an example for demonstration of practical importance of the presented results and considerations. Contrary to the design, conservatism of the methodology for the evaluation of beyond design basis liquefaction effects for an operating plant has to be limited to a reasonable level. Consequently, applicability of all existing methods has to be considered for the best estimation. The adequacy and conclusiveness of the results is mainly limited by the epistemic uncertainty of the methods used for liquefaction hazard definition and definition of engineering parameters characterizing the consequences of liquefaction. The methods have to comply with controversial requirements. They have to be consistent and widely accepted and used in the practice. They have to be based on the comprehensive database. They have to provide basis for the evaluation of dominating engineering parameters that control the post-liquefaction response of the plant structures. Experience of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa plant hit by Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki earthquake of 16 July 2007 and analysis of site conditions and plant layout at Paks plant have shown that the differential settlement is found to be the dominating effect in case considered. They have to be based on the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and allow the integration into logic

  11. The nuclear disaster management system in Taiwan: a case study of the third (Maanshan) nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Nane

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the effectiveness of the nuclear disaster management system in Taiwan via a review of the third (Maanshan) nuclear power plant. In doing so, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan on 11 March 2011 is reviewed and compared with the situation in Taiwan. The latter's nuclear disaster management system is examined with respect to three key variables: information; mobilisation; and inter-organisational cooperation. In-depth interviews with 10 policy stakeholders with different backgrounds serve as the research method. The results point up the need for improvement in all dimensions. In addition, they highlight three principal problems with the nuclear disaster management system: (i) it might not be possible to provide first-hand nuclear disaster information immediately to the communities surrounding the Maanshan facility in Pingtung County, southern Taiwan; (ii) the availability of medical resources for treating radiation in Hengchun Township is limited; and (iii) the inter-organisational relationships for addressing nuclear disasters need to be strengthened. Hence, cooperation among related organisations is necessary. PMID:26578340

  12. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  13. Online Condition Monitoring to Enable Extended Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-03-31

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption for online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components.

  14. ``Recycling'' Nuclear Power Plant Waste: Technical Difficulties and Proliferation Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2007-04-01

    One of the most vexing problems associated with nuclear energy is the inability to find a technically and politically viable solution for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The U.S. plan to develop a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is in jeopardy, as a result of managerial incompetence, political opposition and regulatory standards that may be impossible to meet. As a result, there is growing interest in technologies that are claimed to have the potential to drastically reduce the amount of waste that would require geologic burial and the length of time that the waste would require containment. A scenario for such a vision was presented in the December 2005 Scientific American. While details differ, these technologies share a common approach: they require chemical processing of spent fuel to extract plutonium and other long-lived actinide elements, which would then be ``recycled'' into fresh fuel for advanced reactors and ``transmuted'' into shorter-lived fission products. Such a scheme is the basis for the ``Global Nuclear Energy Partnership,'' a major program unveiled by the Department of Energy (DOE) in early 2006. This concept is not new, but has been studied for decades. Major obstacles include fundamental safety issues, engineering feasibility and cost. Perhaps the most important consideration in the post-9/11 era is that these technologies involve the separation of plutonium and other nuclear weapon-usable materials from highly radioactive fission products, providing opportunities for terrorists seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. While DOE claims that it will only utilize processes that do not produce ``separated plutonium,'' it has offered no evidence that such technologies would effectively deter theft. It is doubtful that DOE's scheme can be implemented without an unacceptable increase in the risk of nuclear terrorism.

  15. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  16. Digital Full-Scope Simulation of a Conventional Nuclear Power Plant Control Room, Phase 2: Installation of a Reconfigurable Simulator to Support Nuclear Plant Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; Vivek Agarwal; Kirk Fitzgerald; Jacques Hugo; Bruce Hallbert

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program has developed a control room simulator in support of control room modernization at nuclear power plants in the U.S. This report highlights the recent completion of this reconfigurable, full-scale, full-scope control room simulator buildout at the Idaho National Laboratory. The simulator is fully reconfigurable, meaning it supports multiple plant models developed by different simulator vendors. The simulator is full-scale, using glasstop virtual panels to display the analog control boards found at current plants. The present installation features 15 glasstop panels, uniquely achieving a complete control room representation. The simulator is also full-scope, meaning it uses the same plant models used for training simulators at actual plants. Unlike in the plant training simulators, the deployment on glasstop panels allows a high degree of customization of the panels, allowing the simulator to be used for research on the design of new digital control systems for control room modernization. This report includes separate sections discussing the glasstop panels, their layout to mimic control rooms at actual plants, technical details on creating a multi-plant and multi-vendor reconfigurable simulator, and current efforts to support control room modernization at U.S. utilities. The glasstop simulator provides an ideal testbed for prototyping and validating new control room concepts. Equally importantly, it is helping create a standardized and vetted human factors engineering process that can be used across the nuclear industry to ensure control room upgrades maintain and even improve current reliability and safety.

  17. The Regulatory Challenges of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - 13101

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jungjoon; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Choi, Kyungwoo; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub

    2013-07-01

    As of 2012, 23 units of nuclear power plants are in operation, but there is no experience of permanent shutdown and decommissioning of nuclear power plant in Korea. It is realized that, since late 1990's, improvement of the regulatory framework for decommissioning has been emphasized constantly from the point of view of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s safety standards. And it is known that now IAEA prepare the safety requirement on decommissioning of facilities, its title is the Safe Decommissioning of Facilities, General Safety Requirement Part 6. According to the result of IAEA's Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission to Korea in 2011, it was recommended that the regulatory framework for decommissioning should require decommissioning plans for nuclear installations to be constructed and operated and these plans should be updated periodically. In addition, after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan in March of 2011, preparedness for early decommissioning caused by an unexpected severe accident became also important issues and concerns. In this respect, it is acknowledged that the regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear facilities in Korea need to be improved. First of all, we identify the current status and relevant issues of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants compared to the IAEA's safety standards in order to achieve our goal. And then the plan is to be established for improvement of regulatory framework for decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea. After dealing with it, it is expected that the revised regulatory framework for decommissioning could enhance the safety regime on the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in Korea in light of international standards. (authors)

  18. Annual radiological environmental operating report: Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, 1992. Operations Services/Technical Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring program conducted by TVA in the vicinity of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFN) in 1992. The program includes the collection of samples from the environment and the determination of the concentrations of radioactive materials in the samples. Samples are taken from stations in the general area of the plant and from areas not influenced by plant operations. Station locations are selected after careful consideration of the weather patterns and projected radiation doses to the various areas around the plant. Material sampled includes air, water, milk, foods, vegetation, soil, fish, sediment, and direct radiation levels. Results from stations near the plant are compared with concentrations from control stations and with preoperational measurements to determine potential impacts of plant operations. Small amounts of Co-60 and Cs-134 were found in sediment samples downstream from the plant. This activity in stream sediment would result in no measurable increase over background in the dose to the general public.

  19. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.

    1999-05-10

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.

  20. Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Å.; Stenström, K.; Adliene, D.; Adlys, G.; Dias, C.; Rääf, C.; Skog, G.; Zakaria, M.; Mattsson, S.

    2007-06-01

    Carbon-14 levels in the vicinity of the Lithuanian nuclear power plant Ignalina have been investigated. During 2001-2004, approximately 70 samples were collected and analysed using accelerator mass spectrometry. The study included samples of leaves, grass, moss, soil and aquatic plants, covering a distance up to 32 km from the power plant. The highest 14C specific activities were found in soil samples from moss-covered sites close to the power plant, probably indicating the release of particulate material. The results are compared with those from studies around other types of reactors also investigated within the project.