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Progesterone Binding to the ?1-Subunit of the Na/K-ATPase on the Cell Surface: Insights from Computational Modeling  

PubMed Central

Progesterone triggers the resumption of meiosis in the amphibian oocyte through a signaling system at the plasma membrane. Analysis of [3H]ouabain and [3H]progesterone binding to the plasma membrane of the Rana pipiens oocyte indicates that progesterone competes with ouabain for a low affinity ouabain binding site on a 112 kDa ?1-subunit of the membrane Na/K-ATPase. Published amino acid sequences from both low and high affinity ouabain binding ?1-subunits are compared, together with published site-directed mutagenesis studies of ouabain binding. We propose that the progesterone binding site is located in the external loop (23 amino acids) between the M1-M2 transmembrane helices. Analysis of loop topology and the countercurrent hydrophobicity/polarity gradients within the M1-M2 loop further suggest that the polar ? and hydrophobic ? surfaces of the planar progesterone molecule interact with opposite sides of the amino acid loop. The 19-angular methyl group of progesterone is essential for activity; it could bind to the C-terminal region of the M1-M2 loop. Maximum biological activity requires formation of hydrogen-bond networks between the 3-keto group of progesterone and Arg118, Asp129 and possibly Glu122-124 in the C-terminal region of the loop. The 20-keto group hydrogen may in turn hydrogen bond to Cys111 near the M1 helix. Peptide flexibility undergoes a maximal transition near the midway point in the M1-M2 loop, suggesting that folding occurs within the loop, which further stabilizes progesterone binding. PMID:17936318

Morrill, Gene A.; Kostellow, Adele B.; Askari, Amir



A membrane-associated progesterone-binding protein, 25-Dx, is regulated by progesterone  

E-print Network

regions involved in female reproductive behaviors Christopher J. Krebs* , Erich D. Jarvis§ , Johnny Chan*, John P. Lydon¶ , Sonoko Ogawa*, and Donald W. Pfaff* *Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior and Laboratory of Animal Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10021; and ¶Department of Cell

Jarvis, Erich D.


Emerging roles of nuclear protein phosphatases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphorylation state of any protein represents a balance of the actions of specific protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Many protein phosphatases are highly enriched in, or exclusive to, the nuclear compartment, where they dephosphorylate key substrates to regulate various nuclear processes. In this review we will discuss recent findings that define the role of nuclear protein phosphatases in controlling

Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy; Annegret Ulke-Leme; Greg B. G. Moorhead



Nuclear matrins: identification of the major nuclear matrix proteins.  

PubMed Central

A preparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel system was used to separate and purify the major Coomassie blue-stained proteins from the isolated rat liver nuclear matrix. Approximately 12 major proteins were consistently found. Of these, 5 proteins represented identified proteins, including nuclear lamins A, B, and C, the nucleolar protein B-23, and residual components of core heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. The remaining eight major proteins termed the nuclear matrins consisted of matrin 3 (125 kDa, slightly acidic), matrin 4 (105 kDa, basic), matrins D-G (60-75 kDa, basic), and matrins 12 and 13 (42-48 kDa, acidic). Peptide mapping and two-dimensional immunoblot studies indicate that matrins D-G compose two pairs of related proteins (matrins D/E and F/G) and that none of the matrins resemble the nuclear lamins or any of the other major proteins detected on our two-dimensional gels. Subfractionation immunoblot experiments demonstrated the nearly exclusive localization of matrins F/G and other matrins to the nuclear matrix fraction of the cell. These results were further supported by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy that showed a strictly interior nuclear localization of the matrins in intact cells in contrast to the peripherally located nuclear lamins. We conclude that the nuclear matrins are a major class of proteins of the nuclear matrix interior and are distinct from the nuclear lamins. Images PMID:1946450

Nakayasu, H; Berezney, R



Nuclear Matrix Proteins in Human Colon Cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear matrix is the nonchromatin scaffolding of the nucleus. This structure confers nuclear shape, organizes chromatin, and appears to contain important regulatory proteins. Tissue specific nuclear matrix proteins have been found in the rat, mouse, and human. In this study we compared high-resolution two-dimensional gel electropherograms of nuclear matrix protein patterns found in human colon tumors with those from normal colon epithelia. Tumors were obtained from 18 patients undergoing partial colectomy for adenocarcinoma of the colon and compared with tissue from 10 normal colons. We have identified at least six proteins which were present in 18 of 18 colon tumors and 0 of 10 normal tissues, as well as four proteins present in 0 of 18 tumors and in 10 of 10 normal tissues. These data, which corroborate similar findings of cancer-specific nuclear matrix proteins in prostate and breast, suggest that nuclear matrix proteins may serve as important markers for at least some types of cancer.

Keesee, Susan K.; Meneghini, Marc D.; Szaro, Robert P.; Wu, Ying-Jye



GAPDH Mediates Nitrosylation of Nuclear Proteins  

PubMed Central

S-nitrosylation by nitric oxide (NO) is a major mode of signaling to cellular proteins1, including prominent nuclear proteins such as HDAC22 and PARP13. The high reactivity of the NO group with protein thiols implies the existence of selective targeting mechanisms. Specificity of NO signaling is often achieved by the binding of NO synthase (NOS) to target proteins, either directly4 or through scaffolding proteins such as PSD-955 and CAPON6. As the three principal isoforms of NOS - neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) - are primarily non-nuclear, the mechanisms by which nuclear proteins are selectively nitrosylated have been elusive. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is physiologically nitrosylated at its Cys150 residue, conferring upon it the ability to bind to Siah1, which possesses a nuclear localization signal and conveys nitrosylated GAPDH (SNO-GAPDH) to the nucleus7. We now show that SNO-GAPDH physiologically transnitrosylates nuclear proteins, including the deacetylating enzyme SIRT1, histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), and DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK). Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for targeted nitrosylation of nuclear proteins and suggest that protein-protein transfer of NO groups may be a general mechanism in cellular signal transduction. PMID:20972425

Kornberg, Michael D.; Sen, Nilkantha; Hara, Makoto R.; Juluri, Krishna R.; Van K. Nguyen, Judy; Snowman, Adele M.; Law, Lindsey; Hester, Lynda D.; Snyder, Solomon H.



Nuclear matrix proteins and hereditary diseases.  


The review summarizes literature data on alterations of structure or expression of different nuclear matrix proteins in hereditary syndromes. From the point of view of involvement of nuclear matrix proteins in etiology and pathogenesis of the disease hereditary pathologies can be classified in pathologies with pathogenesis associated with defects of nuclear matrix proteins and pathologies associated to changes of the nuclear matrix protein spectrum. The first group includes laminopathies, hereditary diseases with abnormal nuclear-matrix associated proteins and triplet extension diseases associated with accumulation of abnormal proteins in the nuclear matrix. Laminopathies are hereditary diseases coupled to structural defects of the nuclear lamina. These diseases include Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, limb girdle muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with conduction system disease, familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder type 2, CMT2), mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), Hutchison Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGS), Greenberg Skeletal Dysplasia, and Pelger-Huet anomaly (PHA). Most of them are due to mutations in the lamin A/C gene, one - to mutations in emerin gene, some are associated with mutations in Lamin B receptor gene. In Werner's, Bloom's, Cockayne's syndromes, Fanconi anemia, multiple carboxylase deficiency mutations in nuclear matrix protein or enzyme gene lead to deficient DNA repair, abnormal regulation of cell growth and differentiation or other specific metabolic functions. Proteins with a long polyglutamic tract synthesized in the cells of patients with dentato-rubral and pallido-luysian atrophy, myotonic dystrophy and Huntington disease interfere with transcription on the nuclear matrix. Down's syndrome is a representative of the group of diseases with altered nuclear matrix protein spectrum. PMID:15865282

Sjakste, N; Sjakste, T



SUMO: of branched proteins and nuclear bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMO belongs to a growing number of ubiquitin-like proteins that covalently modify their target proteins. Although some evidence supports a role of SUMO modification in regulating protein stability, most studied examples support a model by which SUMO alters the interaction properties of its targets, often affecting their subcellular localization behavior. Examination of the PML nuclear bodies, whose principal components are

Jacob-S Seeler; Anne Dejean



Nuclear import of protein kinases and cyclins.  


Karyophilic and acidic clusters were found in most nonmembrane serine/threonine protein kinases whose primary structure was examined. These karyophilic clusters might mediate the anchoring of the kinase molecules to transporter proteins for their regulated nuclear import and might constitute the nuclear localization signals (NLS) of the kinase molecules. In contrast to protein transcription factors that are exclusively nuclear possessing strong karyophilic peptides composed of at least four arginines (R) and lysines (K) within an hexapeptide flanked by proline and glycine helix-breakers, protein kinases often contain one histidine and three K+R residues; this is proposed to specify a weak NLS structure resulting in the nuclear import of a fraction of the total cytoplasmic kinase molecules as well as in their weak retention in the different ionic strength nuclear environment. Putative NLS peptides in protein kinases may also contain hydrophobic or bulky aromatic amino acids proposed to further diminish their capacity to act as strong NLS. Most kinases lacking karyophilic clusters (c-Mos, v-Mos, sea star MAP, and yeast KIN28, SRA1, SRA3, TPK1, TPK2) also lack acidic clusters, which is in contrast to most kinases containing both acidic and karyophilic peptides; this and the presence of R/K clusters in the transporter proteins supports a role of acidic clusters on kinases in nuclear import. Cyclins B lack karyophilic signals and are proposed to be imported into nuclei via their association with Cdc2. PMID:8825417

Boulikas, T



A mutant nuclear protein with similarity to RNA binding proteins interferes with nuclear import in yeast.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are defective in localization of nuclear proteins. Chimeric proteins containing the nuclear localization sequence from SV40 large T-antigen fused to the N-terminus of the mitochondrial F1 beta-ATPase are localized to the nucleus. Npl (nuclear protein localization) mutants were isolated by their ability to grow on glycerol as a consequence of no longer exclusively targeting SV40-F1 beta-ATPase to the nucleus. All mutants with defects in localization of nucleolar proteins and histones are temperature sensitive for growth at 36 degrees C. Seven alleles of NPL3 and single alleles of several additional genes were isolated. NPL3 mutants were studied in detail. NPL3 encodes a nuclear protein with an RNA recognition motif and similarities to a family of proteins involved in RNA metabolism. Our genetic analysis indicates that NPL3 is essential for normal cell growth; cells lacking NPL3 are temperature sensitive for growth but do not exhibit a defect in localization of nuclear proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that the mutant forms of Npl3 protein isolated by this procedure are interfering with nuclear protein uptake in a general manner. Images PMID:1392078

Bossie, M A; DeHoratius, C; Barcelo, G; Silver, P



A Network of Nuclear Envelope Membrane Proteins Linking  

E-print Network

nuclear membrane protein of the KASH family (Kms2) and two integral inner nuclear membrane proteinsA Network of Nuclear Envelope Membrane Proteins Linking Centromeres to Microtubules Megan C. King,1 to the nuclear heterochromatin through pro- teinsembeddedinthenuclearenvelope. Thisincludes an integral outer

King, Megan


Protein Dynamics: Implications for Nuclear Architecture and Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies of nuclear architecture reveal that the dynamic properties of proteins in the nucleus are critical for their function. The high mobility of proteins ensures their availability throughout the nucleus; their dynamic interplay generates an ever-changing, but overall stable, architectural framework, within which nuclear processes take place. As a consequence, overall nuclear morphology is determined by the functional interactions of nuclear components. The observed dynamic properties of nuclear proteins are consistent with a central role for stochastic mechanisms in gene expression and nuclear architecture.

Tom Mistelli (National Cancer Institute; )



The nuclear envelope LEM-domain protein emerin  

PubMed Central

Emerin, a conserved LEM-domain protein, is among the few nuclear membrane proteins for which extensive basic knowledgebiochemistry, partners, functions, localizations, posttranslational regulation, roles in development and links to human diseaseis available. This review summarizes emerin and its emerging roles in nuclear lamina structure, chromatin tethering, gene regulation, mitosis, nuclear assembly, development, signaling and mechano-transduction. We also highlight many open questions, exploration of which will be critical to understand how this intriguing nuclear membrane protein and its family influence the genome. PMID:23873439

Berk, Jason M; Tifft, Kathryn E; Wilson, Katherine L



Nuclear protein import is reduced in cells expressing nuclear envelopathy-causing lamin A mutants  

SciTech Connect

Lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, not only constitute an important determinant of nuclear architecture, but additionally play essential roles in many nuclear functions. Mutations in A-type lamins cause a wide range of human genetic disorders (laminopathies). The importance of lamin A (LaA) in the spatial arrangement of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) prompted us to study the role of LaA mutants in nuclear protein transport. Two mutants, causing prenatal skin disease restrictive dermopathy (RD) and the premature aging disease Hutchinson Gilford progeria syndrome, were used for expression in HeLa cells to investigate their impact on the subcellular localization of NPC-associated proteins and nuclear protein import. Furthermore, dynamics of the LaA mutants within the nuclear lamina were studied. We observed affected localization of NPC-associated proteins, diminished lamina dynamics for both LaA mutants and reduced nuclear import of representative cargo molecules. Intriguingly, both LaA mutants displayed similar effects on nuclear morphology and functions, despite their differences in disease severity. Reduced nuclear protein import was also seen in RD fibroblasts and impaired lamina dynamics for the nucleoporin Nup153. Our data thus represent the first study of a direct link between LaA mutant expression and reduced nuclear protein import.

Busch, Albert; Kiel, Tilman; Heupel, Wolfgang-M. [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Koellikerstrasse 6, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)] [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Koellikerstrasse 6, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany); Wehnert, Manfred [Institute of Human Genetics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany)] [Institute of Human Genetics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Huebner, Stefan, E-mail: [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Koellikerstrasse 6, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)] [University of Wuerzburg, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Koellikerstrasse 6, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)



Investigating dengue virus nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) nuclear import.  


Dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) plays a central role in viral replication in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Despite this, NS5 is predominantly located in the nucleus of infected cells where it is thought to play a role in suppression of the host antiviral response. We have investigated the nuclear localization of NS5 using immunofluorescent staining for NS5 in infected cells, showing that NS5 nuclear localization is significantly inhibited by Ivermectin, a general inhibitor of nuclear transport mediated by the cellular nuclear transport proteins importin ?/? (IMP?/?). Experiments in living mammalian cells transfected to express green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NS5 protein confirm that NS5 is predominantly nuclear and that this localization is inhibited by Ivermectin, demonstrating that NS5 contains an Ivermectin-sensitive IMP?/?-recognized nuclear localization signal [Pryor et al. Traffic 8:795-807, 2007]. Consistent with this observation, mutation of critical residues within the nuclear localization signal (the A2 mutant; [Pryor et al. Traffic 8:795-807, 2007]) results in an 80 % reduction in nuclear localization of NS5. Finally we demonstrate direct, high-affinity binding of NS5 to IMP?/? using an AlphaScreen protein-protein binding assay. PMID:24696345

Fraser, Johanna E; Rawlinson, Stephen M; Wang, Chunxiao; Jans, David A; Wagstaff, Kylie M



TTRAP is a novel PML nuclear bodies-associated protein  

SciTech Connect

PML nuclear body (PML NB) is an important macromolecular nuclear structure that is involved in many essential aspects of cellular function. Tens of proteins have been found in PML NBs, and promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) has been proven to be essential for the formation of this structure. Here, we showed that TRAF and TNF receptor-associated protein (TTRAP) was a novel PML NBs-associated protein. TTRAP colocalized with three important PML NBs-associated proteins, PML, DAXX and Sp100 in the typical fashion of PML NBs. By yeast mating assay, TTRAP was identified to interact with these PML NBs-associated proteins. The transcription and expression of TTRAP could be induced by IFN-{gamma}, representing another common feature of PML NBs-associated proteins. These results would not only be important for understanding PML NBs but also be helpful in studying the TTRAP function in the future.

Xu Guanlan; Pan Yukun; Wang Bingyin; Huang Lu; Tian Ling; Xue Jinglun [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Chen Jinzhong [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)], E-mail:; Jia, William [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)], E-mail:



Protein quality control at the inner nuclear membrane.  


The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The inner nuclear membrane (INM) functions in essential nuclear processes including chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. Protein homeostasis in this compartment is ensured by endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathways that in yeast involve the integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 and Doa10 operating with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 (refs 2, 3). However, little is known about protein quality control at the INM. Here we describe a protein degradation pathway at the INM in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediated by the Asi complex consisting of the RING domain proteins Asi1 and Asi3 (ref. 4). We report that the Asi complex functions together with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 to degrade soluble and integral membrane proteins. Genetic evidence suggests that the Asi ubiquitin ligase defines a pathway distinct from, but complementary to, ERAD. Using unbiased screening with a novel genome-wide yeast library based on a tandem fluorescent protein timer, we identify more than 50 substrates of the Asi, Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ubiquitin ligases. We show that the Asi ubiquitin ligase is involved in degradation of mislocalized integral membrane proteins, thus acting to maintain and safeguard the identity of the INM. PMID:25519137

Khmelinskii, Anton; Blaszczak, Ewa; Pantazopoulou, Marina; Fischer, Bernd; Omnus, Deike J; Le Dez, Galle; Brossard, Audrey; Gunnarsson, Alexander; Barry, Joseph D; Meurer, Matthias; Kirrmaier, Daniel; Boone, Charles; Huber, Wolfgang; Rabut, Gwenal; Ljungdahl, Per O; Knop, Michael



Regulation of neuronal differentiation by proteins associated with nuclear bodies.  


Nuclear bodies are large sub-nuclear structures composed of RNA and protein molecules. The Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein localizes to Cajal bodies (CBs) and nuclear gems. Diminished cellular concentration of SMN is associated with the neurodegenerative disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). How nuclear body architecture and its structural components influence neuronal differentiation remains elusive. In this study, we analyzed the effects of SMN and two of its interaction partners in cellular models of neuronal differentiation. The nuclear 23 kDa isoform of Fibroblast Growth Factor - 2 (FGF-2(23)) is one of these interacting proteins - and was previously observed to influence nuclear bodies by destabilizing nuclear gems and mobilizing SMN from Cajal bodies (CBs). Here we demonstrate that FGF-2(23) blocks SMN-promoted neurite outgrowth, and also show that SMN disrupts FGF-2(23)-dependent transcription. Our results indicate that FGF-2(23) and SMN form an inactive complex that interferes with neuronal differentiation by mutually antagonizing nuclear functions. Coilin is another nuclear SMN binding partner and a marker protein for Cajal bodies (CBs). In addition, coilin is essential for CB function in maturation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). The role of coilin outside of Cajal bodies and its putative impacts in tissue differentiation are poorly defined. The present study shows that protein levels of nucleoplasmic coilin outside of CBs decrease during neuronal differentiation. Overexpression of coilin has an inhibitory effect on neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, we find that nucleoplasmic coilin inhibits neurite outgrowth independent of SMN binding revealing a new function for coilin in neuronal differentiation. PMID:24358231

Frthmann, Benjamin; van Bergeijk, Jeroen; Lee, Yu-Wei; Lbben, Verena; Schill, Yvonne; Brinkmann, Hella; Ratzka, Andreas; Stachowiak, Michal K; Hebert, Michael; Grothe, Claudia; Claus, Peter



The I Protein of the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Complex is a Novel Dog Nuclear Autoantigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eukaryotic cells, heterogeneous nuclear RNA is associated with a set of abundant nuclear proteins to form complex ribonucleoprotein structures (hnRNP). Autoantibodies to hnRNP G protein have been previously reported in German shepherd dogs with lupus-like syndrome. In the present study, we describe the characterization of a novel antigen recognized by a serum from a schnauzer dog with a non-erosive

Michel Soulard; Vronique Della Valle; Guillaume Monod; Pascal Prlaud; Jean-Claude Lacroix; Christian-Jacques Larsen



Cellular stress induces Bax-regulated nuclear bubble budding and rupture followed by nuclear protein release.  


Cellular stress triggers many pathways including nuclear protein redistribution. We previously discovered that this process is regulated by Bax but the underlying mechanism has not yet been studied. Here we define this mechanism by showing that apoptotic stimuli cause Bax-regulated disturbances in lamin A/C and nuclear envelope (NE)-associated proteins which results in the generation and subsequent rupture of nuclear protein-containing bubbles. The bubbles do not contain DNA and are encapsulated by impaired nuclear pore-depleted NE. Stress-induced generation and rupture of nuclear bubbles ultimately leads to the discharge of nuclear proteins into the cytoplasm. This process precedes morphological changes of apoptosis and occurs independently of caspases. Rescue experiments revealed that this Bax effect is non-canonical, i.e. it requires the BH3 domain and ?-helices 5 and 6 but it is not inhibited by Bcl(-)xL. Targeting Bax to the NE by the Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 homology (KASH) domain effectively triggers the generation and rupture of nuclear bubbles. Overall, our findings provide evidence for a novel stress-response, which is regulated by a non-canonical action of Bax on the NE. PMID:25482068

Lindenboim, Liora; Sasson, Tiki; Worman, Howard J; Borner, Christoph; Stein, Reuven



Nuclear envelope proteomics: Novel integral membrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope (NE) is one of the least characterized structures of eukaryotic cells. The study of its functional roles is hampered by the small number of proteins known to be specifically located to it. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the NE proteome. We applied different fractionation procedures and isolated protein subsets derived from distinct NE compartments. We identified 148 different proteins by 16-benzyl dimethyl hexadecyl ammonium chloride (16-BAC) gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry; among them were 19 previously unknown or noncharacterized. The identification of known proteins in particular NE fractions enabled us to assign novel proteins to NE substructures. Thus, our subcellular proteomics approach retains the screening character of classical proteomic studies, but also allows a number of predictions about subcellular localization and interactions of previously noncharacterized proteins. We demonstrate this result by showing that two novel transmembrane proteins, a 100-kDa protein with similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans Unc-84A and an unrelated 45-kDa protein we named LUMA, reside in the inner nuclear membrane and likely interact with the nuclear lamina. The utility of our approach is not restricted to the investigation of the NE. Our approach should be applicable to the analysis of other complex membrane structures of the cell as well. PMID:11593002

Dreger, Mathias; Bengtsson, Luiza; Schneberg, Torsten; Otto, Henning; Hucho, Ferdinand



A nuclear localization signal binding protein in the nucleolus  

PubMed Central

We used functional wild-type and mutant synthetic nuclear localization signal peptides of SV-40 T antigen cross-linked to human serum albumin (peptide conjugates) to assay their binding to proteins of rat liver nuclei on Western blots. Proteins of 140 and 55 kD (p140 and p55) were exclusively recognized by wild-type peptide conjugates. Free wild-type peptides competed for the wild-type peptide conjugate binding to p140 and p55 whereas free mutant peptides, which differed by a single amino acid from the wild type, competed less efficiently. The two proteins were extractable from nuclei by either low or high ionic strength buffers. We purified p140 and raised polyclonal antibodies in chicken against the protein excised from polyacrylamide gels. The anti-p140 antibodies were monospecific as judged by their reactivity with a single nuclear protein band of 140 kD on Western blots of subcellular fractions of whole cells. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy on fixed and permeabilized Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cells with anti-p140 antibodies exhibited a distinct punctate nucleolar staining. Rhodamine- labeled wild-type peptide conjugates also bound to nucleoli in a similar pattern on fixed and permeabilized BRL cells. Based on biochemical characterization, p140 is a novel nucleolar protein. It is possible that p140 shuttles between the nucleolus and the cytoplasm and functions as a nuclear import carrier. PMID:2177472



In vitro nuclear interactome of the HIV-1 Tat protein  

PubMed Central

Background One facet of the complexity underlying the biology of HIV-1 resides not only in its limited number of viral proteins, but in the extensive repertoire of cellular proteins they interact with and their higher-order assembly. HIV-1 encodes the regulatory protein Tat (86101aa), which is essential for HIV-1 replication and primarily orchestrates HIV-1 provirus transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have demonstrated that Tat function is highly dependent on specific interactions with a range of cellular proteins. However they can only partially account for the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying the dynamics of proviral gene expression. To obtain a comprehensive nuclear interaction map of Tat in T-cells, we have designed a proteomic strategy based on affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results Our approach resulted in the identification of a total of 183 candidates as Tat nuclear partners, 90% of which have not been previously characterised. Subsequently we applied in silico analysis, to validate and characterise our dataset which revealed that the Tat nuclear interactome exhibits unique signature(s). First, motif composition analysis highlighted that our dataset is enriched for domains mediating protein, RNA and DNA interactions, and helicase and ATPase activities. Secondly, functional classification and network reconstruction clearly depicted Tat as a polyvalent protein adaptor and positioned Tat at the nexus of a densely interconnected interaction network involved in a range of biological processes which included gene expression regulation, RNA biogenesis, chromatin structure, chromosome organisation, DNA replication and nuclear architecture. Conclusion We have completed the in vitro Tat nuclear interactome and have highlighted its modular network properties and particularly those involved in the coordination of gene expression by Tat. Ultimately, the highly specialised set of molecular interactions identified will provide a framework to further advance our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 proviral gene silencing and activation. PMID:19454010

Gautier, Virginie W; Gu, Lili; O'Donoghue, Niaobh; Pennington, Stephen; Sheehy, Noreen; Hall, William W



Molecular chaperone-mediated nuclear protein dynamics.  


Homeostasis requires effective action of numerous biological pathways including those working along a genome. The variety of processes functioning in the nucleus is considerable, yet the number of employed factors eclipses this total. Ideally, individual components assemble into distinct complexes and serially operate along a pathway to perform work. Adding to the complexity is a multitude of fluctuating internal and external signals that must be monitored to initiate, continue or halt individual activities. While cooperative interactions between proteins of the same process provide a mechanism for rapid and precise assembly, the inherent stability of such organized structures interferes with the proper timing of biological events. Further prolonging the longevity of biological complexes are crowding effects resulting from the high concentration of intracellular macromolecules. Hence, accessory proteins are required to destabilize the various assemblies to efficiently transition between structures, avoid off-pathway competitive interactions, and to terminate pathway activity. We suggest that molecular chaperones have evolved, in part, to manage these challenges by fostering a general and continuous dynamic protein environment within the nucleus. PMID:24694369

Echtenkamp, Frank J; Freeman, Brian C



Nuclear actin and protein 4.1: Essential interactions during nuclear assembly in vitro  

SciTech Connect

Structural protein 4.1, which has crucial interactions within the spectin-actin lattice of the human red cell membrane skeleton, also is widely distributed at diverse intracellular sites in nucleated cells. We previously showed that 4.1 is essential for assembly of functional nuclei in vitro and that the capacity of 4.1 to bind actin is required. Here we report that 4.1 and actin colocalize in mammalian cell nuclei using fluorescence microscopy and, by higher resolution cell whole mount electron microscopy, are associated on nuclear filaments. We also devised a cell-free assay using Xenopus egg extract containing fluorescent actin to follow actin during nuclear assembly. By directly imaging actin under non-perturbing conditions, the total nuclear actin population is retained and is visualized in situ relative to intact chromatin. We detected actin initially when chromatin and nuclear pores began assembling. As the nuclear lamina assembled, but preceding DNA synthesis, a discrete actin network formed throughout the nucleus. Protein 4.1 epitopes also were detected when actin began to accumulate in nuclei, producing a diffuse coincident pattern. As nuclei matured, actin was detected both coincident with and also independent of 4.1 epitopes. To test whether acquisition of nuclear actin is required for nuclear assembly, the actin inhibitor latrunculin A was added to Xenopus egg extracts during nuclear assembly. Latrunculin A strongly perturbed nuclear assembly and produced distorted nuclear structures containing neither actin nor protein 4.1. Our results suggest that actin as well as 4.1 is necessary for nuclear assembly and that 4.1-actin interactions may be critical.

Krauss, Sharon Wald; Chen, Cynthia; Penman, Sheldon; Heald, Rebecca



The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway  

SciTech Connect

The BRO proteins of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) display a biphasic pattern of intracellular localization during infection. At early times, they reside in the nucleus but then show both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization as the infection proceeds. Therefore, we examined the possibility of nuclear export. Using inhibitors, we reveal that BmNPV BRO proteins shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutations on the leucine-rich region of BRO proteins resulted in nuclear accumulation of transiently expressed proteins, suggesting that this region functions as a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). On the contrary, mutant BRO-D with an altered NES did not show nuclear accumulation in infected cells, although protein production seemed to be reduced. RT-PCR analysis showed that the lower level of protein production was due to a reduction in RNA synthesis. Taken together, our results suggest that BRO proteins are nucleocytoplasmic shuttling proteins that utilize the CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

Kang, Won Kyung [Molecular Entomology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Kurihara, Masaaki [Molecular Entomology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Matsumoto, Shogo [Molecular Entomology Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan)]. E-mail:



Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Protein Extraction (Thermo Scientific) Cell Culture Preparation  

E-print Network

pellet with PBS. 3. Transfer 1-10 ? 106 cells to a 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tube and pellet, leaving the cell pellet as dry as possible. 5. Add ice-cold CER I (add protease inhibitors 1x before use) to the cell pellet (Table 1). Proceed to Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Protein Extraction, using the reagent volumes

Oliver, Douglas L.


A nuclear ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway targets inner nuclear membrane protein Asi2 for degradation  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope consists of inner and outer nuclear membranes. While the outer membrane is an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, the inner nuclear membrane represents a unique membranous environment containing specific proteins. The mechanisms of integral inner nuclear membrane protein degradation are unknown. Here we investigated the turnover of Asi2, an integral INM protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that Asi2 is degraded by the proteasome and independent of the vacuole exhibiting a half-life of ? 45 min. Asi2 exhibits enhanced stability in mutants lacking the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc6 or Ubc7, or the E3 ubiquitin ligase Doa10. Consistently, Asi2 is post-translationally modified by poly-ubiquitylation in a Ubc7- and Doa10-dependent manner. Importantly Asi2 degradation is significantly reduced in a sts1-2 mutant that fails to accumulate proteasomes in the nucleus, indicating that Asi2 is degraded in the nucleus. Our results reveal a molecular pathway that affects the stability of integral proteins of the inner nuclear membrane and indicate that Asi2 is subject to protein quality control in the nucleus. PMID:24928896

Boban, Mirta; Pantazopoulou, Marina; Schick, Anna; Ljungdahl, Per O.; Foisner, Roland



Transportin-1 and Transportin-2: protein nuclear import and beyond.  


Nearly 20 years after its identification as a new ?-karyopherin mediating the nuclear import of the RNA-binding protein hnRNP A1, Transportin-1 is still commonly overlooked in comparison with its best known cousin, Importin-?. Transportin-1 is nonetheless a considerable player in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that Transportin-1 recognizes, thereby providing the molecular basis of its diversified repertoire of cargoes. The recent discovery that mutations in the Transportin-dependent NLS of FUS cause mislocalization of this protein and result in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis illustrates the importance of Transportin-dependent import for human health. Besides, new functions of Transportin-1 are emerging in processes other than nuclear import. Here, we summarize what is known about Transportin-1 and the related ?-karyopherin Transportin-2. PMID:24780099

Twyffels, Laure; Gueydan, Cyril; Kruys, Vronique



Intranuclear filaments containing a nuclear pore complex protein  

PubMed Central

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are anchoring sites of intranuclear filaments of 3-6 nm diameter that are coaxially arranged on the perimeter of a cylinder and project into the nuclear interior for lengths varying in different kinds of cells. Using a specific monoclonal antibody we have found that a polypeptide of approximately 190 kD on SDS-PAGE, which appears to be identical to the recently described NPC protein "nup 153," is a general constituent of these intranuclear NPC-attached filaments in different types of cells from diverse species, including amphibian oocytes where these filaments are abundant and can be relatively long. We have further observed that during mitosis this filament protein transiently disassembles, resulting in a distinct soluble molecular entity of approximately 12.5 S, and then disperses over most of the cytoplasm. Similarly, the amphibian oocyte protein appears in a soluble form of approximately 16 S during meiotic metaphase and can be immunoprecipitated from egg cytoplasmic supernatants. We conclude that this NPC protein can assemble into a filamentous form at considerable distance from the nuclear envelope and discuss possible functions of these NPC-attached filaments, from a role as guidance structure involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport to a form of excess storage of NPC proteins in oocytes. PMID:8253834



Protein dynamics by ?N nuclear magnetic relaxation.  


Nitrogen-15 relaxation is the most ubiquitous source of information about protein (backbone) dynamics used by NMR spectroscopists. It provides the general characteristics of hydrodynamics as well as internal motions on subnanosecond, micro- and millisecond timescales of a biomolecule. Here, we present a full protocol to perform and analyze a series of experiments to measure the (15)N longitudinal relaxation rate, the (15)N transverse relaxation rate under an echo train or a single echo, the (15)N-(1)H dipolar cross-relaxation rate, as well as the longitudinal and transverse cross-relaxation rates due to the cross-correlation of the nitrogen-15 chemical shift anisotropy and the dipolar coupling with the adjacent proton. These rates can be employed to carry out model-free analyses and can be used to quantify accurately the contribution of chemical exchange to transverse relaxation. PMID:22167673

Ferrage, Fabien



Parafibromin is a nuclear protein with a functional monopartite nuclear localization signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parafibromin is a nuclear protein with a tumour suppressor role in the development of non-hereditary and hereditary parathyroid carcinomas, and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour (HPT-JT) syndrome, which is associated with renal and uterine tumours. Nuclear localization signal(s), (NLS(s)), of the 61 kDa parafibromin remain to be defined. Utilization of computer-prediction programmes, identified five NLSs (three bipartite (BP) and two monopartite (MP)).

K J Bradley; M R Bowl; S E Williams; B N Ahmad; C J Partridge; A L Patmanidi; A M Kennedy; N Y Loh; R V Thakker



Regulation of Nuclear Localization of Signaling Proteins by Cytokinin  

SciTech Connect

Cytokinins are a class of mitogenic plant hormones that play an important role in most aspects of plant development, including shoot and root growth, vascular and photomorphogenic development and leaf senescence. A model for cytokinin perception and signaling has emerged that is similar to bacterial two-component phosphorelays. In this model, binding of cytokinin to the extracellular domain of the Arabidopsis histidine kinase (AHKs) receptors induces autophosphorylation within the intracellular histidine-kinase domain. The phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to cytosolic Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs), which have been suggested to translocate to the nucleus in response to cytokinin treatment, where they then transfer the phosphoryl group to nuclear-localized response regulators (Type-A and Type-B ARRs). We examined the effects of cytokinin on AHP subcellular localization in Arabidopsis and, contrary to expectations, the AHPs maintained a constant nuclear/cytosolic distribution following cytokinin treatment. Furthermore, mutation of the conserved phosphoacceptor histidine residue of the AHP, as well as disruption of multiple cytokinin signaling elements, did not affect the subcellular localization of the AHP proteins. Finally, we present data indicating that AHPs maintain a nuclear/cytosolic distribution by balancing active transport into and out of the nucleus. Our findings suggest that the current models indicating relocalization of AHP protein into the nucleus in response to cytokinin are incorrect. Rather, AHPs actively maintain a consistent nuclear/cytosolic distribution regardless of the status of the cytokinin response pathway.

Kieber, J.J.



A Bayesian Network Model of Proteins' Association with Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Nuclear Bodies  

E-print Network

A Bayesian Network Model of Proteins' Association with Promyelocytic Leukemia (PML) Nuclear Bodies the complement of proteins associated with these intra-nuclear bodies, we construct a Bayesian network model that nuclear organization brings has the potential to explain the function of aggregates of proteins and RNA

Dellaire, Graham


Nuclear export of proteins and RNAs Sara Nakielny and Gideon Dreyfuss*  

E-print Network

420 Nuclear export of proteins and RNAs Sara Nakielny and Gideon Dreyfuss* Our understanding, signal-mediated export pathways. Nuclear export signals have been identified in several proteins, the majority of which are RNA-binding proteins. Nuclear export of RNA molecules is likely to be driven

Dreyfuss, Gideon


Whole-genome screening identifies proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies.  


The nucleus is a unique organelle that contains essential genetic materials in chromosome territories. The interchromatin space is composed of nuclear subcompartments, which are defined by several distinctive nuclear bodies believed to be factories of DNA or RNA processing and sites of transcriptional and/or posttranscriptional regulation. In this paper, we performed a genome-wide microscopy-based screening for proteins that form nuclear foci and characterized their localizations using markers of known nuclear bodies. In total, we identified 325 proteins localized to distinct nuclear bodies, including nucleoli (148), promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (38), nuclear speckles (27), paraspeckles (24), Cajal bodies (17), Sam68 nuclear bodies (5), Polycomb bodies (2), and uncharacterized nuclear bodies (64). Functional validation revealed several proteins potentially involved in the assembly of Cajal bodies and paraspeckles. Together, these data establish the first atlas of human proteins in different nuclear bodies and provide key information for research on nuclear bodies. PMID:24127217

Fong, Ka-Wing; Li, Yujing; Wang, Wenqi; Ma, Wenbin; Li, Kunpeng; Qi, Robert Z; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou; Chen, Junjie



Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of proteinDNA interactions  

PubMed Central

Recent methodological and instrumental advances in solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance have opened up the way to investigating challenging problems in structural biology such as large macromolecular complexes. This review focuses on the experimental strategies currently employed to solve structures of proteinDNA complexes and to analyse their dynamics. It highlights how these approaches can help in understanding detailed molecular mechanisms of target recognition. PMID:21389020

Campagne, S.; Gervais, V.; Milon, A.



Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of protein-DNA interactions.  


Recent methodological and instrumental advances in solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance have opened up the way to investigating challenging problems in structural biology such as large macromolecular complexes. This review focuses on the experimental strategies currently employed to solve structures of protein-DNA complexes and to analyse their dynamics. It highlights how these approaches can help in understanding detailed molecular mechanisms of target recognition. PMID:21389020

Campagne, S; Gervais, V; Milon, A



Nuclear envelope protein MAN1 regulates clock through BMAL1  

PubMed Central

Circadian clocks serve as internal pacemakers that influence many basic homeostatic processes; consequently, the expression and function of their components are tightly regulated by intricate networks of feedback loops that fine-tune circadian processes. Our knowledge of these components and pathways is far from exhaustive. In recent decades, the nuclear envelope has emerged as a global gene regulatory machine, although its role in circadian regulation has not been explored. We report that transcription of the core clock component BMAL1 is positively modulated by the inner nuclear membrane protein MAN1, which directly binds the BMAL1 promoter and enhances its transcription. Our results establish a novel connection between the nuclear periphery and circadian rhythmicity, therefore bridging two global regulatory systems that modulate all aspects of bodily functions. DOI: PMID:25182847

Lin, Shu-Ting; Zhang, Luoying; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Linda Chen; Garcia, Valentina Elizabeth; Tsai, Chen-Wei; Pt?ek, Louis; Fu, Ying-Hui



Protein Sub-Nuclear Localization Prediction Using SVM and Pfam Domain Information  

PubMed Central

The nucleus is the largest and the highly organized organelle of eukaryotic cells. Within nucleus exist a number of pseudo-compartments, which are not separated by any membrane, yet each of them contains only a specific set of proteins. Understanding protein sub-nuclear localization can hence be an important step towards understanding biological functions of the nucleus. Here we have described a method, SubNucPred developed by us for predicting the sub-nuclear localization of proteins. This method predicts protein localization for 10 different sub-nuclear locations sequentially by combining presence or absence of unique Pfam domain and amino acid composition based SVM model. The prediction accuracy during leave-one-out cross-validation for centromeric proteins was 85.05%, for chromosomal proteins 76.85%, for nuclear speckle proteins 81.27%, for nucleolar proteins 81.79%, for nuclear envelope proteins 79.37%, for nuclear matrix proteins 77.78%, for nucleoplasm proteins 76.98%, for nuclear pore complex proteins 88.89%, for PML body proteins 75.40% and for telomeric proteins it was 83.33%. Comparison with other reported methods showed that SubNucPred performs better than existing methods. A web-server for predicting protein sub-nuclear localization named SubNucPred has been established at Standalone version of SubNucPred can also be downloaded from the web-server. PMID:24897370

Kumar, Ravindra; Jain, Sohni; Kumari, Bandana; Kumar, Manish



A method for dynamic nuclear polarization enhancement of membrane proteins.  


Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has the potential to enhance NMR signals by orders of magnitude and to enable NMR characterization of proteins which are inherently dilute, such as membrane proteins. In this work spin-labeled lipid molecules (SL-lipids), when used as polarizing agents, lead to large and relatively homogeneous DNP enhancements throughout the lipid bilayer and to an embedded lung surfactant mimetic peptide, KL4 . Specifically, DNP MAS ssNMR experiments at 600?MHz/395?GHz on KL4 reconstituted in liposomes containing SL-lipids reveal DNP enhancement values over two times larger for KL4 compared to liposome suspensions containing the biradical TOTAPOL. These findings suggest an alternative sample preparation strategy for DNP MAS ssNMR studies of lipid membranes and integral membrane proteins. PMID:25504310

Smith, Adam N; Caporini, Marc A; Fanucci, Gail E; Long, Joanna R



Lamin-dependent Localization of UNC-84, A Protein Required for Nuclear Migration in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-84 gene cause defects in nuclear migration and anchoring. We show that endogenous UNC-84 protein colocalizes with Ce-lamin at the nuclear envelope and that the envelope localization of UNC-84 requires Ce-lamin. We also show that during mitosis, UNC-84 remains at the nuclear periphery until late anaphase, similar to known inner nuclear membrane proteins. UNC-84 protein

Kenneth K. Lee; Daniel Starr; Merav Cohen; Jun Liu; Min Han; Katherine L. Wilson; Yosef Gruenbaum



Characterization of nuclear protein kinases of Xenopus laevis oocytes  

SciTech Connect

Xenopus laevis oocytes contain large nuclei (germinal vesicles) that can be isolated in very pure form and which permit the study of enzymatic activities present in these organelles. Incubation of pure oocyte nuclear homogenates with /sup 32/P in a buffered solution containing 5 mM MgCl/sub 2/ results in the phosphorylation of a large number of proteins by endogenous protein kinases. This phosphorylation is not affected by the addition of cyclic nucleotides or calcium ion and calmodulin. On the other hand the nuclear kinases are considerably stimulated by spermine and spermidine and strongly inhibited by heparin (10 Addition of exogenous protein substrates shows that the major oocyte kinases are very active with casein and phosvitin as substrates but do not phosphorylate histones or protamines. DEAE-Sephadex chromatography of the nuclear extract fractionates the casein phosphorylating activity in two main peaks. The first peak is not retained on the column equilibrated with 0.1 M NH/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and uses exclusively ATP as phosphate donor and is insensitive to polyamines or heparin. The second peak which corresponds to 70% of the casein phosphorylation elutes at 0.27 M NH/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and uses both ATP and GTP as phosphate donors and is greatly stimulated by polyamines and completely inhibited by 10 heparin. On this evidence the authors conclude that the major protein kinase peak corresponds to casein kinase type II which has been found in mammalian nuclei.

Leiva, L.; Gonzalez, C.; Allende, C.; Allende, J.



Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein is mediated by several nuclear localization signals and plays a role in tumorigenesis.  

PubMed Central

The basic carboxy terminus of p53 plays an important role in directing the protein into the nuclear compartment. The C terminus of the p53 molecule contains a cluster of several nuclear localization signals (NLSs) that mediate the migration of the protein into the cell nucleus. NLSI, the most active domain, is highly conserved in genetically diverged species and shares perfect homology with consensus NLS sequences found in other nuclear proteins. The other two NLSs, II and III, appear to be less effective and less conserved. Although nuclear localization is dictated primarily by the NLSs inherent in the primary amino acid sequence, the actual nuclear homing can be modified by interactions with other proteins expressed in the cell. Comparison between wild-type p53 and naturally occurring mutant p53 showed that both protein categories could migrate into the nucleus of rat primary embryonic fibroblasts by essentially similar mechanisms. Nuclear localization of both proteins was totally dependent on the existence of functional NLS domains. In COS cells, however, we found that NLS-deprived wild-type p53 molecules could migrate into the nucleus by complexing with another nuclear protein, simian virus 40 large-T antigen. Wild-type and mutant p53 proteins differentially complexed with viral or cellular proteins, which may significantly affect the ultimate compartmentalization of p53 in the cell; this finding suggests that the actual subcellular compartmentalization of proteins may differ in various cell type milieux and may largely be affected by the ability of these proteins to complex with other proteins expressed in the cell. Experiments designed to test the physiological significance of p53 subcellular localization indicated that nuclear localization of mutant p53 is essential for this protein to enhance the process of malignant transformation of partially transformed cells, suggesting that p53 functions within the cell nucleus. Images PMID:2247074

Shaulsky, G; Goldfinger, N; Ben-Ze'ev, A; Rotter, V



Reconstituted Nuclei Depleted of a Vertebrate GLFG Nuclear Pore Protein, p97, Import But Are  

E-print Network

a GLFG motif which defines a family of yeast nuclear pore proteins, as well as a peptideReconstituted Nuclei Depleted of a Vertebrate GLFG Nuclear Pore Protein, p97, Import But Are Defective in Nuclear Growth and Replication Maureen A. Powers, Colin Macaulay, Frank R. Masiarz

Forbes, Douglass


Improved proteomic analysis of nuclear proteins, as exemplified by the comparison of two myeloid cell lines nuclear proteomes.  


One of the challenges of the proteomic analysis by 2D-gel is to visualize the low abundance proteins, particularly those localized in the organelles. An additional problem with nuclear proteins lies in their strong interaction with nuclear acids. Several experimental procedures have been tested to increase, in the nuclear extract, the ratio of nuclear proteins compared to contaminant proteins, and also to obtain reproducible conditions compatible with 2D-gel electrophoresis. The NaCl procedure has been chosen. To test the interest of this procedure, the nuclear protein expression profiles of macrophages and dendritic cells have been compared with a proteomic approach by 2D-gel electrophoresis. Delta2D software and mass spectrometry analyses have allowed pointing out some proteins of interest. We have chosen some of them, involved in transcriptional regulation and/or chromatin structure for further validations. The immunoblotting experiments have shown that most of the observed changes are due to post-translational modifications, thereby exemplifying the interest of the 2D gel approach. Finally, this approach allowed us to reach not only high abundance nuclear proteins but also lower abundance proteins, such as the HP1 proteins and reinforces the interest of using 2DE-gel in proteomics because of its ability to visualize intact proteins with their modifications. PMID:23063611

Lelong, Ccile; Chevallet, Mireille; Diemer, Hlne; Luche, Sylvie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry



Using FRAP and mathematical modeling to determine the in vivo kinetics of nuclear proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) has become a popular technique to investigate the behavior of proteins in living cells. Although the technique is relatively old, its application to studying endogenous intracellular proteins in living cells is relatively recent and is a consequence of the newly developed fluorescent protein-based living cell protein tags. This is particularly true for nuclear proteins, in

Gustavo Carrero; Darin McDonald; Ellen Crawford; Gerda de Vries; Michael J. Hendzelb



Monoclonal Antibodies to NTF2 Inhibit Nuclear Protein Import by Preventing Nuclear Translocation of the GTPase Ran  

PubMed Central

Nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) is a soluble transport protein originally identified by its ability to stimulate nuclear localization signal (NLS)-dependent protein import in digitonin-permeabilized cells. NTF2 has been shown to bind nuclear pore complex proteins and the GDP form of Ran in vitro. Recently, it has been reported that NTF2 can stimulate the accumulation of Ran in digitonin-permeabilized cells. Evidence that NTF2 directly mediates Ran import or that NTF2 is required to maintain the nuclear concentration of Ran in living cells has not been obtained. Here we show that cytoplasmic injection of anti-NTF2 mAbs resulted in a dramatic relocalization of Ran to the cytoplasm. This provides the first evidence that NTF2 regulates the distribution of Ran in vivo. Moreover, anti-NTF2 mAbs inhibited nuclear import of both Ran and NLS-containing protein in vitro, suggesting that NTF2 stimulates NLS-dependent protein import by driving the nuclear accumulation of Ran. We also show that biotinylated NTF2-streptavidin microinjected into the cytoplasm accumulated at the nuclear envelope, indicating that NTF2 can target a binding partner to the nuclear pore complex. Taken together, our data show that NTF2 is an essential regulator of the Ran distribution in living cells and that NTF2-mediated Ran nuclear import is required for NLS-dependent protein import. PMID:10679025

Steggerda, Susanne M.; Black, Ben E.; Paschal, Bryce M.



NLS-tagging: an alternative strategy to tag nuclear proteins.  


The characterization of transcription factor complexes and their binding sites in the genome by affinity purification has yielded tremendous new insights into how genes are regulated. The affinity purification requires either the use of antibodies raised against the factor of interest itself or by high-affinity binding of a C- or N-terminally added tag sequence to the factor. Unfortunately, fusing extra amino acids to the termini of a factor can interfere with its biological function or the tag may be inaccessible inside the protein. Here, we describe an effective solution to that problem by integrating the 'tag' close to the nuclear localization sequence domain of the factor. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach with the transcription factors Fli-1 and Irf2bp2, which cannot be tagged at their extremities without loss of function. This resulted in the identification of novel proteins partners and a new hypothesis on the contribution of Fli-1 to hematopoiesis. PMID:25260593

Giraud, Guillaume; Stadhouders, Ralph; Conidi, Andrea; Dekkers, Dick H W; Huylebroeck, Danny; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Soler, Eric; Grosveld, Frank G



Nuclear targeting of the maize R protein requires two nuclear localization sequences  

SciTech Connect

Previous genetic and structural evidence indicates that the maize R gene encodes a nuclear transcriptional activating factor. In-frame carboxyl- and amino-terminal fusions of the R gene to the reporter gene encoding [beta]-glucuronidase (GUS) were sufficient to direct GUS to the nucleus of the transiently transformed onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Further analysis of chimeric constructs containing regions of the R gene fused to the GUS cDNA revealed three specific nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) that were capable of redirecting the GUS protein to the nucleus. Amino-terminal NLS-A (amino acids 100-109, GDRRAAPARP) contained several arginine residues; a similar localization signal is found in only a few viral proteins. The medial NLS-M (amino acids 419-428, MSERKRREKL) is a simian virus 40 large T antigen-type NLS, and the carboxyl-terminal NLS-C (amino acids 598-610, MISESLRKAIGKR) is a mating type [alpha]2 type. NLSs M and C are independently sufficient to direct the GUS protein to the nucleus when it is fused at the amino terminus of GUS, whereas NLS-A fused to GUS partitioned between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Similar partitioning was observed when localization signals NLS-A and NLS-C were independently fused to the carboxy-terminal portion of GUS. A sequential deletion of the localization signals indicated that the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fusions of R and GUS were redirected to the nucleus only when both NLS-A and -M, or NLS-C and -M, were present. These results indicate that multiple localization signals are necessary for nuclear targeting of this protein. The conservation of the localization signals within the alleles of R and similar proteins from other organisms is also discussed. 45 refs., 6 figs.

Shieh, M.W.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Wessler, S.R. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States))



Protein expression profiling of nuclear membrane protein reveals potential biomarker of human hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Complex molecular events lead to development and progression of liver cirrhosis to HCC. Differentially expressed nuclear membrane associated proteins are responsible for the functional and structural alteration during the progression from cirrhosis to carcinoma. Although alterations/ post translational modifications in protein expression have been extensively quantified, complementary analysis of nuclear membrane proteome changes have been limited. Deciphering the molecular mechanism that differentiate between normal and disease state may lead to identification of biomarkers for carcinoma. Results Many proteins displayed differential expression when nuclear membrane proteome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), fibrotic liver, and HepG2 cell line were assessed using 2-DE and ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS. From the down regulated set in HCC, we have identified for the first time a 15 KDa cytochrome b5A (CYB5A), ATP synthase subunit delta (ATPD) and Hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB) with 11, 5 and 22 peptide matches respectively. Furthermore, nitrosylation studies with S-nitrosocysteine followed by immunoblotting with anti SNO-cysteine demonstrated a novel and biologically relevant post translational modification of thiols of CYB5A in HCC specimens only. Immunofluorescence images demonstrated increased protein S-nitrosylation signals in the tumor cells and fibrotic region of HCC tissues. The two other nuclear membrane proteins which were only found to be nitrosylated in case of HCC were up regulated ATP synthase subunit beta (ATPB) and down regulated HBB. The decrease in expression of CYB5A in HCC suggests their possible role in disease progression. Further insight of the functional association of the identified proteins was obtained through KEGG/ REACTOME pathway analysis databases. String 8.3 interaction network shows strong interactions with proteins at high confidence score, which is helpful in characterization of functional abnormalities that may be a causative factor of liver pathology. Conclusion These findings may have broader implications for understanding the mechanism of development of carcinoma. However, large scale studies will be required for further verification of their critical role in development and progression of HCC. PMID:23724895



Mitogenic activation, phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation of protein kinase Bbeta.  


Protein kinase B (PKB) is a member of the second messenger-dependent family of serine/threonine kinases that has been implicated in signaling pathways downstream of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Here we report the characterization of the human beta-isoform of PKB (PKBbeta). PKBbeta is ubiquitously expressed in a number of human tissues, with mRNA and protein levels elevated in heart, liver, skeletal muscle, and kidney. After transfection into HEK-293 or COS-1 cells, PKBbeta is activated 2- to 12-fold by mitogens and survival factors. Activation was due to phosphorylation on Thr-309 and Ser-474, which correspond to Thr-308 and Ser-473 implicated in the regulation of PKBalpha. Both phosphorylation and activation were prevented by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Moreover, membrane-targeted PKBbeta was constitutively activated when overexpressed in HEK-293 cells. Although the specific activity of PKBbeta was lower than that of PKBalpha toward Crosstide as a substrate (23 nmol/min/mg compared with 178 nmol/min/mg for PKBalpha), both enzymes showed similar substrate specificities. Using confocal microscopy, we show that activation of PKBbeta results in its nuclear translocation within 20 to 30 min after stimulation. These observations provide evidence that PKBbeta undergoes nuclear translocation upon mitogenic activation and support a role for PKB in signaling from receptor tyrosine kinases to the nucleus through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PMID:9374542

Meier, R; Alessi, D R; Cron, P; Andjelkovi?, M; Hemmings, B A



Host Cell Nuclear Proteins Are Recruited to Cytoplasmic Vaccinia Virus Replication Complexes  

PubMed Central

The initiation and termination of vaccinia virus postreplicative transcription have been reported to require cellular proteins, some of which are believed to be nuclear proteins. Vaccinia virus replicates in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell, raising questions as to whether vaccinia virus has access to nuclear proteins. This was addressed here by following the fate of several nuclear proteins after infection of cells with vaccinia virus. The nuclear transcription factors YY1, SP1, and TATA binding protein were found to colocalize with virus replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. In addition, the nuclear proteins RNA polymerase II, TAFIIp32, and histone deacetylase 8, but not the structural protein lamin B, also were found in the cytoplasm of the cell. The association of YY1 with replication complexes was dependent on DNA replication and required only the DNA binding domain of the protein, indicating that DNA binding alone may be responsible for the association of nuclear transcription factors with viral replication complexes in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic localization of YY1 was resistant to the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. Evidence is presented indicating that nuclear import and export pathways were not adversely affected by vaccinia virus infection. These observations indicate that vaccinia virus replication complexes have ready access to nuclear proteins by allowing leakage from the nucleus. PMID:16188987

Oh, Jaewook; Broyles, Steven S.



Outfits for different occasions: tissue-specific roles of Nuclear Envelope proteins  

PubMed Central

The Nuclear Envelope (NE) contains over 100 different proteins that associate with nuclear components such as chromatin, the lamina and the transcription machinery. Mutations in genes encoding NE proteins have been shown to result in tissue-specific defects and disease, suggesting cell-type specific differences in NE composition and function. Consistent with these observations, recent studies have revealed unexpected functions for numerous NE associated proteins during cell differentiation and development. Here we review the latest insights into the roles played by the NE in cell differentiation, development, disease and aging, focusing primarily on inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins and nuclear pore components. PMID:22995343

Gomez-Cavazos, J Sebastian; Hetzer, Martin W



Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*  

PubMed Central

Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.



Specific nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins can promote the location of chromosomes to and from the nuclear periphery  

PubMed Central

Background Different cell types have distinctive patterns of chromosome positioning in the nucleus. Although ectopic affinity-tethering of specific loci can be used to relocate chromosomes to the nuclear periphery, endogenous nuclear envelope proteins that control such a mechanism in mammalian cells have yet to be widely identified. Results To search for such proteins, 23 nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to promote peripheral localization of human chromosomes in HT1080 fibroblasts. Five of these proteins had strong effects on chromosome 5, but individual proteins affected different subsets of chromosomes. The repositioning effects were reversible and the proteins with effects all exhibited highly tissue-restricted patterns of expression. Depletion of two nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that were preferentially expressed in liver each reduced the normal peripheral positioning of chromosome 5 in liver cells. Conclusions The discovery of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins that can modulate chromosome position and have restricted patterns of expression may enable dissection of the functional relevance of tissue-specific patterns of radial chromosome positioning. PMID:23414781



Characterization of the nuclear export signal in the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein.  


The nucleocapsid (N) protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleolus and contains an eight-amino-acid nucleolar retention motif. In this study, a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) (291-LQLDGLHL-298) present in the C-terminal region of the IBV N protein was analyzed by using alanine substitution and deletion mutagenesis to investigate the relative contributions that leucine residues make to nuclear export and where these residues are located on the structure of the IBV N protein. The analysis indicated that Leu296 and Leu298 are required for efficient nuclear export of the protein. Structural information indicated that both of these amino acids are available for interaction with protein complexes involved in this process. However, export of N protein from the nucleus/nucleolus was not inhibited by leptomycin B treatment, indicating that N protein nuclear export is independent of the CRM1-mediated export pathway. PMID:17202223

Reed, Mark L; Howell, Gareth; Harrison, Sally M; Spencer, Kelly-Anne; Hiscox, Julian A



Radioprotective Thiolamines WR-1065 and WR-33278 Selectively Denature Nonhistone Nuclear Proteins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the interactions of nuclei isolated from Chinese hamster V79 cells with the radioprotector WR-1065, other thiol compounds, and polyamines. Differential scanning calorimetry monitors denaturation of macromolecules and resolves the major nuclear components (e.g. constrained and relaxed DNA, nucleosome core, and nuclear matrix) of intact nuclei on the basis of thermal stability. WR-1065 treatment (0.5-10 mM) of isolated nuclei led to the irreversible denaturation of nuclear proteins, a fraction of which are nuclear matrix proteins. Denaturation of 50% of the total nonhistone nuclear protein content of isolated nuclei occurred after exposure to 4.7 mM WR-1065 for 20 min at 23 C. In addition, a 22% increase in the insoluble protein content of nuclei isolated from V79 cells that had been treated with 4 mM WR-1065 for 30 min at 37 C was observed, indicating that WR-1065-induced protein denaturation occurs not only in isolated nuclei but also in the nuclei of intact cells. From the extent of the increase in insoluble protein in the nucleus, protein denaturation by WR-1065 is expected to contribute to drug toxicity at concentrations greater than approximately 4 mM. WR-33278, the disulfide form of WR1065, was approximately twice as effective as the free thiol at denaturing nuclear proteins. The proposed mechanism for nucleoprotein denaturation is through direct interactions with protein cysteine groups with the formation of destabilizing protein-WR-1065 disulfides. In comparison to its effect on nuclear proteins in isolated nuclei, WR-1065 had only a very small effect on non-nuclear proteins of whole cells, isolated nuclear matrix, or the thiol-rich Ca (2+) ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum, indicating that WR-1065 can effectively denature protein only inside an intact nucleus, probably due to the increased concentration of the positively charged drug in the vicinity of DNA.

Booth, Valerie K.; Roberts, Jeanette C.; Warters, Raymond L.; Wilmore, Britta H.; Lepock, James R.



Nuclear substructure reorganization during late stageerythropoiesis is selective and does not involve caspase cleavage ofmajor nuclear substructural proteins  

SciTech Connect

Enucleation, a rare feature of mammalian differentiation, occurs in three cell types: erythroblasts, lens epithelium and keratinocytes. Previous investigations suggest that caspase activation functions in lens epithelial and keratinocyte enucleation, as well as in early erythropoiesis encompassing BFU-E differentiation to proerythroblast. To determine whether caspase activation contributes to later erythropoiesis and whether nuclear substructures other than chromatin reorganize, we analyzed distributions of nuclear subcompartment proteins and assayed for caspase-induced cleavage of subcompartmental target proteins in mouse erythroblasts. We found that patterns of lamin B in the filamentous network interacting with both the nuclear envelope and DNA, nuclear matrix protein NuMA, and splicing factors Sm and SC35 persisted during nuclear condensation, consistent with effective transcription of genes expressed late in differentiation. Thus nuclear reorganization prior to enucleation is selective, allowing maintenance of critical transcriptional processes independent of extensive chromosomal reorganization. Consistent with these data, we found no evidence for caspase-induced cleavage of major nuclear subcompartment proteins during late erythropoiesis, in contrast to what has been observed in early erythropoiesis and in lens epithelial and keratinocyte differentiation. These findings imply that nuclear condensation and extrusion during terminal erythroid differentiation involve novel mechanisms that do not entail major activation of apoptotic machinery.

Krauss, Sharon Wald; Lo, Annie J.; Short, Sarah A.; Koury, MarkJ.; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel Anne



Histones H3\\/H4 form a tight complex with the inner nuclear membrane protein LBR and heterochromatin protein 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) interacts with the nuclear envelope in an acetylation-dependent manner. Using purified components and in vitro assays, we now demonstrate that HP1 forms a quaternary complex with the inner nuclear membrane protein LBR and a sub-set of core histones. This complex involves histone H3\\/H4 oligomers, which mediate binding of LBR to HP1

Hara Polioudaki; Niki Kourmouli; Victoria Drosou; Alexandra Bakou; Panayiotis A. Theodoropoulos; Prim B. Singh; Thomas Giannakouros; Spyros D. Georgatos



Nuclear-envelope vesicles as a model system to study nucleocytoplasmic transport. Specific uptake of nuclear proteins.  


In the preceding paper [Riedel & Fasold (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 203-212] we have described a procedure for the preparation of nuclear-envelope vesicles (NE vesicles) from rat liver nuclei. These vesicles, which are largely free of components of the nuclear interior, were employed in an assay system in vitro to study protein translocation across the NE. We found that nuclear proteins such as histones, high-mobility-group proteins and acidic chromosomal proteins are specifically taken up and accumulated in the NE vesicles, whereas there is little or no affinity for non-nuclear proteins like immunoglobulin, myoglobin and cytochrome c. The kinetics of histone uptake into the NE vesicles are similar to those obtained for whole rat liver nuclei, and comparative studies with non-vesicular NEs prepared by deoxyribonuclease I-treatment (DNAase-NEs) indicate that the NE of the vesicles affects the uptake kinetics and increases the capacity for nuclear proteins. The uptake of histones into NE vesicles, but not the binding to DNAase-NEs, can be stimulated by GTP and GDP. Furthermore, we found that even very large molecules can be entrapped in the vesicles during their preparation. These results indicate that the NE vesicles might provide a useful system in vitro with which to investigate the structures and mechanisms involved in protein translocation across the NE. PMID:3566709

Riedel, N; Fasold, H



Altered nuclear matrix protein profiles in oncogene-transformed mouse fibroblasts exhibiting high metastatic potential.  


The nuclear matrix provides the structural support of the nucleus and is involved in various cellular functions of the nucleus. Nuclear matrix proteins, which are both tissue and cell type specific, are altered with transformation and state of differentiation. Here, nuclear matrix protein profiles of oncogene-transformed mouse fibroblasts with various degrees of metastatic activity were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This study shows that as the metastatic potential increases, similar nuclear matrix protein profiles are associated with each increase regardless of transformation agent. PMID:8988056

Samuel, S K; Minish, T M; Davie, J R



Comparison of nuclear matrix proteins between EGFR-antisense transfected and untransfected glioblastoma cells.  


The protein composition of the nuclear matrix is both tissue and cell type specific, and it undergoes changes with differentiation and transformation. In the present study, nuclear matrix proteins of EGFR-antisense transfected glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U343, were compared with untransfected cell lines using two dimensional-gel electrophoresis. After EGFR-antisense transfection, the protein compositions of the nuclear matrices in both cell lines were different. Several nuclear proteins were only found in EGFR-antisense transfected cell lines. There was no difference in NuMA expression in the transfected and untransfected cell lines. These results suggest that EGFR-antisense reduced tumorigenicity on human glioblastoma cells by changing nuclear matrix protein compositions. PMID:9855691

Wang; Yam; Tian; Ng; Ding; Chew-Cheng; Chew



Cloning and sequence of the human nuclear protein cyclin: homology with DNA-binding proteins  

SciTech Connect

A full-length cDNA clone for the human nuclear protein cyclin has been isolated by using polyclonal antibodies and sequenced. The sequence predicts a protein of 261 amino acids (M/sub r/ 29,261) with a high content of acidic (41, aspartic and glutamic acids) versus basic (24, lysine and arginine) amino acids. The identity of the cDNA clone was confirmed by in vitro hybrid-arrested translation of cyclin mRNA. Blot-hybridization analysis of mouse 3T3 and human MOLT-4 cell RNA revealed a mRNA species of approximately the same size as of the cDNA insert. Expression of cyclin mRNA was undetectable or very low in quiescent cells, increasing after 8-10 hr of serum stimulation. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea in serum-stimulated cells did not affect the increase in cyclin mRNA but inhibited 90% the expression of H3 mRNA. These results suggest that expression of cyclin and histone mRNAs are controlled by different mechanisms. A region of the cyclin sequence shows a significant homology with the putative DNA binding site of several proteins, specially with the transcriptional-regulator cAMP-binding protein of Escherichia coli, suggesting that cyclin could play a similar role in eukaryotic cells.

Almendral, J.M.; Huebsch, D.; Blundell, P.A.; Macdonald-Bravo, H.; Bravo, R.



The fragile X mental retardation protein is a ribonucleoprotein containing both nuclear localization and nuclear export signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragile X syndrome is a frequent cause of mental retardation resulting from the absence of FMRP, the protein encoded by the FMR1 gene. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein of unknown function which is associated with ribosomes. To gain insight into FMRP function, we performed immunolocalization analysis of FMRP truncation and fusion constructs which revealed a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in

Derek E. Eberhart; Henry E. Malter; Yue Feng; Stephen T. Warren



Gene Activation in Eukaryotes: Are Nuclear Acidic Proteins the Cause or the Effect?  

PubMed Central

Nuclear acidic proteins have been implicated in the positive control of gene transcription in eukaryotes. This hypothesis was examined in greater detail by analysis of these proteins during experimental gene activation by a technique for fractionating nuclei into chromatin and the ribonucleoprotein particles that contain heterogeneous nuclear RNA. When synthesis of rat-liver heterogeneous nuclear RNA was stimulated by administration of hydrocortisone, there was a parallel increase in the labeling of acidic proteins in ribonucleoprotein particles. However, there was no detectable effect on the labeling of either acidic chromatin proteins or histones. Thus, the nuclear acidic proteins that respond to the hormone are concerned with a post-transcriptional event, namely the assembly and processing of ribonucleoprotein particles that contain heterogeneous RNA, rather than with direct gene activation. Increases in synthesis of chromatin acidic proteins during gene activation observed by others may reflect the presence of these ribonucleoprotein particles in crude chromatin preparations. Images PMID:4522777

Pederson, Thoru



The SUN Protein Mps3 Is Required for Spindle Pole Body Insertion into the Nuclear Membrane and Nuclear Envelope Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The budding yeast spindle pole body (SPB) is anchored in the nuclear envelope so that it can simultaneously nucleate both nuclear and cytoplasmic microtubules. During SPB duplication, the newly formed SPB is inserted into the nuclear membrane. The mechanism of SPB insertion is poorly understood but likely involves the action of integral membrane proteins to mediate changes in the nuclear envelope itself, such as fusion of the inner and outer nuclear membranes. Analysis of the functional domains of the budding yeast SUN protein and SPB component Mps3 revealed that most regions are not essential for growth or SPB duplication under wild-type conditions. However, a novel dominant allele in the P-loop region, MPS3-G186K, displays defects in multiple steps in SPB duplication, including SPB insertion, indicating a previously unknown role for Mps3 in this step of SPB assembly. Characterization of the MPS3-G186K mutant by electron microscopy revealed severe over-proliferation of the inner nuclear membrane, which could be rescued by altering the characteristics of the nuclear envelope using both chemical and genetic methods. Lipid profiling revealed that cells lacking MPS3 contain abnormal amounts of certain types of polar and neutral lipids, and deletion or mutation of MPS3 can suppress growth defects associated with inhibition of sterol biosynthesis, suggesting that Mps3 directly affects lipid homeostasis. Therefore, we propose that Mps3 facilitates insertion of SPBs in the nuclear membrane by modulating nuclear envelope composition. PMID:22125491

Smoyer, Christine J.; McCroskey, Scott; Miller, Brandon D.; Weaver, Kyle J.; Delventhal, Kym M.; Unruh, Jay; Slaughter, Brian D.; Jaspersen, Sue L.



System analysis shows distinct mechanisms and common principles of nuclear envelope protein dynamics  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope contains >100 transmembrane proteins that continuously exchange with the endoplasmic reticulum and move within the nuclear membranes. To better understand the organization and dynamics of this system, we compared the trafficking of 15 integral nuclear envelope proteins using FRAP. A surprising 30-fold range of mobilities was observed. The dynamic behavior of several of these proteins was also analyzed after depletion of ATP and/or Ran, two functions implicated in endoplasmic reticuluminner nuclear membrane translocation. This revealed that ATP- and Ran-dependent translocation mechanisms are distinct and not used by all inner nuclear membrane proteins. The Ran-dependent mechanism requires the phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-nucleoporin Nup35, which is consistent with use of the nuclear pore complex peripheral channels. Intriguingly, the addition of FGs to membrane proteins reduces FRAP recovery times, and this also depends on Nup35. Modeling of three proteins that were unaffected by either ATP or Ran depletion indicates that the wide range in mobilities could be explained by differences in binding affinities in the inner nuclear membrane. PMID:21444689

Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kelly, David A.; Richardson, A. Christine; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Goldberg, Martin W.; Goryachev, Andrew B.




PubMed Central

Integral proteins of the nuclear envelope inner membrane have been proposed to reach their sites by diffusion after their co-translational insertion in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. They are then retained in the inner nuclear membrane by binding to nuclear structures. One such structure is the nuclear lamina, an intermediate filament meshwork composed of A-type and B-type lamin proteins. Emerin, MAN1 and LBR are three integral inner nuclear membrane proteins. We expressed these proteins fused to green fluorescent protein in embryonic fibroblasts from wild-type mice and Lmna -/- mice, which lack A-type lamins. We then studied the diffusional mobilities of emerin, MAN1 and LBR using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. We show that emerin and MAN1, but not LBR, are more mobile in the inner nuclear membrane of cells from Lmna -/- mice than in cells from wild-type mice. In cells from Lmna -/- mice expressing exogenous lamin A, the protein mobilities were similar to those in cells from wild-type mice. This supports a model where emerin and MAN1 are at least partly retained in the inner nuclear membrane by binding to A-type lamins, while LBR depends on other binding partners for its retention. PMID:16445279

stlund, Cecilia; Sullivan, Teresa; Stewart, Colin L.; Worman, Howard J.



Isolation of nuclear encoded plastid ribosomal protein cDNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pea leaf cDNA library was constructed in the expression vector ?gt11 and screened with antisera raised against proteins extracted from 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits and 70S ribosomes prepared from isolated pea chloroplasts. Six recombinant phage were identified that encoded fusion proteins containing plastid ribosomal protein antigenic determinants. Phage-induced cell lysate proteins, containing the fusion proteins, were bound to

J. Stephen Gantt; Joe L. Key



An improved high throughput protein-protein interaction assay for nuclear hormone receptors  

PubMed Central

The Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) pulldown assay has been used extensively to assay protein interactions in vitro. This methodology has been especially useful for investigating the interactions of nuclear hormone receptors with a wide variety of their interacting partners and coregulatory proteins. Unfortunately, the original GST-pulldown technique relies on multiple binding, washing and elution steps performed in individual microfuge tubes, and requires repeated centrifugation, aspiration, and suspension steps. This type of batch processing creates a significant liquid handling bottleneck, limiting the number of sample points that can be incorporated into one experiment and producing inherently less efficient washing and elution than would a flow-through methodology. In this manuscript, we describe the adaptation of this GST-pulldown assay to a 96-well filter plate format. The use of a multi-well filter plate makes it possible to assay more samples in significantly less time using less reagents and more efficient sample processing than does the traditional single tube assay. PMID:17464356

Goodson, Michael L.; Farboud, Behnom; Privalsky, Martin L.



Characterization of a Drosophila phosphorylation-dependent nuclear-localization-signal-binding protein.  

PubMed Central

A 94 kDa nuclear-localization-signal (NLS)-binding protein was purified from Drosophila embryos. The NLS of the simian-virus-40 T-antigen is specifically bound by the dephosphorylated form of the protein. After phosphorylation, the affinity of the protein for the NLS is sharply decreased. In the dephosphorylated form, p94 (protein of 94 kDa) is the major NLS-binding protein in Drosophila embryos. Immunoprecipitation confirmed the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of p94, and co-precipitation of two additional phosphorylated proteins, indicated that the NLS-binding protein is part of a larger complex in Drosophila embryos. In agreement with the immunoprecipitation results, cross-linking experiments demonstrated the interaction of p94 with three additional proteins. These protein-protein interactions were also phosphorylation-dependent. PMID:9396726

Cserpn, I; Mth, E; Patthy, A; Udvardy, A



Identification of Protein-Bound Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes by Nuclear Resonance Vibrational Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

We have applied [superscript 57]Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to identify protein-bound dinitrosyl iron complexes. Intense NRVS peaks due to vibrations of the N?Fe?N unit can be observed between 500 ...

Wang, Hongxin


Meaning of tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 in the molecular mechanism of gemcitabine sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Stress proteins of the pancreas, such as tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1), are important factors in the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. TP53INP1 is a pro-apoptotic factor and is transcriptionally regulated in p53-dependent and -independent manners. A previous study proved that gemcitabine induces TP53INP1 expression in pancreatic cancer cells and the pancreatic cancer cell line (PANC-1). The present study aimed to clarify the association between TP53INP1 and gemcitabine sensitivity. The expression of TP53INP1 and its related factors, such as cell growth and cell cycle status in TP53INP1-knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts [TP53INP1?/?-mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)] to those in wild-type counterparts (TP53INP1+/+-MEFs) were compared. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated no difference of the checkpoint function in TP53INP1?/?-MEFs and TP53INP1+/+-MEFs when exposed to 10 ng/ml of gemcitabine. No significant difference was found in the level of p53 expression in the cell types, although the base level and gemcitabine-induced expression of p21 were significantly decreased in TP53INP1?/?-MEFs, compared to those in wild-type counterparts. Results showed that gemcitabine induced the p21 expression in TP53INP1+/+-MEFs, although not in TP53INP1?/?-MEFs. However, their respective cell-cycle checkpoints were not different. Therefore, TP53INP1 was found to be associated with drug sensitivity through control of the cell cycle. PMID:24649130




Phosphorylation of nuclear and DNA-binding proteins in proliferating and quiescent mammalian cells.  

PubMed Central

The dependence of cell proliferation on nuclear protein phosphorylation was studied with exponential-phase and stationary-phase cultures of Chinese-hamster ovary cells. Nuclear proteins were fractionated, according to their DNA-binding affinities, by using sequential extractions of isolated nuclei with increasing concentrations of NaCl. When viable whole cells were labelled with H332PO4, phosphorylation of nuclear proteins was found to be lower in quiescent cells than in proliferating cells. Phosphorylation of nuclear proteins soluble in 0.30M-NaCl (less than 50% of these proteins bind to DNA) was greater than for those proteins soluble in higher salt concentrations (80-100% of these proteins bind to DNA). Cyclic AMP enhanced the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins soluble in 0.3 m-NaCl by 40-50%, and this stimulation was independent of cell growth. Cyclic AMP also increased the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins soluble in 0.6M-NaCl and 2.0M-NaCl by 40-50% in exponential-phase cultures, but not in stationary-phase cultures. Several examples of specific phosphorylation in response to cyclic AMP were observed, including a 35000-mol.wt. protein in the 0.30 M-NaCl-soluble fraction and several proteins larger than 100000 molecular weight within this fraction. A major peptide of molecular weight approx. 31000 extracted with 0.6M-NaCl was also phosphorylated. Its phosphorylation was independent of cyclic AMP in exponential-phase cultures, and it was not phosphorylated in plateau-phase cells. These changes in cell-growth-dependent phosphorylation occurred in the absence of any apparent qualitative changes in the nuclear protein molecular-weight distributions. These data demonstrate that (1) phosphorylation of nuclear proteins is dependent on the culture's proliferative status, (2) both cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-independent specific phosphorylation occurs, and (3) the cyclic AMP-dependent growth-independent phosphorylation that occurs does not appear to be a modification of DNA-binding proteins, whereas the cyclic AMP-dependent growth-dependent phosphorylation does involve modification of DNA binding proteins. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:6272725

Gerner, E W; Costa, M; Holmes, D K; Magun, B E



Nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that are up-regulated during myogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background The nuclear lamina is a protein meshwork lining the inner nuclear membrane, which contains a polymer of nuclear lamins associated with transmembrane proteins of the inner nuclear membrane. The lamina is involved in nuclear structure, gene expression, and association of the cytoplasmic cytoskeleton with the nucleus. We previously identified a group of 67 novel putative nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) in a large-scale proteomics analysis. Because mutations in lamina proteins have been linked to several human diseases affecting skeletal muscle, we examined NET expression during differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Our goal was to identify new nuclear envelope and lamina components whose expression is coordinated with muscle differentiation. Results Using transcriptional microarray analysis, we found that expression of 6 of the NETs significantly increases during myoblast differentiation. We confirmed these results using quantitative RT-PCR, and furthermore, found that all 6 NETs are expressed at high levels in adult mouse skeletal muscle relative to 9 other tissues examined. Using epitope-tagged cDNAs, we determined that the 5 NETs we could analyze (NETs 9, 25, 32, 37 and 39) all target to the nuclear envelope in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, the 3 NETs that we could analyze by immunoblotting were highly enriched in nuclear envelopes relative to microsomal membranes purified from mouse liver. Database searches showed that 4 of the 6 up-regulated NETs contain regions of homology to proteins previously linked to signaling. Conclusion This work identified 6 NETs that are predicted to have important functions in muscle development and/or maintenance from their expression patterns during myoblast differentiation and in mouse tissues. We confirmed that 5 of these NETs are authentic nuclear envelope proteins. Four members of this group have potential signaling functions at the NE, based on their sequence homologies. PMID:17062158

Chen, I-Hsiung Brandon; Huber, Michael; Guan, Tinglu; Bubeck, Anja; Gerace, Larry



Targeting and function in mRNA export of nuclear pore complex protein Nup153  

PubMed Central

Nup153 is a large (153 kD) O-linked glyco-protein which is a component of the basket structure located on the nucleoplasmic face of nuclear pore complexes. This protein exhibits a tripartite structure consisting of a zinc finger domain flanked by large (60-70 kD) NH2- and COOH- terminal domains. When full-length human Nup153 is expressed in BHK cells, it accumulates appropriately at the nucleoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope. Targeting information for Nup153 resides in the NH2- terminal domain since this region of the molecule can direct an ordinarily cytoplasmic protein, pyruvate kinase, to the nuclear face of the nuclear pore complex. Overexpression of Nup153 results in the dramatic accumulation of nuclear poly (A)+ RNA, suggesting an inhibition of RNA export from the nucleus. This is not due to a general decline in nucleocytoplasmic transport or to occlusion or loss of nuclear pore complexes since nuclear protein import is unaffected. While overexpression of certain Nup153 constructs was found to result in the formation of unusual intranuclear membrane arrays, this structural phenotype could not be correlated with the effects on poly (A)+ RNA distribution. The RNA trafficking defect was, however, dependent upon the Nup153 COOH-terminal domain which contains most of the XFXFG repeats. It is proposed that this region of Nup153, lying within the distal ring of the nuclear basket, represents a docking site for mRNA molecules exiting the nucleus. PMID:8794857



Characterization of a baculovirus nuclear localization signal domain in the late expression factor 3 protein  

SciTech Connect

The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) single-stranded DNA binding protein LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein that is required to transport the helicase protein P143 into the nucleus of infected cells where they function to replicate viral DNA. The N-terminal 56 amino acid region of LEF-3 is required for nuclear transport. In this report, we analyzed the effect of site-specific mutagenesis of LEF-3 on its intracellular distribution. Fluorescence microscopy of expression plasmid-transfected cells demonstrated that the residues 28 to 32 formed the core nuclear localization signal, but other adjacent positively-charged residues augmented these sequences. Comparison with other group I Alphabaculoviruses suggested that this core region functionally duplicated residues including 18 and 19. This was demonstrated by the loss of nuclear localization when the equivalent residues (18 to 20) in Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) LEF-3 were mutated. The AcMNPV LEF-3 nuclear localization domain was also shown to drive nuclear transport in mammalian cells indicating that the protein nuclear import systems in insect and mammalian cells are conserved. We also demonstrated by mutagenesis that two conserved cysteine residues located at 82 and 106 were not essential for nuclear localization or for interaction with P143. However, by using a modified construct of P143 that localized on its own to the nucleus, we demonstrated that a functional nuclear localization domain on LEF-3 was required for interaction between LEF-3 and P143.

Au, Victoria; Yu Mei [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Carstens, Eric B. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada)], E-mail:



Varicella zoster virus ORF25 gene product: an essential hub protein linking encapsidation proteins and the nuclear egress complex.  


Varicella zoster virus (VZV) ORF25 is a 156 amino acid protein belonging to the approximately 40 core proteins that are conserved throughout the Herpesviridae. By analogy to its functional orthologue UL33 in Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), ORF25 is thought to be a component of the terminase complex. To investigate how cleavage and encapsidation of viral DNA links to the nuclear egress of mature capsids in VZV, we tested 10 VZV proteins that are predicted to be involved in either of the two processes for protein interactions against each other using three independent protein-protein interaction (PPI) detection systems: the yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) system, a luminescence based MBP pull-down interaction screening assay (LuMPIS), and a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay. A set of 20 interactions was consistently detected by at least 2 methods and resulted in a dense interaction network between proteins associated in encapsidation and nuclear egress. The results indicate that the terminase complex in VZV consists of ORF25, ORF30, and ORF45/42 and support a model in which both processes are closely linked to each other. Consistent with its role as a central hub for protein interactions, ORF25 is shown to be essential for VZV replication. PMID:21988664

Vizoso Pinto, Maria G; Pothineni, Venkata R; Haase, Rudolf; Woidy, Mathias; Lotz-Havla, Amelie S; Gersting, Sren W; Muntau, Ania C; Haas, Jrgen; Sommer, Marvin; Arvin, Ann M; Baiker, Armin



A Conserved Drosophila Transportin-Serine\\/Arginine-rich (SR) Protein Permits Nuclear Import of Drosophila SR Protein Splicing Factors and Their Antagonist Repressor Splicing Factor 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the highly conserved serine\\/arginine-rich (SR) protein family are nuclear factors involved in splicing of metazoan mRNA precursors. In mammals, two nuclear import receptors, transportin (TRN)-SR1 and TRN-SR2, are responsible for targeting SR proteins to the nucleus. Distinctive features in the nuclear localization signal between Drosophila and mammalian SR proteins prompted us to examine the mechanism by which Drosophila

Eric Allemand; Svetlana Dokudovskaya; Remy Bordonne; Jamal Tazi



Structure Determination of Membrane Proteins by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Many biological membranes consist of 50% or more (by weight) membrane proteins, which constitute approximately one-third of all proteins expressed in biological organisms. Helical membrane proteins function as receptors, enzymes, and transporters, among other unique cellular roles. Additionally, most drugs have membrane proteins as their receptors, notably the superfamily of G proteincoupled receptors with seven transmembrane helices. Determining the structures of membrane proteins is a daunting task because of the effects of the membrane environment; specifically, it has been difficult to combine biologically compatible environments with the requirements for the established methods of structure determination. There is strong motivation to determine the structures in their native phospholipid bilayer environment so that perturbations from nonnatural lipids and phases do not have to be taken into account. At present, the only method that can work with proteins in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers is solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23577669

Opella, Stanley J.



Deciphering apicoplast targeting signals feature extraction from nuclear-encoded precursors of Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malaria causing protozoan Plasmodium falciparum contains a vestigal, non-photosynthetic plastid, the apicoplast. Numerous proteins encoded by nuclear genes are targeted to the apicoplast courtesy of N-terminal extensions. With the impending sequence completion of an entire genome of the malaria parasite, it is important to have software tools in place for prediction of subcellular locations for all proteins. Apicoplast targeting

Jochen Zuegge; Stuart Ralph; Michael Schmuker; Geoffrey I. McFadden; Gisbert Schneider



MitoDrome: a database of Drosophila melanogaster nuclear genes encoding proteins targeted to the mitochondrion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria are organelles present in the cyto- plasm of most eukaryotic cells; although they have their own DNA, the majority of the proteins neces- sary for a functional mitochondrion are coded by the nuclear DNA and only after transcription and transla- tion they are imported in the mitochondrion as proteins. The primary role of the mitochondrion is electron transport and

Marco Sardiello; Flavio Licciulli; Domenico Catalano; Marcella Attimonelli; Corrado Caggese



Using FRAP and mathematical modeling to determine the in vivo kinetics of nuclear proteins  

E-print Network

Using FRAP and mathematical modeling to determine the in vivo kinetics of nuclear proteins Gustavo photobleaching (FRAP) has become a popular technique to investigate the behavior of proteins in living cells mobility has only recently been studied. Here we examine the experimental design and analysis of FRAP

de Vries, Gerda


Cytokine-induced nuclear translocation of signaling proteins and their analysis using the inducible translocation trap system  

PubMed Central

Binding of cytokines to their specific receptors induces activation of signal transduction pathways, many of which involve nuclear translocation of signaling proteins. In this review, an overview of cytokine-induced nuclear translocation of signaling proteins is provided. In addition, inducible translocation trap (ITT), a novel reporter-based system to detect nuclear translocation, and its application for identification of nuclear translocating proteins are elaborated. Finally, analysis of nuclear translocatome, the entire set of proteins that translocate into or out of the nucleus in response to extracellular stimuli, by ITT is discussed. PMID:18203617

Fleur, Shella Saint; Fujii, Hodaka



Nmd3p Is a Crm1p-Dependent Adapter Protein for Nuclear Export of the Large Ribosomal Subunit  

Microsoft Academic Search

In eukaryotic cells, nuclear export of nascent ribosomal subunits through the nuclear pore complex depends on the small GTPase Ran. However, neither the nuclear export signals (NESs) for the ribosomal subunits nor the receptor proteins, which recognize the NESs and mediate export of the subunits, have been identified. We showed previously that Nmd3p is an es- sential protein from yeast

Jennifer Hei-Ngam Ho; George Kallstrom; Arlen W. Johnson



A functional nuclear localization sequence in the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3  

SciTech Connect

The capsid proteins of some RNA viruses can translocate to the nucleus and interfere with cellular phenotypes. In this study we found that the VP1 capsid protein of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) was dominantly localized in the nucleus of the cells transfected with VP1-expressing plasmid. The VP1 nuclear localization also occurred in the cells infected with CVB3. Truncation analysis indicated that the VP1 nuclear localization sequence located near the C-terminal. The substitution of His220 with threonine completely abolished its translocation. The VP1 proteins of other CVB types might have the nuclear localization potential because this region was highly conserved. Moreover, the VP1 nuclear localization induced cell cycle deregulation, including a prolonged S phase and shortened G2-M phase. Besides these findings, we also found a domain between Ala72 and Phe106 that caused the VP1 truncates dotted distributed in the cytoplasm. Our results suggest a new pathogenic mechanism of CVB. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The VP1 protein of coxsackievirus B3 can specifically localize in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear localization signal of coxsackievirus B3 VP1 protein locates near its C-terminal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The VP1 nuclear localization of coxsackievirus B3 can deregulate cell cycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a domain in the VP1 that determines it dotted distributed in the cytoplasm.

Wang, Tianying; Yu, Bohai; Lin, Lexun; Zhai, Xia; Han, Yelu; Qin, Ying; Guo, Zhiwei; Wu, Shuo; Zhong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yan; Tong, Lei; Zhang, Fengmin; Si, Xiaoning [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)] [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhao, Wenran, E-mail: [Department of Cell Biology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)] [Department of Cell Biology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhong, Zhaohua, E-mail: [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)] [Department of Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081 (China)



High resolution imaging and function of nuclear G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).  


The traditional view of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) being inactivated upon their internalization has been repeatedly challenged in recent years. GPCRs, in addition to forming the largest family of cell surface receptors, can also be found on intracellular membranes such as nuclear membranes. Since the first experimental evidence of GPCRs at the nucleus in the early 1990s, approximately 30 different GPCRs have been localized at the nucleus by independent research groups, including ours. In this chapter, we describe several techniques commonly used for immuno-detection of nuclear GPCRs focusing on subcellular fractionation of proteins based on their localization and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using primary cultured cells as well as tissue sections. We also describe the use of confocal microscopy to study nuclear calcium currents, which can further affect downstream events such as gene transcription, nuclear envelope breakdown, or its reconstruction and nucleocytoplasmic protein transport. PMID:25304350

Bhosle, Vikrant K; Gobeil, Fernand; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Ribeiro-da-Silva, Alfredo; Chemtob, Sylvain



Protein-protein interactions and nuclear trafficking of coat protein and betaC1 protein associated with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease.  


Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease (BYVMD) is caused by a complex consisting of a monopartite begomovirus BYVMV and a satellite DNA beta component. BYVMV represents a new member of the emerging group of monopartite begomoviruses requiring a satellite component for symptom induction. Here we report the results of the transient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused with the betaC1 and coat protein (CP) coding regions, in the epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana. GFPCP was found to be targeted into the nucleus whereas GFPbetaC1 was localized towards the periphery of the cell. The sub-cellular localization of the betaC1 protein has been compared with that of the CP in yeast cells using a genetic system for detection of protein nuclear import and export. Expression of betaC1 ORF in transgenic N. benthamiana under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced severe developmental abnormalities in the plant, like distorted stem, leaves and stunting of the plant. We also present the results on the interaction of CP and betaC1 proteins using yeast two hybrid analysis, suggesting a collaborative role in the inter- and intracellular dynamics of BYVMD. PMID:16934356

Kumar P, P; Usha, R; Zrachya, A; Levy, Y; Spanov, H; Gafni, Y



LZTS2 Is a Novel ?-Catenin-Interacting Protein and Regulates the Nuclear Export of ?-Catenin?  

PubMed Central

?-Catenin plays multiple roles in cell-cell adhesion and Wnt signal transduction. Through the Wnt signal, the cellular level of ?-catenin is constitutively regulated by the multicomponent destruction complex containing glycogen synthase kinase 3?, axin, and adenomatous polyposis coli. Here, we present multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate that LZTS2 (lucine zipper tumor suppressor 2) interacts with ?-catenin, represses the transactivation of ?-catenin, and affects the subcellular localization of ?-catenin. The LZTS2 gene is located at 10q24.3, which is frequently lost in a variety of human tumors. A functional nuclear export signal (NES) was identified in the C terminus of the protein (amino acids 631 to 641). Appending this motif to green fluorescent protein (GFP) induced nuclear exclusion of the GFP fusion protein. However, introducing point mutations in either one or two leucine residues of this NES sequence abolished the nuclear exclusion of the LZTS2 protein. The nuclear export of LZTS2 can be blocked by leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of the CRM1/exportin-alpha pathway. Intriguingly, ?-catenin colocalizes with LZTS2 in the cytoplasm of cells in the absence of LMB but in the nuclei of cells in the presence of LMB. Increasing the LZTS2 protein in cells reduces the level of nuclear ?-catenin in SW480 cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that LZTS2 is a ?-catenin-interacting protein that can modulate ?-catenin signaling and localization. PMID:17000760

Thyssen, Gregory; Li, Tzu-Huey; Lehmann, Lynn; Zhuo, Ming; Sharma, Manju; Sun, Zijie



Association with capsid proteins promotes nuclear targeting of simian virus 40 DNA.  

PubMed Central

All animal DNA viruses except pox virus utilize the cell nucleus as the site for virus reproduction. Yet, a critical viral infection process, nuclear targeting of the viral genome, is poorly understood. The role of capsid proteins in nuclear targeting of simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA, which is assessed by the nuclear accumulation of large tumor (T) antigen, the initial sign of the infectious process, was tested by two independent approaches: antibody interception experiments and reconstitution experiments. When antibody against viral capsid protein Vp1 or Vp3 was introduced into the cytoplasm, the nuclear accumulation of T antigen was not observed in cells either infected or cytoplasmically injected with virion. Nuclearly introduced anti-Vp3 IgG also showed the inhibitory effect. In the reconstitution experiments, SV40 DNA was allowed to interact with protein components of the virus, either empty particles or histones, and the resulting complexes were tested for the capability of protein components to target the DNA to the nucleus from cytoplasm as effectively as the targeting of DNA in the mature virion. In cells injected with empty particle-DNA, but not in minichromosome-injected cells, T antigen was observed as effectively as in SV40-injected cells. These results demonstrate that SV40 capsid proteins can facilitate transport of SV40 DNA into the nucleus and indicate that Vp3, one of the capsid proteins, accompanies SV40 DNA as it enters the nucleus during virus infection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8552683

Nakanishi, A; Clever, J; Yamada, M; Li, P P; Kasamatsu, H



Nuclear cytoplasmic trafficking of proteins is a major response of human fibroblasts to oxidative stress.  


We have used a subcellular spatial razor approach based on LC-MS/MS-based proteomics with SILAC isotope labeling to determine changes in protein abundances in the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments of human IMR90 fibroblasts subjected to mild oxidative stress. We show that response to mild tert-butyl hydrogen peroxide treatment includes redistribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm of numerous proteins not previously associated with oxidative stress. The 121 proteins with the most significant changes encompass proteins with known functions in a wide variety of subcellular locations and of cellular functional processes (transcription, signal transduction, autophagy, iron metabolism, TCA cycle, ATP synthesis) and are consistent with functional networks that are spatially dispersed across the cell. Both nuclear respiratory factor 2 and the proline regulatory axis appear to contribute to the cellular metabolic response. Proteins involved in iron metabolism or with iron/heme as a cofactor as well as mitochondrial proteins are prominent in the response. Evidence suggesting that nuclear import/export and vesicle-mediated protein transport contribute to the cellular response was obtained. We suggest that measurements of global changes in total cellular protein abundances need to be complemented with measurements of the dynamic subcellular spatial redistribution of proteins to obtain comprehensive pictures of cellular function. PMID:25133973

Baqader, Noor O; Radulovic, Marko; Crawford, Mark; Stoeber, Kai; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka



Nesprins, but not sun proteins, switch isoforms at the nuclear envelope during muscle development.  


Nesprins are a family of nuclear transmembrane proteins anchored via Sun proteins to the nuclear membrane. Analysis of nesprins during human muscle development revealed an increase in nesprin-1-giant during early myogenesis in vitro. During the transition from immature to mature muscle fibres in vivo, nesprin-2 partly replaced nesprin-1 at the nuclear envelope and short nesprin isoforms became dominant. Sun1 and Sun2 proteins remained unchanged during this fibre maturation. In emerin-negative skin fibroblasts, nesprin-2-giant was relocated from the nuclear envelope to the cytoplasm, not to the endoplasmic reticulum, while nesprin-1 remained at the nuclear envelope. In emerin-negative keratinocytes lacking nesprin-1, nesprin-2 remained at the nuclear envelope. HeLa cell nuclear envelopes lacked nesprin-1, which was the dominant form in myoblasts, while a novel 130-kD nesprin-2 isoform dominated Ntera-2 cells. The results suggest the possibility of isoform-specific and tissue-specific roles for nesprins in nuclear positioning. PMID:20108321

Randles, K Natalie; Lam, Le Thanh; Sewry, Caroline A; Puckelwartz, Megan; Furling, Denis; Wehnert, Manfred; McNally, Elizabeth M; Morris, Glenn E



Nuclear localization is required for function of the essential clock protein FRQ.  

PubMed Central

The frequency (frq) gene in Neurospora encodes central components of a circadian oscillator, a negative feedback loop involving frq mRNA and two forms of FRQ protein. Here we report that FRQ is a nuclear protein and nuclear localization is essential for its function. Deletion of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) renders FRQ unable to enter into the nucleus and abolishes overt circadian rhythmicity, while reinsertion of the NLS at a novel site near the N-terminus of FRQ restores its function. Each form of FRQ enters the nucleus soon after its synthesis in the early subjective day; there is no evidence for regulated sequestration in the cytoplasm prior to nuclear entry. The kinetics of the nuclear entry are consistent with previous data showing rapid depression of frq transcript levels following the synthesis of FRQ, and suggest that early in each circadian cycle, when FRQ is synthesized, it enters the nucleus and depresses the level of its own transcript. PMID:9482720

Luo, C; Loros, J J; Dunlap, J C



The Rad9A checkpoint protein is required for nuclear localization of the claspin adaptor protein.  


The interaction between the 911 complex, via Rad9A, and Claspin is required for activation of the Chk1-mediated checkpoint response, along with ATR, TopBp1, and the 911 clamp loader complex Rad17/RFC. Despite the importance of the Rad9A-Claspin interaction in the cell cycle, this interaction has yet to be characterized. In this work we show this interaction persists in a variety of different conditions. During the course of this study we also determined the nuclear localization of Rad9A affected the localization of the Claspin protein, leading us to the conclusion that Rad9A is able to affect Claspin cellular localization. This was verified experimentally using a Rad9A-null cell line and reconstitution of Wt Rad9A. We also show that in meS cells the Rad9A paralog, Rad9B, is also capable of affecting Claspin localization. Together, these data suggest that Rad9 plays a role in locating Claspin to sites of DNA damage, facilitating its role during the Chk1-mediated checkpoint response. Since disruption of both Rad9A and Claspin has been shown to abolish Chk1 activation, we postulate that Rad9A-mediated Claspin localization is a vital step during checkpoint activation. PMID:20081369

Sierant, Megan L; Archer, Nicole E; Davey, Scott K



Coordinate Nuclear Targeting of the FANCD2 and FANCI Proteins via a FANCD2 Nuclear Localization Signal  

PubMed Central

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disease, characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and increased cancer susceptibility. FA is caused by biallelic mutation of any one of sixteen genes. The protein products of these genes function cooperatively in the FA-BRCA pathway to repair DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). A central step in the activation of this pathway is the monoubiquitination of the FANCD2 and FANCI proteins. Monoubiquitinated FANCD2 and FANCI localize to discrete chromatin regions where they function in ICL repair. Despite their critical role in ICL repair, very little is known about the structure, function, and regulation of the FANCD2 and FANCI proteins, or how they are targeted to the nucleus and chromatin. In this study, we describe the functional characterization of an amino-terminal FANCD2 nuclear localization signal (NLS). We demonstrate that the amino terminal 58 amino acids of FANCD2 can promote the nuclear expression of GFP and is necessary for the nuclear localization of FANCD2. Importantly, mutation of this FANCD2 NLS reveals that intact FANCD2 is required for the nuclear localization of a subset of FANCI. In addition, the NLS is necessary for the efficient monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI and, consequently, for their localization to chromatin. As a result, FANCD2 NLS mutants fail to rescue the ICL sensitivity of FA-D2 patient cells. Our studies yield important insight into the domain structure of the poorly characterized FANCD2 protein, and reveal a previously unknown mechanism for the coordinate nuclear import of a subset of FANCD2 and FANCI, a key early step in the cellular ICL response. PMID:24278431

Boisvert, Rebecca A.; Rego, Meghan A.; Azzinaro, Paul A.; Mauro, Maurizio; Howlett, Niall G.



Identification of amino acid sequences in the polyomavirus capsid proteins that serve as nuclear localization signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The molecular mechanism participating in the transport of newly synthesized proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in mammalian cells is poorly understood. Recently, the nuclear localization signal sequences (NLS) of many nuclear proteins have been identified, and most have been found to be composed of a highly basic amino acid stretch. A genetic "subtractive" and a biochemical "additive" approach were used in our studies to identify the NLS's of the polyomavirus structural capsid proteins. An NLS was identified at the N-terminus (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) of the major capsid protein VP1 and at the C-terminus (Glu307 -Glu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Glu-Lys-Lys-Lys-Arg-Arg-Leu318) of the VP2/VP3 minor capsid proteins.

Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. Jr; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)



Huntingtin interacting protein 1 modulates the transcriptional activity of nuclear hormone receptors  

PubMed Central

Internalization of activated receptors regulates signaling, and endocytic adaptor proteins are well-characterized in clathrin-mediated uptake. One of these adaptor proteins, huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1), induces cellular transformation and is overexpressed in some prostate cancers. We have discovered that HIP1 associates with the androgen receptor through a central coiled coil domain and is recruited to DNA response elements upon androgen stimulation. HIP1 is a novel androgen receptor regulator, significantly repressing transcription when knocked down using a silencing RNA approach and activating transcription when overexpressed. We have also identified a functional nuclear localization signal at the COOH terminus of HIP1, which contributes to the nuclear translocation of the protein. In conclusion, we have discovered that HIP1 is a nucleocytoplasmic protein capable of associating with membranes and DNA response elements and regulating transcription. PMID:16027218

Mills, Ian G.; Gaughan, Luke; Robson, Craig; Ross, Theodora; McCracken, Stuart; Kelly, John; Neal, David E.



Characterization of the nuclear localization signal of the mouse TET3 protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Amino acid sequence KKRK is responsible for nuclear localization of TET3. Amino acid sequence KKRK are capable of targeting the cytoplasmic proteins to the nucleus. Amino acid sequence KKRK are conserved in TET3 orthologs. -- Abstract: DNA demethylation is associated with gene activation and is mediated by a family of ten-eleven translocation (TET) dioxygenase. The TET3 protein is a 1668-amino-acid DNA demethylase that is predicted to possess five nuclear localization signals (NLSs). In this paper, we used a series of green fluorescent protein-tagged and mutation constructs to identify a conserved NLS (KKRK) embedded between amino acid 1615 and 1618 of mouse TET3. The KKRK sequence facilitates the cytoplasmic proteins translocation into the nucleus. Additionally TET3 may be imported into the nucleus by importin-? and importin-?.

Xiao, Peng; Zhou, Xiao-long; Zhang, Hong-xiao; Xiong, Kai; Teng, Yun; Huang, Xian-ju; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yi; Liu, Hong-lin, E-mail:



Structural Mechanism of Nuclear Transport Mediated by Importin ? and Flexible Amphiphilic Proteins.  


Karyopherin ? family proteins mediate the nuclear/cytoplasmic transport of various proteins through the nuclear pore complex (NPC), although they are substantially larger than the size limit of the NPC. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this paradoxical function, we focused on the unique structures called HEAT repeats, which consist of repetitive amphiphilic ? helices. An invitro transport assay and FRAP analyses demonstrated that not only karyopherin ? family proteins but also other proteins with HEAT repeats could pass through the NPC by themselves, and serve as transport mediators for their binding partners. Biochemical and spectroscopic analyses and molecular dynamics simulations of purified HEAT-rich proteins revealed that they interact with hydrophobic groups, including phenyl and alkyl groups, and undergo reversible conformational changes in tertiary structures, but not in secondary structures. These results show that conformational changes in the flexible amphiphilic motifs play a critical role in translocation through the NPC. PMID:25435324

Yoshimura, Shige H; Kumeta, Masahiro; Takeyasu, Kunio



S-nitrosylation regulates nuclear translocation of chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC4.  


Nuclear translocation of chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC4 is essential for its role in Ca(2+)-induced differentiation, stress-induced apoptosis, and modulating TGF-beta signaling in mouse epidermal keratinocytes. However, post-translational modifications on CLIC4 that govern nuclear translocation and thus these activities remain to be elucidated. The structure of CLIC4 is dependent on the redox environment, in vitro, and translocation may depend on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the cell. Here we show that NO directly induces nuclear translocation of CLIC4 that is independent of the NO-cGMP pathway. Indeed, CLIC4 is directly modified by NO through S-nitrosylation of a cysteine residue, as measured by the biotin switch assay. NO enhances association of CLIC4 with the nuclear import proteins importin alpha and Ran. This is likely a result of the conformational change induced by S-nitrosylated CLIC4 that leads to unfolding of the protein, as exhibited by CD spectra analysis and trypsinolysis of the modified protein. Cysteine mutants of CLIC4 exhibit altered nitrosylation, nuclear residence, and stability, compared with the wild type protein likely as a consequence of altered tertiary structure. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced nuclear translocation of CLIC4 is dependent on nitric-oxide synthase activity. Inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase activity inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced nitrosylation and association with importin alpha and Ran and ablates CLIC4 nuclear translocation. These results suggest that S-nitrosylation governs CLIC4 structure, its association with protein partners, and thus its intracellular distribution. PMID:20504765

Malik, Mariam; Shukla, Anjali; Amin, Palak; Niedelman, Wendy; Lee, Jessica; Jividen, Kasey; Phang, Juanita M; Ding, Jinhui; Suh, Kwang S; Curmi, Paul M G; Yuspa, Stuart H



Interaction of a nuclear location signal with isolated nuclear envelopes and identification of signal-binding proteins by photoaffinity labeling.  


The nuclear envelope (NE) separates the two major compartments of eukaryotic cells, the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Recent studies suggest that the uptake of nuclear proteins into the nucleus is initiated by binding of nuclear location signals (NLSs) contained within these proteins to receptors in the NE, followed by translocation through the nuclear pore complex. To examine the binding step without interference from intranuclear events, we have used a system consisting of (i) purified rat liver NEs fixed onto glass slides and (ii) the prototype simian virus 40 large T antigen (SV40 T) NLS conjugated to nonnuclear carrier proteins, and we have visualized the receptor-ligand interaction by indirect immunofluorescence. In this system, incubation of isolated NEs with the wild-type SV40 T NLS conjugate with carrier proteins resulted in binding that was signal sequence-dependent, could be competitively blocked with excess conjugated and unconjugated wild-type peptide, did not require ATP, and was not affected by the transport-inhibiting lectin wheat germ agglutinin. In contrast, only minimal binding was observed with a mutant SV40 T NLS conjugate. These results are consistent with those obtained in other, more complex in vitro systems and suggest that binding of the SV40 T NLS is receptor-mediated. Binding is largely abolished by extraction of the NE with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100, suggesting that the receptor is soluble in detergent. We find in the Triton X-100 supernatant four major NLS-binding proteins with apparent molecular masses of 76, 67, 59, and 58 kDa by photoaffinity labeling with a highly specific crosslinker, azido-NLS. The reduced complexity of the system described here should be useful for the functional study of other potential NLSs for the identification and isolation of their binding sites and for the screening of antibodies raised against these binding sites. PMID:2556708

Benditt, J O; Meyer, C; Fasold, H; Barnard, F C; Riedel, N



Nuclear Import and Export of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Nonstructural Protein 2?  

PubMed Central

Many RNA viruses, which replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm, have nuclear components that contribute to their life cycle or pathogenesis. We investigated the intracellular localization of the multifunctional nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) in mammalian cells infected with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), an important, naturally emerging zoonotic alphavirus. VEE nsP2 localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of mammalian cells in the context of infection and also when expressed alone. Through the analysis of a series of enhanced green fluorescent protein fusions, a segment of nsP2 that completely localizes to the nucleus of mammalian cells was identified. Within this region, mutation of the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) PGKMV diminished, but did not obliterate, the ability of the protein to localize to the nucleus, suggesting that this sequence contributes to the nuclear localization of VEE nsP2. Furthermore, VEE nsP2 specifically interacted with the nuclear import protein karyopherin-?1 but not with karyopherin-?2, -3, or -4, suggesting that karyopherin-?1 transports nsP2 to the nucleus during infection. Additionally, a novel nuclear export signal (NES) was identified, which included residues L526 and L528 of VEE nsP2. Leptomycin B treatment resulted in nuclear accumulation of nsP2, demonstrating that nuclear export of nsP2 is mediated via the CRM1 nuclear export pathway. Disruption of either the NLS or the NES in nsP2 compromised essential viral functions. Taken together, these results establish the bidirectional transport of nsP2 across the nuclear membrane, suggesting that a critical function of nsP2 during infection involves its shuttling between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. PMID:17652399

Montgomery, Stephanie A.; Johnston, Robert E.



The overexpression of nuclear envelope protein Lap2? induces endoplasmic reticulum reorganisation via membrane stacking  

PubMed Central

Summary Some nuclear envelope proteins are localised to both the nuclear envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum; therefore, it seems plausible that even small amounts of these proteins can influence the organisation of the endoplasmic reticulum. A simple method to study the possible effects of nuclear envelope proteins on endoplasmic reticulum organisation is to analyze nuclear envelope protein overexpression. Here, we demonstrate that Lap2? overexpression can induce the formation of cytoplasmic vesicular structures derived from endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Correlative light and electron microscopy demonstrated that these vesicular structures were composed of a series of closely apposed membranes that were frequently arranged in a circular fashion. Although stacked endoplasmic reticulum cisternae were highly ordered, Lap2? could readily diffuse into and out of these structures into the surrounding reticulum. It appears that low-affinity interactions between cytoplasmic domains of Lap2? can reorganise reticular endoplasmic reticulum into stacked cisternae. Although the effect of one protein may be insignificant at low concentrations, the cumulative effect of many non-specialised proteins may be significant. PMID:23213473

Volkova, Ekaterina G.; Abramchuk, Sergey S.; Sheval, Eugene V.



Carboxy terminal modifications of the P0 protein reveal alternative mechanisms of nuclear ribosomal stalk assembly  

PubMed Central

The P0 scaffold protein of the ribosomal stalk is mainly incorporated into pre-ribosomes in the cytoplasm where it replaces the assembly factor Mrt4. In analyzing the role of the P0 carboxyl terminal domain (CTD) during ribosomal stalk assembly, we found that its complete removal yields a protein that is functionally similar to Mrt4, whereas a chimeric Mrt4 containing the P0 CTD behaves more like P0. Deleting the P0 binding sites for the P1 and P2 proteins provoked the nuclear accumulation of P0?AB induced by either leptomycin B-mediated blockage of nuclear export or Mrt4 deletion. This effect was reversed by removing P1/P2 from the cell, whereas nuclear accumulation was restored on reintroduction of these proteins. Together, these results indicate that the CTD determines the function of the P0 in stalk assembly. Moreover, they indicate that in cells lacking Mrt4, P0 and its stalk base partner, the L12 protein, bind to pre-ribosomes in the nucleus, a complex that is then exported to the cytoplasm by a mechanism assisted by the interaction with P1/P2 proteins. Furthermore, in wild-type cells, the presence of nuclear pre-ribosome complexes containing P0 but not L12 is compatible with the existence of an alternative stalk assembly process. PMID:23880660

Francisco-Velilla, Rosario; Remacha, Miguel; Ballesta, Juan P.G.



0610009K11Rik, a testis-specific and germ cell nuclear receptor-interacting protein  

SciTech Connect

Using an in silico approach, a putative nuclear receptor-interacting protein 0610009K11Rik was identified in mouse testis. We named this gene testis-specific nuclear receptor-interacting protein-1 (Tnrip-1). Tnrip-1 was predominantly expressed in the testis of adult mouse tissues. Expression of Tnrip-1 in the testis was regulated during postnatal development, with robust expression in 14-day-old or older testes. In situ hybridization analyses showed that Tnrip-1 is highly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids. Consistent with its mRNA expression, Tnrip-1 protein was detected in adult mouse testes. Immunohistochemical studies showed that Tnrip-1 is a nuclear protein and mainly expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation analyses showed that endogenous Tnrip-1 protein can interact with germ cell nuclear receptor (GCNF) in adult mouse testes. Our results suggest that Tnrip-1 is a testis-specific and GCNF-interacting protein which may be involved in the modulation of GCNF-mediated gene transcription in spermatogenic cells within the testis.

Zhang Heng; Denhard, Leslie A.; Zhou Huaxin; Liu Lanhsin [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lan Zijian [Birth Defects Center, University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Dental Building Room 203B, 501 S. Preston Street, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail:



Quality control of inner nuclear membrane proteins by the Asi complex.  


Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are eliminated by a quality control system called ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). However, it is unknown how misfolded proteins in the inner nuclear membrane (INM), a specialized ER subdomain, are degraded. We used a quantitative proteomics approach to reveal an ERAD branch required for INM protein quality control in yeast. This branch involved the integral membrane proteins Asi1, Asi2, and Asi3, which assembled into an Asi complex. Besides INM misfolded proteins, the Asi complex promoted the degradation of functional regulators of sterol biosynthesis. Asi-mediated ERAD was required for ER homeostasis, which suggests that spatial segregation of protein quality control systems contributes to ER function. PMID:25236469

Foresti, Ombretta; Rodriguez-Vaello, Victoria; Funaya, Charlotta; Carvalho, Pedro



The mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 binds diverse nuclear proteins through a common motif that targets the chromoshadow domain  

SciTech Connect

The HP1 proteins regulate epigenetic gene silencing by promoting and maintaining chromatin condensation. The HP1 chromodomain binds to methylated histone H3. More enigmatic is the chromoshadow domain (CSD), which mediates dimerization, transcription repression, and interaction with multiple nuclear proteins. Here we show that KAP-1, CAF-1 p150, and NIPBL carry a canonical amino acid motif, PxVxL, which binds directly to the CSD with high affinity. We also define a new class of variant PxVxL CSD-binding motifs in Sp100A, LBR, and ATRX. Both canonical and variant motifs recognize a similar surface of the CSD dimer as demonstrated by a panel of CSD mutants. These in vitro binding results were confirmed by the analysis of polypeptides found associated with nuclear HP1 complexes and we provide the first evidence of the NIPBL/delangin protein in human cells, a protein recently implicated in the developmental disorder, Cornelia de Lange syndrome. NIPBL is related to Nipped-B, a factor participating in gene activation by remote enhancers in Drosophila melanogaster. Thus, this spectrum of direct binding partners suggests an expanded role for HP1 as factor participating in promoter-enhancer communication, chromatin remodeling/assembly, and sub-nuclear compartmentalization.

Lechner, Mark S. [Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail:; Schultz, David C. [Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Negorev, Dmitri [Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Maul, Gerd G. [Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Rauscher, Frank J. [Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)



Protein Evolution by Molecular Tinkering: Diversification of the Nuclear Receptor Superfamily from a Ligand-Dependent Ancestor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic reconstruction of the structure and function of the ancestor of the nuclear receptor protein family reveals how functional diversity evolves by subtle tinkering with an ancestral template.

Jamie T. Bridgham; Geeta N. Eick; Claire Larroux; Kirti Deshpande; Michael J. Harms; Marie E. A. Gauthier; Eric A. Ortlund; Bernard M. Degnan; Joseph W. Thornton



Role of the nuclear matrix proteins in malignant transformation and cancer diagnosis.  


The nuclear matrix (NM) is the structural framework of the nucleus that consists of the peripheral lamins and pore complexes, an internal ribonucleic protein network, and residual nucleoli. Differences between the nuclear matrix protein (NMP) composition of transformed cells and their normal homologues were detected in numerous cases. Actually several tumor-specific nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) are proposed for diagnostic of bladder, breast, colon and some other cancers. According to the role of NMPs in development and phenotype of a given neoplasms the tumors can be classified as follows: I. Tumors bearing mutations in the genes encoding NMPs. The group consists of following subgroups: 1) hereditary cancer syndromes with mutations in the NM-attached oncoproteins or tumor suppressor genes; 2) sporadic tumors with somatic mutations in the NM-attached oncoproteins, tumor suppressor genes or replication enzymes; 3) leukemias with fused NMPs. II. Tumors with phenotypic quantitative or qualitative changes of the NMP spectrum. PMID:15494683

Sjakste, Nikolajs; Sjakste, Tatjana; Vikmanis, Uldis



Stage transitions in B-lymphocyte differentiation correlate with limited variations in nuclear proteins.  


Total nuclear proteins extracted from cell lines representing various stages of differentiation of mouse B lymphocytes were studied by computer analysis of two-dimensional gels. Of the 1438 spots present on the gels, 55 varied significantly in intensity during differentiation. The variations occurred most often in steps correlating with those classically defined for B-cell differentiation. Seventeen spots were not detectable in at least one of the stages (qualitative variations) and could represent switching on or off of genes coding for nuclear proteins. Detailed analysis of the 55 variable spots showed that they fall into small sets characterized by similar expression profiles, which argues for a combinatorial, multistep control mechanism of gene expression. In addition, analysis of the expression of all the nuclear proteins resolved on the gels clearly differentiated B-lineage cells from myeloid cells and suggested that the most important transition in B-cell differentiation occurs between the resting B cell and plasmocyte stages. PMID:2000390

Rabilloud, T; Pennetier, J L; Hibner, U; Vincens, P; Tarroux, P; Rougeon, F



Stage transitions in B-lymphocyte differentiation correlate with limited variations in nuclear proteins.  

PubMed Central

Total nuclear proteins extracted from cell lines representing various stages of differentiation of mouse B lymphocytes were studied by computer analysis of two-dimensional gels. Of the 1438 spots present on the gels, 55 varied significantly in intensity during differentiation. The variations occurred most often in steps correlating with those classically defined for B-cell differentiation. Seventeen spots were not detectable in at least one of the stages (qualitative variations) and could represent switching on or off of genes coding for nuclear proteins. Detailed analysis of the 55 variable spots showed that they fall into small sets characterized by similar expression profiles, which argues for a combinatorial, multistep control mechanism of gene expression. In addition, analysis of the expression of all the nuclear proteins resolved on the gels clearly differentiated B-lineage cells from myeloid cells and suggested that the most important transition in B-cell differentiation occurs between the resting B cell and plasmocyte stages. Images PMID:2000390

Rabilloud, T; Pennetier, J L; Hibner, U; Vincens, P; Tarroux, P; Rougeon, F



Nuclear matrix proteins in well and poorly differentiated human breast cancer cell lines.  


The nuclear matrix, besides providing the structural support of the nucleus, is involved in various cellular functions of the nucleus. Nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs), which are both tissue- and cell type-specific, are altered with transformation and state of differentiation. Furthermore, NMPs have been identified as informative markers of disease states. Here, the NMP profiles from human breast cancer cell lines and breast tumours were analyzed using two-dimension gel electrophoresis. We identified NMPs that are associated with well and poorly differentiated human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Five NMPs (NMBC 1-5) were found to be exclusive for well-differentiated human breast cancer cells, while one NMP (NMBC-6) was found to be present only in poorly differentiated human breast cancer cells. The identification of these proteins suggests the potential use of nuclear matrix proteins as prognostic indicators. PMID:9215523

Samuel, S K; Minish, T M; Davie, J R



Isolation of CA1 nuclear enriched fractions from hippocampal slices to study activity-dependent nuclear import of synapto-nuclear messenger proteins.  


Studying activity dependent protein expression, subcellular translocation, or phosphorylation is essential to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) induced in acute hippocampal slices are widely accepted as cellular models of learning and memory. There are numerous studies that use live cell imaging or immunohistochemistry approaches to visualize activity dependent protein dynamics. However these methods rely on the suitability of antibodies for immunocytochemistry or overexpression of fluorescence-tagged proteins in single neurons. Immunoblotting of proteins is an alternative method providing independent confirmation of the findings. The first limiting factor in preparation of subcellular fractions from individual tetanized hippocampal slices is the low amount of material. Second, the handling procedure is crucial because even very short and minor manipulations of living slices might induce activation of certain signaling cascades. Here we describe an optimized workflow in order to obtain sufficient quantity of nuclear enriched fraction of sufficient purity from the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices from rat brain. As a representative example we show that the ERK1/2 phosphorylated form of the synapto-nuclear protein messenger Jacob actively translocates to the nucleus upon induction of LTP and can be detected in a nuclear enriched fraction from CA1 neurons. PMID:25145907

Yuanxiang, Pingan; Bera, Sujoy; Karpova, Anna; Kreutz, Michael R; Mikhaylova, Marina



Identification and characterisation of a nuclear localisation signal in the SMN associated protein, Gemin4  

SciTech Connect

Gemin4 is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein that is involved in U snRNP assembly, apoptosis, nuclear/cytoplasmic transportation, transcription, and RNAi pathways. Gemin4 is one of the core components of the Gemin-complex, which also contains survival motor neuron (SMN), the seven Gemin proteins (Gemin2-8), and Unrip. Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the functions assigned to Gemin4 predominantly occur in the nucleus, the mechanisms that mediate the nuclear import of Gemin4 remain unclear. Here, using a novel panel of Gemin4 constructs we identify a canonical nuclear import sequence (NLS) in the N-terminus of Gemin4. The Gemin4 NLS is necessary and independently sufficient to mediate nuclear import of Gemin4. This is the first functional NLS identified within the SMN-Gemin complex.

Lorson, Monique A.; Dickson, Alexa M. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Shaw, Debra J.; Todd, Adrian G. [Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, St. Luke's Campus, Exeter, EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Young, Elizabeth C. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Morse, Robert; Wolstencroft, Catherine [Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, St. Luke's Campus, Exeter, EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Lorson, Christian L. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, 1201 Rollins Road, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Young, Philip J. [Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Neurobiology, IBCS, Peninsula College of Medicine and Dentistry, St. Luke's Campus, Exeter, EX1 2LU (United Kingdom)], E-mail:



Identification and characterisation of a nuclear localisation signal in the SMN associated protein, Gemin4.  


Gemin4 is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein that is involved in U snRNP assembly, apoptosis, nuclear/cytoplasmic transportation, transcription, and RNAi pathways. Gemin4 is one of the core components of the Gemin-complex, which also contains survival motor neuron (SMN), the seven Gemin proteins (Gemin2-8), and Unrip. Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the functions assigned to Gemin4 predominantly occur in the nucleus, the mechanisms that mediate the nuclear import of Gemin4 remain unclear. Here, using a novel panel of Gemin4 constructs we identify a canonical nuclear import sequence (NLS) in the N-terminus of Gemin4. The Gemin4 NLS is necessary and independently sufficient to mediate nuclear import of Gemin4. This is the first functional NLS identified within the SMN-Gemin complex. PMID:18675250

Lorson, Monique A; Dickson, Alexa M; Shaw, Debra J; Todd, Adrian G; Young, Elizabeth C; Morse, Robert; Wolstencroft, Catherine; Lorson, Christian L; Young, Philip J



Characterization and primary structure of the poly(C)-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex K protein.  

PubMed Central

At least 20 major proteins make up the ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) in mammalian cells. Many of these proteins have distinct RNA-binding specificities. The abundant, acidic heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) K and J proteins (66 and 64 kDa, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) are unique among the hnRNP proteins in their binding preference: they bind tenaciously to poly(C), and they are the major oligo(C)- and poly(C)-binding proteins in human HeLa cells. We purified K and J from HeLa cells by affinity chromatography and produced monoclonal antibodies to them. K and J are immunologically related and conserved among various vertebrates. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies shows that K and J are located in the nucleoplasm. cDNA clones for K were isolated, and their sequences were determined. The predicted amino acid sequence of K does not contain an RNP consensus sequence found in many characterized hnRNP proteins and shows no extensive homology to sequences of any known proteins. The K protein contains two internal repeats not found in other known proteins, as well as GlyArgGlyGly and GlyArgGlyGlyPhe sequences, which occur frequently in many RNA-binding proteins. Overall, K represents a novel type of hnRNA-binding protein. It is likely that K and J play a role in the nuclear metabolism of hnRNAs, particularly for pre-mRNAs that contain cytidine-rich sequences. Images PMID:1729596

Matunis, M J; Michael, W M; Dreyfuss, G



A systems analysis of importin-?? mediated nuclear protein import  

PubMed Central

Importin-? (Imp?) is a major transport receptor for Ran-dependent import of nuclear cargo. Imp? can bind cargo directly or through an adaptor such as Importin-? (Imp?). Factors involved in nuclear transport have been well studied, but systems analysis can offer further insight into regulatory mechanisms. We used computer simulation and real-time assays in intact cells to examine Imp??-mediated import. The model reflects experimentally determined rates for cargo import and correctly predicts that import is limited principally by Imp? and Ran, but is also sensitive to NTF2. The model predicts that CAS is not limiting for the initial rate of cargo import and, surprisingly, that increased concentrations of Imp? and the exchange factor, RCC1, actually inhibit rather than stimulate import. These unexpected predictions were all validated experimentally. The model revealed that inhibition by RCC1 is caused by sequestration of nuclear Ran. Inhibition by Imp? results from depletion nuclear RanGTP, and, in support of this mechanism, expression of mRFP-Ran reversed the inhibition. PMID:15795315

Riddick, Gregory; Macara, Ian G.




E-print Network

of APC in the intestinal epithelium of the APC mNLS animals revealed that APC retains its ability to shuttle in and out of the nucleus, even in the homozygous mutant mice. While a mild defect in nuclear import could be detected in the differentiated cells...

Cunningham, Jamie Renee Zerbe



Multidimensional profiling of cell surface proteins and nuclear markers  

SciTech Connect

Cell membrane proteins play an important role in tissue architecture and cell-cell communication. We hypothesize that segmentation and multidimensional characterization of the distribution of cell membrane proteins, on a cell-by-cell basis, enable improved classification of treatment groups and identify important characteristics that can otherwise be hidden. We have developed a series of computational steps to (i) delineate cell membrane protein signals and associate them with a specific nucleus; (ii) compute a coupled representation of the multiplexed DNA content with membrane proteins; (iii) rank computed features associated with such a multidimensional representation; (iv) visualize selected features for comparative evaluation through heatmaps; and (v) discriminate between treatment groups in an optimal fashion. The novelty of our method is in the segmentation of the membrane signal and the multidimensional representation of phenotypic signature on a cell-by-cell basis. To test the utility of this method, the proposed computational steps were applied to images of cells that have been irradiated with different radiation qualities in the presence and absence of other small molecules. These samples are labeled for their DNA content and E-cadherin membrane proteins. We demonstrate that multidimensional representations of cell-by-cell phenotypes improve predictive and visualization capabilities among different treatment groups, and identify hidden variables.

Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Andarawewa, Kumari; Yaswen, Paul; Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Mary; Parvin, Bahram



Interactions and three-dimensional localization of a group of nuclear pore complex proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used antibodies directed against a number of nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins to determine their mutual interactions and location within the three-dimensional structure of the NPC. A mono- clonal antibody, termed QE5, recognized three NPC polypeptides, p250, NUP153, and p62 on Western blots, and labeled the nuclear envelope of several cul- tured cell lines by immunofluorescence microscopy. These

N. Pante; Ricardo Bastos; Isabel McMorrow; Brian Burke; Ueli Aebi



[Proteolytic degradation of nuclear matrix proteins in rat liver and Zajdela ascites hepatoma].  


Long-term incubation of rat liver nuclei (particularly in 2M NaCl) led to a decrease in the yield of the nuclear matrix. However, the electrophoretic pattern of nuclear matrix proteins remained essentially unchanged. In Zajdela's ascites hepatoma, long-term incubation of the nuclei resulted in lamina proteolysis. The proteolysis was partly inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride in high concentrations. PMID:6378267

Vokurkova, N



Estrogen regulates the association of intermediate filament proteins with nuclear DNA in human breast cancer cells.  


In a previous study we showed that the levels of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19, in the nuclear matrix-intermediate filament (NM-IF) fraction from the hormone-dependent and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell line T-47D5 were regulated by estrogens. In contrast, estrogens did not regulate the cytokeratins in the NM-IF fraction of the hormone-independent and ER-positive cell line, T5-PRF. In this study, human breast cancer cells were treated with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum to cross-link protein to nuclear DNA in situ, and proteins bound to DNA were isolated. We show that cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 of T-47D5 and T5-PRF were associated with nuclear DNA in situ. The levels of the cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 bound to nuclear DNA or associated with the cytoskeleton of T-47D5 human breast cancer cells decreased when estrogens were depleted or the pure antiestrogen ICI 164,384 was added. In contrast, the cytokeratin levels associated with nuclear DNA or cytoskeleton were not significantly affected by estrogen withdrawal or antiestrogen administration in T5-PRF cells. These observations suggest that estrogen regulates the organization of nuclear DNA by rearrangement of the cytokeratin filament network in hormone-dependent, ER-positive human breast cancer cells and that this regulation is lost in hormone-independent, ER-positive breast cancer cells. PMID:9786916

Spencer, V A; Coutts, A S; Samuel, S K; Murphy, L C; Davie, J R



Association of Nuclear Localization of a Long Interspersed Nuclear Element-1 Protein in Breast Tumors with Poor Prognostic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Within healthy human somatic cells, retrotransposition by long interspersed nuclear element-1 (also known as LINE-1 or L1) is thought to be held in check by a variety of mechanisms, including DNA methylation and RNAi. The expression of L1-ORF1 protein, which is rarely found in normal tissue, was assayed using antibodies with a variety of clinical cancer specimens and cancer cell lines. L1-ORF1p expression was detected in nearly all breast tumors that the authors examined, and the protein was also present in a high percentage of ileal carcinoids, bladder, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, as well as in a smaller percentage of prostate and colorectal tumors. Tumors generally demonstrated cytoplasmic L1-ORF1p; however, in several breast cancers, L1-ORF1p was nuclear. Patients with breast tumors displaying nuclear L1-ORF1p had a greater incidence of both local recurrence and distal metastases and also showed poorer overall survival when compared with patients with tumors displaying cytoplasmic L1-ORF1p. These data suggest that expression of L1-ORF1p is widespread in many cancers and that redistribution from cytoplasm to nucleus could be a poor prognostic indicator during breast cancer. High expression and nuclear localization of L1-ORF1p may result in a higher rate of L1 retrotransposition, which could increase genomic instability. PMID:20948976

Harris, Chris R.; Normart, Robin; Yang, Qifeng; Stevenson, Elizabeth; Haffty, Bruce G.; Ganesan, Shridar; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Levine, Arnold J.; Tang, Laura H.



RNF38 encodes a nuclear ubiquitin protein ligase that modifies p53  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: RNF38 is shown to be a nuclear protein with a bipartite nuclear localization signal. RNF38 protein is purified and shown to have ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) activity. We show that RNF38 binds p53 and can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro. Overexpression of RNF38 increases p53 ubiquitination in HEK293T cells. Overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells alters p53 localization. -- Abstract: The RNF38 gene encodes a RING finger protein of unknown function. Here we demonstrate that RNF38 is a functional ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). We show that RNF38 isoform 1 is localized to the nucleus by a bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS). We confirm that RNF38 is a binding partner of p53 and demonstrate that RNF38 can ubiquitinate p53 in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we show that overexpression of RNF38 in HEK293T cells results in relocalization of p53 to discrete foci associated with PML nuclear bodies. These results suggest RNF38 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that may play a role in regulating p53.

Sheren, Jamie E. [Department of Pathology, The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kassenbrock, C. Kenneth, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, The University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1878 (United States)



Nuclear transport of protein TTC4 depends on the cell cycle.  


TTC4 (tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein 4) is a putative tumor suppressor involved in the transformation of melanocytes. At present, the relationships between TTC4 and DNA replication proteins are largely unknown, as are the tissue distribution and subcellular localization of TTC4. Using reverse transcription with the polymerase chain reaction, we have observed that the murine TTC4 gene is ubiquitously expressed. Analysis of the TTC4 subcellular localization has shown that, upon overexpression, TTC4 localizes to the cytoplasm. Interestingly, co-expression with a known protein interaction partner, hampin/MSL1, results in the nuclear translocation of the TTC4 protein. The subcellular localization of endogenous TTC4 depends, however, on the cell cycle: it is mostly nuclear in the G1 and S phases and is evenly distributed between the nucleus and cytoplasm in G2. The nuclear transport of TTC4 is apparently a complex process dependent on interactions with other proteins during the progression of the cell cycle. Thus, the dynamic character of the nuclear accumulation of TTC4 might be a potential link with regard to its function in tumor suppression. PMID:19390865

Dmitriev, Ruslan I; Okkelman, Irina A; Abdulin, Roman A; Shakhparonov, Mikhail I; Pestov, Nikolay B



R7BP: A Surprising New Link Between G Proteins, RGS Proteins, and Nuclear Signaling in the Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins) bind directly to G protein alpha (G?) subunits in brain and other tissues to determine the strength, duration, and fidelity of neurotransmitter receptor signaling. A recent study shows, quite unexpectedly, that one class of RGS proteins [the R7 subfamily bound to G?5 (R7-G?5)] shuttles between the plasma membrane and the nucleus with assistance from a novel shuttle protein, R7BP. R7BP binds directly to R7-G?5 and the protein complex is tethered to the plasma membrane by addition of a lipid, palmitate, on R7BP. Removal of palmitate results in the translocation of the R7BPR7-G?5 complex to the nucleus, presumably for nontraditional signaling functions. These findings suggest an entirely novel mechanism for regulating neurotransmitter signaling. That is, R7BP transduces signals directly from receptors and G proteins at the plasma membrane to the nucleus, and this plasma membranenuclear shuttling is controlled by reversible palmitoylation of R7BP.

John R. Hepler (Emory University School of Medicine; Department of Pharmacology REV)



Expanded Polyglutamine Protein Forms Nuclear Inclusions and Causes Neural Degeneration in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3\\/MJD) is one of at least eight human neurodegenerative diseases caused by glutamine-repeat expansion. We have recreated glutamine-repeat disease in Drosophila using a segment of the SCA3\\/MJD protein. Targeted expression of the protein with an expanded polyglutamine repeat led to nuclear inclusion (NI) formation and late-onset cell degeneration. Differential sensitivity to the mutant transgene was observed

John M. Warrick; Henry L. Paulson; Gladys L. Gray-Board; Quang T. Bui; Kenneth H. Fischbeck; Randall N. Pittman; Nancy M. Bonini




PubMed Central

Nuclear transport requires freely diffusing nuclear transport proteins to facilitate movement of cargo molecules through the nuclear pore. We analyzed dynamic properties of importin ?, importin ?, Ran and NTF2 in nucleus, cytoplasm and at the nuclear pore of neuroblastoma cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Mobile components were quantified by global fitting of autocorrelation data from multiple cells. Immobile components were quantified by analysis of photobleaching kinetics. Wild type Ran was compared to various mutant Ran proteins to identify components representing GTP or GDP forms of Ran. Untreated cells were compared to cells treated with nocodazole or latrunculin to identify components associated with cytoskeletal elements. The results indicate that freely diffusing importin ?, importin ?, Ran and NTF2 are in dynamic equilibrium with larger pools associated with immobile binding partners such as microtubules in the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that formation of freely diffusing nuclear transport intermediates is in competition with binding to immobile partners. Variation in concentrations of freely diffusing nuclear transport intermediates among cells indicates that the nuclear transport system is sufficiently robust to function over a wide range of conditions. PMID:17056062




TRAIL protein expression in breast cancer cells correlates with nuclear grade  

PubMed Central

Introduction TRAIL protein may serve as an escape mechanism for cancer cells from the immune response. The aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of TRAIL protein correlates with unfavourable prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Material and methods The study group was composed of breast cancer patients treated surgically in the Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland, from January to December 2003. Inclusion criteria for the study were fulfilled by 117 women. The immunohistochemical study of TRAIL protein expression was performed in 118 breast carcinomas diagnosed in the study group. TRAIL protein expression was correlated with other variables: tumour size, lymph node status, grade, histological type of carcinoma, oestrogen and progesterone receptor status, HER2 expression, presence of lymphovascular invasion and age of the patient. Results Expression of TRAIL protein was present in 73% of breast carcinomas. The percentage of TRAIL-expressing breast carcinoma cells correlated with the nuclear grade (? = 0.26, p < 0.05; Tau Kendall test). The intensity of TRAIL expression (intensity of staining) in breast carcinoma cells correlated with the nuclear grade (? = 0.15, p < 0.05; Tau Kendall test). TRAIL expression in breast carcinoma did not correlate with other studied variables. Conclusions Our analysis revealed that expression of TRAIL protein in breast carcinoma cells correlates with nuclear grade of carcinoma. PMID:22371798

Bilski, Adam; Pasz-Walczak, Gra?yna; Kubiak, Robert; Sek, Piotr; Chalubinska, Justyna; Fendler, Wojciech; Wronski, Konrad; Piekarska, Anna; Pluta, Piotr; Potemski, Piotr; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz



The nuclear export protein of H5N1 influenza A viruses recruits Matrix 1 (M1) protein to the viral ribonucleoprotein to mediate nuclear export.  


In influenza A virus-infected cells, replication and transcription of the viral genome occurs in the nucleus. To be packaged into viral particles at the plasma membrane, encapsidated viral genomes must be exported from the nucleus. Intriguingly, the nuclear export protein (NEP) is involved in both processes. Although NEP stimulates viral RNA synthesis by binding to the viral polymerase, its function during nuclear export implicates interaction with viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP)-associated M1. The observation that both interactions are mediated by the C-terminal moiety of NEP raised the question whether these two features of NEP are linked functionally. Here we provide evidence that the interaction between M1 and the vRNP depends on the NEP C terminus and its polymerase activity-enhancing property for the nuclear export of vRNPs. This suggests that these features of NEP are linked functionally. Furthermore, our data suggest that the N-terminal domain of NEP interferes with the stability of the vRNP-M1-NEP nuclear export complex, probably mediated by its highly flexible intramolecular interaction with the NEP C terminus. On the basis of our data, we propose a new model for the assembly of the nuclear export complex of Influenza A vRNPs. PMID:24891509

Brunotte, Linda; Flies, Joe; Bolte, Hardin; Reuther, Peter; Vreede, Frank; Schwemmle, Martin



The Cytoplasmic Filaments of the Nuclear pore Complex are Dispensable for Selective Nuclear Protein Import  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates bidirectional macromolecular traffic between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells. Eight filaments project from the NPC into the cytoplasm and are proposed to function in nuclear import. We investigated the localization and function of two nucleoporins on the cytoplasmic face of the NPC, CAN\\/Nup214 and RanBP2\\/Nup358. Consistent with previous data, RanBP2 was localized

Tobias C. Walther; Helen S. Pickersgill; Volker C. Cordes; Martin W. Goldberg; Terry D. Allen; Iain W. Mattaj; Maarten Fornerod



The Leukocyte Nuclear Envelope Proteome Varies with Cell Activation and Contains Novel Transmembrane Proteins That Affect Genome Architecture*  

PubMed Central

A favored hypothesis to explain the pathology underlying nuclear envelopathies is that mutations in nuclear envelope proteins alter genome/chromatin organization and thus gene expression. To identify nuclear envelope proteins that play roles in genome organization, we analyzed nuclear envelopes from resting and phytohemagglutinin-activated leukocytes because leukocytes have a particularly high density of peripheral chromatin that undergoes significant reorganization upon such activation. Thus, nuclear envelopes were isolated from leukocytes in the two states and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology using an approach that used expected contaminating membranes as subtractive fractions. A total of 3351 proteins were identified between both nuclear envelope data sets among which were 87 putative nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that were not identified in a previous proteomics analysis of liver nuclear envelopes. Nuclear envelope localization was confirmed for 11 new NETs using tagged fusion proteins and antibodies on spleen cryosections. 27% of the new proteins identified were unique to one or the other of the two leukocyte states. Differences in expression between activated and resting leukocytes were confirmed for some NETs by RT-PCR, and most of these proteins appear to only be expressed in certain types of blood cells. Several known proteins identified in both data sets have functions in chromatin organization and gene regulation. To test whether the novel NETs identified might include those that also regulate chromatin, nine were run through two screens for different chromatin effects. One screen found two NETs that can recruit a specific gene locus to the nuclear periphery, and the second found a different NET that promotes chromatin condensation. The variation in the protein milieu with pharmacological activation of the same cell population and consequences for gene regulation suggest that the nuclear envelope is a complex regulatory system with significant influences on genome organization. PMID:20693407

Korfali, Nadia; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Swanson, Selene K.; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; Fairley, Elizabeth A. L.; Malik, Poonam; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Goncharevich, Alexander; de las Heras, Jose; Kelly, David A.; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.



PUB1 is a major nuclear and cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNA-binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed Central

Proteins that directly associate with nuclear polyadenylated RNAs, or heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins (hnRNPs), and those that associate with cytoplasmic mRNAs, or mRNA-binding proteins (mRNPs), play important roles in regulating gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Previous work with a variety of eukaryotic cells has demonstrated that hnRNPs are localized predominantly within the nucleus whereas mRNPs are cytoplasmic. While studying proteins associated with polyadenylated RNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered an abundant polyuridylate-binding protein, PUB1, which appears to be both an hnRNP and an mRNP. PUB1 and PAB1, the polyadenylate tail-binding protein, are the two major proteins cross-linked by UV light to polyadenylated RNAs in vivo. The deduced primary structure of PUB1 indicates that it is a member of the ribonucleoprotein consensus sequence family of RNA-binding proteins and is structurally related to the human hnRNP M proteins. Even though the PUB1 protein is a major cellular polyadenylated RNA-binding protein, it is nonessential for cell growth. Indirect cellular immunofluorescence combined with digital image processing allowed a detailed comparison of the intracellular distributions of PUB1 and PAB1. While PAB1 is predominantly, and relatively uniformly, distributed within the cytoplasm, PUB1 is localized in a nonuniform pattern throughout both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic distribution of PUB1 is considerably more discontinuous than that of PAB1. Furthermore, sucrose gradient sedimentation analysis demonstrates that PAB1 cofractionates with polyribosomes whereas PUB1 does not. These results suggest that PUB1 is both an hnRNP and an mRNP and that it may be stably bound to a translationally inactive subpopulation of mRNAs within the cytoplasm. Images PMID:8413212

Anderson, J T; Paddy, M R; Swanson, M S



Nup214 Is Required for CRM1-Dependent Nuclear Protein Export In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Nucleoporins mediate transport of macromolecules across the nuclear pore complex, yet the function of many individual nucleoporins is largely unresolved. To address this question, we depleted cells of the cytoplasmic nucleoporins Nup214/CAN and Nup358/RanBP2 by RNA interference. Depletion of Nup214 resulted in codepletion of its binding partner, Nup88. Nuclear pore complexes assembled in the absence of Nup214/Nup88 or Nup358 were fully functional in nuclear protein import, whereas nuclear mRNA export was slightly impaired. Depletion of Nup358 had only a minor effect on nuclear protein export. In contrast, depletion of Nup214/Nup88 led to strongly reduced CRM1-mediated export of the shuttling transcription factor NFAT as well as a human immunodeficiency virus-Rev derivative. A specific role of Nup214 in protein export is furthered by the biochemical properties of a high-affinity complex containing Nup214, CRM1, RanGTP, and an export cargo. Our results show that the Nup214/Nup88 complex is required for efficient CRM1-mediated transport, supporting a model involving a high-affinity binding site for CRM1 at Nup214 in the terminal steps of export. PMID:16943420

Hutten, Saskia; Kehlenbach, Ralph H.



The tight junction protein Z O-2 has several functional nuclear export signals  

SciTech Connect

The tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-2 changes its subcellular distribution according to the state of confluency of the culture. Thus in confluent monolayers, it localizes at the TJ region whereas in sparse cultures it concentrates at the nucleus. The canine sequence of ZO-2 displays four putative nuclear export signals (NES), two at the second PDZ domain (NES-0 and NES-1) and the rest at the GK region (NES-2 and NES-3). The functionality of NES-0 and NES-3 was unknown, hence here we have explored it with a nuclear export assay, injecting into the nucleus of MDCK cells peptides corresponding to the ZO-2 NES sequences chemically coupled to ovalbumin. We show that both NES-0 and NES-3 are functional and sensitive to leptomycin B. We also demonstrate that NES-1, previously characterized as a non functional NES, is rendered capable of nuclear export upon the acquisition of a negative charge at its Ser369 residue. Experiments performed injecting at the nucleus WT and mutated ZO-2-GST fusion proteins revealed the need of both NES-0 and NES-1, and NES-2 and NES-3 for attaining an efficient nuclear exit of the respective amino and middle segments of ZO-2. Moreover, the transfection of MDCK cells with full-length ZO-2 revealed that the mutation of any of the NES present in the molecule was sufficient to induce nuclear accumulation of the protein.

Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza [Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV), Ave. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Ponce, Arturo [Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV), Ave. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Alarcon, Lourdes [Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV), Ave. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico); Jaramillo, Blanca Estela [Department of Physiology, Biophysics and Neuroscience, Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV), Ave. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Mexico, D.F., 07360 (Mexico)



Fanconi Anemia Proteins FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG\\/XRCC9 Interact in a Functional Nuclear Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive cancer susceptibility syndrome with at least eight comple- mentation groups (A to H). Three FA genes, corresponding to complementation groups A, C, and G, have been cloned, but their cellular function remains unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the FANCA and FANCC proteins interact and form a nuclear complex in normal cells, suggesting




Proteomics approach to identify dehydration responsive nuclear proteins from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).  


Dehydration or water-deficit is one of the most important environmental stress factors that greatly influences plant growth and development and limits crop productivity. Plants respond and adapt to such stress by altering their cellular metabolism and activating various defense machineries. Mechanisms that operate signal perception, transduction, and downstream regulatory events provide valuable information about the underlying pathways involved in environmental stress responses. The nuclear proteins constitute a highly organized, complex network that plays diverse roles during cellular development and other physiological processes. To gain a better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a comparative nuclear proteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water and the changes in the nuclear proteome were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Approximately 205 protein spots were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration. Mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 147 differentially expressed proteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including gene transcription and replication, molecular chaperones, cell signaling, and chromatin remodeling. The dehydration responsive nuclear proteome of chickpea revealed a coordinated response, which involves both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. This study, for the first time, provides an insight into the complex metabolic network operating in the nucleus during dehydration. PMID:17921517

Pandey, Aarti; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis; Chakraborty, Niranjan



A phylogenetic analysis of Myriapoda (Arthropoda) using two nuclear protein-encoding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences from two nuclear protein-encoding genes, elongation factor-1? and RNA polymerase II, were obtained from 34 myriapods and 14 other arthropods to determine phylogenetic relationships among and within the myriapod classes. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods recovered all three represented myriapod classes (Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla) and all multiply sampled chilopod and




Steatosis-induced proteins adducts withlipid peroxidation products and nuclear electrophilic stress in hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that fatty livers are particularly more susceptible to several pathological conditions, including hepatic inflammation, cirrhosis and liver cancer. However the exact mechanism of such susceptibility is still largely obscure. The current study aimed to elucidate the effect of hepatocytes lipid accumulation on the nuclear electrophilic stress. Accumulation of intracellular lipids was significantly increased in HepG2 cells incubated with fatty acid (FA) complex (1mM, 2:1 oleic and palmitic acids). In FA-treated cells, lipid droplets were localized around the nucleus and seemed to induce mechanical force, leading to the disruption of the nucleus morphology. Level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly increased in FA-loaded cells and was further augmented by treatment with moderate stressor (CoCl2). Increased ROS resulted in formation of reactive carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones, derived from lipid peroxidation) with a strong perinuclear accumulation. Mass-spectroscopy analysis indicated that lipid accumulation per-se can results in modification of nuclear protein by reactive lipid peroxidation products (oxoLPP). 235 Modified proteins involved in transcription regulation, splicing, protein synthesis and degradation, DNA repair and lipid metabolism were identified uniquely in FA-treated cells. These findings suggest that steatosis can affect nuclear redox state, and induce modifications of nuclear proteins by reactive oxoLPP accumulated in the perinuclear space upon FA-treatment. PMID:25560244

Anavi, Sarit; Ni, Zhixu; Tirosh, Oren; Fedorova, Maria



Nuclear localization and in vivo dynamics of a plant-specic serine/arginine-rich protein  

E-print Network

Nuclear localization and in vivo dynamics of a plant-speci®c serine/arginine-rich protein Gul Shad Aliy , Maxim Golovkiny and Anireddy S. N. Reddy? Department of Biology and Program in Cell August 2003; accepted 16 September 2003. ? For correspondence (fax 1 970 491 0649; e-mail reddy

Reddy, A.S.N


Interferon gamma regulates binding of two nuclear protein complexes in a macrophage cell line.  

PubMed Central

Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) is a potent inducer of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens during normal immune responses and in abnormal responses in autoimmune disease. In this report we identify two nuclear factors whose binding to the murine E beta class II MHC beta-chain gene is regulated by this cytokine. IFN-gamma stimulation of murine macrophages results in the appearance of increased binding of one protein complex, complex A, and decreased binding of a second, faster migrating protein complex, complex B. Although the contact residues for both of these proteins lie within the highly conserved Y-box transcriptional element, their binding specificity differs. The protein in complex B is a CCAAT-box-binding protein that may be similar or identical to NF-Y or YB1, previously identified class II Y-box-binding proteins. The DNA sequence requirements for the binding of the slower migrating complex, complex A, are not limited to CCAAT-box sequences but include sequences upstream of the Y box. These upstream sequences are required both for IFN-gamma-induced gene transcription and for IFN-gamma-induced modulation of binding activity. These data suggest a model in which upstream sequences contribute to formation of a lymphokine-regulated complex downstream. The IFN-gamma-induced binding protein described as complex A in this report differs from the IFN-gamma, -alpha, or -beta-induced nuclear factors previously identified. Images PMID:2105504

Finn, P W; Kara, C J; Douhan, J; Van, T T; Folsom, V; Glimcher, L H



Molecular Characterization of Three PRORP Proteins in the Moss Physcomitrella patens: Nuclear PRORP Protein Is Not Essential for Moss Viability  

PubMed Central

RNase P is a ubiquitous endonuclease that removes the 5? leader sequence from pre-tRNAs in all organisms. In Arabidopsis thaliana, RNA-free proteinaceous RNase Ps (PRORPs) seem to be enzyme(s) for pre-tRNA 5?-end processing in organelles and the nucleus and are thought to have replaced the ribonucleoprotein RNase P variant. However, the evolution and function of plant PRORPs are not fully understood. Here, we identified and characterized three PRORP-like proteins, PpPPR_63, 67, and 104, in the basal land plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. PpPPR_63 localizes to the nucleus, while PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 are found in both the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The three proteins displayed pre-tRNA 5?-end processing activity in vitro. Mutants with knockout (KO) of the PpPPR_63 gene displayed growth retardation of protonemal colonies, indicating that, unlike Arabidopsis nuclear RPORPs, the moss nuclear PpPPR_63 is not essential for viability. In the KO mutant, nuclear-encoded tRNAAsp (GUC) levels were slightly decreased, whereas most nuclear-encoded tRNA levels were not altered. This indicated that most of the cytosolic mature tRNAs were produced normally without proteinaceous RNase P-like PpPPR_63. Single PpPPR_67 or 104 gene KO mutants displayed different phenotypes of protonemal growth and chloroplast tRNAArg (ACG) accumulation. However, the levels of all other tRNAs were not altered in the KO mutants. In addition, in vitro RNase P assays showed that PpPPR_67 and PpPPR_104 efficiently cleaved chloroplast pre-tRNAArg (CCG) and pre-tRNAArg (UCU) but they cleaved pre-tRNAArg (ACG) with different efficiency. This suggests that the two proteins have overlapping function but their substrate specificity is not identical. PMID:25272157

Tanaka, Korechika; Kometani, Kazuki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Sugita, Mamoru



Evidence for glucose and sorbitol-induced nuclear export of glucokinase regulatory protein in hepatocytes.  


Glucokinase is rapidly exported from the nucleus of hepatocytes in response to a rise in glucose or fructose 1-P. We demonstrate using confocal microscopy and quantitative imaging that in contrast to previous findings, the regulatory protein of glucokinase (GKRP) also translocates from the nucleus during substrate-induced translocation of glucokinase. However, the fractional decrease in nuclear GKRP is smaller than for glucokinase and is determined by the metabolic state and not by the distribution of glucokinase. Translocation of glucokinase and GKRP is not inhibited by leptomycin B, an inhibitor of exportin-1 function. These findings highlight the importance of quantitative imaging for determining nuclear export of proteins and suggest that GKRP may have a role in nuclear export or import of glucokinase. PMID:10622744

Mukhtar, M; Stubbs, M; Agius, L



Nuclear PRP20 protein is required for mRNA export.  

PubMed Central

The yeast PRP20 protein is highly homologous in structure and function to the RCC1 protein of higher eukaryotes. The RCC1 protein is involved in the regulation of the onset of mitosis, whereas the PRP20 protein was shown to be required for accurate and efficient mRNA metabolism. The first observable phenotype in mutant prp20 cells when shifted from permissive to non-permissive temperature is a loss of nuclear PRP20 protein. Concomitantly, an accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA in the nucleus is observed. The temperature-sensitive RCC1 allele in the mutant hamster cell line tsBN2 leads to a similar accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus. Images PMID:7679070

Amberg, D C; Fleischmann, M; Stagljar, I; Cole, C N; Aebi, M



Nuclear PRP20 protein is required for mRNA export.  


The yeast PRP20 protein is highly homologous in structure and function to the RCC1 protein of higher eukaryotes. The RCC1 protein is involved in the regulation of the onset of mitosis, whereas the PRP20 protein was shown to be required for accurate and efficient mRNA metabolism. The first observable phenotype in mutant prp20 cells when shifted from permissive to non-permissive temperature is a loss of nuclear PRP20 protein. Concomitantly, an accumulation of poly(A)+ RNA in the nucleus is observed. The temperature-sensitive RCC1 allele in the mutant hamster cell line tsBN2 leads to a similar accumulation of mRNA in the nucleus. PMID:7679070

Amberg, D C; Fleischmann, M; Stagljar, I; Cole, C N; Aebi, M



Characterization of a nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF-1)-related (NUDR) transcriptional regulator protein.  


A monkey kidney cDNA that encodes a nuclear regulatory factor was identified by expression and affinity binding to a synthetic retinoic acid response element (RARE) and was used to isolate human placental and rat germ cell cDNAs by hybridization. The cDNAs encode a 59-kDa protein [nuclear DEAF-1-related (NUDR)] which shows sequence similarity to the Drosophila Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF-1), a nonhomeodomain cofactor of embryonic Deformed gene expression. Similarities to other proteins indicate five functional domains in NUDR including an alanine-rich region prevalent in developmental transcription factors, a domain found in the promyelocytic leukemia-associated SP100 proteins, and a zinc finger homology domain associated with the AML1/MTG8 oncoprotein. Although NUDR mRNA displayed a wide tissue distribution in rats, elevated levels of protein were only observed in testicular germ cells, developing fetus, and transformed cell lines. Nuclear localization of NUDR was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry and by a green fluorescent protein-NUDR fusion protein. Site-directed mutagenesis of a nuclear localization signal resulted in cytoplasmic localization of the protein and eliminated NUDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Recombinant NUDR protein showed affinity for the RARE in mobility shifts; however it was efficiently displaced by retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) complexes. In transient transfections, NUDR produced up to 26-fold inductions of a human proenkephalin promoter-reporter plasmid, with minimal effects on the promoters for prodynorphin or thymidine kinase. Placement of a RARE on the proenkephalin promoter increased NUDR-dependent activation to 41-fold, but this RARE-dependent increase was not transferable to a thymidine kinase promoter. Recombinant NUDR protein showed minimal binding affinity for proenkephalin promoter sequences, but was able to select DNA sequences from a random oligonucleotide library that had similar core-binding motifs (TTCG) as those recognized by DEAF-1. This motif is also present between the half-sites of several endogenous RAREs. The derived consensus- binding motif recognized by NUDR (TTCGGGNNTTTCCGG) was confirmed by mobility shift and deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) protection assays; however, the consensus sequence was also unable to confer NUDR-dependent transcriptional activation to the thymidine kinase promoter. Our data suggests that NUDR may activate transcription independently of promoter binding, perhaps through protein-protein interaction with basal transcription factors, or by activation of secondary factors. The sequence and functional similarities between NUDR and DEAF-1 suggest that NUDR may also act as a cofactor to regulate the transcription of genes during fetal development or differentiation of testicular cells. PMID:9773984

Huggenvik, J I; Michelson, R J; Collard, M W; Ziemba, A J; Gurley, P; Mowen, K A



Poly(A) binding proteins located at the inner surface of resealed nuclear envelopes.  


We have used a photoreactive cross-linking reagent, poly(A/8-N3-A) (a poly(A) of average molecular mass of 100 kDa in which 5-10% of the A residues are replaced by 8-N3-A), to label poly(A) binding proteins of rat liver nuclear envelopes. This reagent was prepared by polymerizing a mixture of ADP and 8-N3-ADP with polynucleotide phosphorylase. The purified poly(A) was labeled in the 5'-position with a 32P group. In nuclear envelopes prepared by a low salt DNase I procedure, the poly(A/8-N3-A) labeled a protein-nucleic acid complex of approximately 270 kDa, which on degradation with RNase U2 or NaOH at pH 10 yielded two polypeptides of approximately 50 and 30 kDa. These photoreaction products were markedly decreased when resealed nuclear envelopes or non-nuclear envelope proteins were irradiated in the presence of poly(A/8-N3-A). The affinity labeling was intensified when resealed vesicles were made leaky by freezing or ultrasonication, suggesting that the poly(A) binding proteins are accessible from the nucleoplasmic but not the cytoplasmic face of the envelope. Moreover binding was specific for poly(A). Alternative reagents, random poly(A/8-N3-A,C,G,U) of about 100 kDa and poly(dA) (molecular mass between 350 and 515 kDa), showed a very low affinity for poly(A) recognition proteins in the low salt DNase I-treated nuclear envelopes; the 270-kDa band was labeled only weakly. The binding site was not protected by poly(A,C,G,U), weakly by poly(dA), and distinctly by poly(A). PMID:1691170

Prochnow, D; Riedel, N; Agutter, P S; Fasold, H



Nuclear targeting of the tegument protein pp65 (UL83) of human cytomegalovirus: an unusual bipartite nuclear localization signal functions with other portions of the protein to mediate its efficient nuclear transport.  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of pp65 (UL83) of human cytomegalovirus are translocated to the cell nucleus during the first minutes after uptake of the tegument protein from infecting viral particles. Two stretches of basic amino acids which resembled nuclear localization signals (NLS) of both the simian virus 40 type and the bipartite type were found in the primary structure of pp65. Deletion of these sequences significantly impaired nuclear localization of the truncated proteins after transient expression. The results indicated that both elements contributed to the nuclear localization of the protein. When fused to the bacterial beta-galactosidase, only one of the two basic elements was sufficient to mediate nuclear translocation. This element consisted of two clusters of basic amino acids (boxes C and D), which were separated by a short spacer sequence. In contrast to other bipartite NLS of animal cells, both basic boxes C and D functioned independently in nuclear transport, thus resembling simian virus 40-type NLS. Yet, complete translocation of beta-galactosidase was only found in the bipartite configuration. When both boxes C and D were fused, thereby deleting the intervening sequences, the nuclear transport of beta-galactosidase was reduced to levels seen with constructs in which only one of the boxes was present. Appropriate spacing, therefore, was important but not absolutely required. This was in contrast with results for other bipartite NLS, in which spacer deletions led to complete cytoplasmic retention. The presented results demonstrate that efficient nuclear transport of pp65 is mediated by one dominant NLS and additional targeting sequences. The major NLS of pp65 is an unusual signal sequence composed of two weak NLS which function together as one strong bipartite nuclear targeting signal. PMID:7815485

Schmolke, S; Drescher, P; Jahn, G; Plachter, B



A functional nuclear localization signal in insulin-like growth factor binding protein-6 mediates its nuclear import.  


IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-6 is a member of the IGFBP family that regulates the actions of IGFs. Although IGFBPs exert their functions extracellularly in an autocrine/paracrine manner, several members of the family, such as IGFBP-3 and -5, possess nuclear localization signals (NLS). To date, no NLS has been described for IGFBP-6, an IGFBP that binds preferentially to IGF-II. We report here that both exogenous and endogenous IGFBP-6 could be imported into the nuclei of rhabdomyosarcoma and HEK-293 cells. Nuclear import of IGFBP-6 was mediated by a NLS sequence that bears limited homology to those found in IGFBP-3 and -5. IGFBP-6 nuclear translocation was an active process that required importins. A peptide corresponding to the IGFBP-6 NLS bound preferentially to importin-alpha. A comprehensive peptide array study revealed that, in addition to positively charged residues such as Arg and Lys, amino acids, notably Gly and Pro, within the NLS, played an important part in binding to importins. Overexpression of wild-type IGFBP-6 increased apoptosis, and the addition of IGF-II did not negate this effect. Only the deletion of the NLS segment abolished the apoptosis effect. Taken together, these results suggest that IGFBP-6 is translocated to the nucleus with functional consequences and that different members of the IGFBP family have specific nuclear import mechanisms. PMID:18039785

Iosef, Cristiana; Gkourasas, Theofanis; Jia, Christina Y H; Li, Shawn S-C; Han, Victor K M



SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells  

SciTech Connect

The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBP{Delta}998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M. [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)] [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Heery, David M., E-mail: [Gene Regulation Group, Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)



CDK2 regulates nuclear envelope protein dynamics and telomere attachment in mouse meiotic prophase.  


In most organisms, telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope at the onset of meiosis to promote the crucial processes of pairing, recombination and synapsis during prophase I. This attachment of meiotic telomeres is mediated by the specific distribution of several nuclear envelope components that interact with the attachment plates of the synaptonemal complex. We have determined by immunofluorescence and electron microscopy that the ablation of the kinase CDK2 alters the nuclear envelope in mouse spermatocytes, and that the proteins SUN1, KASH5 (also known as CCDC155) and lamin C2 show an abnormal cap-like distribution facing the centrosome. Strikingly, some telomeres are not attached to the nuclear envelope but remain at the nuclear interior where they are associated with SUN1 and with nuclear-envelope-detached vesicles. We also demonstrate that mouse testis CDK2 phosphorylates SUN1 in vitro. We propose that during mammalian prophase I the kinase CDK2 is a key factor governing the structure of the nuclear envelope and the telomere-led chromosome movements essential for homolog pairing. PMID:25380821

Viera, Alberto; Alsheimer, Manfred; Gmez, Roco; Berenguer, Ins; Ortega, Sagrario; Symonds, Catherine E; Santamara, David; Benavente, Ricardo; Suja, Jos A



Cell density-dependent nuclear/cytoplasmic localization of NORPEG (RAI14) protein  

SciTech Connect

NORPEG (RAI14), a developmentally regulated gene induced by retinoic acid, encodes a 980 amino acid (aa) residue protein containing six ankyrin repeats and a long coiled-coil domain [Kutty et al., J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001), pp. 2831-2840]. We have expressed aa residues 1-287 of NORPEG and used the recombinant protein to produce an anti-NORPEG polyclonal antibody. Confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that the subcellular localization of NORPEG in retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells varies with cell density, with predominantly nuclear localization in nonconfluent cells, but a cytoplasmic localization, reminiscent of cytoskeleton, in confluent cultures. Interestingly, an evolutionarily conserved putative monopartite nuclear localization signal (P{sup 27}KKRKAP{sup 276}) was identified by analyzing the sequences of NORPEG and its orthologs. GFP-NORPEG (2-287 aa), a fusion protein containing this signal, was indeed localized to nuclei when expressed in ARPE-19 or COS-7 cells. Deletion and mutation analysis indicated that the identified nuclear localization sequence is indispensable for nuclear targeting.

Kutty, R. Krishnan [Section on Biochemistry, Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)]. E-mail:; Chen, Shanyi [Section on Biochemistry, Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Samuel, William [Section on Biochemistry, Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram [National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Duncan, Todd [Section on Biochemistry, Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Tsai, Jen-Yue [Biological Imaging Core, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Fariss, Robert N. [Biological Imaging Core, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Carper, Deborah [Section on Molecular Therapeutics, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jaworski, Cynthia [Section on Molecular Therapeutics, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Wiggert, Barbara [Section on Biochemistry, Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)



Mutational analyses of fs(1)Ya, an essential, developmentally regulated, nuclear envelope protein in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

The fs(1)Ya protein (YA) is an essential, maternally encoded, nuclear lamina protein that is under both developmental and cell cycle control. A strong Ya mutation results in early arrest of embryos. To define the function of YA in the nuclear envelope during early embryonic development, we characterized the phenotypes of four Ya mutant alleles and determined their molecular lesions. Ya mutant embryos arrest with abnormal nuclear envelopes prior to the first mitotic division; a proportion of embryos from two leaky Ya mutants proceed beyond this but arrest after several abnormal divisions. Ya unfertilized eggs contain nuclei of different sizes and condensation states, apparently due to abnormal fusion of the meiotic products immediately after meiosis. Lamin is localized at the periphery of the uncondensed nuclei in these eggs. These results suggest that Ya function is required during and after egg maturation to facilitate proper chromatin condensation, rather than to allow a lamin-containing nuclear envelope to form. Two leaky Ya alleles that partially complement have lesions at opposite ends of the YA protein, suggesting that the N- and C-termini are important for YA function might interact with itself either directly or indirectly. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Liu, Jun; Song, Kiwon; Wolfner, M.F. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)



A Protein that Interacts with Members of the Nuclear Hormone Receptor Family: Identification and cDNA Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of proteins which interact with activated steroid hormone receptors, we screened a human liver lambdagt11 expression library with the glucocorticoid receptor. We identified and cloned a cDNA sequence of 1322 bp that encodes a protein of 274 aa. This protein consists predominantly of hydrophilic amino acids and contains a putative bipartite nuclear localization signal. The in vitro translated

Matthias Zeiner; Ulrich Gehring



Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Activate the Nuclear Localization Sequence of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 E1 DNA Helicase To Promote Efficient Nuclear Import?  

PubMed Central

Human and animal papillomavirus DNA replicates as multicopy nuclear plasmids. Replication requires two viral proteins, the origin-recognition protein E2 and the replicative DNA helicase E1. Using genetic, biochemical, and immunofluorescence assays, we demonstrated that efficient nuclear import of the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 E1 protein depends on a codominant bipartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and on phosphorylation of the serine residues S89 and S93 by the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase. The NLS and the MAPK substrates are located within a 50-amino-acid-long peptide near the amino terminus, previously designated the localization regulatory region (LRR). The downstream NLS overlaps the cyclin-binding motif RRL, which is necessary for phosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinases to inactivate a dominant nuclear export sequence, also in the LRR. Alanine mutations of the MAPK substrates significantly impaired nuclear import, whereas phospho-mimetic mutations partially restored nuclear import. We further identified two MAPK docking motifs near the C terminus of E1 that are conserved among E1 proteins of many HPVs and bovine papillomavirus type 1. Mutations of these MAPK docking motifs or addition of specific MAPK inhibitors significantly reduced nuclear import. Interestingly, a fraction of the NLS-minus E1 protein was cotransported with the E2 protein into the nucleus and supported transient viral DNA replication. In contrast, E1 proteins mutated in the MAPK docking motifs were completely inactive in transient replication, an indication that additional properties were adversely affected by those changes. PMID:17344281

Yu, Jei-Hwa; Lin, Biing Yuan; Deng, Wentao; Broker, Thomas R.; Chow, Louise T.



The putative nuclear localization signal of the human RAD52 protein is a potential sumoylation site.  


RAD52, a key factor in homologous recombination (HR), plays important roles in both RAD51-dependent and -independent HR pathways. Several studies have suggested a link between the functional regulation of RAD52 and the protein modification by a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of RAD52 by SUMO is unknown. To begin investigating this mechanism, we identified possible target sites for sumoylation in the human RAD52 protein by preparing a RAD52-SUMO complex using an established Escherichia coli sumoylation system. Mass spectrometry and amino acid sequencing of the enzymatically digested fragments of the purified complex revealed that the putative nuclear localization signal located near the C terminus of RAD52 was sumoylated. Biochemical studies of the RAD52-SUMO complex suggested that sumoylation at the identified site has no apparent effect on the DNA binding, D-loop formation, ssDNA annealing and RAD51-binding activities of RAD52. On the other hand, visualization of the GFP-fused RAD52 protein in the human cell that contained mutations at the identified sumoylation sites showed clear differences in the cytosolic and nuclear distributions of the protein. These results suggest the possibility of sumoylation playing an important role in the nuclear transport of RAD52. PMID:20190268

Saito, Kengo; Kagawa, Wataru; Suzuki, Takehiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Saitoh, Hisato; Tashiro, Satoshi; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi



Dissecting the Contribution of Diffusion and Interactions to the Mobility of Nuclear Proteins  

PubMed Central

Quantitative characterization of protein interactions under physiological conditions is vital for systems biology. Fluorescence photobleaching/activation experiments of GFP-tagged proteins are frequently used for this purpose, but robust analysis methods to extract physicochemical parameters from such data are lacking. Here, we implemented a reaction-diffusion model to determine the contributions of protein interaction and diffusion on fluorescence redistribution. The model was validated and applied to five chromatin-interacting proteins probed by photoactivation in living cells. We found that very transient interactions are common for chromatin proteins. Their observed mobility was limited by the amount of free protein available for diffusion but not by the short residence time of the bound proteins. Individual proteins thus locally scan chromatin for binding sites, rather than diffusing globally before rebinding at random nuclear positions. By taking the real cellular geometry and the inhomogeneous distribution of binding sites into account, our model provides a general framework to analyze the mobility of fluorescently tagged factors. Furthermore, it defines the experimental limitations of fluorescence perturbation experiments and highlights the need for complementary methods to measure transient biochemical interactions in living cells. PMID:16387760

Beaudouin, Jol; Mora-Bermdez, Felipe; Klee, Thorsten; Daigle, Nathalie; Ellenberg, Jan



Mitotic regulator protein RCC1 is complexed with a nuclear ras-related polypeptide.  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the purification of a complex of two proteins from human chromatin, consisting of a 47-kDa component called RCC1, which is a negative regulator of mitosis, and a 25-kDa protein. Here we show that the 25-kDa protein has a ras-related sequence. It binds guanine nucleotides, and excess Mg2+ and GDP or GTP dissociate the complex. Immunofluorescence studies and biochemical properties indicate that this polypeptide, in contrast to most members of the Ras family, is present in the nucleoplasm as a soluble monomer, in 25-fold excess over the complexed form. We designate this polypeptide Ran, for ras-related nuclear protein. Images PMID:1961752

Bischoff, F R; Ponstingl, H



Promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear body proteins: herpesvirus enemies, accomplices, or both?  

PubMed Central

The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein gathers other cellular proteins, such as Daxx and Sp100, to form subnuclear structures termed PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) or ND10 domains. Many infecting viral genomes localize to PML-NBs, leading to speculation that these structures may represent the most efficient subnuclear location for viral replication. Conversely, many viral proteins modify or disrupt PML-NBs, suggesting that viral replication may be more efficient in the absence of these structures. Thus, a debate remains as to whether PML-NBs inhibit or enhance viral replication. Here we review and discuss recent data indicating that for herpesviruses, PML-NB proteins inhibit viral replication in cell types where productive, lytic replication occurs, while at the same time may enhance the establishment of lifelong latent infections in other cell types. PMID:19763230

Saffert, Ryan T; Kalejta, Robert F



Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

Siyam, Arwa [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States) [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States); Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Stevens, Roy [Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States)] [Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States); D'Souza, Rena N. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Lu, Yongbo, E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States)] [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States)



Development of an ELISA detecting Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 in serum of prostate cancer patients.  


Tumor Protein 53-Induced Nuclear Protein 1 (TP53INP1) plays an important role during cell stress response in synergy with the potent "genome-keeper" p53. In human, the gene encoding TP53INP1 is expressed at very high level in some pathological situations, such as inflammation and prostate cancer (PC). TP53INP1 overexpression in PC seems to be a worse prognostic factor, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse, making TP53INP1 a relevant specific target for molecular therapy of Castration Resistant (CR) PC. In that context, detection of TP53INP1 in patient biological fluids is a promising diagnostic avenue. We report here successful development of a new Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) detecting TP53INP1, taking advantage of molecular tools (monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins) generated in the laboratory during the course of basic functional investigations devoted to TP53INP1. The ELISA principle is based on a sandwich immunoenzymatic system, TP53INP1 protein being trapped by a first specific mAb coated on microplate then recognized by a second specific mAb. This new assay allows specific detection of TP53INP1 in serum of several PC patients. This breakthrough paves the way towards investigation of a large cohort of patients and assessment of clinical applications of TP53INP1 dosage. PMID:24600558

Saadi, Houda; Seillier, Marion; Sandi, Maria Jos; Peuget, Sylvain; Kellenberger, Christine; Gravis, Gwenalle; Dusetti, Nelson J; Iovanna, Juan L; Rocchi, Palma; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice



LaRbp38: A Leishmania amazonensis protein that binds nuclear and kinetoplast DNAs  

SciTech Connect

Leishmania amazonensis causes a wide spectrum of leishmaniasis. There are no vaccines or adequate treatment for leishmaniasis, therefore there is considerable interest in the identification of new targets for anti-leishmania drugs. The central role of telomere-binding proteins in cell maintenance makes these proteins potential targets for new drugs. In this work, we used a combination of purification chromatographies to screen L. amazonensis proteins for molecules capable of binding double-stranded telomeric DNA. This approach resulted in the purification of a 38 kDa polypeptide that was identified by mass spectrometry as Rbp38, a trypanosomatid protein previously shown to stabilize mitochondrial RNA and to associate with nuclear and kinetoplast DNAs. Western blotting and supershift assays confirmed the identity of the protein as LaRbp38. Competition and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that LaRbp38 interacted with kinetoplast and nuclear DNAs in vivo and suggested that LaRbp38 may have dual cellular localization and more than one function.

Lira, C.B.B. [Departamento de Genetica, IB, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo, UNESP, 18618-000, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Siqueira Neto, J.L. [Departamento de Genetica, IB, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo, UNESP, 18618-000, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Giardini, M.A. [Departamento de Genetica, IB, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo, UNESP, 18618-000, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Winck, F.V. [Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramos, C.H.I. [Instituto de Quimica, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Cano, M.I.N. [Departamento de Genetica, IB, Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo, UNESP, 18618-000, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:



Molecular basis for the redox control of nuclear transport of the structural chromatin protein Hmgb1  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative stress can induce a covalent disulfide bond between protein and peptide thiols that is reversible through enzymatic catalysis. This process provides a post-translational mechanism for control of protein function and may also protect thiol groups from irreversible oxidation. High mobility group protein B1 (Hmgb1), a DNA-binding structural chromosomal protein and transcriptional co-activator was identified as a substrate of glutaredoxin. Hmgb1 contains 3 cysteines, Cys23, 45, and 106. In mild oxidative conditions, Cys23 and Cys45 readily form an intramolecular disulfide bridge, whereas Cys106 remains in the reduced form. The disulfide bond between Cys23 and Cys45 is a target of glutathione-dependent reduction by glutaredoxin. Endogenous Hmgb1 as well as GFP-tagged wild-type Hmgb1 co-localize in the nucleus of CHO cells. While replacement of Hmgb1 Cys23 and/or 45 with serines did not affect the nuclear distribution of the mutant proteins, Cys106-to-Ser and triple cysteine mutations impaired nuclear localization of Hmgb1. Our cysteine targeted mutational analysis suggests that Cys23 and 45 induce conformational changes in response to oxidative stress, whereas Cys106 appears to be critical for the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Hmgb1.

Hoppe, George [Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)]. E-mail:; Talcott, Katherine E. [Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K. [Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Crabb, John W. [Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Sears, Jonathan E. [Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)



A RanGTP-independent mechanism allows ribosomal protein nuclear import for ribosome assembly  

PubMed Central

Within a single generation time a growing yeast cell imports ?14 million ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) into the nucleus for ribosome production. After import, it is unclear how these intrinsically unstable and aggregation-prone proteins are targeted to the ribosome assembly site in the nucleolus. Here, we report the discovery of a conserved nuclear carrier Tsr2 that coordinates transfer of the r-protein eS26 to the earliest assembling pre-ribosome, the 90S. In vitro studies revealed that Tsr2 efficiently dissociates importin:eS26 complexes via an atypical RanGTP-independent mechanism that terminates the import process. Subsequently, Tsr2 binds the released eS26, shields it from proteolysis, and ensures its safe delivery to the 90S pre-ribosome. We anticipate similar carrierstermed here escortinsto securely connect the nuclear import machinery with pathways that deposit r-proteins onto developing pre-ribosomal particles. DOI: PMID:25144938

Schtz, Sabina; Fischer, Ute; Altvater, Martin; Nerurkar, Purnima; Pea, Cohue; Gerber, Michaela; Chang, Yiming; Caesar, Stefanie; Schubert, Olga T; Schlenstedt, Gabriel; Panse, Vikram G



A cancer-associated RING finger protein, RNF43, is a ubiquitin ligase that interacts with a nuclear protein, HAP95  

SciTech Connect

RNF43 is a recently discovered RING finger protein that is implicated in colon cancer pathogenesis. This protein possesses growth-promoting activity but its mechanism remains unknown. In this study, to gain insight into the biological action of RNF43 we characterized it biochemically and intracellularly. A combination of indirect immunofluorescence analysis and biochemical fractionation experiments suggests that RNF43 resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as in the nuclear envelope. Sucrose density gradient fractionation demonstrates that RNF43 co-exists with emerin, a representative inner nuclear membrane protein in the nuclear subcompartment. The cell-free system with pure components reveals that recombinant RNF43 fused with maltose-binding protein has autoubiquitylation activity. By the yeast two-hybrid screening we identified HAP95, a chromatin-associated protein interfacing the nuclear envelope, as an RNF43-interacting protein and substantiated this interaction in intact cells by the co-immunoprecipitation experiments. HAP95 is ubiquitylated and subjected to a proteasome-dependent degradation pathway, however, the experiments in which 293 cells expressing both RNF43 and HAP95 were treated with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132, show that HAP95 is unlikely to serve as a substrate of RNF43 ubiquitin ligase. These results infer that RNF43 is a resident protein of the ER and, at least partially, the nuclear membrane, with ubiquitin ligase activity and may be involved in cell growth control potentially through the interaction with HAP95.

Sugiura, Takeyuki [Discovery Research Laboratory, Tokyo R and D Center, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Daiichi-Sankyo group, 16-13, Kitakasai 1-Chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo, 134-8630 (Japan)], E-mail:; Yamaguchi, Aya; Miyamoto, Kentaro [Discovery Research Laboratory, Tokyo R and D Center, Daiichi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Daiichi-Sankyo group, 16-13, Kitakasai 1-Chome, Edogawa-ku, Tokyo, 134-8630 (Japan)



Importin 7 and Nup358 Promote Nuclear Import of the Protein Component of Human Telomerase  

PubMed Central

In actively dividing eukaryotic cells, chromosome ends (telomeres) are subject to progressive shortening, unless they are maintained by the action of telomerase, a dedicated enzyme that adds DNA sequence repeats to chromosomal 3?end. For its enzymatic function on telomeres, telomerase requires nuclear import of its protein component (hTERT in human cells) and assembly with the RNA component, TERC. We now confirm a major nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the N-terminal region of hTERT and describe a novel one in the C-terminal part. Using an siRNA approach to deplete several import receptors, we identify importin 7 as a soluble nuclear transport factor that is required for efficient import. At the level of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), Nup358, a nucleoporin that forms the cytoplasmic filaments of the NPC, plays an important role in nuclear import of hTERT. A structure-function analysis of Nup358 revealed that the zinc finger region of the nucleoporin is of particular importance for transport of hTERT. Together, our study sheds light on the nuclear import pathway of hTERT. PMID:24586428

Frohnert, Cornelia; Hutten, Saskia; Wlde, Sarah; Nath, Annegret; Kehlenbach, Ralph H.



Heat-induced changes in nuclear-associated proteins in normal and thermotolerant HeLa cells  

SciTech Connect

In the present study we used one-dimensional 7-10% gradient SDS polycrylamide gels to resolve the proteins associated with nuclei isolated from normal and heat-shocked cells. By analyzing the relative optical density of 27-30 polypeptide bands as a function of the duration of the heat shock or the time of incubation after heating, we were able to observe the following regarding heat-induced alterations in nuclear protein binding. Various proteins show an increased nuclear association in terms of their nuclear protein content, but the kinetics of this association is not identical for individual proteins. Moreover, the changes in these associations are differentially affected in nuclei from thermotolerant cells. This type of analysis demonstrates the possibility that the cellular effects of hyperthermia could be correlated with the altered binding and/or increased presence of specific proteins associated with the nucleus in heated cells. 16 refs., 7 figs.

Roti Roti, J.L.; Turkel, N. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)



Protein Inhibitor of Activated STAT3 (PIAS3) Protein Promotes SUMOylation and Nuclear Sequestration of the Intracellular Domain of ErbB4 Protein*  

PubMed Central

ErbB4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase implicated in the development and homeostasis of the heart, central nervous system, and mammary gland. Cleavable isoforms of ErbB4 release a soluble intracellular domain (ICD) that can translocate to the nucleus and function as a transcriptional coregulator. In search of regulatory mechanisms of ErbB4 ICD function, we identified PIAS3 as a novel interaction partner of ErbB4 ICD. In keeping with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase function of protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) proteins, we showed that the ErbB4 ICD is modified by SUMO, and that PIAS3 stimulates the SUMOylation. Upon overexpression of PIAS3, the ErbB4 ICD generated from the full-length receptor accumulated into the nucleus in a manner that was dependent on the functional nuclear localization signal of ErbB4. In the nucleus, ErbB4 colocalized with PIAS3 and SUMO-1 in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, nuclear domains involved in regulation of transcription. Accordingly, PIAS3 overexpression had an effect on the transcriptional coregulatory activity of ErbB4, repressing its ability to coactivate transcription with Yes-associated protein. Finally, knockdown of PIAS3 with siRNA partially rescued the inhibitory effect of the ErbB4 ICD on differentiation of MDA-MB-468 breast cancer and HC11 mammary epithelial cells. Our findings illustrate that PIAS3 is a novel regulator of ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase, controlling its nuclear sequestration and function. PMID:22584572

Sundvall, Maria; Korhonen, Anna; Vaparanta, Katri; Anckar, Julius; Halkilahti, Kalle; Salah, Zaidoun; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Sistonen, Lea; Elenius, Klaus



Utilization of nuclear structural proteins for targeted therapy and detection of proliferative and differentiation disorders  


The localization of nuclear apparatus proteins (NUMA) is used to identify tumor cells and different stages in the tumor progression and differentiation processes. There is a characteristic organization of NuMA in tumor cells and in phenotypically normal cells. NuMA distribution patterns are significantly less diffuse in proliferating non-malignant cells compared to malignant cells. The technique encompasses cell immunostaining using a NuMA specific antibody, and microscopic analysis of NuMA distribution within each nucleus.

Lelievre, Sophie (Berkeley, CA); Bissell, Mina (Berkeley, CA)



Interaction of the p53-Regulated Protein Gadd45 with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

GADD45 is a ubiquitously expressed mammalian gene that is induced by DNA damage and certain other stresses. Like another p53-regulated gene, p21WAF1\\/CIP1, whose product binds to cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk's) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), GADD45 has been associated with growth suppression. Gadd45 was found to bind to PCNA, a normal component of Cdk complexes and a protein involved in

Martin L. Smith; I.-Tsuen Chen; Qimin Zhan; Insoo Bae; Chaw-Yuan Chen; Tona M. Gilmer; Michael B. Kastan; Patrick M. O'Connor; Albert J. Fornace Jr.



Definitive Identification of a Member of the Epstein--Barr Virus Nuclear Protein 3 Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some Epstein--Barr virus (EBV) immune human antisera are known to react with a 142-kDa protein, EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 3 (EBNA3), which, like EBNA1 and EBNA2, is likely to be involved in the establishment of latent infection or growth transformation. We have now constructed gene fusions between Escherichia coli lacZ and an EBV DNA open reading frame (BERF1; BamHI E fragment

Kevin Hennessy; Fred Wang; Ellen Woodland Bushman; Elliott Kieff



Phylogenetic analysis of Myriapoda using three nuclear protein-coding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the ability of three nuclear protein-encoding geneselongation factor-1? (EF-1?), RNA polymerase II (Pol II), and elongation factor-2 (EF-2)from 59 myriapod and 12 non-myriapod species to resolve phylogenetic relationships among myriapod classes and orders. In a previous study using EF-1? and Pol II (2134 nt combined) from 34 myriapod taxa, Regier and Shultz recovered widely accepted classes, orders, and

Jerome C. Regier; Heather M. Wilson; Jeffrey W. Shultz



p34cdc2-mediated phosphorylation at T124 inhibits nuclear import of SV- 40 T antigen proteins  

PubMed Central

The nuclear import of transcription regulatory proteins appears to be used by the cell to trigger transitions in cell cycle, morphogenesis, and transformation. We have previously observed that the rate at which SV-40 T antigen fusion proteins containing a functional nuclear localization sequence (NLS; residues 126-132) are imported into the nucleus is enhanced in the presence of the casein kinase II (CK-II) site S111/112. In this study purified p34cdc2 kinase was used to phosphorylate T antigen proteins specifically at T124 and kinetic measurements at the single-cell level performed to assess its effect on nuclear protein import. T124 phosphorylation, which could be functionally simulated by a T-to-D124 substitution, was found to reduce the maximal extent of nuclear accumulation whilst negligibly affecting the import rate. The inhibition of nuclear import depended on the stoichiometry of phosphorylation. T124 and S111/112 could be phosphorylated independently of one another. Two alternative mechanisms were considered to explain the inhibition of nuclear import by T124 phosphorylation: inactivation of the NLS and cytoplasmic retention, respectively. Furthermore, we speculate that in vivo T124 phosphorylation may regulate the small but functionally significant amount of cytoplasmic SV-40 T antigen. A sequence comparison showed that many transcription regulatory proteins contain domains comprising potential CK-II-sites, cdc2-sites, and NLS. This raises the possibility that the three elements represent a functional unit regulating nuclear protein import. PMID:1659575



Chromatin decompaction by the nucleosomal binding protein HMGN5 impairs nuclear sturdiness.  


In most metazoan nuclei, heterochromatin is located at the nuclear periphery in contact with the nuclear lamina, which provides mechanical stability to the nucleus. We show that in cultured cells, chromatin decompaction by the nucleosome binding protein HMGN5 decreases the sturdiness, elasticity and rigidity of the nucleus. Mice overexpressing HMGN5, either globally or only in the heart, are normal at birth but develop hypertrophic heart with large cardiomyoctyes, deformed nuclei and disrupted lamina and die of cardiac malfunction. Chromatin decompaction is seen in cardiomyocytes of newborn mice but misshaped nuclei with disrupted lamina are seen only in adult cardiomyocytes, suggesting that loss of heterochromatin diminishes the ability of the nucleus to withstand the mechanical forces of the contracting heart. Thus, heterochromatin enhances the ability of the nuclear lamina to maintain the sturdiness and shape of the eukaryotic nucleus; a structural role for chromatin that is distinct from its genetic functions. PMID:25609380

Furusawa, Takashi; Rochman, Mark; Taher, Leila; Dimitriadis, Emilios K; Nagashima, Kunio; Anderson, Stasia; Bustin, Michael



Chromatin decompaction by the nucleosomal binding protein HMGN5 impairs nuclear sturdiness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most metazoan nuclei, heterochromatin is located at the nuclear periphery in contact with the nuclear lamina, which provides mechanical stability to the nucleus. We show that in cultured cells, chromatin decompaction by the nucleosome binding protein HMGN5 decreases the sturdiness, elasticity and rigidity of the nucleus. Mice overexpressing HMGN5, either globally or only in the heart, are normal at birth but develop hypertrophic heart with large cardiomyoctyes, deformed nuclei and disrupted lamina and die of cardiac malfunction. Chromatin decompaction is seen in cardiomyocytes of newborn mice but misshaped nuclei with disrupted lamina are seen only in adult cardiomyocytes, suggesting that loss of heterochromatin diminishes the ability of the nucleus to withstand the mechanical forces of the contracting heart. Thus, heterochromatin enhances the ability of the nuclear lamina to maintain the sturdiness and shape of the eukaryotic nucleus; a structural role for chromatin that is distinct from its genetic functions.

Furusawa, Takashi; Rochman, Mark; Taher, Leila; Dimitriadis, Emilios K.; Nagashima, Kunio; Anderson, Stasia; Bustin, Michael



An RNAprotein complex links enhanced nuclear 3? processing with cytoplasmic mRNA stabilization  

PubMed Central

Post-transcriptional controls are critical to gene regulation. These controls are frequently based on sequence-specific binding of trans-acting proteins to cis-acting motifs on target RNAs. Prior studies have revealed that the KH-domain protein, ?CP, binds to a 3? UTR C-rich motif of h?-globin mRNA and contributes to its cytoplasmic stability. Here, we report that this 3? UTR ?CP complex regulates the production of mature ?-globin mRNA by enhancing 3? processing of the h?-globin transcript. We go on to demonstrate that this nuclear activity reflects enhancement of both the cleavage and the polyadenylation reactions and that ?CP interacts in vivo with core components of the 3? processing complex. Consistent with its nuclear processing activity, our studies reveal that ?CP assembles co-transcriptionally at the h?-globin chromatin locus and that this loading is selectively enriched at the 3? terminus of the gene. The demonstrated linkage of nuclear processing with cytoplasmic stabilization via a common RNAprotein complex establishes a basis for integration of sequential controls critical to robust and sustained expression of a target mRNA. PMID:21623344

Ji, Xinjun; Kong, Jian; Liebhaber, Stephen A



Identification of a Karyopherin ?1/?2 Proline-Tyrosine Nuclear Localization Signal in Huntingtin Protein*  

PubMed Central

Among the known pathways of protein nuclear import, the karyopherin ?2/transportin pathway is only the second to have a defined nuclear localization signal (NLS) consensus. Huntingtin, a 350-kDa protein, has defined roles in the nucleus, as well as a CRM1/exportin-dependent nuclear export signal; however, the NLS and exact pathway of import have remained elusive. Here, using a live cell assay and affinity chromatography, we show that huntingtin has a karyopherin ?2-dependent proline-tyrosine (PY)-NLS in the amino terminus of the protein. This NLS comprises three consensus components: a basic charged sequence, a downstream conserved arginine, and a PY sequence. Unlike the classic PY-NLS, which has an unstructured intervening sequence between the consensus components, we show that a ? sheet structured region separating the consensus elements is critical for huntingtin NLS function. The huntingtin PY-NLS is also capable of import through the importin/karyopherin ?1 pathway but was not functional in all cell types tested. We propose that this huntingtin PY-NLS may comprise a new class of multiple import factor-dependent NLSs with an internal structural component that may regulate NLS activity. PMID:23012356

Desmond, Carly R.; Atwal, Randy Singh; Xia, Jianrun; Truant, Ray



Ubinuclein, a Novel Nuclear Protein Interacting with Cellular and Viral Transcription Factors  

PubMed Central

The major target tissues for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection are B lymphocytes and epithelial cells of the oropharyngeal zone. The product of the EBV BZLF1 early gene, EB1, a member of the basic leucine-zipper family of transcription factors, interacts with both viral and cellular promoters and transcription factors, modulating the reactivation of latent EBV infection. Here, we characterize a novel cellular protein interacting with the basic domains of EB1 and c-Jun, and competing of their binding to the AP1 consensus site. The transcript is present in a wide variety of human adult, fetal, and tumor tissues, and the protein is detected in the nuclei throughout the human epidermis and as either grainy or punctuate nuclear staining in the cultured keratinocytes. The overexpression of tagged cDNA constructs in keratinocytes revealed that the NH2 terminus is essential for the nuclear localization, while the central domain is responsible for the interaction with EB1 and for the phenotype of transfected keratinocytes similar to terminal differentiation. The gene was identified in tail-to-tail orientation with the periplakin gene (PPL) in human chromosome 16p13.3 and in a syntenic region in mouse chromosome 16. We designated this novel ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein as ubinuclein and the corresponding gene as UBN1. PMID:10725330

Aho, Sirpa; Buisson, Monique; Pajunen, Tiina; Ryoo, Young W.; Giot, Jean-Francois; Gruffat, Henry; Sergeant, Alain; Uitto, Jouni



Nuclear localization of Beet black scorch virus capsid protein and its interaction with importin ?.  


Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to Necrovirus genus. In order to better understand the life cycle of BBSV, we have investigated the subcellular localization of BBSV capsid protein (CP) by its fusion with green fluorescent protein (GFP) agroinfiltrated into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and by particle bombardment into onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that BBSV CP fused to GFP displayed enhanced fluorescence in nuclei and nuclear import of the CP was confirmed in BBSV-infected N. benthamiana leaves. Mutational analysis revealed that the N-terminal basic amino acid cluster (4)KRNKGGKKSR(13) of the CP is essential for nuclear localization. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays indicated that the CP could interact with the nuclear import factor importin ?, suggesting that the CP is possibly imported into the nucleus via an importin ?-dependent pathway. This is the first report of the nuclear localization of the CP encoded by a necrovirus. PMID:21056066

Zhang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Niu, Shaofang; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei



Characterization of the cassava geminivirus transcription activation protein putative nuclear localization signal.  


The geminivirus transcription activation protein (TrAP) localizes to the nucleus and contains a putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) ((28)PRRRR(32)) on the N-terminus. The role of individual residues of this putative NLS on nuclear localization and symptom induction was investigated using TrAP of East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV). Subcellular localization was conducted using the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Results showed that the proline residue at position 28 (Pro-28) is essential for nuclear localization whereas individually, none of the four contiguous arginines is necessary for nuclear targeting. The role of each of the five NLS amino acid residues on TrAP-mediated disease phenotype and gene silencing suppression was investigated by expressing these mutants in Nicotiana benthamiana from the PVX vector and under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Results showed that all five residues of the NLS play a role on disease phenotype production in N. benthamiana plants. Furthermore, each of the NLS residues appeared to be required for suppression of VIGS but appeared not to be required for the ability of TrAP to transactivate transcription and interact with adenosine kinase (ADK). PMID:19665038

Chowda-Reddy, R V; Dong, Wubei; Felton, Christian; Ryman, Danielle; Ballard, Keith; Fondong, Vincent N



FE65 regulates and interacts with the Bloom syndrome protein in dynamic nuclear spheres - potential relevance to Alzheimer's disease.  


The intracellular domain of the amyloid precursor protein (AICD) is generated following cleavage of the precursor by the ?-secretase complex and is involved in membrane to nucleus signaling, for which the binding of AICD to the adapter protein FE65 is essential. Here we show that FE65 knockdown causes a downregulation of the protein Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) and the minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein family and that elevated nuclear levels of FE65 result in stabilization of the BLM protein in nuclear mobile spheres. These spheres are able to grow and fuse, and potentially correspond to the nuclear domain 10. BLM plays a role in DNA replication and repair mechanisms and FE65 was also shown to play a role in DNA damage response in the cell. A set of proliferation assays in our work revealed that FE65 knockdown in HEK293T cells reduced cell replication. On the basis of these results, we hypothesize that nuclear FE65 levels (nuclear FE65/BLM containing spheres) may regulate cell cycle re-entry in neurons as a result of increased interaction of FE65 with BLM and/or an increase in MCM protein levels. Thus, FE65 interactions with BLM and MCM proteins may contribute to the neuronal cell cycle re-entry observed in brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23572515

Schrtter, Andreas; Mastalski, Thomas; Nensa, Fabian M; Neumann, Martin; Loosse, Christina; Pfeiffer, Kathy; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Platta, Harald W; Erdmann, Ralf; Theiss, Carsten; Uszkoreit, Julian; Eisenacher, Martin; Meyer, Helmut E; Marcus, Katrin; Mller, Thorsten



Long isoform of ErbB3 binding protein, p48, mediates protein kinase B/Akt-dependent HDM2 stabilization and nuclear localization  

SciTech Connect

p48 is a long isoform of the ErbB3 binding protein that has oncogenic functions including promotion of carcinogenesis and induction of malignant transformation through negative regulation of tumor suppressor p53. Here, we show that high level of p48 protein expression leads to enhance HDM2 phosphorylation by Akt and inhibits the self-ubiquitination of HDM2 by up-regulation of Akt activity, thereby promoting its protein stability. Moreover, p48 expression leads to accumulated nuclear localization of HDM2, whereas p48 depletion disturbs its nuclear localization. Hence, higher expression of p48 in cancer cells reduces p53 levels through modulation of HDM2 nuclear localization and protein stability via regulation of its Akt-mediated phosphorylation.

Kim, Chung Kwon; Lee, Sang Bae; Nguyen, Truong L.X. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Hoon [Department of Anatomy, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Anatomy, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Um, Sung Hee [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihoe [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jee-Yin, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)



Respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein induces the activation of nuclear factor kappa B  

SciTech Connect

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) induces the production of a number of cytokines and chemokines by activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). The activation of NF-{kappa}B has been shown to depend on viral replication in the infected cells. In this study, we demonstrate that expression of RSV M2-1 protein, a transcriptional processivity and anti-termination factor, is sufficient to activate NF-{kappa}B in A549 cells. Electromobility shift assays show increased NF-{kappa}B complexes in the nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells. M2-1 protein is found in nuclei of M2-1-expressing cells and in RSV-infected cells. Co-immunoprecipitations of nuclear extracts of M2-1-expressing cells and of RSV-infected cells revealed an association of M2-1 with Rel A protein. Furthermore, the activation of NF-{kappa}B depends on the C-terminus of the RSV M2-1 protein, as shown by NF-{kappa}B-induced gene expression of a reporter gene construct.

Reimers, Kerstin [Klinik fuer Plastische, Hand-und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Podbielskistrasse 380, D-30659 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail:; Buchholz, Katja [Institut fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Leipzigerstrasse 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Werchau, Hermann [Institut fuer Medizinische Mikrobiologie, Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, Leipzigerstrasse 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany)



Ran/TC4: a small nuclear GTP-binding protein that regulates DNA synthesis  

PubMed Central

Ran/TC4, first identified as a well-conserved gene distantly related to H-RAS, encodes a protein which has recently been shown in yeast and mammalian systems to interact with RCC1, a protein whose function is required for the normal coupling of the completion of DNA synthesis and the initiation of mitosis. Here, we present data indicating that the nuclear localization of Ran/TC4 requires the presence of RCC1. Transient expression of a Ran/TC4 protein with mutations expected to perturb GTP hydrolysis disrupts host cell DNA synthesis. These results suggest that Ran/TC4 and RCC1 are components of a GTPase switch that monitors the progress of DNA synthesis and couples the completion of DNA synthesis to the onset of mitosis. PMID:8421051



PRP4: a protein of the yeast U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle.  


The Saccharomyces cerevisiae prp mutants (prp2 through prp11) are known to be defective in pre-mRNA splicing at nonpermissive temperatures. We have sequenced the PRP4 gene and shown that it encodes a 52-kilodalton protein. We obtained PRP4 protein-specific antibodies and found that they inhibited in vitro pre-mRNA splicing, which confirms the essential role of PRP4 in splicing. Moreover, we found that PRP4 is required early in the spliceosome assembly pathway. Immunoprecipitation experiments with anti-PRP4 antibodies were used to demonstrate that PRP4 is a protein of the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP). Furthermore, the U5 snRNP could be immunoprecipitated through snRNP-snRNP interactions in the large U4/U5/U6 complex. PMID:2528687

Banroques, J; Abelson, J N



Reverse micelles as a platform for dynamic nuclear polarization in solution NMR of proteins.  


Despite tremendous advances in recent years, solution NMR remains fundamentally restricted due to its inherent insensitivity. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) potentially offers significant improvements in this respect. The basic DNP strategy is to irradiate the EPR transitions of a stable radical and transfer this nonequilibrium polarization to the hydrogen spins of water, which will in turn transfer polarization to the hydrogens of the macromolecule. Unfortunately, these EPR transitions lie in the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum where bulk water absorbs strongly, often resulting in catastrophic heating. Furthermore, the residence times of water on the surface of the protein in bulk solution are generally too short for efficient transfer of polarization. Here we take advantage of the properties of solutions of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low viscosity solvents to implement DNP in liquids. Such samples are largely transparent to the microwave frequencies required and thereby avoid significant heating. Nitroxide radicals are introduced into the reverse micelle system in three ways: attached to the protein, embedded in the reverse micelle shell, and free in the aqueous core. Significant enhancements of the water resonance ranging up to ?-93 at 0.35 T were observed. We also find that the hydration properties of encapsulated proteins allow for efficient polarization transfer from water to the protein. These and other observations suggest that merging reverse micelle encapsulation technology with DNP offers a route to a significant increase in the sensitivity of solution NMR spectroscopy of proteins and other biomolecules. PMID:24456213

Valentine, Kathleen G; Mathies, Guinevere; Bdard, Sabrina; Nucci, Nathaniel V; Dodevski, Igor; Stetz, Matthew A; Can, Thach V; Griffin, Robert G; Wand, A Joshua



Reverse Micelles As a Platform for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization in Solution NMR of Proteins  

PubMed Central

Despite tremendous advances in recent years, solution NMR remains fundamentally restricted due to its inherent insensitivity. Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) potentially offers significant improvements in this respect. The basic DNP strategy is to irradiate the EPR transitions of a stable radical and transfer this nonequilibrium polarization to the hydrogen spins of water, which will in turn transfer polarization to the hydrogens of the macromolecule. Unfortunately, these EPR transitions lie in the microwave range of the electromagnetic spectrum where bulk water absorbs strongly, often resulting in catastrophic heating. Furthermore, the residence times of water on the surface of the protein in bulk solution are generally too short for efficient transfer of polarization. Here we take advantage of the properties of solutions of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low viscosity solvents to implement DNP in liquids. Such samples are largely transparent to the microwave frequencies required and thereby avoid significant heating. Nitroxide radicals are introduced into the reverse micelle system in three ways: attached to the protein, embedded in the reverse micelle shell, and free in the aqueous core. Significant enhancements of the water resonance ranging up to ??93 at 0.35 T were observed. We also find that the hydration properties of encapsulated proteins allow for efficient polarization transfer from water to the protein. These and other observations suggest that merging reverse micelle encapsulation technology with DNP offers a route to a significant increase in the sensitivity of solution NMR spectroscopy of proteins and other biomolecules. PMID:24456213



Evidence for two-step processing of nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins during membrane assembly  

PubMed Central

A plastome (chloroplast genome) mutant of tobacco, lutescens-1, displays abnormal degradation of the chloroplast-encoded polypeptides which form the core complex of photosystem II (PSII). Two nuclear- encoded proteins (present in polymorphic forms), which normally function in the water oxidation process of PSII, accumulate as larger size-class polypeptides in mutant thylakoid membranes. These accumulated proteins are intermediate in size between the full-length primary protein synthesized in the cytoplasm and the proteolytically processed mature polypeptides. Trypsin treatment of unstacked mutant thylakoids and of inside-out vesicle (PSII-enriched) preparations indicated that the intermediate size forms were correctly localized on the inner surface of the thylakoid membrane, but not surface-exposed in the same way as the mature proteins. Only one of the intermediate size- class proteins could be extracted by salt washes. We interpret these data to be consistent with the idea that the two imported proteins that function in the water oxidation step of photosynthesis and are localized in the loculus (the space within the thylakoid vesicles) undergo two-step processing. The second step in proteolytic processing may be related to transport through a second membrane (the first transport step through the chloroplast envelope having been completed); this step may be arrested in the mutant due to the absence of the PSII core complex. PMID:3528170



Kinase activity-dependent nuclear export opposes stress-induced nuclear accumulation and retention of Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


Budding yeast adjusts to increases in external osmolarity via a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway, the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway. Studies with a functional Hog1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion reveal that even under nonstress conditions the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1 cycles between cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. The basal distribution of the protein seems independent of its activator, Pbs2, and independent of its phosphorylation status. Upon osmotic challenge, the Hog1-GFP fusion becomes rapidly concentrated in the nucleus from which it is reexported after return to an iso-osmotic environment or after adaptation to high osmolarity. The preconditions and kinetics of increased nuclear localization correlate with those found for the dual phosphorylation of Hog1-GFP. The duration of Hog1 nuclear residence is modulated by the presence of the general stress activators Msn2 and Msn4. Reexport of Hog1 to the cytoplasm does not require de novo protein synthesis but depends on Hog1 kinase activity. Thus, at least three different mechanisms contribute to the intracellular distribution pattern of Hog1: phosphorylation-dependent nuclear accumulation, retention by nuclear targets, and a kinase-induced export. PMID:10198063

Reiser, V; Ruis, H; Ammerer, G



Interactions and three-dimensional localization of a group of nuclear pore complex proteins  

PubMed Central

We have used antibodies directed against a number of nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins to determine their mutual interactions and location within the three-dimensional structure of the NPC. A monoclonal antibody, termed QE5, recognized three NPC polypeptides, p250, NUP153, and p62 on Western blots, and labeled the nuclear envelope of several cultured cell lines by immunofluorescence microscopy. These three polypeptides contained O-linked N- acetylglucosamine residues and were released from the NPC by detergent/high-salt treatment as discrete high molecular weight complexes. p250 was found in association with a novel 75 kD protein, NUP153 was released as a homo-oligomer of about 1 megadalton, and p62 was associated with polypeptides of 58 and 54 kD (previously reported by Finlay, D. R., E. Meier, P. Bradley, J. Horecka, and D. J. Forbes. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114:169-183). p75, p58, and p54 were not galactosylated in vitro. Xenopus oocyte NEs were labeled with gold- conjugated QE5 and prepared for electron microscopy by quick freezing/freeze drying/rotary metal shadowing. This EM preparation method enabled us to more precisely localize the epitopes of this antibody to the cytoplasmic filaments and the nuclear basket of the NPC. Since QE5 recognizes three O-linked NPC glycoproteins, its labeling was compared with that of the lectin wheat germ agglutinin which recognizes O-linked N-acetylglucosamine moieties. The two probes were found to yield similar, although not identical, distributions of label. To identify the individual proteins with particular NPC components, we have used an anti-peptide antibody against NUP153 and a monospecific anti-p250 polyclonal antibody. Labeling with these two antibodies has documented that NUP153 is a constituent of the nuclear basket with at least one of its epitopes residing in its terminal ring, whereas p250 is a constituent of the cytoplasmic filaments. PMID:8045926



Protein synthesis rates in Drosophila associate with levels of the hsr-omega nuclear transcript  

PubMed Central

Transcripts of the Drosophila hsr-omega gene are known to interact with RNA processing factors and ribosomes and are postulated to aid in co-ordinating nuclear and cytoplasmic activities particularly in stressed cells. However, the significance of these interactions for physiological processes and in turn for whole-organism fitness remains an open question. Because hsr-omegas cellular expression characteristics suggest it may influence protein synthesis, and because both genotypic and expression variation of hsr-omega have been associated with thermotolerance, we characterised 30 lines for variation in the rates of protein synthesis, measured in ovarian tissues, both before and after a mild heat shock, and for basal levels of the two main hsr-omega transcripts, omega-n and omega-c. As expected, the mild heat shock reduced protein synthesis rates. Large variation occurred among lines in levels of omega-n which was negatively associated with rates of basal protein synthesisa result that supports the model for the cellular function of omega-n. Furthermore, omega-n levels were associated with hsr-omega genotype of the line parents. Little variation occurred among lines for omega-c levels and no associations were detected with protein synthesis or genotype. Since protein synthesis is a fundamental process for growth and development, we characterised the lines for several life-history traits; however, no associations with protein synthesis, omega-n or omega-c levels were detected. Our results are consistent with the idea that natural variation in hsr-omega expression influence rates of protein synthesis in this species. PMID:19280368

Johnson, Travis K.; Carrington, Lauren B.; Hallas, Rebecca J.



Nuclear Entry of Hepatitis B Virus Capsids Involves Disintegration to Protein Dimers followed by Nuclear Reassociation to Capsids  

PubMed Central

Assembly and disassembly of viral capsids are essential steps in the viral life cycle. Studies on their kinetics are mostly performed in vitro, allowing application of biochemical, biophysical and visualizing techniques. In vivo kinetics are poorly understood and the transferability of the in vitro models to the cellular environment remains speculative. We analyzed capsid disassembly of the hepatitis B virus in digitonin-permeabilized cells which support nuclear capsid entry and subsequent genome release. Using gradient centrifugation, size exclusion chromatography and immune fluorescence microscopy of digitonin-permeabilized cells, we showed that capsids open and close reversibly. In the absence of RNA, capsid re-assembly slows down; the capsids remain disintegrated and enter the nucleus as protein dimers or irregular polymers. Upon the presence of cellular RNA, capsids re-assemble in the nucleus. We conclude that reversible genome release from hepatitis B virus capsids is a unique strategy different from that of other viruses, which employs irreversible capsid destruction for genome release. The results allowed us to propose a model of HBV genome release in which the unique environment of the nuclear pore favors HBV capsid disassembly reaction, while both cytoplasm and nucleus favor capsid assembly. PMID:19714236

Bischof, Andreas; Foss, Michael; Sominskaya, Irina; Pumpens, Paul; Cazenave, Christian; Castroviejo, Michel; Kann, Michael



Histone deacetylase 2 and N-Myc reduce p53 protein phosphorylation at serine 46 by repressing gene transcription of tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1  

PubMed Central

Myc oncoproteins and histone deacetylases (HDACs) exert oncogenic effects by modulating gene transcription. Paradoxically, N-Myc induces p53 gene expression. Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) phosphorylates p53 protein at serine 46, leading to enhanced p53 activity, transcriptional activation of p53 target genes and programmed cell death. Here we aimed to identify the mechanism through which N-Myc overexpressing p53 wild-type neuroblastoma cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. TP53INP1 was found to be one of the genes most significantly repressed by HDAC2 and N-Myc according to Affymetrix microarray gene expression datasets. HDAC2 and N-Myc reduced TP53INP1 gene expression by direct binding to the TP53INP1 gene promoter, leading to transcriptional repression of TP53INP1, p53 protein de-phosphorylation at serine 46, neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival. Moreover, low levels of TP53INP1 expression in human neuroblastoma tissues correlated with high levels of N-Myc expression and poor patient outcome, and the BET bromodomain inhibitors JQ1 and I-BET151 reduced N-Myc expression and reactivated TP53INP1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. These findings identify TP53INP1 repression as an important co-factor for N-Myc oncogenesis, and provide further evidence for the potential application of BET bromodomain inhibitors in the therapy of N-Myc-induced neuroblastoma. PMID:24952595

Shahbazi, Jeyran; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Norris, Murray D.; Liu, Bing; Haber, Michelle; Tee, Andrew E.; Carrier, Alice; Biankin, Andrew V.; London, Wendy B.; Marshall, Glenn M.; Lock, Richard B.; Liu, Tao



Histone deacetylase 2 and N-Myc reduce p53 protein phosphorylation at serine 46 by repressing gene transcription of tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1.  


Myc oncoproteins and histone deacetylases (HDACs) exert oncogenic effects by modulating gene transcription. Paradoxically, N-Myc induces p53 gene expression. Tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) phosphorylates p53 protein at serine 46, leading to enhanced p53 activity, transcriptional activation of p53 target genes and programmed cell death. Here we aimed to identify the mechanism through which N-Myc overexpressing p53 wild-type neuroblastoma cells acquired resistance to apoptosis. TP53INP1 was found to be one of the genes most significantly repressed by HDAC2 and N-Myc according to Affymetrix microarray gene expression datasets. HDAC2 and N-Myc reduced TP53INP1 gene expression by direct binding to the TP53INP1 gene promoter, leading to transcriptional repression of TP53INP1, p53 protein de-phosphorylation at serine 46, neuroblastoma cell proliferation and survival. Moreover, low levels of TP53INP1 expression in human neuroblastoma tissues correlated with high levels of N-Myc expression and poor patient outcome, and the BET bromodomain inhibitors JQ1 and I-BET151 reduced N-Myc expression and reactivated TP53INP1 expression in neuroblastoma cells. These findings identify TP53INP1 repression as an important co-factor for N-Myc oncogenesis, and provide further evidence for the potential application of BET bromodomain inhibitors in the therapy of N-Myc-induced neuroblastoma. PMID:24952595

Shahbazi, Jeyran; Scarlett, Christopher J; Norris, Murray D; Liu, Bing; Haber, Michelle; Tee, Andrew E; Carrier, Alice; Biankin, Andrew V; London, Wendy B; Marshall, Glenn M; Lock, Richard B; Liu, Tao



Heterodimerization with Small Maf Proteins Enhances Nuclear Retention of Nrf2 via Masking the NESzip Motif  

PubMed Central

Nrf2 is the key transcription factor regulating the antioxidant response. When exposed to oxidative stress, Nrf2 translocates to cell nucleus and forms heterodimer with small Maf proteins (sMaf). Nrf2/sMaf heterodimer binds specifically to a cis-acting enhancer called antioxidant response element and initiates transcription of a battery of antioxidant and detoxification genes. Nrf2 possesses a NESzip motif (nuclear export signal co-localized with the leucine zipper (ZIP) domain). Heterodimerization with MafG via ZIP-ZIP binding enhanced Nrf2 nuclear retention, which could be abrogated by the deletion of the ZIP domain or site-directed mutations targeting at the ZIP domain. In addition, dimerization with MafG precluded Nrf2zip/CRM1 binding, suggesting that Nrf2/MafG heterodimerization may simultaneously mask the NESzip motif. MafG-mediated nuclear retention may enable Nrf2 proteins to evade cytosolic proteasomal degradation and consequently stabilize Nrf2 signaling. For the first time, we show that at the physiological condition, the NESzip motif can be switched-off by heterodimerization. PMID:18585411

Li, Wenge; Yu, Siwang; Liu, Tong; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Blank, Volker; Li, Hong; Kong, A.-N. Tony



Identification and Characterization of Lbh, a Novel Conserved Nuclear Protein Expressed during Early Limb and Heart Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the cloning, protein characterization, and expression of a novel vertebrate gene, termed Lbh (Limb-bud-and-heart), with a spatiotemporal expression pattern that marks embryologically significant domains in the developing limbs and heart. Lbh encodes a highly conserved nuclear protein, which in tissue culture cells possesses a transcriptional activator function. During limb development, expression of Lbh initiates in the ectoderm of

Karoline J. Briegel; Alexandra L. Joyner



The spinal muscular atrophy protein SMN affects Drosophila germline nuclear organization through the U bodyP body pathway  

E-print Network

Drosophila Nurse cell Oocyte Cajal body Histone locus body Survival motor neuron protein (SMNThe spinal muscular atrophy protein SMN affects Drosophila germline nuclear organization through the U body­P body pathway Lin Lee, Siân E. Davies, Ji-Long Liu Medical Research Council Functional



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB-1) is a well-characterized nuclear protein recently shown to be involved in endotoxin-induced inflammation and injury. Studies have linked HMGB-1 release to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, a role for HMGB-1 in other disorders involvi...


Insoluble protein characterization by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).  


Besides misfolded proteins, which still retain the capacity to fold into uniquely defined structures but are misled to "off-pathway" aggregation, there exists a group of proteins which are unrefoldable and insoluble in buffers. Previously no general method was available to solubilize them and consequently their solution conformations could not be characterized. Recently, we discovered that these insoluble proteins could in fact be solubilized in pure water. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) characterization led to their classification into three groups, all of which lack the tight tertiary packing and consequently anticipated to unavoidably aggregate in vivo with ~150 mM ions, thus designated as "intrinsically insoluble proteins (IIPs)." It appears that eukaryotic genomes contain many "IIP," which also have a potential to interact with membranes to trigger neurodegenerative diseases. In this chapter, we provide a detailed procedure to express and purify these proteins, followed by CD and NMR spectroscopy characterization of their conformation and interaction with dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). PMID:25447876

Goyal, Shaveta; Qin, Haina; Lim, Liangzhong; Song, Jianxing



Nuclear pore complex protein sequences determine overall copolymer brush structure and function.  


The transport of cargo across the nuclear membrane is highly selective and accomplished by a poorly understood mechanism involving hundreds of nucleoporins lining the inside of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Currently, there is no clear picture of the overall structure formed by this collection of proteins within the pore, primarily due to their disordered nature. We perform coarse-grained simulations of both individual nucleoporins and grafted rings of nups mimicking the in vivo geometry of the NPC and supplement this with polymer brush modeling. Our results indicate that different regions or blocks of an individual NPC protein can have distinctly different forms of disorder and that this property appears to be a conserved functional feature. Furthermore, this block structure at the individual protein level is critical to the formation of a unique higher-order polymer brush architecture that can exist in distinct morphologies depending on the effective interaction energy between the phenylalanine glycine (FG) domains of different nups. Because the interactions between FG domains may be modulated by certain forms of transport factors, our results indicate that transitions between brush morphologies could play an important role in regulating transport across the NPC, suggesting novel forms of gated transport across membrane pores with wide biomimetic applicability. PMID:24806932

Ando, David; Zandi, Roya; Kim, Yong Woon; Colvin, Michael; Rexach, Michael; Gopinathan, Ajay



Nuclear body formation and PML body remodeling by the human cytomegalovirus protein UL35  

SciTech Connect

The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL35 gene encodes two proteins, UL35 and UL35a. Expression of UL35 in transfected cells results in the formation of UL35 nuclear bodies that associate with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein. PML forms the basis for PML nuclear bodies that are important for suppressing viral lytic gene expression. Given the important relationship between PML and viral infection, we have further investigated the association of UL35 with PML bodies. We demonstrate that UL35 bodies form independently of PML and subsequently recruit PML, Sp100 and Daxx. In contrast, UL35a did not form bodies; however, it could bind UL35 and inhibit the formation of UL35 bodies. The HCMV tegument protein pp71 promoted the formation of UL35 bodies and the cytoplasmic localization of UL35a. Similarly, UL35a shifted pp71 to the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the interplay between UL35, UL35a and pp71 affects their subcellular localization and likely their functions throughout infection.

Salsman, Jayme; Wang Xueqi; Frappier, Lori, E-mail:



The shelterin protein POT-1 anchors Caenorhabditis elegans telomeres through SUN-1 at the nuclear periphery.  


Telomeres are specialized protein-DNA structures that protect chromosome ends. In budding yeast, telomeres form clusters at the nuclear periphery. By imaging telomeres in embryos of the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that telomeres clustered only in strains that had activated an alternative telomere maintenance pathway (ALT). Moreover, as in yeast, the unclustered telomeres in wild-type embryos were located near the nuclear envelope (NE). This bias for perinuclear localization increased during embryogenesis and persisted in differentiated cells. Telomere position in early embryos required the NE protein SUN-1, the single-strand binding protein POT-1, and the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) ligase GEI-17. However, in postmitotic larval cells, none of these factors individually were required for telomere anchoring, which suggests that additional mechanisms anchor in late development. Importantly, targeted POT-1 was sufficient to anchor chromatin to the NE in a SUN-1-dependent manner, arguing that its effect at telomeres is direct. This high-resolution description of telomere position within C. elegans extends our understanding of telomere organization in eukaryotes. PMID:24297748

Ferreira, Helder C; Towbin, Benjamin D; Jegou, Thibaud; Gasser, Susan M



The shelterin protein POT-1 anchors Caenorhabditis elegans telomeres through SUN-1 at the nuclear periphery  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are specialized proteinDNA structures that protect chromosome ends. In budding yeast, telomeres form clusters at the nuclear periphery. By imaging telomeres in embryos of the metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that telomeres clustered only in strains that had activated an alternative telomere maintenance pathway (ALT). Moreover, as in yeast, the unclustered telomeres in wild-type embryos were located near the nuclear envelope (NE). This bias for perinuclear localization increased during embryogenesis and persisted in differentiated cells. Telomere position in early embryos required the NE protein SUN-1, the single-strand binding protein POT-1, and the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) ligase GEI-17. However, in postmitotic larval cells, none of these factors individually were required for telomere anchoring, which suggests that additional mechanisms anchor in late development. Importantly, targeted POT-1 was sufficient to anchor chromatin to the NE in a SUN-1dependent manner, arguing that its effect at telomeres is direct. This high-resolution description of telomere position within C. elegans extends our understanding of telomere organization in eukaryotes. PMID:24297748

Ferreira, Helder C.; Towbin, Benjamin D.; Jegou, Thibaud



Nuclear localization of MBNL1: splicing-mediated autoregulation and repression of repeat-derived aberrant proteins.  


In some neurological diseases caused by repeat expansions such as myotonic dystrophy, the RNA-binding protein muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) accumulates in intranuclear inclusions containing mutant repeat RNA. The interaction between MBNL1 and mutant RNA in the nucleus is a key event leading to loss of MBNL function, yet the details of this effect have been elusive. Here, we investigated the mechanism and significance of MBNL1 nuclear localization. We found that MBNL1 contains two classes of nuclear localization signal (NLS), a classical bipartite NLS and a novel conformational NLS. Alternative splicing of exon 7 acts as a switch between these NLS types and couples MBNL1 activity and intracellular localization. Depending on its nuclear localization, MBNL1 promoted nuclear accumulation of mutant RNA containing a CUG or CAG repeat, some of which produced proteins containing homopolymeric tracts such as polyglutamine. Furthermore, MBNL1 repressed the expression of these homopolymeric proteins including those presumably produced through repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. These results suggest that nuclear retention of expanded RNA reflects a novel role of MBNL proteins in repressing aberrant protein expression and may provide pathological and therapeutic implications for a wide range of repeat expansion diseases associated with nuclear RNA retention and/or RAN translation. PMID:25274774

Kino, Yoshihiro; Washizu, Chika; Kurosawa, Masaru; Oma, Yoko; Hattori, Nobutaka; Ishiura, Shoichi; Nukina, Nobuyuki



The sequence-specific nuclear matrix binding factor F6 is a chicken GATA-like protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence-specific DNA-binding protein factor F6, which binds upstream of the cluster of the chicken a-globin genes, has previously been found to interact with a DNA fragment containing a replication origin and a nuclear matrix binding site. This protein has been partially characterized. Based on its molecular weight and binding affinity, F6 belongs to a family of GATA proteins, the

Y. S. Vassetzky; C. V. Moura Gallo; A. N. Bogdanova; S. V. Razin; K. Scherrer



Expression and nuclear localization of the TATA-box-binding protein during baculovirus infection.  


The TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) plays a key role in initiating eukaryotic transcription and is used by many viruses for viral transcription. We previously reported increased TBP levels during infection with the baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nuclear polyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). The TBP antiserum used in that study, however, cross-reacted with a baculoviral protein. Here, we reported that increased amounts of nuclear TBP were detected upon infection of Spodoptera frugiperda and TN-368 cells with a TBP-specific antiserum. TBP levels increased until 72 h post-infection (p.i.), whilst tbp transcripts decreased by 16 h p.i., which suggested a virus-induced influence on the TBP protein levels. To address a potential modification of the TBP degradation pathway during infection, we investigated the possible role of viral ubiquitin. Infection studies with AcMNPV recombinants carrying a mutated viral ubiquitin gene revealed that the TBP increase during infection was not altered. In addition, pulse-chase experiments indicated a high TBP half-life of ~60 h in uninfected cells, suggesting that a virus-induced increase of TBP stability was unlikely. This increase in TBP correlated with a redistribution to nuclear domains resembling sites of viral DNA synthesis. Furthermore, we observed colocalization of TBP with host RNA polymerase (RNAP) II, but only until 8 h p.i., whilst TBP, but not RNAPII, was present in the enlarged replication domains late during infection. Thus, we suggested that AcMNPV adapted a mechanism to accumulate the highly stable cellular TBP at sites of viral DNA replication and transcription. PMID:24676420

Mainz, Daniela; Quadt, Ilja; Stranzenbach, Andrea K; Voss, Daniel; Guarino, Linda A; Knebel-Mrsdorf, Dagmar



Solution structures of Mengovirus Leader protein, its phosphorylated derivatives, and in complex with nuclear transport regulatory protein, RanGTPase.  


Cardiovirus Leader (L) proteins induce potent antihost inhibition of active cellular nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by triggering aberrant hyperphosphorylation of nuclear pore proteins (Nup). To achieve this, L binds protein RanGTPase (Ran), a key trafficking regulator, and diverts it into tertiary or quaternary complexes with required kinases. The activity of L is regulated by two phosphorylation events not required for Ran binding. Matched NMR studies on the unphosphorylated, singly, and doubly phosphorylated variants of Mengovirus L (L(M)) show both modifications act together to partially stabilize a short internal ?-helix comprising L(M) residues 43-46. This motif implies that ionic and Van der Waals forces contributed by phosphorylation help organize downstream residues 48-67 into a new interface. The full structure of L(M) as bound to Ran (unlabeled) and Ran (216 aa) as bound by L(M) (unlabeled) places L(M) into the BP1 binding site of Ran, wrapped by the conformational flexible COOH tail. The arrangement explains the tight KD for this complex and places the LM zinc finger and phosphorylation interface as surface exposed and available for subsequent reactions. The core structure of Ran, outside the COOH tail, is not altered by L(M) binding and remains accessible for canonical RanGTP partner interactions. Pull-down assays identify at least one putative Ran:L(M) partner as an exportin, Crm1, or CAS. A model of Ran:L(M):Crm1, based on the new structures suggests LM phosphorylation status may mediate Ran's selection of exportin(s) and cargo(s), perverting these native trafficking elements into the lethal antihost Nup phosphorylation pathways. PMID:25331866

Bacot-Davis, Valjean R; Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Basta, Holly A; Cornilescu, Claudia C; Palmenberg, Ann C



The Ct-RAE1 protein interacts with Balbiani ring RNP particles at the nuclear pore.  

PubMed Central

RAE1 is an evolutionarily conserved protein that associates with both mRNPs and nucleoporins, and may bridge the interaction between mRNP export cargoes and the nuclear pore complex (NPC). However, the mechanism by which RAE1 functions in mRNA export is still unknown and the time point at which RAE1 interacts with the exported RNP has not been directly investigated. Here we have addressed this question in the Balbiani ring (BR) system of Chironomus tentans using immunoelectron microscopy. The RAE1 protein of C. tentans, Ct-RAE1, is 70% identical to human RAE1/mrnp41 (hRAE1) and is recognized by antibodies raised against hRAE1. As in vertebrate cells, Ct-RAE1 is concentrated at the nuclear envelope and also dispersed throughout the nuclear interior. Here we show that Ct-RAE1 does not bind to the BR particle either cotranscriptionally or in the nucleoplasm. Instead, the interaction between Ct-RAE1 and the exported BR particle occurs at the NPC. Moreover, the localization of Ct-RAE1 at the NPC is correlated with the presence of an exported RNP in the NPC. Finally, the anti-RAE1 antibody does not label the cytoplasmic side of BR particles in transit through the central channel, which indicates that Ct-RAE1 either remains anchored at the nuclear side of the NPC during translocation of the RNP through the central channel or becomes transiently associated with the RNP but is rapidly released into the cytoplasm. PMID:11105759

Sabri, N; Visa, N



Involvement of protein phosphatase 2A nuclear accumulation and subsequent inactivation of activator protein-1 in leptomycin B-inhibited cyclin D1 expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptomycin B (LMB) is a Streptomyces metabolite that causes the specific inhibition of the nuclear export of proteins containing a nuclear export signal (NES). LMB was reported to inhibit cell cycle progression in fission yeast and mammalian cells, however, the mechanism underlying LMB-induced cell cycle arrest is still obscure. In this study, we found that in serum-starved NIH3T3 cells, LMB

A Tsuchiya; E Tashiro; M Yoshida; M Imoto



Identification of two RNA-binding proteins in Balbiani ring premessenger ribonucleoprotein granules and presence of these proteins in specific subsets of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles.  

PubMed Central

Balbiani ring (BR) granules are premessenger ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) generated in giant chromosomal puffs, the BRs, in the larval salivary glands of the dipteran chironomus tentans. Monoclonal antibodies were raised against nuclear proteins collected on a single-stranded-DNA-agarose affinity column, and two of them were used to identify RNA-binding proteins in BR granules. First, in Western blots (immunoblots), one of the antibodies recognized a 36-kDa protein and the other recognized a 45-KDa protein. Second, both antibodies bound to the BRs in immunocytological experiments. It was shown in cross-linking experiments that the two proteins are associated with heterogeneous nuclear RNP (hnRNP) complexes extracted from C. tentans nuclei. By immunoelectron microscopy of isolated and partly unfolded BR RNPs, it was specifically demonstrated that the BR granules contain the two proteins and, in addition, that both proteins are distributed frequently along the RNP fiber of the particles. Thus, the 36- and 45-KDa proteins are likely to be abundant, RNA-binding proteins in the BR particles. To elucidate to what extent the two proteins are also present in other hnRNPs, we studied the binding of the antibodies to chromosomal puffs in general. It was observed that many puffs in addition to the BRs harbor the two proteins, but there are also puffs containing only one of the components, either the 36- or the 45-kDa protein. We conclude that the two proteins are not randomly bound to all hnRNPs but that each of them seems to be linked to a specific subset of the particles. PMID:8657116

Wurtz-T; Kiseleva, E; Nacheva, G; Alzhanova-Ericcson, A; Rosn, A; Daneholt, B



Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation of Nuclear RNA-Binding Proteins.  


The systematic identification of in vivo targets of nuclear RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) is crucial to elucidate the physiological functions of each RBP. However, it has been difficult to distinguish real targets from nonspecifically bound RNAs and to determine the exact binding sites of each RBP by using a conventional RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) method. Photoactivatable Ribonucleoside-Enhanced Cross-linking and Immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) is a recently developed method that relies on RNA-protein cross-linking to reduce the contamination of nonspecifically bound RNAs. Furthermore, in combination with high-throughput sequencing followed by bioinformatic analysis, the exact RBP-binding sites can be identified at a single nucleotide resolution. Here, we describe in detail a PAR-CLIP protocol to prepare cDNA libraries for high-throughput sequencing from RNA fragments that are bound to RBPs not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. PMID:25555586

Li, Quan; Uemura, Yuri; Kawahara, Yukio



Cdc42 induces EGF receptor protein accumulation and promotes EGF receptor nuclear transport and cellular transformation.  


Cdc42 is a Ras-related small GTP-binding protein. A previous study has shown that Cdc42 binding to the ? subunit of the coatomer protein complex (?COP) is essential for Cdc42-regulated cellular transformation, but the molecular mechanism involved is not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that constitutively-active Cdc42 binding to ?COP induced the accumulation of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the cells, sustained EGF-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), JUN amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling and promoted cell division. Moreover, constitutive Cdc42 activity facilitated the nuclear translocation of EGFR, and this indicates a novel mechanism through which Cdc42 might promote cellular transformation. PMID:25497016

Wang, Xiao-Yu; Gan, Ming-Xi; Li, Yong; Zhan, Wei-Hua; Han, Tian-Yu; Han, Xiao-Jian; Cheng, Jin-Quan; Wang, Jian-Bin



Liver-type fatty acid binding protein interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?.  


Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) regulates liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression. Conversely as shown herein, L-FABP structurally and functionally also interacts with HNF4?. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between Cy3-HNF4? (donor) and Cy5-L-FABP (acceptor) as well as FRET microscopy detected L-FABP in close proximity (~80 ) to HNF4?, binding with high affinity Kd ~250-300 nM. Circular dichroism (CD) determined that the HNF4?/L-FABP interaction altered protein secondary structure. Finally, L-FABP potentiated transactivation of HNF4? in COS7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that L-FABP provides a signaling path to HNF4? activation in the nucleus. PMID:24140341

McIntosh, Avery L; Petrescu, Anca D; Hostetler, Heather A; Kier, Ann B; Schroeder, Friedhelm



Liver-type fatty acid binding protein interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?  

PubMed Central

Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) regulates liver type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) gene expression. Conversely as shown herein, L-FABP structurally and functionally also interacts with HNF4?. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between Cy3-HNF4? (donor) and Cy5-L-FABP (acceptor) as well as FRET microscopy detected L-FABP in close proximity (~80 ) to HNF4?, binding with high affinity Kd ~250300 nM. Circular dichroism (CD) determined that the HNF4?/L-FABP interaction altered protein secondary structure. Finally, L-FABP potentiated transactivation of HNF4? in COS7 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that L-FABP provides a signaling path to HNF4? activation in the nucleus. PMID:24140341

McIntosh, Avery L.; Petrescu, Anca D.; Hostetler, Heather A.; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm



The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPK{alpha}2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis co-localizes with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic {alpha} subunit and regulatory {beta} and {gamma} subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the {alpha}-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK{alpha}2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK{alpha}2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK{alpha}2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

Nakagawa, Koji, E-mail: [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Division of Pharmascience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12 W6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan)] [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Division of Pharmascience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12 W6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie [Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Asaka, Masahiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Cancer Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Takeda, Hiroshi [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Division of Pharmascience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12 W6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan) [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics, Division of Pharmascience, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, N12 W6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masanobu [Department of Cancer Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Cancer Preventive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, N15 W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); School of Nursing and Social Services, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari-Toubetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)



A novel nuclear structure containing the survival of motor neurons protein.  

PubMed Central

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common, often fatal, autosomal recessive disease leading to progressive muscle wasting and paralysis as a result of degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. A gene termed survival of motor neurons (SMN), at 5q13, has been identified as the determining gene of SMA (Lefebvre et al., 1995). The SMN gene is deleted in > 98% of SMA patients, but the function of the SMN protein is unknown. In searching for hnRNP-interacting proteins we found that SMN interacts with the RGG box region of hnRNP U, with itself, with fibrillarin and with several novel proteins. We have produced monoclonal antibodies to the SMN protein, and we report here on its striking cellular localization pattern. Immunolocalization studies using SMN monoclonal antibodies show several intense dots in HeLa cell nuclei. These structures are similar in number (2-6) and size (0.1-1.0 micron) to coiled bodies, and frequently are found near or associated with coiled bodies. We term these prominent nuclear structures gems, for Gemini of coiled bodies. Images PMID:8670859

Liu, Q; Dreyfuss, G



Smad nuclear interacting protein, SNIP1, mediates the ecdysteroid signal transduction in red crayfish Procambarus clarkii.  


A smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1) homolog was identified in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii and this gene encoded a polypeptide of 288 amino acids. Phylogenic analysis showed that P. clarkii SNIP1 was highly homologous to that of invertebrates and shared a highly conserved FHA domain of SNIP proteins at the C-terminus. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Pc-SNIP1 expression was higher in heart than that in other examined tissues. In addition, prokaryotic expression and purification of the recombinant SNIP1 protein were performed. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis demonstrated that a 35?KDa recombinant protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The expression of Pc-SNIP1 was significantly up-regulated in hepatopancreas after 20-hydroxyecdysone induction. Knockdown of Pc-SNIP1 gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection had significant influence on the expression of some ecdysteroid-responsive genes in hepatopancreas, which were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot. All together, these results suggest that SNIP1 is involved in the physiological process regulated by ecdysteroid in P. clarkii. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 128-136, 2015. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25678477

Wang, Daojun; Peng, Tao; Yu, Yingying; Liu, Chao-Liang; Zhu, Bao-Jian



Transfection of influenza A virus nuclear export protein induces the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha.  


Influenza A virus genomic segments eight codes for non-structural 1 (NS1) protein that is involved in evasion of innate antiviral response, and nuclear export protein (NEP) that participates in the export of viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes, transcription and replication. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is highly expressed during influenza virus infections and is considered an anti-infective cytokine. NS1 and NEP proteins were overexpressed and their role on TNF-? expression was evaluated. Both TNF-? mRNA and protein increased in cells transfected with NEP but not with NS1. We further investigate if NS1 or NEP regulates the activity of TNF-? promoter. In the presence of NEP the activity of TNF-? promoter increased significantly compared with the control (83.52.9 vs. 30.92.8, respectively; p=0.001). This effect decreased 15-fold when the TNF-? promoter distal region was deleted, suggesting the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and NF-kB response elements. This was corroborated by testing the effect produced on TNF-? promoter by the treatment with Raf/MEK/ERK (U0126), NF-kB (Bay-11-7082) and PI3K (Ly294-002) cell signaling inhibitors. Treatment with U0126 and Bay-117082 reduced the activity of TNF-? promoter mediated by NEP (41.53.2, 70% inhibition; and 80.67.4, 35% inhibition, respectively) compared to mock-treated control. The results suggest a new role for NEP protein that participates in the transcriptional regulation of human TNF-? expression. PMID:24657783

Lara-Sampablo, Alejandra; Flores-Alonso, Juan Carlos; De Jess-Ortega, Nereyda; Santos-Lpez, Gerardo; Vallejo-Ruiz, Vernica; Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Herrera-Camacho, Irma; Reyes-Leyva, Julio



Expression of Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Protein in Malignant Cutaneous Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages cell molecules, and modifies cell signaling. The nuclear factor E2-related factor (Nrf2) is a critical transcription regulator, which protects cells against oxidative damage. Nrf2 expression is increased in a large number of cancers. However, little information has been reported regarding the expression of Nrf2 in skin cancers. Hence, we explored the expression of Nrf2 protein in skin cancers. Methods The Nrf2 protein expression in 24 specimens, including 6 malignant melanomas (MM), 6 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 6 basal cell carcinomas (BCC), and 6 normal skin tissues, was evaluated by western blotting. Immunohistochemical staining was performed. The expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), the key regulator of Nrf2, was also analyzed by western blotting. Results Small interfering RNA transfection to the melanoma cell line G361 confirmed that an approximately 66 kDa band was the true Nrf2 band. The western blot revealed that the Nrf2 protein was definitely expressed in normal skin tissues, but the Nrf2 expression was decreased in MM, SCC, and BCC. Immunohistochemical examination showed that expression of Nrf2 was decreased in all skin cancer tissues compared to the normal skin tissues. Keap1 was not expressed in all malignant skin tumors and normal skin tissues by western blot. Conclusions ROS was increased in various types of cancers which proteins were highly expressed or underexpressed. This study demonstrated that the expression of Nrf2 protein was down-regulated in human malignant skin tumors. We suggest that decreased expression of Nrf2 is related to skin cancers. PMID:25396176

Choi, Chang Yong; Kim, Jin Young; Wee, Seo Yeong; Lee, Jang Hyun; Nam, Doo Hyun; Cho, Moon Kyun; Lee, Yoon Jin; Nam, Hae Seon; Lee, Sang Han; Cho, Sung Woo



Adenovirus early region 4 34-kilodalton protein directs the nuclear localization of the early region 1B 55-kilodalton protein in primate cells.  

PubMed Central

The localization of the adenovirus type 5 34-kDa E4 and 55-kDa E1B proteins was determined in the absence of other adenovirus proteins. When expressed by transfection in human, monkey, hamster, rat, and mouse cell lines, the E1B protein was predominantly cytoplasmic and typically was excluded from the nucleus. When expressed by transfection, the E4 protein accumulated in the nucleus. Strikingly, when coexpressed by transfection in human, monkey, or baby hamster kidney cells, the E1B protein colocalized in the nucleus with the E4 protein. A complex of the E4 and E1B proteins was identified by coimmunoprecipitation in transfected HeLa cells. By contrast to the interaction observed in primate and baby hamster kidney cells, the E4 protein failed to direct the E1B protein to the nucleus in rat and mouse cell lines as well as CHO and V79 hamster cell lines. This failure of the E4 protein to direct the nuclear localization of the E1B protein in REF-52 rat cells was overcome by fusion with HeLa cells. Within 4 h of heterokaryon formation and with protein synthesis inhibited, a portion of the E4 protein present in the REF-52 nuclei migrated to the HeLa nuclei. Simultaneously, the previously cytoplasmic E1B protein colocalized with the E4 protein in both human and rat cell nuclei. These results suggest that a primate cell-specific factor mediates the functional interaction of the E1B and E4 proteins of adenovirus. PMID:8709260

Goodrum, F D; Shenk, T; Ornelles, D A



Loss of RCC1 leads to suppression of nuclear protein import in living cells.  


The role of RCC1-Ran/TC4 in nuclear protein import was examined in living cells using a temperature-sensitive RCC1 mutant cell line, tsBN2, and tsBN2 transformed with a RCC1 cDNA lacking the nuclear localization sequence domain, delta 8-29. Substrate, containing a small number of SV40 T antigen nuclear localization sequence peptides, injected into the cytoplasm of tsBN2 cells cultured at the non-permissive temperature of 39.5 degrees C did not accumulate efficiently in the nucleus. When the same substrate was injected into the cytoplasm of heterokaryons of tsBN2 and wild type BHK21 cells, import efficiency into the tsBN2 nuclei was not restored. Import into the BHK21 nuclei gradually decreased after fusion. In contrast, import efficiency into tsBN2 nuclei gradually recovered after fusion with tsBN2 cells transformed with delta 8-29 in which functional RCC1 was diffusely distributed in both the nuclei and cytoplasm. Substrate did not accumulate in the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized tsBN2 cells cultured at 39.5 degrees C even in the presence of normal cytosol. These results suggest that loss of RCC1 function leads to the decline of import competence of the nucleus and accumulation of a factor in the cytoplasm that suppresses nuclear import. These results indicate that the RCC1-Ran/TC4 system may regulate nuclear import. PMID:7929123

Tachibana, T; Imamoto, N; Seino, H; Nishimoto, T; Yoneda, Y



The essential WD40 protein Cia1 is involved in a late step of cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur protein assembly.  


The assembly of cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur (Fe/S) proteins in yeast is dependent on the iron-sulfur cluster assembly and export machineries in mitochondria and three recently identified extramitochondrial proteins, the P-loop NTPases Cfd1 and Nbp35 and the hydrogenase-like Nar1. However, the molecular mechanism of Fe/S protein assembly in the cytosol is far from being understood, and more components are anticipated to take part in this process. Here, we have identified and functionally characterized a novel WD40 repeat protein, designated Cia1, as an essential component required for Fe/S cluster assembly in vivo on cytosolic and nuclear, but not mitochondrial, Fe/S proteins. Surprisingly, Nbp35 and Nar1, themselves Fe/S proteins, could assemble their Fe/S clusters in the absence of Cia1, demonstrating that these components act before Cia1. Consequently, Cia1 is involved in a late step of Fe/S cluster incorporation into target proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated a specific interaction between Cia1 and Nar1. In contrast to the mostly cytosolic Nar1, Cia1 is preferentially localized to the nucleus, suggesting an additional function of Cia1. Taken together, our results indicate that Cia1 is a new member of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery participating in a step after Nbp35 and Nar1. PMID:16314508

Balk, Janneke; Aguilar Netz, Daili J; Tepper, Katharina; Pierik, Antonio J; Lill, Roland



The NSR1 gene encodes a protein that specifically binds nuclear localization sequences and has two RNA recognition motifs  

PubMed Central

We previously identified a protein (p67) in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that specifically recognizes nuclear localization sequences. We report here the partial purification of p67, and the isolation, sequencing, and disruption of the gene (NSR1) encoding this protein. p67 was purified using an affinity column conjugated with a peptide containing the histone H2B nuclear localization sequence from yeast. Using antibodies against p67 we have cloned the gene for this protein. The protein encoded by the NSR1 gene recognizes the wild-type H2B nuclear localization sequence, but does not recognize a mutant H2B sequence that is incompetent for nuclear localization in vivo. Interestingly, the NSR1 protein has two RNA recognition motifs, as well as an acidic NH2 terminus containing a series of serine clusters, and a basic COOH terminus containing arg-gly repeats. We have confirmed the nuclear localization of p67 by immunofluorescence and found that a restricted portion of the nucleus is highlighted. We have also shown that NSR1 (p67) is required for normal cell growth. PMID:1706724



GTP hydrolysis by Ran occurs at the nuclear pore complex in an early step of protein import  

PubMed Central

Mediated import of proteins into the nucleus involves multiple cytosolic factors, including the small GTPase Ran. Whether Ran functions by interacting with other cytosolic proteins or components of the nuclear pore complex has been unclear. Furthermore, the precise transport step where Ran acts has not been determined. To address these questions, we have analyzed the binding interactions of Ran using permeabilized cells and isolated nuclear envelopes. By light and electron microscope immunolocalization, we have found that Ran accumulates specifically at the cytoplasmic surface of the nuclear pore complex when nuclear import in permeabilized cells is inhibited by nonhydrolyzable analogs of GTP. Ran associates with a peripheral pore complex region that is similar to the area where transport ligands accumulate by depletion of ATP, which arrests an early step of transport. Binding studies with isolated nuclear envelopes in the absence of added cytosol indicate that Ran-GTP directly interacts with a pore complex protein. Using blot overlay techniques, we detected a single prominent polypeptide of isolated nuclear envelopes that binds Ran-GTP. This corresponds to the 358-kD protein RanBP2, a Ran binding pore complex protein recently identified by two-hybrid screening. Thus, RanBP2 is likely to constitute the Ran-GTP-binding site detected at the cytoplasmic periphery of the pore complex. These data support a model in which initial ligand binding to the nuclear pore complex occurs at or near RanBP2, and that hydrolysis of GTP by Ran at this site serves to define commitment to the nuclear import pathway. PMID:7593180



A short Id2 protein fragment containing the nuclear export signal forms amyloid-like fibrils  

SciTech Connect

The negative regulator of DNA-binding/cell-differentiation Id2 is a small protein containing a central helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif and a C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES). Whereas the former is essential for Id2 dimerization and nuclear localization, the latter is responsible for the transport of Id2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Whereas the isolated Id2 HLH motif is highly helical, large C-terminal Id2 fragments including the NES sequence are either unordered or aggregation-prone. To study the conformational properties of the isolated NES region, we synthesized the Id2 segment 103-124. The latter was insoluble in water and only temporarily soluble in water/alcohol mixtures, where it formed quickly precipitating {beta}-sheets. Introduction of a positively charged N-terminal tail prevented aggressive precipitation and led to aggregates consisting of long fibrils that bound thioflavin T. These results show an interesting structural aspect of the Id2 NES region, which might be of significance for both protein folding and function.

Colombo, Noemi [Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Pharmazie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Schroeder, Josef [Institut fuer Pathologie, Zentrales EM-Labor, Fakultaet fuer Medizin, Universitaet Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Cabrele, Chiara [Fakultaet fuer Chemie und Pharmazie, Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)]. E-mail:



Vitamin D receptor inhibits nuclear factor ?B activation by interacting with I?B kinase ? protein.  


1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) is known to suppress NF-?B activity, but the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here we show that the vitamin D receptor (VDR) physically interacts with I?B kinase ? (IKK?) to block NF-?B activation. 1,25(OH)2D3 rapidly attenuates TNF?-induced p65 nuclear translocation and NF-?B activity in a VDR-dependent manner. VDR overexpression inhibits IKK?-induced NF-?B activity. GST pull-down assays and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that VDR physically interacts with IKK? and that this interaction is enhanced by 1,25(OH)2D3. Protein mapping reveals that VDR-IKK? interaction occurs between the C-terminal portions of the VDR and IKK? proteins. Reconstitution of VDR(-/-) cells with the VDR C terminus restores the ability to block TNF?-induced NF-?B activation and IL-6 up-regulation. VDR-IKK? interaction disrupts the formation of the IKK complex and, thus, abrogates IKK? phosphorylation at Ser-177 and abolishes IKK activity to phosphorylate I?B?. Consequently, stabilization of I?B? arrests p65/p50 nuclear translocation. Together, these data define a novel mechanism whereby 1,25(OH)2D3-VDR inhibits NF-?B activation. PMID:23671281

Chen, Yunzi; Zhang, Jing; Ge, Xin; Du, Jie; Deb, Dilip K; Li, Yan Chun



The SUN protein Mps3 controls Ndc1 distribution and function on the nuclear membrane  

PubMed Central

In closed mitotic systems such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and the spindle pole body (SPB) must assemble into an intact nuclear envelope (NE). Ndc1 is a highly conserved integral membrane protein involved in insertion of both complexes. In this study, we show that Ndc1 interacts with the SUN domaincontaining protein Mps3 on the NE in live yeast cells using fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. Genetic and molecular analysis of a series of new ndc1 alleles allowed us to understand the role of Ndc1Mps3 binding at the NE. We show that the ndc1-L562S allele is unable to associate specifically with Mps3 and find that this mutant is lethal due to a defect in SPB duplication. Unlike other ndc1 alleles, the growth and Mps3 binding defect of ndc1-L562S is fully suppressed by deletion of POM152, which encodes a NPC component. Based on our data we propose that the Ndc1Mps3 interaction is important for controlling the distribution of Ndc1 between the NPC and SPB. PMID:24515347

Chen, Jingjing; Smoyer, Christine J.; Slaughter, Brian D.; Unruh, Jay R.



Nuclear import of hepatic glucokinase depends upon glucokinase regulatory protein, whereas export is due to a nuclear export signal sequence in glucokinase.  


Hepatic glucokinase (GK) moves between the nucleus and cytoplasm in response to metabolic alterations. Here, using heterologous cell systems, we have found that at least two different mechanisms are involved in the intracellular movement of GK. In the absence of the GK regulatory protein (GKRP) GK resides only in the cytoplasm. However, in the presence of GKRP, GK moves to the nucleus and resides there in association with this protein until changes in the metabolic milieu prompt its release. GK does not contain a nuclear localization signal sequence and does not enter the nucleus in a GKRP-independent manner because cells treated with leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of leucine-rich NES-dependent nuclear export, do not accumulate GK in the nucleus. Instead, entry of GK into the nucleus appears to occur via a piggy-back mechanism that involves binding to GKRP. Nuclear export of GK, which occurs after its release from GKRP, is due to a leucine-rich nuclear export signal within the protein ((300)ELVRLVLLKLV(310)). Thus, GKRP appears to function as both a nuclear chaperone and metabolic sensor and is a critical component of a hepatic GK translocation cycle for regulating the activity of this enzyme in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:10601273

Shiota, C; Coffey, J; Grimsby, J; Grippo, J F; Magnuson, M A



Interactions and Nuclear Import of the N and P Proteins of Sonchus Yellow Net Virus, a Plant Nucleorhabdovirus  

PubMed Central

We have characterized the interaction and nuclear localization of the nucleocapsid (N) protein and phosphoprotein (P) of sonchus yellow net nucleorhabdovirus. Expression studies with plant and yeast cells revealed that both N and P are capable of independent nuclear import. Site-specific mutagenesis and deletion analyses demonstrated that N contains a carboxy-terminal bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) located between amino acids 465 and 481 and that P contains a karyophillic region between amino acids 40 and 124. The N NLS was fully capable of functioning outside of the context of the N protein and was able to direct the nuclear import of a synthetic protein fusion consisting of green fluorescent protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST). Expression and mapping studies suggested that the karyophillic domain in P is located within the N-binding domain. Coexpression of N and P drastically affected their localization patterns relative to those of individually expressed proteins and resulted in a shift of both proteins to a subnuclear region. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pulldown experiments verified the N-P and P-P interactions, and deletion analyses have identified the N and P interacting domains. N NLS mutants were not transported to the nucleus by import-competent P, presumably because N binding masks the P NLS. Taken together, our results support a model for independent entry of N and P into the nucleus followed by associations that mediate subnuclear localization. PMID:11533202

Goodin, Michael M.; Austin, Jennifer; Tobias, Rene; Fujita, Miki; Morales, Christina; Jackson, Andrew O.



A redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein sensor for monitoring nuclear glutathione redox dynamics.  


Intracellular redox homeostasis is crucial for many cellular functions, but accurate measurements of cellular compartment-specific redox states remain technically challenging. Genetically encoded biosensors, including the glutathione-specific redox-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein (rxYFP), provide an alternative approach to overcome the limitations of conventional glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) redox measurements. In this chapter we describe methods to measure the nuclear rxYFP redox state in human cells by a redox Western blot technique. A nucleus-targeted rxYFP sensor can be used to sense nuclear steady-state and dynamic redox changes in response to oxidative stress. Complementary to existing redox sensors and conventional redox measurements, nucleus-targeted rxYFP sensors provide a novel tool for examining nuclear redox homeostasis in mammalian cells, permitting high-resolution readout of steady glutathione state and dynamics of redox changes. The technique described may be used with minimal variations to study the effects of stress conditions which lead to glutathione redox changes. PMID:25311129

Banach-Latapy, Agata; Dardalhon, Michle; Huang, Meng-Er



Nuclear TAR DNA-binding protein 43: A new target for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis treatment  

PubMed Central

Abnormal TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) inclusion bodies can be detected in the degenerative neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, we induced chronic oxidative stress injury by applying malonate to cultured mouse cortical motor neurons. In the later stages of the malonate insult, TDP-43 expression reduced in the nuclei and transferred to the cytoplasm. This was accompanied by neuronal death, mimicking the pathological changes in TDP-43 that are seen in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Interestingly, in the early stages of the response to malonate treatment, nuclear TDP-43 expression increased, and neurons remained relatively intact, without inclusion bodies or fragmentation. Therefore, we hypothesized that the increase of nuclear TDP-43 expression might be a pro-survival factor against oxidative stress injury. This hypothesis was confirmed by an in vitro transgenic experiment, in which overexpression of wild type mouse TDP-43 in cultured cortical motor neurons significantly reduced malonate-induced neuronal death. Our findings suggest that the loss of function of TDP-43 is an important cause of neuronal degeneration, and upregulation of nuclear TDP-43 expression might be neuroprotective in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:25206650

Zheng, Mei; Shi, Yujie; Fan, Dongsheng



Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) Promotes the Nuclear Import of p73  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

p73 has been identified as a structural and functional homolog of the tumor suppressor p53. However, mechanisms that regulate the localization of p73 have not been fully clarified. The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional coactivator. As a transcriptional coactivator, YAP needs to bind transcription factors to stimulate gene expression. p73 is a reported YAP target transcription factors and YAP has been shown to positively regulate p73 in promoting apoptosis. Previous studies show that p73 interacts with YAP through its PPPY motif, and increases p73 transactivation of apoptotic genes. In this study, we focused on YAP's regulation of the localization of p73. After transient transfection into Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and Human embryonic kidney 293T cells with GFP-YAP and/or YFP-p73, and incubated for 24 hours expression. p73 was fused to YFP to allow the examination of its subcellular localization. When expressed alone, YFP-p73 was distributed throughout the cell. When coexpressed with YAP, nuclear accumulation of YFP-p73 became evident. We quantitated the effect of YAP on the redistribution of YFP-p73 by counting cells with nuclear-only YFP signal. We found that YAP can influence the subcellular distribution of p73. Altogether, coexpression with YAP affected the subcellular distribution of the p73 protein. Our studies attribute a central role to YAP in regulating p73 accumulation and YAP, at least in part, might promote the nuclear import of p73.

Zhang, Heng; Wu, Shengnan



A novel growth-related nuclear protein binds and inhibits rat aldolase B gene promoter.  


The promoter of the rat aldolase B (AldB) gene that confers liver-specific transcription has an additional role. It functions in vivo as an origin region of DNA replication in the cells in which the gene is repressed (Zhao, Y., Tsutsumi, R., Yamaki, M., Nagatsuka, N., Ejiri, S., Tsutsumi, K., 1994. Initiation zone of DNA replication at the rat aldolase B locus encompasses transcription promoter region. Nucleic Acids Res. 22, 5385-5390). This promoter/origin region has multiple protein-binding sites and, thus, binding of a particular set of protein factors in AldB-expressing or non-expressing cells seems to correlate with functional switch of this promoter/origin region. In the present study, we characterized two closely related proteins, termed AlF-C1 and AlF-C2, which are assumed to be involved in repression of the AldB gene. These two proteins share an identical amino acid sequence except for a 47-residue-insertion in AlF-C1, and are members of a gene family including heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) and CCAAT-binding factor subunit A (CBF-A) genes. Bacterially expressed AlF-C1 can bind sequence-specifically to the AldB gene promoter, whereas AlF-C2 can only weakly. Transfection experiments using mammalian expression vectors showed that AlF-C1 down-regulates the AldB gene promoter in rat hepatoma cells, while AlF-C2 had no or little effect. Expressions of mRNAs encoding these two proteins are enriched in fetal livers and in regenerating livers. These results implied that AlF-C1 and/or C2 is involved in growth-regulated repression of the AldB gene. PMID:11245986

Yabuki, T; Miyagi, S; Ueda, H; Saitoh, Y; Tsutsumi, K



A Nuclear Factor of High Mobility Group Box Protein in Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear factor that usually binds DNA and modulates gene expression in multicellular organisms. Three HMGB1 orthologs were predicted in the genome of Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan pathogen, termed TgHMGB1a, b and c. Phylogenetic and bioinformatic analyses indicated that these proteins all contain a single HMG box and which shared in three genotypes. We cloned TgHMGB1a, a 33.9 kDa protein that can stimulates macrophages to release TNF-?, and, we demonstrated that the TgHMGB1a binds distorted DNA structures such as cruciform DNA in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Immunofluorescence assay indicated TgHMGB1a concentrated in the nucleus of intracellular tachyzoites but translocated into the cytoplasm while the parasites release to extracellular. There were no significant phenotypic changes when the TgHMGB1a B box was deleted, while transgenic parasites that overexpressed TgHMGB1a showed slower intracellular growth and caused delayed death in mouse, further quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression levels of many important genes, including virulence factors, increased when TgHMGB1a was overexpressed, but no significant changes were observed in TgHMGB1a B box-deficient parasites. Our findings demonstrated that TgHMGB1a is indeed a nuclear protein that maintains HMG box architectural functions and is a potential proinflammatory factor during the T.gondii infection. Further studies that clarify the functions of TgHMGB1s will increase our knowledge of transcriptional regulation and parasite virulence, and might provide new insight into hostparasite interactions for T. gondii infection. PMID:25369210

Wang, Hui; Lei, Tao; Liu, Jing; Li, Muzi; Nan, Huizhu; Liu, Qun



Engineering light-inducible nuclear localization signals for precise spatiotemporal control of protein dynamics in living cells  

PubMed Central

The function of many eukaryotic proteins is regulated by highly dynamic changes in their nucleocytoplasmic distribution. The ability to precisely and reversibly control nuclear translocation would, therefore, allow dissecting and engineering cellular networks. Here we develop a genetically encoded, light-inducible nuclear localization signal (LINuS) based on the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1. LINuS is a small, versatile tag, customizable for different proteins and cell types. LINuS-mediated nuclear import is fast and reversible, and can be tuned at different levels, for instance, by introducing mutations that alter AsLOV2 domain photo-caging properties or by selecting nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of various strengths. We demonstrate the utility of LINuS in mammalian cells by controlling gene expression and entry into mitosis with blue light. PMID:25019686

Niopek, Dominik; Benzinger, Dirk; Roensch, Julia; Draebing, Thomas; Wehler, Pierre; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara



Engineering light-inducible nuclear localization signals for precise spatiotemporal control of protein dynamics in living cells.  


The function of many eukaryotic proteins is regulated by highly dynamic changes in their nucleocytoplasmic distribution. The ability to precisely and reversibly control nuclear translocation would, therefore, allow dissecting and engineering cellular networks. Here we develop a genetically encoded, light-inducible nuclear localization signal (LINuS) based on the LOV2 domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1. LINuS is a small, versatile tag, customizable for different proteins and cell types. LINuS-mediated nuclear import is fast and reversible, and can be tuned at different levels, for instance, by introducing mutations that alter AsLOV2 domain photo-caging properties or by selecting nuclear localization signals (NLSs) of various strengths. We demonstrate the utility of LINuS in mammalian cells by controlling gene expression and entry into mitosis with blue light. PMID:25019686

Niopek, Dominik; Benzinger, Dirk; Roensch, Julia; Draebing, Thomas; Wehler, Pierre; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara



Neutrality tests of conservative-radical amino acid changes in nuclear- and mitochondrially-encoded proteins.  


The neutralist-selectionist debate should not be viewed as a dichotomy but as a continuum. While the strictly neutral model suggests a neutralist-selectionist dichotomy, the nearly neutral model is a continuous model spanning strict neutrality through weak selection (Ns approximately 1) to deterministic selection (Ns>3). We illustrate these points with polymorphism and divergence data from a sample of 73 genes (31 mitochondrial, 36 nuclear genes from Drosophila, and six Arabidopsis data sets). In an earlier study we used the McDonald-Kreitman (MK) test to show that amino acid replacement polymorphism in animal mitochondrial genes and Arabidopsis genes show a consistent trend toward negative selection, whereas nuclear genes from Drosophila span a range from negative selection, through neutrality, to positive selection. Here we analyze a subset of these genes (13 Drosophila nuclear, ten mitochondrial, and six Arabidopsis nuclear) for polymorphism and divergence of conservative and radical amino acid replacements (a protein-based conservative-radical MK, or pMK, test). The distinct patterns of selection between the different genomes is not apparent with the pMK test. Different definitions of conservative and radical (based on amino acid polarity, volume or charge) give inconsistent results across genes. We suggest that segregating fitness difference between silent and replacement mutations are more visible to selection than are segregating fitness differences between conservative and radical amino acid mutations. New data on the variation among genes with different opportunities for positive and negative selection are as important to the continuum view of the neutralist-selectionist debate as is the distribution of selection coefficients within individual genes. PMID:11164043

Rand, D M; Weinreich, D M; Cezairliyan, B O



Identification of interacting proteins of retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma in HepG2 cells.  


The retinoid-related orphan nuclear receptor gamma (ROR ?) plays critical roles in regulation of development, immunity and metabolism. As transcription factor usually forms a protein complex to function, thus capturing and dissecting of the ROR ? protein complex will be helpful for exploring the mechanisms underlying those functions. After construction of the recombinant tandem affinity purification (TAP) plasmid, pMSCVpuro ROR ?-CTAP(SG), the nuclear localization of ROR ?-CTAP(SG) fusion protein was verified. Following isolation of ROR ? protein complex by TAP strategy, seven candidate interacting proteins were identified. Finally, the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) were confirmed to interplay with ROR ? by co-immunoprecipitation. Interference of HSP90 or/and RIP140 genes resulted in dramatically decreased expression of CYP2C8 gene, the ROR ? target gene. Data from this study demonstrate that HSP90 and RIP140 proteins interact with ROR ? protein in a complex format and function as co-activators in the ROR ?-mediated regulatory processes of HepG2 cells. PMID:22732217

Huang, Ze-Min; Wu, Jun; Jia, Zheng-Cai; Tian, Yi; Tang, Jun; Tang, Yan; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yu-Zhang; Ni, Bing



Substrate Recognition in Nuclear Protein Quality Control Degradation Is Governed by Exposed Hydrophobicity That Correlates with Aggregation and Insolubility*  

PubMed Central

Misfolded proteins present an escalating deleterious challenge to cells over the course of their lifetime. One mechanism the cell possesses to prevent misfolded protein accumulation is their destruction by protein quality control (PQC) degradation systems. In eukaryotes, PQC degradation typically proceeds via multiple ubiquitin-protein ligases that act throughout the cell to ubiquitinate misfolded proteins for proteasome degradation. What the exact feature of misfolding that each PQC ubiquitin-protein ligase recognizes in their substrates remains an open question. Our previous studies of the budding yeast nuclear ubiquitin-protein ligase San1 indicated that it recognizes exposed hydrophobicity within its substrates, with the threshold of hydrophobicity equivalent to that of 5 contiguous hydrophobic residues. Here, we uncover an additional parameter: the nature of the exposed hydrophobicity that confers San1-mediated degradation correlates with significant protein insolubility. San1 particularly targets exposed hydrophobicity that leads to insolubility and aggregation above a certain threshold. Our studies presented here provide additional insight into the details of misfolded nuclear protein recognition and demonstrate that there is selectivity for the type of exposed hydrophobicity. PMID:23335508

Fredrickson, Eric K.; Gallagher, Pamela S.; Clowes Candadai, Sarah V.; Gardner, Richard G.



The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.  


AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic ? subunit and regulatory ? and ? subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the ?-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK?2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK?2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK?2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK?2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK?2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex. PMID:23044421

Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu



A Role for Timely Nuclear Translocation of Clock Repressor Proteins in Setting Circadian Clock Speed  

PubMed Central

By means of a circadian clock system, all the living organisms on earth including human beings can anticipate the environmental rhythmic changes such as light/dark and warm/cold periods in a daily as well as in a yearly manner. Anticipating such environmental changes provide organisms with survival benefits via manifesting behavior and physiology at an advantageous time of the day and year. Cell-autonomous circadian oscillators, governed by transcriptional feedback loop composed of positive and negative elements, are organized into a hierarchical system throughout the organisms and generate an oscillatory expression of a clock gene by itself as well as clock controlled genes (ccgs) with a 24 hr periodicity. In the feedback loop, hetero-dimeric transcription factor complex induces the expression of negative regulatory proteins, which in turn represses the activity of transcription factors to inhibit their own transcription. Thus, for robust oscillatory rhythms of the expression of clock genes as well as ccgs, the precise control of subcellular localization and/or timely translocation of core clock protein are crucial. Here, we discuss how sub-cellular localization and nuclear translocation are controlled in a time-specific manner focusing on the negative regulatory clock proteins. PMID:25258565

Lee, Euna



Flowering and genome integrity control by a nuclear matrix protein in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The matrix attachment regions (MARs) binding proteins could finely orchestrate temporal and spatial gene expression during development. In Arabidopsis, transposable elements (TEs) and TE-like repeat sequences are transcriptionally repressed or attenuated by the coordination of many key players including DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases and the siRNA pathway, which help to protect genomic integrity and control multiple developmental processes such as flowering. We have recently reported that an AT-hook nuclear matrix binding protein, TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENT SILENCING VIA AT-HOOK (TEK), participates in a histone deacetylation (HDAC) complex to silence TEs and genes containing a TE-like sequence, including AtMu1, FWA and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Ler background. We have shown that TEK knockdown causes increased histone acetylation, reduced H3K9me2 and moderate reduction of DNA methylation in the target loci, leading to the de-repression of FLC and FWA, as well as TE reactivation. Here we discuss the role of TEK as a putative MAR binding protein which functions in the maintenance of genome integrity and in flowering control by silencing TEs and repeat-containing genes. PMID:23836195

Xu, Yifeng; Gan, Eng-Seng; He, Yuehui; Ito, Toshiro



Nuclear localization of the C2H2 zinc finger protein Msn2p is regulated by stress and protein kinase A?activity  

PubMed Central

Msn2p and the partially redundant factor Msn4p are key regulators of stress-responsive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are required for the transcription of a number of genes coding for proteins with stress-protective functions. Both Msn2p and Msn4p are Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins and bind to the stress response element (STRE). In vivo footprinting studies show that the occupation of STREs is enhanced in stressed cells and dependent on the presence of Msn2p and Msn4p. Both factors accumulate in the nucleus under stress conditions, such as heat shock, osmotic stress, carbon-source starvation, and in the presence of ethanol or sorbate. Stress-induced nuclear localization was found to be rapid, reversible, and independent of protein synthesis. Nuclear localization of Msn2p and Msn4p was shown to be correlated inversely to cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. A region with significant homologies shared between Msn2p and Msn4p is sufficient to confer stress-regulated localization to a SV40NLSGFP fusion protein. Serine to alanine or aspartate substitutions in a conserved PKA consensus site abolished cAMP-driven nuclear export and cytoplasmic localization in unstressed cells. We propose stress and cAMP-regulated intracellular localization of Msn2p to be a key step in STRE-dependent transcription and in the general stress response. PMID:9472026

Grner, Wolfram; Durchschlag, Erich; Martinez-Pastor, Maria Teresa; Estruch, Francisco; Ammerer, Gustav; Hamilton, Barbara; Ruis, Helmut; Schller, Christoph



Nuclear localization of the C2H2 zinc finger protein Msn2p is regulated by stress and protein kinase A activity.  


Msn2p and the partially redundant factor Msn4p are key regulators of stress-responsive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are required for the transcription of a number of genes coding for proteins with stress-protective functions. Both Msn2p and Msn4p are Cys2His2 zinc finger proteins and bind to the stress response element (STRE). In vivo footprinting studies show that the occupation of STREs is enhanced in stressed cells and dependent on the presence of Msn2p and Msn4p. Both factors accumulate in the nucleus under stress conditions, such as heat shock, osmotic stress, carbon-source starvation, and in the presence of ethanol or sorbate. Stress-induced nuclear localization was found to be rapid, reversible, and independent of protein synthesis. Nuclear localization of Msn2p and Msn4p was shown to be correlated inversely to cAMP levels and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. A region with significant homologies shared between Msn2p and Msn4p is sufficient to confer stress-regulated localization to a SV40-NLS-GFP fusion protein. Serine to alanine or aspartate substitutions in a conserved PKA consensus site abolished cAMP-driven nuclear export and cytoplasmic localization in unstressed cells. We propose stress and cAMP-regulated intracellular localization of Msn2p to be a key step in STRE-dependent transcription and in the general stress response. PMID:9472026

Grner, W; Durchschlag, E; Martinez-Pastor, M T; Estruch, F; Ammerer, G; Hamilton, B; Ruis, H; Schller, C



Ubiquitin-regulated nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix protein is important for viral budding.  


Paramyxoviruses are known to replicate in the cytoplasm and bud from the plasma membrane. Matrix is the major structural protein in paramyxoviruses that mediates viral assembly and budding. Curiously, the matrix proteins of a few paramyxoviruses have been found in the nucleus, although the biological function associated with this nuclear localization remains obscure. We report here that the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of the Nipah virus matrix (NiV-M) protein and associated post-translational modification play a critical role in matrix-mediated virus budding. Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic emerging paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans, and is classified as a Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) pathogen. During live NiV infection, NiV-M was first detected in the nucleus at early stages of infection before subsequent localization to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane. Mutations in the putative bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and the leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) found in NiV-M impaired its nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking and also abolished NiV-M budding. A highly conserved lysine residue in the NLS served dual functions: its positive charge was important for mediating nuclear import, and it was also a potential site for monoubiquitination which regulates nuclear export of the protein. Concordantly, overexpression of ubiquitin enhanced NiV-M budding whereas depletion of free ubiquitin in the cell (via proteasome inhibitors) resulted in nuclear retention of NiV-M and blocked viral budding. Live Nipah virus budding was exquisitely sensitive to proteasome inhibitors: bortezomib, an FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor for treating multiple myeloma, reduced viral titers with an IC(50) of 2.7 nM, which is 100-fold less than the peak plasma concentration that can be achieved in humans. This opens up the possibility of using an "off-the-shelf" therapeutic against acute NiV infection. PMID:21085610

Wang, Yao E; Park, Arnold; Lake, Michael; Pentecost, Mickey; Torres, Betsabe; Yun, Tatyana E; Wolf, Mike C; Holbrook, Michael R; Freiberg, Alexander N; Lee, Benhur



Association of hepatitis B virus polymerase with promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies mediated by the S100 family protein p11.  


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase (Pol) interacts with cellular chaperone proteins and thereby performs multiple functions necessary for viral replication. Yeast two-hybrid analysis was applied to identify additional cellular targets required for HBV Pol function. HBV Pol interacted with S100A10 (p11), a Ca(2+)-modulated protein previously shown to bind to annexin II. The interaction between HBV Pol and p11 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of the two proteins synthesized either in vitro or in transfected cells and by inhibition of the DNA polymerase activity of HBV Pol by p11. Immunofluorescence analysis of transfected human cell lines revealed that, although most HBV Pol and p11 was restricted to the cytoplasm, a small proportion of each protein colocalized as nuclear speckles; HBV Pol was not detected in the nucleus in the absence of p11. The HBV Pol-p11 nuclear speckles coincided with nuclear bodies containing the promyelocytic leukemia protein PML. Furthermore, the association of HBV Pol-p11 with PML was increased by exposure of cells to EGTA and inhibited by valinomycin. These results suggest a role for p11 in modulation of HBV Pol function and implicate PML nuclear bodies and intracellular Ca(2+) in viral replication. PMID:12767936

Choi, Juhyun; Chang, Jin-Sook; Song, Min-Sup; Ahn, Byung-Yoon; Park, Young; Lim, Dae-Sik; Han, Ye Sun



C++ OPPS, a new software for the interpretation of protein dynamics from nuclear magnetic resonance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful tool for elucidating protein dynamics because of the possibility to interpret nuclear spin relaxation properties in terms of microdynamic parameters. Magnetic relaxation times T1, T2, and NOE depend on dipolar and quadrupolar interactions, on chemical shift anisotropy and cross-correlation effects. Within the framework of given motional model, it is possible to express the NMR relaxation times as functions of spectral densities (Abragam, The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism; Oxford University Press: Clarendon, London, 1961), obtaining the connection between macroscopic observables and microscopic properties. In this context, recently Meirovitch et al. (Shapiro et al., Biochemistry 2002, 41, 6271, Meirovitch et al., J Phys Chem B 2006, 110, 20615, Meirovitch et al., J Phys Chem B 2007, 111, 12865) applied the dynamical model introduced by Polimeno and Freed (Polimeno and Freed, Adv Chem Phys 1993, 83, 89, Polimeno and Freed, J Phys Chem 1995, 99, 10995), known as the slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) model, to the study of NMR data. The program C++OPPS (, developed in our laboratory, implements the SRLS model in an user-friendly way with a graphical user interface (GUI), introduced to simplify the work to users who do not feel at ease with the complex mathematics of the model and the difficulties of command line based programs. The program is an evolution of the old FORTRAN 77 implementation COPPS (COupled Protein Probe Smoluchowski) and presents a number of new features: the presence of an easy to use GUI written in JAVA; high calculation performance thanks to features of C++ language, employment of BLAS (basic linear algebra subprograms) library (Blackford et al., Trans Math Soft 2002, 28, 135) in handling matrix-vector operations and parallelization of the code under the MPI (message passing interface) paradigm (Gropp et al., Parallel Comput 1996, 22, 789, Gropp and Lusk, User's Guide for mpich, a Portable Implementation of MPI Mathematics and Computer Science Division; Argonne National Laboratory, 1996); possibility to predict the diffusion tensor of the protein via a hydrodynamic approach (Barone et al., J Comp Chem, in press). A cluster version of C++OPPS was also developed, which can be easily accessed by users via the web.

Zerbetto, Mirco; Polimeno, Antonino; Meirovitch, Eva


Protein Kinase A Activation Enhances ?-Catenin Transcriptional Activity through Nuclear Localization to PML Bodies  

PubMed Central

The Protein Kinase A (PKA) and Wnt signaling cascades are fundamental pathways involved in cellular development and maintenance. In the osteoblast lineage, these pathways have been demonstrated functionally to be essential for the production of mineralized bone. Evidence for PKA-Wnt crosstalk has been reported both during tumorigenesis and during organogenesis, and the nature of the interaction is thought to rely on tissue and cell context. In this manuscript, we analyzed bone tumors arising from mice with activated PKA caused by mutation of the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a. In primary cells from these tumors, we observed relocalization of ?-catenin to intranuclear punctuate structures, which were identified as PML bodies. Cellular redistribution of ?-catenin could be recapitulated by pharmacologic activation of PKA. Using 3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts as a model system, we found that PKA phosphorylation sites on ?-catenin were required for nuclear re-localization. Further, ?-catenin's transport to the nucleus was accompanied by an increase in canonical Wnt-dependent transcription, which also required the PKA sites. PKA-Wnt crosstalk in the cells was bi-directional, including enhanced interactions between ?-catenin and the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and transcriptional crosstalk between the Wnt and PKA signaling pathways. Increases in canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling were associated with a decrease in the activity of the non-canonical Wnt/Ror2 pathway, which has been shown to antagonize canonical Wnt signaling. Taken together, this study provides a new understanding of the complex regulation of the subcellular distribution of ?-catenin and its differential protein-protein interaction that can be modulated by PKA signaling. PMID:25299576

Zhang, Mei; Mahoney, Emilia; Zuo, Tao; Manchanda, Parmeet K.; Davuluri, Ramana V.; Kirschner, Lawrence S.



Down-regulation of PTEN by HCV core protein through activating nuclear factor-?B  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is an important causative agent in HCV related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumor suppressor gene PTEN appears to act in the liver at the crossroad of processes controlling cell proliferation. In this study we investigated the effect of the HCV core protein on the PTEN pathway in hepatocarcinogenesis. The HCV core was transfected stably into HepG2 cell. The effect of HCV core on cell proliferation and viability were detected by 3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiahiazo-(-z-y1)-3, 5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay, clonogenic survival assay and Fluorescence Activating Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis. The expressions of PTEN were detected by real time RT-PCR and/or Western blot analysis, also the mechanism of down-regulation of PTEN was explored by western blot, luciferase assay and RNA interference. We found the HCV core promoted cell proliferation, survival and G2/M phase accumulation. It downregulated PTEN at mRNA and protein level and activated PTEN downstream gene Akt accompanied with NF-?B activation. Furthermore, the inhibition of HCV core by its specific shRNAs decreased the effect of growth promotion and G2/M phase arrest, inhibited the expression of nuclear p65 and increased PTEN expression. The activity of PTEN was restored when treated with NF-?B inhibitor PDTC. By luciferase assay we found that NF-?B inhibited PTEN promoter transcription activity directly in HCV core cells, while PDTC was contrary. Our study suggests that HCV proteins could modulate PTEN by activating NF-?B. Furthermore strategies designed to restore the expression of PTEN may be promising therapies for preventing HCV dependent hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:25550771

Zhang, Yong; Li, Rong-Qing; Feng, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Li



[Electrophoretic pattern of the nuclear matrix proteins from rat hepatoma-27, and the effect of various proteinase inhibitors].  


Nuclear matrix preparations of rat hepatoma 27 differed from those of rat liver tissue in predominance of polypeptides with molecular weights of about 220, 160, 100, 45 and 31 kilodaltons. An inhibitor of serine proteinases phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride did not alter practically the yield or protein pattern of rat liver or hepatoma 27 nuclear matrices. At the same time, thiol reagents mersalyl and 5,5-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) increased 2-3-fold the yield of both rat liver and hepatoma 27 nuclear matrices elevating mainly the content of polypeptides of 34-45 kilodaltons molecular weights. PMID:7157713

Vokurkova, N; Zbarski?, I B



Preliminary immunohistochemical characterization of a monoclonal antibody (pro:4-216) prepared from human prostate cancer nuclear matrix proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesA nuclear matrix protein (PC-1) was previously identified and reported to be present only in human prostate cancer but absent in tissue from the same prostate containing either benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or normal prostate tissue. The PC-1 protein was identified by high resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and exhibited a molecular mass of 56 kDa and an isoelectric

Alan W. Partin; Joseph V. Briggman; Eric N. P. Subong; Robert Szaro; Ana Oreper; Sarah Wiesbrock; Jane Meyer; Donald S. Coffey; Jonathan I. Epstein



The rate of nuclear cytoplasmic protein transport is determined by the casein kinase II site flanking the nuclear localization sequence of the SV40 T-antigen.  

PubMed Central

We have previously demonstrated [Rihs, H.-P. and Peters, R. (1989) EMBO J., 8, 1479-1484] that the nuclear transport of recombinant proteins in which short fragments of the SV40 T-antigen are fused to the amino terminus of Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase is dependent on both the nuclear localization sequence (NLS, T-antigen residues 126-132) and a phosphorylation-site-containing sequence (T-antigen residues 111-125). While the NLS determines the specificity, the rate of transport is controlled by the phosphorylation-site-containing sequence. The present study furthers this observation and examines the role of the various phosphorylation sites. Purified, fluorescently labeled recombinant proteins were injected into the cytoplasm of Vero or hepatoma (HTC) cells and the kinetics of nuclear transport measured by laser microfluorimetry. By replacing serine and threonine residues known to be phosphorylated in vivo, we identified the casein kinase II (CK-II) site S111/S112 to be the determining factor in the enhancement of the transport. Either of the residues 111 or 112 was sufficient to elicit the maximum transport enhancement. The other phosphorylation sites (S120, S123, T124) had no influence on the transport rate. Examination of the literature suggested that many proteins harboring a nuclear localization sequence also contain putative CK-II sites at a distance of approximately 10-30 amino acid residues from the NLS. CK-II has been previously implicated in the transmission of growth signals to the nucleus. Our results suggest that CK-II may exert this role by controlling the rate of nuclear protein transport. Images PMID:1848177

Rihs, H P; Jans, D A; Fan, H; Peters, R



A study on the relationship between antisense EGFR cDNA fragments and nuclear matrix proteins in glioblastoma cells.  


The association of antisense epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cDNA fragments with nuclear matrix from EGFR-antisense transfected glioblastoma cell lines U343 and U87 was investigated. A 1015 bp DNA fragment (primer I-II) was amplified in both genomic DNA and nuclear matrix-associated DNA (NM DNA) from EGFR-antisense transfected glioblastoma cell lines U343E and U87E. Two different DNA fragments (940 bp and 110 bp) were amplified by primer I-III in both genomic DNA and NM DNA of U343E, while one 110 bp PCR product was shown with the same primer in both genomic DNA and NM DNA of U87E only. After EGFR-antisense transfection, the binding property of the 110 bp DNA fragment (primer IV-V) to nuclear matrix was not affected. Southwestern blotting demonstrated the presence of antisense EGFR cDNA binding nuclear matrix proteins. Our findings demonstrate that not only EGFR DNA is associated with nuclear matrix, but the transfected antisense EGFR cDNA also binds to nuclear matrix proteins. The nuclear matrix is most likely involved in the replication and transcription of antisense EGFR cDNA or hybridisation with sense mRNA in vitro. PMID:9857227

Wang, Z H; Yam, G H; Tian, X X; Ng, H K; Chew-Cheng, S B; Ding, M X; Chew, E C



Analyses of nuclear proteins and nucleic Acid structures using atomic force microscopy.  


Since the inception of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in 1986, the value of this technology for exploring the structure and biophysical properties of a variety of biological samples has been increasingly recognized. AFM provides the opportunity to both image samples at nanometer resolution and also measure the forces on the surface of the sample. Here, we describe a variety of methods for studying nuclear samples including single nucleic acid molecules, higher-order chromatin structures, the nucleolus, and the nucleus. Protocols to prepare nucleic acids, nucleic acid-protein complexes, reconstituted chromatin, the cell nucleus, and the nucleolus are included, as well as protocols describing how to prepare the AFM substrate and the AFM tip. Finally, we describe how to perform conventional imaging, high-speed imaging, recognition imaging, force spectroscopy, and nanoindentation experiments. PMID:25555579

Gilmore, Jamie L; Yoshida, Aiko; Takahashi, Hirohide; Deguchi, Katashi; Kobori, Toshiro; Louvet, Emilie; Kumeta, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Shige H; Takeyasu, Kunio



Increased reliability of nuclear magnetic resonance protein structures by consensus structure bundles.  


Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures are represented by bundles of conformers calculated from different randomized initial structures using identical experimental input data. The spread among these conformers indicates the precision of the atomic coordinates. However, there is as yet no reliable measure of structural accuracy, i.e., how close NMR conformers are to the "true" structure. Instead, the precision of structure bundles is widely (mis)interpreted as a measure of structural quality. Attempts to increase precision often overestimate accuracy by tight bundles of high precision but much lower accuracy. To overcome this problem, we introduce a protocol for NMR structure determination with the software package CYANA, which produces, like the traditional method, bundles of conformers in agreement with a common set of conformational restraints but with a realistic precision that is, throughout a variety of proteins and NMR data sets, a much better estimate of structural accuracy than the precision of conventional structure bundles. PMID:25579816

Buchner, Lena; Gntert, Peter



5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein are localized in the nuclear envelope of activated human leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The intracellular distribution of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) in resting and ionophore- activated human leukocytes has been determined using immuno- electronmicroscopic labeling of ultrathin frozen sections and subcellular fractionation techniques. 5-LO is a 78-kD protein that catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes. FLAP is an 18-kD membrane bound protein that is essential for leukotriene synthesis in cells. In response to ionophore stimulation, 5-LO translocates from a soluble to a sedimentable fraction of cell homogenates. In activated leukocytes, both FLAP and 5-LO were localized in the lumen of the nuclear envelope. Neither protein could be detected in any other cell compartment or along the plasma membrane. In resting cells, the FLAP distribution was identical to that observed in activated cells. In addition, subcellular fractionation techniques showed > 83% of immunoblot-detectable FLAP protein and approximately 64% of the FLAP ligand binding activity was found in the nuclear membrane fraction. A fractionation control demonstrated that a plasma membrane marker, detected by a monoclonal antibody PMN13F6, was not detectable in the nuclear membrane fraction. In contrast to FLAP, 5-LO in resting cells could not be visualized along the nuclear envelope. Except for weak labeling of the euchromatin region of the nucleus, 5-LO could not be readily detected in any other cellular compartment. These results demonstrate that the nuclear envelope is the intracellular site at which 5-LO and FLAP act to metabolize arachidonic acid, and that ionophore activation of neutrophils and monocytes results in the translocation of 5-LO from a nonsedimentable location to the nuclear envelope. PMID:8245774



The GIP gamma-tubulin complex-associated proteins are involved in nuclear architecture in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

During interphase, the microtubular cytoskeleton of cycling plant cells is organized in both cortical and perinuclear arrays. Perinuclear microtubules (MTs) are nucleated from ?-Tubulin Complexes (?-TuCs) located at the surface of the nucleus. The molecular mechanisms of ?-TuC association to the nuclear envelope (NE) are currently unknown. The ?-TuC Protein 3 (GCP3)-Interacting Protein 1 (GIP1) is the smallest ?-TuC component identified so far. AtGIP1 and its homologous protein AtGIP2 participate in the localization of active ?-TuCs at interphasic and mitotic MT nucleation sites. Arabidopsis gip1gip2 mutants are impaired in establishing a fully functional mitotic spindle and exhibit severe developmental defects. In this study, gip1gip2 knock down mutants were further characterized at the cellular level. In addition to defects in both the localization of ?-TuC core proteins and MT fiber robustness, gip1gip2 mutants exhibited a severe alteration of the nuclear shape associated with an abnormal distribution of the nuclear pore complexes. Simultaneously, they showed a misorganization of the inner nuclear membrane protein AtSUN1. Furthermore, AtGIP1 was identified as an interacting partner of AtTSA1 which was detected, like the AtGIP proteins, at the NE. These results provide the first evidence for the involvement of a ?-TuC component in both nuclear shaping and NE organization. Functional hypotheses are discussed in order to propose a model for a GIP-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic continuum. PMID:24348487

Batzenschlager, Morgane; Masoud, Kinda; Janski, Natacha; Houln, Guy; Herzog, Etienne; Evrard, Jean-Luc; Baumberger, Nicolas; Erhardt, Mathieu; Nomin, Yves; Kieffer, Bruno; Schmit, Anne-Catherine; Chabout, Marie-Edith



Structural diversity and nuclear protein binding sites in the long terminal repeats of feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed Central

The long terminal repeat U3 sequences were determined for multiple feline leukemia virus proviruses isolated from naturally occurring T-cell tumors. Heterogeneity was evident, even among proviruses cloned from individual tumors. Proviruses with one, two, or three repeats of the long terminal repeat enhancer sequences coexisted in one tumor, while two proviruses with distinct direct repeats were found in another. The enhancer repeats are characteristic of retrovirus variants with accelerated leukemogenic potential and occur between -155 and -244 base pairs relative to the RNA cap site. The termini of the repeats occur at or near sequence features which have been recognized at other retrovirus recombinational junctions. In vitro footprint analysis of the feline leukemia virus enhancer revealed three major nuclear protein binding sites, located at consensus sequences for the simian virus 40 core enhancer, the nuclear factor 1 binding site, and an indirect repeat which is homologous to the PEA2 binding site in the polyomavirus enhancer. Only the simian virus 40 core enhancer sequence is present in all of the enhancer repeats. Cell type differences in binding activities to the three motifs may underlie the selective process which leads to outgrowth of viruses with specific sequence duplications. Images PMID:2157050

Fulton, R; Plumb, M; Shield, L; Neil, J C



Recognition of Transcription Termination Signal by the Nuclear Polyadenylated RNA-binding (NAB) 3 Protein*  

PubMed Central

Non-coding RNA polymerase II transcripts are processed by the poly(A)-independent termination pathway that requires the Nrd1 complex. The Nrd1 complex includes two RNA-binding proteins, the nuclear polyadenylated RNA-binding (Nab) 3 and the nuclear pre-mRNA down-regulation (Nrd) 1 that bind their specific termination elements. Here we report the solution structure of the RNA-recognition motif (RRM) of Nab3 in complex with a UCUU oligonucleotide, representing the Nab3 termination element. The structure shows that the first three nucleotides of UCUU are accommodated on the ?-sheet surface of Nab3 RRM, but reveals a sequence-specific recognition only for the central cytidine and uridine. The specific contacts we identified are important for binding affinity in vitro as well as for yeast viability. Furthermore, we show that both RNA-binding motifs of Nab3 and Nrd1 alone bind their termination elements with a weak affinity. Interestingly, when Nab3 and Nrd1 form a heterodimer, the affinity to RNA is significantly increased due to the cooperative binding. These findings are in accordance with the model of their function in the poly(A) independent termination, in which binding to the combined and/or repetitive termination elements elicits efficient termination. PMID:21084293

Hobor, Fruzsina; Pergoli, Roberto; Kubicek, Karel; Hrossova, Dominika; Bacikova, Veronika; Zimmermann, Michal; Pasulka, Josef; Hofr, Ctirad; Vanacova, Stepanka; Stefl, Richard



Nicotine mediates hypochlorous acid-induced nuclear protein damage in mammalian cells.  


Activated neutrophils secrete hypochlorous acid (HOCl) into the extracellular space of inflamed tissues. Because of short diffusion distance in biological fluids, HOCl-damaging effect is restricted to the extracellular compartment. The current study aimed at investigating the ability of nicotine, a component of tobacco and electronic cigarettes, to mediate HOCl-induced intracellular damage. We report, for the first time, that HOCl reacts with nicotine to produce nicotine chloramine (Nic-Cl). Nic-Cl caused dose-dependent damage to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a nuclear protein, in cultured mammalian lung and kidney cells. Vitamin C, vitamin E analogue (Trolox), glutathione, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited the Nic-Cl-induced PCNA damage, implicating oxidation in PCNA damage. These findings point out the ability of nicotine to mediate HOCl-induced intracellular damage and suggest antioxidants as protective measures. The results also raise the possibility that Nic-Cl can be created in the inflamed tissues of tobacco and electronic cigarette smokers and may contribute to smoking-related diseases. PMID:24357417

Salama, Samir A; Arab, Hany H; Omar, Hany A; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Snapka, Robert M



Human Dna2 Is a Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Maintenance Protein?  

PubMed Central

Dna2 is a highly conserved helicase/nuclease that in yeast participates in Okazaki fragment processing, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated the biological function of human Dna2 (hDna2). Immunofluorescence and biochemical fractionation studies demonstrated that hDna2 was present in both the nucleus and the mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial hDna2 revealed that it colocalized with a subfraction of DNA-containing mitochondrial nucleoids in unperturbed cells. Upon the expression of disease-associated mutant forms of the mitochondrial Twinkle helicase which induce DNA replication pausing/stalling, hDna2 accumulated within nucleoids. RNA interference-mediated depletion of hDna2 led to a modest decrease in mitochondrial DNA replication intermediates and inefficient repair of damaged mitochondrial DNA. Importantly, hDna2 depletion also resulted in the appearance of aneuploid cells and the formation of internuclear chromatin bridges, indicating that nuclear hDna2 plays a role in genomic DNA stability. Together, our data indicate that hDna2 is similar to its yeast counterpart and is a new addition to the growing list of proteins that participate in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA maintenance. PMID:19487465

Duxin, Julien P.; Dao, Benjamin; Martinsson, Peter; Rajala, Nina; Guittat, Lionel; Campbell, Judith L.; Spelbrink, Johannes N.; Stewart, Sheila A.



BRCA1-associated protein-1 is a tumor suppressor that requires deubiquitinating activity and nuclear localization.  


BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1), a deubiquitinating enzyme of unknown cellular function, is mutated in breast and lung cancers. In this study, we have shown for the first time that BAP1 has tumor suppressor activity in vivo by showing that BAP1 can suppress tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells in athymic nude mice. We show that BAP1 fulfills another criterion of a genuine tumor suppressor because cancer-associated BAP1 mutants are deficient in deubiquitinating activity. We show for the first time that one of the two predicted nuclear targeting motifs is required for nuclear localization of BAP1 and that a truncation mutant found in a lung cancer cell line results in BAP1 that fails to localize to the nucleus. Furthermore, we show that deubiquitinating activity and nuclear localization are both required for BAP1-mediated tumor suppression in nude mice. We show that BAP1 exerts its tumor suppressor functions by affecting the cell cycle, speeding the progression through the G(1)-S checkpoint, and inducing cell death via a process that has characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis. Surprisingly, BAP1-mediated growth suppression is independent of wild-type BRCA1. Because deubiquitinating enzymes are components of the ubiquitin proteasome system, this pathway has emerged as an important target for anticancer drugs. The identification of the deubiquitinating enzyme BAP1 as a tumor suppressor may lead to further understanding of how the ubiquitin proteasome system contributes to cancer and aid in the identification of new targets for cancer therapy. PMID:18757409

Ventii, Karen H; Devi, Narra S; Friedrich, Kenneth L; Chernova, Tatiana A; Tighiouart, Mourad; Van Meir, Erwin G; Wilkinson, Keith D



Functional Characterization of Nuclear Localization and Export Signals in Hepatitis C Virus Proteins and Their Role in the Membranous Web  

PubMed Central

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a positive strand RNA virus of the Flavivirus family that replicates in the cytoplasm of infected hepatocytes. Previously, several nuclear localization signals (NLS) and nuclear export signals (NES) have been identified in HCV proteins, however, there is little evidence that these proteins travel into the nucleus during infection. We have recently shown that nuclear pore complex (NPC) proteins (termed nucleoporins or Nups) are present in the membranous web and are required during HCV infection. In this study, we identify a total of 11 NLS and NES sequences in various HCV proteins. We show direct interactions between HCV proteins and importin ?5 (IPOA5/kap?1), importin ?3 (IPO5/kap ?3), and exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) both in-vitro and in cell culture. These interactions can be disrupted using peptides containing the specific NLS or NES sequences of HCV proteins. Moreover, using a synchronized infection system, we show that these peptides inhibit HCV infection during distinct phases of the HCV life cycle. The inhibitory effects of these peptides place them in two groups. The first group binds IPOA5 and inhibits infection during the replication stage of HCV life cycle. The second group binds IPO5 and is active during both early replication and early assembly. This work delineates the entire life cycle of HCV and the active involvement of NLS sequences during HCV replication and assembly. Given the abundance of NLS sequences within HCV proteins, our previous finding that Nups play a role in HCV infection, and the relocation of the NLS double-GFP reporter in HCV infected cells, this work supports our previous hypothesis that NPC-like structures and nuclear transport factors function in the membranous web to create an environment conducive to viral replication. PMID:25485706

Levin, Aviad; Neufeldt, Christopher J.; Pang, Daniel; Wilson, Kristen; Loewen-Dobler, Darci; Joyce, Michael A.; Wozniak, Richard W.; Tyrrell, D. Lorne J



Nuclear localization signals in phage terminal proteins provide a novel gene delivery tool in mammalian cells  

PubMed Central

Terminal proteins (TPs) of bacteriophages prime DNA replication and become covalently linked to the genome ends. Unexpectedly, we have found functional eukaryotic nuclear localization signals (NLSs) within the TP sequences of bacteriophages from diverse families and hosts. Given the role of bacteriophages as vehicles for horizontal gene transfer (HGT), we postulated that viral genomes that have covalently linked NLS-containing terminal proteins might behave as vectors for HGT between bacteria and the eukaryotic nucleus. To validate this hypothesis, we profited from the in vitro ?29 amplification system that allows the amplification of heterologous DNAs producing linear molecules of DNA with TP covalently attached to both 5' ends. Interestingly, these in vitro-generated TP-DNA molecules showed enhanced gene delivery in mammalian cells, supporting a possible role in HGT by transferring genes between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Moreover, these TP-DNA molecules are a useful tool to amplify and subsequently deliver genes efficiently into the eukaryotic nucleus. Here, we suggest various possible applications and further developments of the technique with biotechnological and therapeutic purposes. PMID:23750294

Redrejo-Rodrguez, Modesto; Muoz-Espn, Daniel; Holguera, Isabel; Menca, Mario; Salas, Margarita



Cell cycle-dependent SUMO-1 conjugation to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA)  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: NuMA is modified by SUMO-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. NuMA lysine 1766 is the primary target site for SUMOylation. SUMOylation-deficient NuMA induces multiple spindle poles during mitosis. SUMOylated NuMA induces microtubule bundling. -- Abstract: Covalent conjugation of proteins with small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) plays a critical role in a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle control, replication, and transcriptional regulation. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) localizes to spindle poles during mitosis, and is an essential component in the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles. Here we show that NuMA is a target for covalent conjugation to SUMO-1. We find that the lysine 1766 residue is the primary NuMA acceptor site for SUMO-1 conjugation. Interestingly, SUMO modification of endogenous NuMA occurs at the entry into mitosis and this modification is reversed after exiting from mitosis. Knockdown of Ubc9 or forced expression of SENP1 results in impairment of the localization of NuMA to mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. The SUMOylation-deficient NuMA mutant is defective in microtubule bundling, and multiple spindles are induced during mitosis. The mitosis-dependent dynamic SUMO-1 modification of NuMA might contribute to NuMA-mediated formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis.

Seo, Jae Sung; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Sun-Jick; Bang, Jiyoung; Kim, Eun-A; Sung, Ki Sa [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyun-Joo [TissueGene Inc. 9605 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850 (United States)] [TissueGene Inc. 9605 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Yoo, Hae Yong [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Cheol Yong, E-mail: [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)



Cytokinesis proteins Tum and Pav have a nuclear role in Wnt regulation.  


Wg/Wnt signals specify cell fates in both invertebrate and vertebrate embryos and maintain stem-cell populations in many adult tissues. Deregulation of the Wnt pathway can transform cells to a proliferative fate, leading to cancer. We have discovered that two Drosophila proteins that are crucial for cytokinesis have a second, largely independent, role in restricting activity of the Wnt pathway. The fly homolog of RacGAP1, Tumbleweed (Tum)/RacGAP50C, and its binding partner, the kinesin-like protein Pavarotti (Pav), negatively regulate Wnt activity in fly embryos and in cultured mammalian cells. Unlike many known regulators of the Wnt pathway, these molecules do not affect stabilization of Arm/beta-catenin (betacat), the principal effector molecule in Wnt signal transduction. Rather, they appear to act downstream of betacat stabilization to control target-gene transcription. Both Tum and Pav accumulate in the nuclei of interphase cells, a location that is spatially distinct from their cleavage-furrow localization during cytokinesis. We show that this nuclear localization is essential for their role in Wnt regulation. Thus, we have identified two modulators of the Wnt pathway that have shared functions in cell division, which hints at a possible link between cytokinesis and Wnt activity during tumorigenesis. PMID:20516152

Jones, Whitney M; Chao, Anna T; Zavortink, Michael; Saint, Robert; Bejsovec, Amy



The Insulator Protein SU(HW) Fine-Tunes Nuclear Lamina Interactions of the Drosophila Genome  

PubMed Central

Specific interactions of the genome with the nuclear lamina (NL) are thought to assist chromosome folding inside the nucleus and to contribute to the regulation of gene expression. High-resolution mapping has recently identified hundreds of large, sharply defined lamina-associated domains (LADs) in the human genome, and suggested that the insulator protein CTCF may help to demarcate these domains. Here, we report the detailed structure of LADs in Drosophila cells, and investigate the putative roles of five insulator proteins in LAD organization. We found that the Drosophila genome is also organized in discrete LADs, which are about five times smaller than human LADs but contain on average a similar number of genes. Systematic comparison to new and published insulator binding maps shows that only SU(HW) binds preferentially at LAD borders and at specific positions inside LADs, while GAF, CTCF, BEAF-32 and DWG are mostly absent from these regions. By knockdown and overexpression studies we demonstrate that SU(HW) weakens genome NL interactions through a local antagonistic effect, but we did not obtain evidence that it is essential for border formation. Our results provide insights into the evolution of LAD organization and identify SU(HW) as a fine-tuner of genome NL interactions. PMID:21124834

van Bemmel, Joke G.; Pagie, Ludo; Braunschweig, Ulrich; Brugman, Wim; Meuleman, Wouter; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; van Steensel, Bas



Fluctuation-based imaging of nuclear Rac1 activation by protein oligomerisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe a fluctuation-based method to quantify how protein oligomerisation modulates signalling activity of a multifunctional protein. By recording fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data of a FRET biosensor in a format that enables concomitant phasor and cross Number and Brightness (cN&B) analysis, we measure the nuclear dynamics of a Rac1 FRET biosensor and assess how Rac1 homo-oligomers (N&B) regulate Rac1 activity (hetero-oligomerisation with the biosensor affinity reagent, PBD, by FLIM-FRET) or interaction with an unknown binding partner (cN&B). The high spatiotemporal resolution of this method allowed us to discover that upon DNA damage monomeric and active Rac1 in the nucleus is segregated from dimeric and inactive Rac1 in the cytoplasm. This reorganisation requires Rac1 GTPase activity and is associated with an importin-?2 redistribution. Only with this multiplexed approach can we assess the oligomeric state a molecular complex must form in order to regulate a complex signalling network.

Hinde, Elizabeth; Yokomori, Kyoko; Gaus, Katharina; Hahn, Klaus M.; Gratton, Enrico



Cytoplasmic sequestration of FUS/TLS associated with ALS alters histone marks through loss of nuclear protein arginine methyltransferase 1.  


Mutations in the RNA-binding protein FUS/TLS (FUS) have been linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although predominantly nuclear, this heterogenous nuclear ribonuclear protein (hnRNP) has multiple functions in RNA processing including intracellular trafficking. In ALS, mutant or wild-type (WT) FUS can form neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions. Asymmetric arginine methylation of FUS by the class 1 arginine methyltransferase, protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of FUS. In motor neurons of primary spinal cord cultures, redistribution of endogenous mouse and that of ectopically expressed WT or mutant human FUS to the cytoplasm led to nuclear depletion of PRMT1, abrogating methylation of its nuclear substrates. Specifically, hypomethylation of arginine 3 of histone 4 resulted in decreased acetylation of lysine 9/14 of histone 3 and transcriptional repression. Distribution of neuronal PRMT1 coincident with FUS also was detected in vivo in the spinal cord of FUS(R495X) transgenic mice. However, nuclear PRMT1 was not stable postmortem obviating meaningful evaluation of ALS autopsy cases. This study provides evidence for loss of PRMT1 function as a consequence of cytoplasmic accumulation of FUS in the pathogenesis of ALS, including changes in the histone code regulating gene transcription. PMID:25274782

Tibshirani, Michael; Tradewell, Miranda L; Mattina, Katie R; Minotti, Sandra; Yang, Wencheng; Zhou, Hongru; Strong, Michael J; Hayward, Lawrence J; Durham, Heather D



Multiple apoptogenic proteins are involved in the nuclear translocation of Apoptosis Inducing Factor during transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat.  


Apoptosis Inducing Factor is a mitochondrial protein which upon translocation to nucleus causes large scale DNA fragmentation. The stimulus for the cytosolic release and nuclear translocation for this protein still remains to be understood. The role of calpains, cathepsin-b, Poly ADP (ribose) Polymerase and granzyme-b in the nuclear translocation of AIF has been investigated in the pathology of cerebral ischemia. Calpains, cathepsin-b and PARP-1 which were mostly confined to cytosol, lysosomes and nucleus respectively were found to be elevated in the mitochondrial fraction interacting with AIF in the western blot analysis and double immunofluorescence analysis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis revealed elevated levels of granzyme-b secreted by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells in the infarct of ischemic mouse brain. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed and western blot analysis the interaction and break down of Heat Shock Protein-70 an endogenous inhibitor of AIF into signature fragments by granzyme-b facilitating the nuclear translocation of AIF. Break down of HSP-70 correlated with the nuclear translocation of AIF observed in western and immunohistochemical analysis. These results indicate that multiple proteases were involved in the nuclear translocation of AIF during the pathology of cerebral ischemia. PMID:18938146

Chaitanya, Ganta Vijay; Babu, Phanithi Prakash



Convergence of calculated nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts in a protein with respect to quantum mechanical model size  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of mixed quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics (QM\\/MM) calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts in proteins is the choice of a sufficiently large QM region. This region must be large enough that the electronic structure of the chromophore in the QM\\/MM model is essentially the same as in the complete system. In this work, we calculate

Erin R. Johnson; Gino A. DiLabio



Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

Eto, Masumi, E-mail: [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States); Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States); Kim, Jee In [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States) [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, PA 19107 (United States); Cardiovascular Research Institute, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)



Ribosomal Protein S6 Interacts with the Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus ?  

PubMed Central

The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is central to the maintenance of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and to the survival of KSHV-carrying tumor cells. In an effort to identify interaction partners of LANA, we purified authentic high-molecular-weight complexes of LANA by conventional chromatography followed by immunoprecipitation from the BC-3 cell line. This is the first analysis of LANA-interacting partners that is not based on forced ectopic expression of LANA. Subsequent tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis identified many of the known LANA-interacting proteins. We confirmed LANA's interactions with histones. Three classes of proteins survived our stringent four-step purification procedure (size, heparin, anion, and immunoaffinity chromatography): two heat shock proteins (Hsp70 and Hsp96 precursor), signal recognition particle 72 (SRP72), and 10 different ribosomal proteins. These proteins are likely involved in structural interactions within LANA high-molecular-weight complexes. Here, we show that ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) interacts with LANA. This interaction is mediated by the N-terminal domain of LANA and does not require DNA or RNA. Depletion of RPS6 from primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells dramatically decreases the half-life of full-length LANA. The fact that RPS6 has a well-established nuclear function beyond its role in ribosome assembly suggests that RPS6 (and by extension other ribosomal proteins) contributes to the extraordinary stability of LANA. PMID:21734034

Chen, Wuguo; Dittmer, Dirk P.



SMC1: an essential yeast gene encoding a putative head-rod-tail protein is required for nuclear division and defines a new ubiquitous protein family  

PubMed Central

The smc1-1 mutant was identified initially as a mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that had an elevated rate of minichromosome nondisjunction. We have cloned the wild-type SMC1 gene. The sequence of the SMC1 gene predicts that its product (Smc1p) is a 141-kD protein, and antibodies against Smc1 protein detect a protein with mobility of 165 kD. Analysis of the primary and putative secondary structure of Smc1p suggests that it contains two central coiled-coil regions flanked by an amino- terminal nucleoside triphosphate (NTP)-binding head and a conserved carboxy-terminal tail. These analyses also indicate that Smc1p is an evolutionary conserved protein and is a member of a new family of proteins ubiquitous among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The SMC1 gene is essential for viability. Several phenotypic characteristics of the mutant alleles of smc1 gene indicate that its product is involved in some aspects of nuclear metabolism, most likely in chromosome segregation. The smc1-1 and smc1-2 mutants have a dramatic increase in mitotic loss of a chromosome fragment and chromosome III, respectively, but have no increase in mitotic recombination. Depletion of SMC1 function in the ts mutant, smc1-2, causes a dramatic mitosis-related lethality. Smc1p-depleted cells have a defect in nuclear division as evidenced by the absence of anaphase cells. This phenotype of the smc1- 2 mutant is not RAD9 dependent. Based upon the facts that Smc1p is a member of a ubiquitous family, and it is essential for yeast nuclear division, we propose that Smc1p and Smc1p-like proteins function in a fundamental aspect of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell division. PMID:8276886



Sde2: A novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Sde2 is essential for telomere silencing. {yields} Sde2 is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} Sde2 promotes the recruitment of SHREC, a histone deacetylase complex, to telomeres. -- Abstract: Telomeres, specialized domains assembled at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4{sup +} gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2{Delta} cells. The loss of Sde2 function compromises transcriptional silencing at telomeres, and this silencing defect is accompanied by increased levels of acetylated histone H3K14 and RNA polymerase II occupancy at telomeres as well as reduced recruitment of the SNF2 ATPase/histone deacetylase-containing complex SHREC to telomeres. Deletion of sde2 also leads to a higher frequency of mitotic minichromosome loss, and sde2{Delta} cells often form asci that contain spores in abnormal numbers, shapes, or both. In addition, sde2{Delta} cells are highly sensitive to several stresses, including high/low temperatures, bleomycin, which induces DNA damage, and thiabendazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent. Furthermore, Sde2 genetically interacts with the telomere regulators Taz1, Pof3, and Ccq1. These findings demonstrate that Sde2 cooperates with other telomere regulators to maintain functional telomeres, thereby preventing genomic instability.

Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan) [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Initiative for the Promotion of Young Scientists' Independent Research, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Sugiyama, Tomoyasu, E-mail: [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan) [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Initiative for the Promotion of Young Scientists' Independent Research, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology (PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)



Mbh 1: a novel gelsolin/severin-related protein which binds actin in vitro and exhibits nuclear localization in vivo.  

PubMed Central

We describe the characterization of a novel cDNA, mbh1 (myc basic motif homolog-1), which was found during a search for candidate factors which might interact with the c-Myc oncoprotein. Embedded within the amino acid sequence encoded by mbh1 is a region distantly related to the basic/helix-loop-helix (B/HLH) DNA-binding motif and a potential nuclear localization signal. Mbh1 encodes a polypeptide structurally similar to the actin-severing proteins gelsolin and severin. Translation of mbh1 RNA in rabbit reticulocyte extracts produces an approximately 45 kd protein capable of binding actin-coupled agarose beads in vitro in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner. Antiserum raised to a trpE/mbh1 bacterial fusion protein recognizes an approximately 45 kb protein in murine 3T3 fibroblasts, suggesting that the cDNA encodes the complete Mbh1 protein. Examination of Mbh1 localization in 3T3 fibroblasts by indirect immunofluorescence reveals a larger cell population showing diffuse staining, and a smaller population exhibiting a distinct nuclear stain. Western analysis corroborates this intracellular localization and indicates that total cellular levels and localization of Mbh1 are not affected by the cell growth state. The data suggest that Mbh1 may play a role in regulating cytoplasmic and/or nuclear architecture through potential interactions with actin. Images PMID:1849072

Prendergast, G C; Ziff, E B



Mutations within the nuclear localization signal of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein attenuate virus replication  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus replicating in the cytoplasm, but the nucleocapsid (N) protein is specifically localized to the nucleus and nucleolus in virus-infected cells. A 'pat7' motif of 41-PGKK(N/S)KK has previously been identified in the N protein as the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS); however, the biological consequences of N protein nuclear localization are unknown. In the present study, the role of N protein nuclear localization during infection was investigated in pigs using an NLS-null mutant virus. When two lysines at 43 and 44 at the NLS locus were substituted to glycines, the modified NLS with 41-PGGGNKK restricted the N protein to the cytoplasm. This NLS-null mutation was introduced into a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PRRSV. Upon transfection of cells, the NLS-null full-length clone induced cytopathic effects and produced infectious progeny. The NLS-null virus grew to a titer 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. To examine the response to NLS-null PRRSV in the natural host, three groups of pigs, consisting of seven animals per group, were intranasally inoculated with wild-type, placebo, or NLS-null virus, and the animals were maintained for 4 weeks. The NLS-null-infected pigs had a significantly shorter mean duration of viremia than wild-type-infected pigs but developed significantly higher titers of neutralizing antibodies. Mutations occurred at the NLS locus in one pig during viremia, and four types of mutations were identified: 41-PGRGNKK, 41-PGGRNKK, and 41-PGRRNKK, and 41-PGKKSKK. Both wild-type and NLS-null viruses persisted in the tonsils for at least 4 weeks, and the NLS-null virus persisting in the tonsils was found to be mutated to either 41-PGRGNKK or 41-PGGRNKK in all pigs. No other mutation was found in the N gene. All types of reversions which occurred during viremia and persistence were able to translocate the mutated N proteins to the nucleus, indicating a strong selection pressure for reversion at the NLS locus of the N protein in vivo. Reversions from NLS-null to functional NLS in the tonsils suggest a possible correlation of viral persistence with N protein nuclear localization. These results show that N protein nuclear localization is non-essential for PRRSV multiplication but may play an important role in viral attenuation and in pathogenesis in vivo.

Lee, Changhee [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hodgins, Douglas [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Calvert, Jay G. [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Welch, Siao-Kun W. [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Jolie, Rika [Pfizer Animal Health, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 (United States); Yoo, Dongwan [Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail:



Roles of LAP2 Proteins in Nuclear Assembly and DNA Replication: Truncated LAP2? Proteins Alter Lamina Assembly, Envelope Formation, Nuclear Size, and DNA Replication Efficiency in Xenopus laevis Extracts  

PubMed Central

Humans express three major splicing isoforms of LAP2, a lamin- and chromatin-binding nuclear protein. LAP2? and ? are integral membrane proteins, whereas ? is intranuclear. When truncated recombinant human LAP2? proteins were added to cell-free Xenopus laevis nuclear assembly reactions at high concentrations, a domain common to all LAP2 isoforms (residues 1187) inhibited membrane binding to chromatin, whereas the chromatin- and lamin-binding region (residues 1408) inhibited chromatin expansion. At lower concentrations of the common domain, membranes attached to chromatin with a unique scalloped morphology, but these nuclei neither accumulated lamins nor replicated. At lower concentrations of the chromatin- and lamin-binding region, nuclear envelopes and lamins assembled, but nuclei failed to enlarge and replicated on average 2.5-fold better than controls. This enhancement was not due to rereplication, as shown by density substitution experiments, suggesting the hypothesis that LAP2? is a downstream effector of lamina assembly in promoting replication competence. Overall, our findings suggest that LAP2 proteins mediate membranechromatin attachment and lamina assembly, and may promote replication by influencing chromatin structure. PMID:10087255

Gant, Tracey Michele; Harris, Crafford A.; Wilson, Katherine L.



MCLIP, an effective method to detect interactions of transmembrane proteins of the nuclear envelope in live cells.  


Investigating interactions of proteins in the nuclear envelope (NE) using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) has previously been difficult or even impossible due to their inherent resistance to extraction. We have developed a novel method, MCLIP (Membrane protein Cross-Link ImmunoPrecipitation), which takes advantage of a cell permeable crosslinker to enable effective detection and analysis of specific interactions of NE proteins in live cells using Western blot. Using MCLIP we show that, in U2OS cells, the integral inner nuclear membrane protein Samp1 interacts with Lamin B1, the LINC (Linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complex protein, Sun1 and the soluble small GTPase Ran. The results show that the previously detected in vitro interaction between Samp1 and Emerin also takes place in live cells. In vitro pull down experiments show, that the nucleoplasmic domains of Samp1 and Emerin can bind directly to each other. We also, show that MCLIP is suitable to coprecipitate protein interactions in different stages of the cell cycle. PMID:24950247

Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim; Vijayaraghavan, Balaje; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Crafoord, Ellinor; Gudise, Santhosh; Larsson, Veronica J; Hallberg, Einar



The SUN protein UNC-84 is required only in force-bearing cells to maintain nuclear envelope architecture  

PubMed Central

The nuclear envelope (NE) consists of two evenly spaced bilayers, the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The Sad1p and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins and Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) proteins that interact to form LINC (linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton) complexes connecting the nucleoskeleton to the cytoskeleton have been implicated in maintaining NE spacing. Surprisingly, the NE morphology of most Caenorhabditis elegans nuclei was normal in the absence of functional SUN proteins. Distortions of the perinuclear space observed in unc-84 mutant muscle nuclei resembled those previously observed in HeLa cells, suggesting that SUN proteins are required to maintain NE architecture in cells under high mechanical strain. The UNC-84 protein with large deletions in its luminal domain was able to form functional NE bridges but had no observable effect on NE architecture. Therefore, SUN-KASH bridges are only required to maintain NE spacing in cells subjected to increased mechanical forces. Furthermore, SUN proteins do not dictate the width of the NE. PMID:25023515

Cain, Natalie E.; Tapley, Erin C.; McDonald, Kent L.; Cain, Benjamin M.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

What part does nuclear energy play in satisfying energy demands? This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to the uranium atom as an energy source. Here students read about the history of nuclear energy, how energy is derived from uranium, and benefits of nuclear energy. Information is also provided about limitations, particularly disposal problems and radioactivity, and geographical considerations of nuclear power in the United States. Thought-provoking questions afford students chances to reflect on what they've read about the uses of nuclear power. Articles and information on new nuclear plant design and nuclear accidents are available from a sidebar. Five energy-related PBS NewsHour links are provided. A web link to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is included. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Iowa Public Television. Explore More Project



Phylogenetic relationships among insect orders based on three nuclear protein-coding gene sequences.  


Many attempts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of higher groups of insects have been made based on both morphological and molecular evidence; nonetheless, most of the interordinal relationships of insects remain unclear or are controversial. As a new approach, in this study we sequenced three nuclear genes encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta and the two largest subunits of RNA polymerase II from all insect orders. The predicted amino acid sequences (In total, approx. 3500 amino acid sites) of these proteins were subjected to phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis methods with various models. The resulting trees strongly support the monophyly of Palaeoptera, Neoptera, Polyneoptera, and Holometabola, while within Polyneoptera, the groupings of Isoptera/"Blattaria"/Mantodea (Superorder Dictyoptera), Dictyoptera/Zoraptera, Dermaptera/Plecoptera, Mantophasmatodea/Grylloblattodea, and Embioptera/Phasmatodea are supported. Although Paraneoptera is not supported as a monophyletic group, the grouping of Phthiraptera/Psocoptera is robustly supported. The interordinal relationships within Holometabola are well resolved and strongly supported that the order Hymenoptera is the sister lineage to all other holometabolous insects. The other orders of Holometabola are separated into two large groups, and the interordinal relationships of each group are (((Siphonaptera, Mecoptera), Diptera), (Trichoptera, Lepidoptera)) and ((Coleoptera, Strepsiptera), (Neuroptera, Raphidioptera, Megaloptera)). The sister relationship between Strepsiptera and Diptera are significantly rejected by all the statistical tests (AU, KH and wSH), while the affinity between Hymenoptera and Mecopterida are significantly rejected only by AU and KH tests. Our results show that the use of amino acid sequences of these three nuclear genes is an effective approach for resolving the relationships of higher groups of insects. PMID:21075208

Ishiwata, Keisuke; Sasaki, Go; Ogawa, Jiro; Miyata, Takashi; Su, Zhi-Hui



A model for the dynamic nuclear/nucleolar/cytoplasmic trafficking of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein based on live cell imaging  

SciTech Connect

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an arterivirus, in common with many other positive strand RNA viruses, encodes a nucleocapsid (N) protein which can localise not only to the cytoplasm but also to the nucleolus in virus-infected cells and cells over-expressing N protein. The dynamic trafficking of positive strand RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins and PRRSV N protein in particular between the cytoplasm and nucleolus is unknown. In this study live imaging of permissive and non-permissive cell lines, in conjunction with photo-bleaching (FRAP and FLIP), was used to investigate the trafficking of fluorescent labeled (EGFP) PRRSV-N protein. The data indicated that EGFP-PRRSV-N protein was not permanently sequestered to the nucleolus and had equivalent mobility to cellular nucleolar proteins. Further the nuclear import of N protein appeared to occur faster than nuclear export, which may account for the observed relative distribution of N protein between the cytoplasm and the nucleolus.

You, Jae-Hwan; Howell, Gareth [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Pattnaik, Asit K.; Osorio, Fernando A. [Nebraska Center for Virology, E249A Beadle, Lincoln (United States); Hiscox, Julian A. [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)], E-mail:



Interaction between the inner nuclear membrane lamin B receptor and the heterochromatic methyl binding protein, MeCP2  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear membrane has an important role for the dynamic regulation of the genome, besides the well-established cytoskeletal function. The nuclear lamina is emerging as an important player in the organization of the position and functional state of interphase chromosomes. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications are required for genome reprogramming during development, tissue-specific gene expression and global gene silencing. The Methyl-CpG binding protein MeCP2 binds methyl-CpG dinucleotides in the mammalian genome and functions as a transcriptional repressor in vivo by interacting with Sin3A, thereby recruiting histone deacetylases (HDAC). MeCP2 also mediates the formation of higher-order chromatin structures contributing to determine the architectural organization of the nucleus. In this paper, we show that MeCP2 interacts in vitro and in vivo with the inner nuclear membrane protein LBR and that the unstructured aminoacidic sequence linking the MBD and TRD domains of MeCP2 is responsible for this association. The formation of an LBR-MeCP2 protein complex might help providing a molecular explanation to the distribution of part of the heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery linked to inner membrane.

Guarda, Alessia, E-mail: [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy)] [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Bolognese, Fabrizio, E-mail: [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy)] [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Bonapace, Ian Marc, E-mail: [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Badaracco, Gianfranco, E-mail: [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy)] [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, University of Insubria, via Alberto da Giussano 12, Busto Arsizio (Italy)



Development of a Radioiodinated Triazolopyrimidine Probe for Nuclear Medical Imaging of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) is the most well-characterized FABP isoform. FABP4 regulates inflammatory pathways in adipocytes and macrophages and is involved in both inflammatory diseases and tumor formation. FABP4 expression was recently reported for glioblastoma, where it may participate in disease malignancy. While FABP4 is a potential molecular imaging target, with the exception of a tritium labeled probe there are no reports of other nuclear imaging probes that target this protein. Here we designed and synthesized a nuclear imaging probe, [123I]TAP1, and evaluated its potential as a FABP4 targeting probe in in vitro and in vivo assays. We focused on the unique structure of a triazolopyrimidine scaffold that lacks a carboxylic acid to design the TAP1 probe that can undergo facilitated delivery across cell membranes. The affinity of synthesized TAP1 was measured using FABP4 and 8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulfonic acid. [125I]TAP1 was synthesized by iododestannylation of a precursor, followed by affinity and selectivity measurements using immobilized FABPs. Biodistributions in normal and C6 glioblastoma-bearing mice were evaluated, and excised tumors were subjected to autoradiography and immunohistochemistry. TAP1 and [125I]TAP1 showed high affinity for FABP4 (Ki?=?44.59.8 nM, Kd?=?69.112.3 nM). The FABP4 binding affinity of [125I]TAP1 was 11.5- and 35.5-fold higher than for FABP3 and FABP5, respectively. In an in vivo study [125I]TAP1 displayed high stability against deiodination and degradation, and moderate radioactivity accumulation in C6 tumors (1.370.24% dose/g 3 hr after injection). The radioactivity distribution profile in tumors partially corresponded to the FABP4 positive area and was also affected by perfusion. The results indicate that [125I]TAP1 could detect FABP4 in vitro and partly in vivo. As such, [125I]TAP1 is a promising lead compound for further refinement for use in in vivo FABP4 imaging. PMID:24732569

Onoe, Satoru; Sampei, Sotaro; Kimura, Ikuo; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo



Formation of nuclear bodies by the lncRNA Gomafu-associating proteins Celf3 and SF1  

PubMed Central

Gomafu/MIAT/Rncr2 is a long noncoding RNA that has been proposed to control retinal cell specification, stem cell differentiation and alternative splicing of schizophrenia-related genes. However, how Gomafu controls these biological processes at the molecular level has remained largely unknown. In this study, we identified the RNA-binding protein Celf3 as a novel Gomafu-associating protein. Knockdown of Celf3 led to the down-regulation of Gomafu, and cross-link RNA precipitation analysis confirmed specific binding between Celf3 and Gomafu. In the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2A, Celf3 formed novel nuclear bodies (named CS bodies) that colocalized with SF1, another Gomafu-binding protein. Gomafu, however, was not enriched in the CS bodies; instead, it formed distinct nuclear bodies in separate regions in the nucleus. These observations suggest that Gomafu indirectly modulates the function of the splicing factors SF1 and Celf3 by sequestering these proteins into separate nuclear bodies. PMID:25145264

Ishizuka, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuko; Ishida, Kentaro; Yanaka, Kaori; Nakagawa, Shinichi



Nuclear protein 1 promotes pancreatic cancer development and protects cells from stress by inhibiting apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has the lowest survival rate of all cancers and shows remarkable resistance to cell stress. Nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1), which mediates stress response in the pancreas, is frequently upregulated in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that Nupr1 plays an essential role in pancreatic tumorigenesis. In a mouse model of pancreatic cancer with constitutively expressed oncogenic KrasG12D, we found that loss of Nupr1 protected from the development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs). Further, in cultured pancreatic cells, nutrient deprivation activated Nupr1 expression, which we found to be required for cell survival. We found that Nupr1 protected cells from stress-induced death by inhibiting apoptosis through a pathway dependent on transcription factor RelB and immediate early response 3 (IER3). NUPR1, RELB, and IER3 proteins were coexpressed in mouse PanINs from KrasG12D-expressing pancreas. Moreover, pancreas-specific deletion of Relb in a KrasG12D background resulted in delayed in PanIN development associated with a lack of IER3 expression. Thus, efficient PanIN formation was dependent on the expression of Nupr1 and Relb, with likely involvement of IER3. Finally, in patients with PDAC, expression of NUPR1, RELB, and IER3 was significantly correlated with a poor prognosis. Cumulatively, these results reveal a NUPR1/RELB/IER3 stress-related pathway that is required for oncogenic KrasG12D-dependent transformation of the pancreas. PMID:22565310

Hamidi, Tewfik; Algl, Hana; Cano, Carla Eliana; Sandi, Maria Jos; Molejon, Maria Ins; Riemann, Marc; Calvo, Ezequiel Luis; Lomberk, Gwen; Dagorn, Jean-Charles; Weih, Falk; Urrutia, Raul; Schmid, Roland Michael; Iovanna, Juan Lucio



Nuclear HMGA1 nonhistone chromatin proteins directly influence mitochondrial transcription, maintenance, and function  

SciTech Connect

We have previously demonstrated that HMGA1 proteins translocate from the nucleus to mitochondria and bind to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at the D-loop control region [G.A. Dement, N.R. Treff, N.S. Magnuson, V. Franceschi, R. Reeves, Dynamic mitochondrial localization of nuclear transcription factor HMGA1, Exp. Cell Res. 307 (2005) 388-401.] [11]. To elucidate possible physiological roles for such binding, we employed methods to analyze mtDNA transcription, mitochondrial maintenance, and other organelle functions in transgenic human MCF-7 cells (HA7C) induced to over-express an HA-tagged HMGA1 protein and control (parental) MCF-7 cells. Quantitative real-time (RT) PCR analyses demonstrated that mtDNA levels were reduced approximately 2-fold in HMGA1 over-expressing HA7C cells and flow cytometric analyses further revealed that mitochondrial mass was significantly reduced in these cells. Cellular ATP levels were also reduced in HA7C cells and survival studies showed an increased sensitivity to killing by 2-deoxy-D-glucose, a glycolysis-specific inhibitor. Flow cytometric analyses revealed additional mitochondrial abnormalities in HA7C cells that are consistent with a cancerous phenotype: namely, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased mitochondrial membrane potential ({delta}{psi}{sub m}). Additional RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that gene transcripts from both the heavy (ND2, COXI, ATP6) and light (ND6) strands of mtDNA were up-regulated approximately 3-fold in HA7C cells. Together, these mitochondrial changes are consistent with many previous reports and reveal several possible mechanisms by which HMGA1 over-expression, a common feature of naturally occurring cancers, may affect tumor progression.

Dement, Gregory A. [School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Rm. 639, Fulmer Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-4660 (United States); Maloney, Scott C. [School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Rm. 639, Fulmer Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-4660 (United States); Reeves, Raymond [School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, Rm. 639, Fulmer Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-4660 (United States)]. E-mail:



Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) increases cell death of human osteosarcoma cells and binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear localized protein-1 (Nulp1) is a recently identified gene expressed in mouse and human tissues particularly during embryonic development. Nulp1 belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that are important in development. The precise function of Nulp1 in cells is however not known. We observed that overexpression of Nulp1 induces a large increase in cell death of human osteosarcoma Saos2 cells with DNA fragmentation. In mouse N2A neuroblastoma cells Nulp1 affected cell proliferation and sensitized cells towards death induced by staurosporine. Staining using a novel antibody localized Nulp1 mainly to the cell nucleus and to some extent to the cytoplasm. Nulp1 binds the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and this interaction was increased during cell death. These results indicate that Nulp1 plays a role in cell death control and may influence tumor growth.

Steen, Hakan [Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, Box 587, Husargatan 3, SE-75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Lindholm, Dan [Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Biomedical Centre, Box 587, Husargatan 3, SE-75123 Uppsala (Sweden); Minerva Institute for Medical Research, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)], E-mail:



The non-structural 3 (NS3) protein of dengue virus type 2 interacts with human nuclear receptor binding protein and is associated with alterations in membrane structure.  


Flaviviral infections produce a distinct array of virus-induced intracellular membrane alterations that are associated with the flaviviral replication machinery. Currently, it is still unknown which flaviviral protein(s) is/are responsible for this induction. Using yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses, we demonstrated that the NS3 protein of dengue virus type 2 interacted specifically with nuclear receptor binding protein (NRBP), a host cellular protein that influences trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi, and that interacts with Rac3, a member of the Rho-GTPase family. Co-expression of NS3 and NRBP in baby hamster kidney cells exhibited significant subcellular co-localization, and revealed the redistribution of NRBP from the cytoplasm to the perinuclear region. Furthermore, a set of membrane structures affiliated with the rough ER at the perinuclear region was induced in cells transfected with NS3. These structures are reminiscent of the virus-induced convoluted membranes previously observed in flavivirus-infected cells. This interaction between dengue viral and host cell proteins as well as the formation of the NS3-induced membrane structures suggest that NS3 may subvert the role of NRBP in ER-Golgi trafficking. PMID:15084397

Chua, John J E; Ng, Mary M L; Chow, Vincent T K



Site-specific dynamic nuclear polarization of hydration water as a generally applicable approach to monitor protein aggregation  

PubMed Central

We present a generally applicable approach for monitoring protein aggregation by detecting changes in surface hydration water dynamics and the changes in solvent accessibility of specific protein sites, as protein aggregation proceeds in solution state. This is made possible through the Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of water interacting with stable nitroxide spin labels tethered to specific proteins sites. This effect is highly localized due to the magnetic dipolar nature of the electronproton spin interaction, with >80 % of their interaction occurring within 5 between the unpaired electron of the spin label and the proton of water. We showcase our tool on the aggregation of tau proteins, whose fibrillization is linked to neurodegenerative disease pathologies known as taupathies. We demonstrate that the DNP approach to monitor local changes in hydration dynamics with residue specificity and local contrast can distinguish specific and neat protein-protein packing leading to fibers from non-specific protein agglomeration or precipitation. The ability to monitor tau assembly with local, residue-specific, resolution, under ambient condition and in solution state will help unravel the mechanism and structural characteristics of the gradual process of tau aggregation into amyloid fibers, which remains unclear to this day. PMID:19639158

Pavlova, Anna; McCarney, Evan R.; Peterson, Dylan W.; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Lew, John; Han, Songi





... gov . Nutrition for Everyone Nutrition Topics Share Compartir Protein What do you think about when you hear ... How much protein do I need? What is Protein? Proteins are part of every cell, tissue, and ...


Induction of polyploidy by nuclear fusion mechanism upon decreased expression of the nuclear envelope protein LAP2? in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidy has been recognized for many years as an important hallmark of cancer cells. Polyploid cells can arise through cell fusion, endoreplication and abortive cell cycle. The inner nuclear membrane protein LAP2? plays key roles in nuclear envelope breakdown and reassembly during mitosis, initiation of replication and transcriptional repression. Here we studied the function of LAP2? in the maintenance of cell ploidy state, a role which has not yet been assigned to this protein. Results By knocking down the expression of LAP2?, using both viral and non-viral RNAi approaches in osteosarcoma derived U2OS cells, we detected enlarged nuclear size, nearly doubling of DNA content and chromosomal duplications, as analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and spectral karyotyping methodologies. Spectral karyotyping analyses revealed that near-hexaploid karyotypes of LAP2? knocked down cells consisted of not only seven duplicated chromosomal markers, as could be anticipated by genome duplication mechanism, but also of four single chromosomal markers. Furthermore, spectral karyotyping analysis revealed that both of two near-triploid U2OS sub-clones contained the seven markers that were duplicated in LAP2? knocked down cells, whereas the four single chromosomal markers were detected only in one of them. Gene expression profiling of LAP2? knocked down cells revealed that up to a third of the genes exhibiting significant changes in their expression are involved in cancer progression. Conclusions Our results suggest that nuclear fusion mechanism underlies the polyploidization induction upon LAP2? reduced expression. Our study implies on a novel role of LAP2? in the maintenance of cell ploidy status. LAP2? depleted U2OS cells can serve as a model to investigate polyploidy and aneuploidy formation by nuclear fusion mechanism and its involvement in cancerogenesis. PMID:24472424



Formation of nucleoplasmic protein aggregates impairs nuclear function in response to SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

Despite of their exponentially growing use, little is known about cell biological effects of nanoparticles. Here, we report uptake of silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles to the cell nucleus where they induce aberrant clusters of topoisomerase I (topo I) in the nucleoplasm that additionally contain signature proteins of nuclear domains, and protein aggregation such as ubiquitin, proteasomes, cellular glutamine repeat (polyQ) proteins, and huntingtin. Formation of intranuclear protein aggregates (1) inhibits replication, transcription, and cell proliferation; (2) does not significantly alter proteasomal activity or cell viability; and (3) is reversible by Congo red and trehalose. Since SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles trigger a subnuclear pathology resembling the one occurring in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders, we suggest that integrity of the functional architecture of the cell nucleus should be used as a read out for cytotoxicity and considered in the development of safe nanotechnology.

Chen Min [Institut fuer umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF) at Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Auf'm Hennekamp 50, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany); Mikecz, Anna von [Institut fuer umweltmedizinische Forschung (IUF) at Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Auf'm Hennekamp 50, D-40225 Duesseldorf (Germany)]. E-mail:



Arsenic mediated disruption of promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies induces ganciclovir susceptibility in Epstein-Barr positive epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies (PML NBs) have been implicated in host immune response to viral infection. PML NBs are targeted for degradation during reactivation of herpes viruses, suggesting that disruption of PML NB function supports this aspect of the viral life cycle. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) has been shown to suppress EBV reactivation. Our finding that LMP1 induces PML NB immunofluorescence intensity led to the hypothesis that LMP1 may modulate PML NBs as a means of maintaining EBV latency. Increased PML protein and morphometric changes in PML NBs were observed in EBV infected alveolar epithelial cells and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Treatment with low dose arsenic trioxide disrupted PML NBs, induced expression of EBV lytic proteins, and conferred ganciclovir susceptibility. This study introduces an effective modality to induce susceptibility to ganciclovir in epithelial cells with implications for the treatment of EBV associated pathologies.

Sides, Mark D. [Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Block, Gregory J. [University of Washington Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Shan, Bin; Esteves, Kyle C. [Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Lin, Zhen; Flemington, Erik K. [Department of Pathology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Lasky, Joseph A., E-mail: [Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)



Growth suppression induced by wild-type p53 protein is accompanied by selective down-regulation of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen expression.  

PubMed Central

The p53 gene is a frequent target of mutation in a wide variety of human cancers. Previously, it was reported that conditional expression of wild-type p53 protein in a cell line (GM47.23) derived from a human glioblastoma multiform tumor had a negative effect on cell proliferation. We have now investigated the effect that induction of wild-type p53 protein in this cell line has on the expression of the proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene. The proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene encodes a nuclear protein that is an auxiliary factor of DNA polymerase delta and part of the DNA replication machinery of the cell. We show that inhibition of cell cycle progression into S-phase after induction of wild-type p53 protein is accompanied by selective down-regulation of proliferating-cell nuclear antigen mRNA and protein expression. Images PMID:1705714

Mercer, W E; Shields, M T; Lin, D; Appella, E; Ullrich, S J




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Protein structure: Primary protein structure is a sequence of amino acids. Secondary protein structure occurs when the amino acids in the sequence are linked by hydrogen bonds. Tertiary protein structure occurs when certain attractions are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets. Quaternary protein structure is a protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain.

Darryl Leja (National Human Genome Research Institute REV)



Poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 levels affect alternative polyadenylation  

PubMed Central

The choice for a polyadenylation site determines the length of the 3?-untranslated region (3?-UTRs) of an mRNA. Inclusion or exclusion of regulatory sequences in the 3?-UTR may ultimately affect gene expression levels. Poly(A) binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1) is involved in polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. An alanine repeat expansion in PABPN1 (exp-PABPN1) causes oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). We hypothesized that previously observed disturbed gene expression patterns in OPMD muscles may have been the result of an effect of PABPN1 on alternative polyadenylation, influencing mRNA stability, localization and translation. A single molecule polyadenylation site sequencing method was developed to explore polyadenylation site usage on a genome-wide level in mice overexpressing exp-PABPN1. We identified 2012 transcripts with altered polyadenylation site usage. In the far majority, more proximal alternative polyadenylation sites were used, resulting in shorter 3?-UTRs. 3?-UTR shortening was generally associated with increased expression. Similar changes in polyadenylation site usage were observed after knockdown or overexpression of expanded but not wild-type PABPN1 in cultured myogenic cells. Our data indicate that PABPN1 is important for polyadenylation site selection and that reduced availability of functional PABPN1 in OPMD muscles results in use of alternative polyadenylation sites, leading to large-scale deregulation of gene expression. PMID:22772983

Venema, Andrea; Anvar, S. Yahya; Goeman, Jelle J.; Hu, OuHua; Trollet, Capucine; Dickson, George; den Dunnen, Johan T.; van der Maarel, Silvre M.; Raz, Vered; t Hoen, Peter A. C.



Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein-encoding genes supports a crustacean + hexapod clade.  

PubMed Central

Recent phylogenetic analyses using molecular data suggest that hexapods are more closely related to crustaceans than to myriapods, a result that conflicts with long-held morphology-based hypotheses. Here we contribute additional information to this debate by conducting phylogenetic analyses on two nuclear protein-encoding genes, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) and the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), from an extensive sample of arthropod taxa. Results were obtained from two data sets. One data set comprised 1092 nucleotides (364 amino acids) of EF-1 alpha and 372 nucleotides (124 amino acids) of Pol II from 30 arthropods and three lobopods. The other data set contained the same EF-1 alpha fragment and an expanded 1038-nucleotide (346-amino-acid) sample of Pol II from 17 arthropod taxa. Results from maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses strongly supported the existence of a Crustacea + Hexapoda clade (Pancrustacea) over a Myriapoda + Hexapoda clade (Atelocerata). The apparent incompatibility between the molecule-based Pancrustacea hypothesis and morphology-based Atelocerata hypothesis is discussed. PMID:10874751

Shultz, J W; Regier, J C



Impact of VP1-Specific Protein Sequence Motifs on Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Intracellular Trafficking and Nuclear Entry  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) has gained much interest as a gene delivery vector. A hallmark of AAV2-mediated gene transfer is an intracellular conformational change of the virus capsid, leading to the exposure of infection-relevant protein domains. These protein domains, which are located on the N-terminal portion of the structural proteins VP1 and VP2, include a catalytic phospholipase A2 domain and three clusters of basic amino acids. We have identified additional protein sequence motifs located on the VP1/2 N terminus that also proved to be obligatory for virus infectivity. These motifs include signals that are known to be involved in protein interaction, endosomal sorting and signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Among different AAV serotypes they are highly conserved and mutation of critical amino acids of the respective motifs led to a severe infection-deficient phenotype. In particular, mutation of a YXXQ-sequence motif significantly reduced accumulation of virus capsids around the nucleus in comparison to wild-type AAV2. Interestingly, intracellular trafficking of AAV2 was shown to be independent of PLA2 activity. Moreover, mutation of three PDZ-binding motifs, which are located consecutively at the very tip of the VP1 N terminus, revealed a nuclear transport-defective phenotype, suggesting a role in nuclear uptake of the virus through an as-yet-unknown mechanism. PMID:22696661

Popa-Wagner, Ruth; Porwal, Manvi; Kann, Michael; Reuss, Matthias; Weimer, Marc; Florin, Luise



The Herpesvirus Associated Ubiquitin Specific Protease, USP7, Is a Negative Regulator of PML Proteins and PML Nuclear Bodies  

PubMed Central

The PML tumor suppressor is the founding component of the multiprotein nuclear structures known as PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), which control several cellular functions including apoptosis and antiviral effects. The ubiquitin specific protease USP7 (also called HAUSP) is known to associate with PML-NBs and to be a tight binding partner of two herpesvirus proteins that disrupt PML NBs. Here we investigated whether USP7 itself regulates PML-NBs. Silencing of USP7 was found to increase the number of PML-NBs, to increase the levels of PML protein and to inhibit PML polyubiquitylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. This effect of USP7 was independent of p53 as PML loss was observed in p53-null cells. PML-NBs disruption was induced by USP7 overexpression independently of its catalytic activity and was induced by either of the protein interaction domains of USP7, each of which localized to PML-NBs. USP7 also disrupted NBs formed from some single PML isoforms, most notably isoforms I and IV. CK2? and RNF4, which are known regulators of PML, were dispensable for USP7-associated PML-NB disruption. The results are consistent with a novel model of PML regulation where a deubiquitylase disrupts PML-NBs through recruitment of another cellular protein(s) to PML NBs, independently of its catalytic activity. PMID:21305000

Sarkari, Feroz; Wang, Xueqi; Nguyen, Tin; Frappier, Lori



A nuclear magnetic resonance method for probing molecular influences of substrate loading in nonribosomal Peptide synthetase carrier proteins.  


Carrier proteins (CPs) play a central role in nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) as they shuttle covalently attached substrates between active sites. Understanding how the covalent attachment of a substrate (loading) influences the molecular properties of CPs is key to determining the mechanism of NRPS synthesis. However, structural studies have been impaired by substrate hydrolysis. Here, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor substrate loading of a CP and to overcome hydrolysis. Our results reveal the spectroscopic signature of substrate loading and provide evidence of molecular communication between an NRPS carrier protein and its covalently attached substrate. PMID:25620398

Goodrich, Andrew C; Frueh, Dominique P



Utilization of site-directed spin labeling and high-resolution heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance for global fold determination of large proteins with limited nuclear overhauser effect data.  


To test whether distances derived from paramagnetic broadening of (15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) resonances could be used to determine the global fold of a large, perdeuterated protein, we used site-directed spin-labeling of 5 amino acids on the surface of (15)N-labeled eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). eIF4E is a 25 kDa translation initiation protein, whose solution structure was previously solved in a 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate hydrate (CHAPS) micelle of total molecular mass approximately 45-50 kDa. Distance-dependent line broadening consistent with the three-dimensional structure of eIF4E was observed for all spin-label substitutions. The paramagnetic broadening effects (PBEs) were converted into distances for modeling by a simple method comparing peak heights in (15)N-HSQC spectra before and after reduction of the nitroxide spin label with ascorbic acid. The PBEs, in combination with HN-HN nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) and chemical shift index (CSI) angle restraints, correctly determined the global fold of eIF4E with a backbone precision of 2.3 A (1.7 A for secondary structure elements). The global fold was not correctly determined with the HN-HN NOEs and CSI angles alone. The combination of PBEs with simulated restraints from another nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for global fold determination of large proteins (methyl-protonated, highly deuterated samples) improved the quality of calculated structures. In addition, the combination of the two methods simulated from a crystal structure of an all alpha-helical protein (40 kDa farnesyl diphoshphate synthase) correctly determined the global fold where neither method individually was successful. These results show the potential feasibility of obtaining medium-resolution structures for proteins in the 40-100 kDa range via NMR. PMID:10820006

Battiste, J L; Wagner, G



Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the rabies virus P protein requires a nuclear localization signal and a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal  

SciTech Connect

Rabies virus P protein is a co-factor of the viral RNA polymerase. It has been shown previously that P mRNA directs the synthesis of four N-terminally truncated P products P2, P3, P4, and P5 due to translational initiation by a leaky scanning mechanism at internal Met codons. Whereas P and P2 are located in the cytoplasm, P3, P4, and P5 are found in the nucleus. Here, we have analyzed the molecular basis of the subcellular localization of these proteins. Using deletion mutants fused to GFP protein, we show the presence of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminal part of P (172-297). This domain contains a short lysine-rich stretch ({sup 211}KKYK{sup 214}) located in close proximity with arginine 260 as revealed by the crystal structure of P. We demonstrate the critical role of lysine 214 and arginine 260 in NLS activity. In the presence of Leptomycin B, P is retained in the nucleus indicating that it contains a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES). The subcellular distribution of P deletion mutants indicates that the domain responsible for export is the amino-terminal part of the protein. The use of fusion proteins that have amino terminal fragments of P fused to {beta}-galactosidase containing the NLS of SV40 T antigen allows us to identify a NES between residues 49 and 58. The localization of NLS and NES determines the cellular distribution of the P gene products.

Pasdeloup, David [Unite Mixte de Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale UMR2472 CNRS, UMR1157 INRA, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Poisson, Nicolas [Unite Mixte de Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale UMR2472 CNRS, UMR1157 INRA, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Raux, Helene [Unite Mixte de Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale UMR2472 CNRS, UMR1157 INRA, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Gaudin, Yves [Unite Mixte de Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale UMR2472 CNRS, UMR1157 INRA, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ruigrok, Rob W.H. [Laboratoire de Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale, FRE 2854 CNRS-UJF, c/o EMBL, BP 181, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Blondel, Danielle [Unite Mixte de Virologie Moleculaire et Structurale UMR2472 CNRS, UMR1157 INRA, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail:



A nuclear role for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded K13 protein in gene regulation.  


Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein K13 interacts with a cytosolic IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex to activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). We recently reported that K13 antagonizes KSHV lytic regulator RTA (replication and transcription activator) and blocks lytic replication, but spares RTA-induced viral interleukin-6 (vIL6). Here we report that K13 is also present in the nuclear compartment, a property not shared by its structural homologs. K13 interacts with and activates the nuclear IKK complex, and binds to the IkappaBalpha promoter. K13 mutants that are retained in the cytosol lack NF-kappaB activity. However, neither the IKKs nor NF-kappaB activation is required for nuclear localization of K13. Instead, this ability is dependent on a nuclear localization signal located in its N-terminal 40 amino acids. Finally, K13, along with p65/RelA, binds to the promoters of a number of KSHV lytic genes, including RTA, ORF57 and vGPCR, but not to the promoter of the vIL6 gene. Thus, K13 has an unexpected nuclear role in viral and cellular gene regulation and its differential binding to the promoters of lytic genes may not only contribute to the inhibition of KSHV lytic replication, but may also account for the escape of vIL6 from K13-induced transcriptional suppression. PMID:18469854

Matta, H; Punj, V; Schamus, S; Mazzacurati, L; Chen, A M; Song, R; Yang, T; Chaudhary, P M



The Caenorhabditis elegans SUN protein UNC-84 interacts with lamin to transfer forces from the cytoplasm to the nucleoskeleton during nuclear migration  

PubMed Central

Nuclear migration is a critical component of many cellular and developmental processes. The nuclear envelope forms a barrier between the cytoplasm, where mechanical forces are generated, and the nucleoskeleton. The LINC complex consists of KASH proteins in the outer nuclear membrane and SUN proteins in the inner nuclear membrane that bridge the nuclear envelope. How forces are transferred from the LINC complex to the nucleoskeleton is poorly understood. The Caenorhabditis elegans lamin, LMN-1, is required for nuclear migration and interacts with the nucleoplasmic domain of the SUN protein UNC-84. This interaction is weakened by the unc-84(P91S) missense mutation. These mutant nuclei have an intermediate nuclear migration defectlive imaging of nuclei or LMN-1::GFP shows that many nuclei migrate normally, others initiate migration before subsequently failing, and others fail to begin migration. At least one other component of the nucleoskeleton, the NET5/Samp1/Ima1 homologue SAMP-1, plays a role in nuclear migration. We propose a nut-and-bolt model to explain how forces are dissipated across the nuclear envelope during nuclear migration. In this model, SUN/KASH bridges serve as bolts through the nuclear envelope, and nucleoskeleton components LMN-1 and SAMP-1 act as both nuts and washers on the inside of the nucleus. PMID:25057012

Bone, Courtney R.; Tapley, Erin C.; Gorjncz, Mtys; Starr, Daniel A.



Leishmania major Telomerase TERT Protein Has a Nuclear/Mitochondrial Eclipsed Distribution That Is Affected by Oxidative Stress.  


In its canonical role the reverse transcriptase telomerase recovers the telomeric repeats that are lost during DNA replication. Other locations and activities have been recently described for the telomerase protein subunit TERT in mammalian cells. In the present work, using biochemistry, molecular biology, and electron microscopy techniques, we found that in the human parasite Leishmania major, TERT (and telomerase activity) shared locations between the nuclear, mitochondrial, and cytoplasmic compartments. Also, some telomerase activity and TERT protein could be found in ?100-nm nanovesicles. In the mitochondrial compartment, TERT appears to be mainly associated with the kinetoplast DNA. When Leishmania cells were exposed to H2O2, TERT changed its relative abundance and activity between the nuclear and mitochondrial compartments, with the majority of activity residing in the mitochondrion. Finally, overexpression of TERT in Leishmania transfected cells not only increased the parasitic cell growth rate but also increased their resistance to oxidative stress. PMID:25312950

Campelo, Riward; Daz Lozano, Isabel; Figarella, Katherine; Osuna, Antonio; Ramrez, Jos Luis



Protein kinase A phosphorylates NCoR to enhance its nuclear translocation and repressive function in human prostate cancer cells.  


Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates diverse protein substrates to modulate their function. In this study, we found that PKA specifically phosphorylates the RD1 (repression domain 1) domain of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR). We demonstrated that the Serine-70 of NCoR is identified the critical amino acid for PKA-dependent NCoR phosphorylation. Importantly, we found that PKA-dependent phosphorylation enhances the nuclear translocation of NCoR. More importantly, the activation of PKA enhanced the repressive activity of NCoR in a reporter assay and potentiated the antagonist activity in the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription. Taken together, these results uncover a regulatory mechanism by which PKA positively modulates NCoR function in transcriptional regulation in prostate cancer. PMID:23129261

Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Jeong, Mi-Hyeon; Park, Soo-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Myoung; Jang, Sung-Wuk; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Choi, Kyung-Chul



The involvement of nuclear factor-?appaB in the nuclear targeting and cyclin E1 upregulating activities of hepatoma upregulated protein.  


Hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is originally isolated during the search for the genes associated with hepatoma. HURP is upregulated in many human cancers. Culture cells exhibit transformed and invasive phenotype when ectopic HURP is introduced, revealing HURP as an oncogene candidate. Our previous studies demonstrated that Aurora-A regulated the cell transforming activities of HURP by phosphorylating HURP at four serines. To unravel how the Aurora-A/HURP cascade contributes to cell transformation, we firstly noticed that HURP shuttled between cytoplasm and nucleus. The nuclear localization activity of HURP was promoted or abolished by overexpression or knockdown of Aurora-A. Similarly, the HURP phosphorylation mimicking mutant 4E had higher nuclear targeting activity than the phosphorylation deficient mutant 4A. The HURP 4E accelerated G1 progression and upregulated cyclin E1, and the cyclin E1 upregulating and cell transforming activities of HURP were diminished when the nuclear localization signal (NLS) was removed from HURP. Furthermore, HURP employed p38/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) cascade to stimulate cell growth. Interestingly, NF-?B trapped HURP in nucleus by interacting with HURP 4E. At last, the HURP/NF-?B complex activated the cyclin E1 promoter. Collectively, Aurora-A/HURP relays cell transforming signal to NF-?B, and the HURP/NF-?B complex is engaged in the regulation of cyclin E1 expression. PMID:25289861

Chen, Jo-Mei Maureen; Chiu, Shao-Chih; Wei, Tong-You Wade; Lin, Shin-Yi; Chong, Cheong-Meng; Wu, Chi-Chen; Huang, Jiao-Ying; Yang, Shu-Ting; Ku, Chia-Feng; Hsia, Jiun-Yi; Yu, Chang-Tze Ricky



PSBP-DOMAIN PROTEIN1, a Nuclear-Encoded Thylakoid Lumenal Protein, Is Essential for Photosystem I Assembly in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

To gain insights into the molecular details of photosystem I (PSI) biogenesis, we characterized the PsbP-domain protein1 (ppd1) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that specifically lacks PSI activity. Deletion of PPD1 results in an inability of the mutant to grow photoautotrophically and a specific loss of the stable PSI complex. Unaltered transcription and translation of plastid-encoded PSI genes indicate that PPD1 acts at the posttranslational level. In vivo protein labeling experiments reveal that the rate of synthesis of PSI reaction center proteins PsaA/B in ppd1 is comparable to that of wild-type plants, whereas the rate of turnover of PsaA/B proteins is higher in ppd1 than in wild-type plants. With increasing leaf age, PPD1 content decreases considerably, while PSI content remains constant. PPD1 is a nuclear-encoded thylakoid lumenal protein and is associated with PSI but is not an integral subunit of PSI. Biochemical and molecular analyses reveal that PPD1 interacts directly and specifically with PsaB and PsaA. Yeast two-hybrid experiments show that PPD1 interacts with some lumenal loops of PsaB and PsaA. Our results suggest that PPD1 is a PSI assembly factor that assists the proper folding and integration of PsaB and PsaA into the thylakoid membrane. PMID:23221595

Liu, Jun; Yang, Huixia; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Chen, Fan; Peng, Lianwei; Zhang, Lixin; Lu, Congming



Molecular characterization of a mouse heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D-like protein JKTBP and its tissue-specific expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human DNA- and RNA-binding protein JKTBP is a new member of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) that are involved in mRNA biogenesis. We cloned and characterized a mouse homolog and studied its expression in mouse tissues. The cDNA encoded a 301-residue polypeptide. There is only a single amino acid difference between the mouse and human sequences. Northern blotting indicated ubiquitous

Tadayuki Akagi; Daisuke Kamei; Naoto Tsuchiya; Yukio Nishina; Hisashi Horiguchi; Miwa Matsui; Hiroshi Kamma; Michiyuki Yamada



Depletion of the protein kinase VRK1 disrupts nuclear envelope morphology and leads to BAF retention on mitotic chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Barrier to autointegration factor (BAF), which is encoded by the BANF1 gene, binds with high-affinity to double-stranded DNA and LEM domaincontaining proteins at the nuclear periphery. A BANF1 mutation has recently been associated with a novel human progeria syndrome, and cells from these patients have aberrant nuclear envelopes. The interactions of BAF with its DNA- and protein-binding partners are known to be regulated by phosphorylation, and previously we validated BAF as a highly efficient substrate for the VRK1 protein kinase. Here we show that depletion of VRK1 in MCF10a and MDA-MB-231 cells results in aberrant nuclear architecture. The immobile fraction of green fluorescent protein (GFP)BAF at the nuclear envelope (NE) is elevated, suggesting that prolonged interactions of BAF with its binding partners is likely responsible for the aberrant NE architecture. Because detachment of BAF from its binding partners is associated with NE disassembly, we performed live-imaging analysis of control and VRK1-depleted cells to visualize GFP-BAF dynamics during mitosis. In the absence of VRK1, BAF does not disperse but instead remains chromosome bound from the onset of mitosis. VRK1 depletion also increases the number of anaphase bridges and multipolar spindles. Thus phosphorylation of BAF by VRK1 is essential both for normal NE architecture and proper dynamics of BAFchromosome interactions during mitosis. These results are consistent with previous studies of the VRK/BAF signaling axis in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and validate VRK1 as a key regulator of NE architecture and mitotic chromosome dynamics in mammalian cells. PMID:24430874

Molitor, Tyler P.; Traktman, Paula



A protein interaction atlas for the nuclear receptors: properties and quality of a hub-based dimerisation network  

PubMed Central

Background The nuclear receptors are a large family of eukaryotic transcription factors that constitute major pharmacological targets. They exert their combinatorial control through homotypic heterodimerisation. Elucidation of this dimerisation network is vital in order to understand the complex dynamics and potential cross-talk involved. Results Phylogeny, protein-protein interactions, protein-DNA interactions and gene expression data have been integrated to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the topology and properties of the nuclear receptor interaction network in humans. We discriminate between DNA-binding and non-DNA-binding dimers, and provide a comprehensive interaction map, that identifies potential cross-talk between the various pathways of nuclear receptors. Conclusion We infer that the topology of this network is hub-based, and much more connected than previously thought. The hub-based topology of the network and the wide tissue expression pattern of NRs create a highly competitive environment for the common heterodimerising partners. Furthermore, a significant number of negative feedback loops is present, with the hub protein SHP [NR0B2] playing a major role. We also compare the evolution, topology and properties of the nuclear receptor network with the hub-based dimerisation network of the bHLH transcription factors in order to identify both unique themes and ubiquitous properties in gene regulation. In terms of methodology, we conclude that such a comprehensive picture can only be assembled by semi-automated text-mining, manual curation and integration of data from various sources. PMID:17672894

Amoutzias, Gregory D; Pichler, Elgar E; Mian, Nina; De Graaf, David; Imsiridou, Anastasia; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Robertson, David L; Oliver, Stephen G



Nuclear translocation and regulation of intranuclear distribution of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding protein are distinct processes mediated by two Epstein Barr virus proteins.  


Many viruses target cytoplasmic polyA binding protein (PABPC) to effect widespread inhibition of host gene expression, a process termed viral host-shutoff (vhs). During lytic replication of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) we observed that PABPC was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Translocated PABPC was diffusely distributed but was excluded from viral replication compartments. Vhs during EBV infection is regulated by the viral alkaline nuclease, BGLF5. Transfection of BGLF5 alone into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells promoted translocation of PAPBC that was distributed in clumps in the nucleus. ZEBRA, a viral bZIP protein, performs essential functions in the lytic program of EBV, including activation or repression of downstream viral genes. ZEBRA is also an essential replication protein that binds to viral oriLyt and interacts with other viral replication proteins. We report that ZEBRA also functions as a regulator of vhs. ZEBRA translocated PABPC to the nucleus, controlled the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused global shutoff of host gene expression. Transfection of ZEBRA alone into 293 cells caused nuclear translocation of PABPC in the majority of cells in which ZEBRA was expressed. Co-transfection of ZEBRA with BGLF5 into BGLF5-KO cells or uninfected 293 cells rescued the diffuse intranuclear pattern of PABPC seen during lytic replication. ZEBRA mutants defective for DNA-binding were capable of regulating the intranuclear distribution of PABPC, and caused PABPC to co-localize with ZEBRA. One ZEBRA mutant, Z(S186E), was deficient in translocation yet was capable of altering the intranuclear distribution of PABPC. Therefore ZEBRA-mediated nuclear translocation of PABPC and regulation of intranuclear PABPC distribution are distinct events. Using a click chemistry-based assay for new protein synthesis, we show that ZEBRA and BGLF5 each function as viral host shutoff factors. PMID:24705134

Park, Richard; El-Guindy, Ayman; Heston, Lee; Lin, Su-Fang; Yu, Kuan-Ping; Nagy, Mate; Borah, Sumit; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques; Steitz, Joan; Miller, George



Nuclear matrix proteins associated with DNA in situ in hormone-dependent and hormone-independent human breast cancer cell lines.  


The nuclear matrix is a dynamic RNA-protein complex that organizes chromatin and regulates nuclear DNA metabolism. Nuclear matrix proteins informative in the diagnosis of cancer have been identified. Here, the nuclear matrix breast cancer proteins (NMBCs) cross-linked to nuclear DNA in situ with cisplatin in human breast cancer cell lines were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. We identified NMBCs that were differentially associated with nuclear DNA of hormone-dependent and -independent breast cancer cell lines. Three DNA cross-linked NMBCs were found to be exclusive to estrogen receptor-positive, hormone-dependent breast cancer cells, whereas two NMBCs were observed only in estrogen receptor-negative, hormone-independent breast cancer cells. Changes in these NMBCs were observed when hormone-dependent breast cancer cells became hormone independent. Furthermore, we show that the intermediate filament protein vimentin is associated with the nuclear DNA of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, an estrogen receptor-negative, hormone-independent breast cancer cell line with high metastatic potential. These nuclear matrix DNA-binding proteins may play important roles in breast tumorigenesis. PMID:10667578

Spencer, V A; Samuel, S K; Davie, J R



sel-7, a positive regulator of lin-12 activity, encodes a novel nuclear protein in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed Central

Suppressor genetics in C. elegans has identified key components of the LIN-12/Notch signaling pathway. Here, we describe a genetic and molecular characterization of the suppressor gene sel-7. We show that reducing or eliminating sel-7 activity suppresses the effects of constitutive lin-12 activity, enhances the effects of partially reduced lin-12 activity, and causes a synthetic Lin-12(0) phenotype when combined with a null mutation in the sel-12 presenilin gene. These observations suggest that sel-7 is a positive regulator of lin-12 activity. We also show that SEL-7 encodes a novel nuclear protein. Through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified an apparent interaction partner, K08E3.8, that also interacts with SEL-8, a known component of the nuclear complex that forms upon LIN-12 activation. Our data suggest potential roles for SEL-7 in the assembly or function of this nuclear complex. PMID:15020414

Chen, Jiabin; Li, Xiajun; Greenwald, Iva



Propiverine-induced accumulation of nuclear and cytosolic protein in F344 rat kidneys: Isolation and identification of the accumulating protein  

SciTech Connect

Male and female F344 rats but not B6C3F1 mice exposed for 104 weeks to propiverine hydrochloride (1-methylpiperid-4-yl 2,2-diphenyl-2-(1-propoxy)acetate hydrochloride), used for treatment of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and overactive bladder (OAB), presented with an accumulation of proteins in the cytosol and nuclei of renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, yet despite this, no increased renal tumor incidence was observed. In order to provide an improved interpretation of these findings and a better basis for human health risk assessment, male and female F344 rats were exposed for 16 weeks to 1000 ppm propiverine in the diet, the accumulating protein was isolated from the kidneys via cytosolic and nuclear preparations or laser-capture microdissection and analyzed using molecular weight determination and mass spectrometry. The accumulating protein was found to be D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), an enzyme involved in amino and fatty acid metabolism. Subsequent reanalysis of kidney homogenate and nuclear samples as well as tissue sections using western blot and DAAO-immunohistochemistry, confirmed the presence and localization of DAAO in propiverine-treated male and female F344 rats. The accumulation of DAAO only in rats, and the limited similarity of rat DAAO with other species, including humans, suggests a rat-specific mechanism underlying the drug-induced renal DAAO accumulation with little relevance for patients chronically treated with propiverine.

Dietrich, D.R. [Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)], E-mail:; Heussner, A.H.; O'Brien, E. [Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Gramatte, T.; Runkel, M. [Apogepha Arzneimittel GmbH, 01281 Dresden (Germany); Rumpf, S. [IPMC-TMC GmbH, 8566 Neuwilen (Switzerland); Day, B.W. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)



Nuclear export of 60s ribosomal subunits depends on Xpo1p and requires a nuclear export sequence-containing factor, Nmd3p, that associates with the large subunit protein Rpl10p.  


Nuclear export of ribosomes requires a subset of nucleoporins and the Ran system, but specific transport factors have not been identified. Using a large subunit reporter (Rpl25p-eGFP), we have isolated several temperature-sensitive ribosomal export (rix) mutants. One of these corresponds to the ribosomal protein Rpl10p, which interacts directly with Nmd3p, a conserved and essential protein associated with 60S subunits. We find that thermosensitive nmd3 mutants are impaired in large subunit export. Strikingly, Nmd3p shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported by the nuclear export receptor Xpo1p. Moreover, we show that export of 60S subunits is Xpo1p dependent. We conclude that nuclear export of 60S subunits requires the nuclear export sequence-containing nonribosomal protein Nmd3p, which directly binds to the large subunit protein Rpl10p. PMID:11313466

Gadal, O; Strauss, D; Kessl, J; Trumpower, B; Tollervey, D; Hurt, E



Purifying selection in mammalian mitochondrial protein-coding genes is highly effective and congruent with evolution of nuclear genes.  


The mammalian mitochondrial genomes differ from the nuclear genomes by maternal inheritance, absence of recombination, and higher mutation rate. All these differences decrease the effective population size of mitochondrial genome and make it more susceptible to accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations. It was hypothesized that mitochondrial genes, especially in species with low effective population size, irreversibly degrade leading to decrease of organismal fitness and even to extinction of species through the mutational meltdown. To interrogate this hypothesis, we compared the purifying selections acting on the representative set of mitochondrial (potentially degrading) and nuclear (potentially not degrading) protein-coding genes in species with different effective population size. For 21 mammalian species, we calculated the ratios of accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations approximated by Kn/Ks separately for mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The 75% of variation in Kn/Ks is explained by two independent variables: type of a genome (mitochondrial or nuclear) and effective population size of species approximated by generation time. First, we observed that purifying selection is more effective in mitochondria than in the nucleus that implies strong evolutionary constraints of mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial de novo nonsynonymous mutations have at least 5-fold more harmful effect when compared with nuclear. Second, Kn/Ks of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes is positively correlated with generation time of species, indicating relaxation of purifying selection with decrease of species-specific effective population size. Most importantly, the linear regression lines of mitochondrial and nuclear Kn/Ks's from generation times of species are parallel, indicating congruent relaxation of purifying selection in both genomes. Thus, our results reveal that the distribution of selection coefficients of de novo nonsynonymous mitochondrial mutations has a similar shape with the distribution of de novo nonsynonymous nuclear mutations, but its mean is five times smaller. The harmful effect of mitochondrial de novo nonsynonymous mutations triggers highly effective purifying selection, which maintains the fitness of the mammalian mitochondrial genome. PMID:22983951

Popadin, Konstantin Yu; Nikolaev, Sergey I; Junier, Thomas; Baranova, Maria; Antonarakis, Stylianos E



Characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein, highly conserved in metazoans, and essential for embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans  

SciTech Connect

We report here the identification and characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein that contains a G-patch, a coiled-coil, and several short tryptophan-tryptophan repeats highly conserved in metazoan species. To analyze their functional role in vivo, we cloned nematode stip-1 genes and determined the spatiotemporal pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans STIP-1 protein. RNA analyses and Western blots revealed that stip-1 mRNA was produced via trans-splicing and translated as a 95-kDa protein. Using reporter constructs, we found STIP-1 to be expressed at all developmental stages and in many tissue/cell types including worm oocyte nuclei. We found that STIP-1 is targeted to the nucleus and forms large polymers with a rod-like shape when expressed in mammalian cells. Using deletion mutants, we mapped the regions of STIP-1 involved in nuclear import and polymer assembly. We further showed that knockdown of C. elegans stip-1 by RNA interference arrested development and resulted in morphologic abnormalities around the 16-cell stage followed by 100% lethality, suggesting its essential role in worm embryogenesis. Importantly, the embryonic lethal phenotype could be faithfully rescued with Drosophila and human genes via transgenic expression. Our data provide the first direct evidence that STIP have a conserved essential nuclear function across metazoans from worms to humans.

Ji Qiongmei [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Huang, C.-H. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)]. E-mail:; Peng Jianbin [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Hashmi, Sarwar [Developmental Biology, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Ye Tianzhang [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Chen Ying [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, 310 E 67th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States)



Domains involved in calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and nuclear localisation in the African swine fever virus A238L protein  

SciTech Connect

The African swine fever virus A238L protein inhibits calcineurin phosphatase activity and activation of NF-{kappa}B and p300 co-activator. An 82 amino acid domain containing residues 157 to 238 at the C-terminus of A238L was expressed in E. coli and purified. This purified A238L fragment acted as a potent inhibitor of calcineurin phosphatase in vitro with an IC{sub 50} of approximately 70 nM. Two putative nuclear localisation signals were identified between residues 80 to 86 (NLS-1) and between residues 203 to 207 overlapping with the N-terminus of the calcineurin docking motif (NLS-2). Mutation of these motifs independently did not reduce nuclear localisation compared to the wild type A238L protein, whereas mutation of both motifs significantly reduced nuclear localisation of A238L. Mutation of the calcineurin docking motif resulted in a dramatic increase in the nuclear localisation of A238L provided an intact NLS was present. We propose that binding of calcineurin to A238L masks NLS-2 contributing to the cytoplasmic retention of A238L.

Abrams, Charles C.; Chapman, Dave A.G.; Silk, Rhiannon; Liverani, Elisabetta [Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory, Pirbright (United Kingdom); Dixon, Linda K. [Institute for Animal Health Pirbright Laboratory, Pirbright (United Kingdom)], E-mail:



Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein Forms a Tetrameric Complex with CRM1 and Importin ?/? That Obstructs Nuclear Pore Complex Function?  

PubMed Central

Development of the cellular antiviral response requires nuclear translocation of multiple transcription factors and activation of a wide variety of cellular genes. To counteract the antiviral response, several viruses have developed an efficient means of inhibiting nucleocytoplasmic traffic. In this study, we demonstrate that the pathogenic strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has developed a unique mechanism of nuclear import inhibition. Its capsid protein forms a tetrameric complex with the nuclear export receptor CRM1 and the nuclear import receptor importin ?/?. This unusual complex accumulates in the center channel of the nuclear pores and blocks nuclear import mediated by different karyopherins. The inhibitory function of VEEV capsid protein is determined by a short 39-amino-acid-long peptide that contains both nuclear import and supraphysiological nuclear export signals. Mutations in these signals or in the linker peptide attenuate or completely abolish capsid-specific inhibition of nuclear traffic. The less pathogenic VEEV strains contain a wide variety of mutations in this peptide that affect its inhibitory function in nuclear import. Thus, these mutations appear to be the determinants of this attenuated phenotype. This novel mechanism of inhibiting nuclear transport also shows that the nuclear pore complex is vulnerable to unusual cargo receptor complexes and sheds light on the importance of finely adjusted karyopherin-nucleoporin interactions for efficient cargo translocation. PMID:20147401

Atasheva, Svetlana; Fish, Alexander; Fornerod, Maarten; Frolova, Elena I.



Nuclear DEAF-1-related (NUDR) protein contains a novel DNA binding domain and represses transcription of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 promoter.  


Nuclear DEAF-1-related (NUDR) protein is a novel transcriptional regulator with sequence similarity to developmental and oncogenic proteins. NUDR protein deletions were used to localize the DNA binding domain between amino acids 167 and 368, and site-specific DNA photocross-linking indicated at least two sites of protein-DNA contact within this domain. The DNA binding domain contains a proline-rich region and a region with similarity to a Myc-type helix-loop-helix domain but does not include the zinc finger motif at the C terminus. Deoxyribonuclease I protection assays confirmed the presence of multiple NUDR binding motifs (TTC(C/G)G) in the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) promoter and also in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of hNUDR cDNA. NUDR produced a 65-70% repression of the hnRNP A2/B1 promoter activity, and NUDR binding motifs in the 5'-UTR were found to mediate this repression. NUDR-dependent repression was also observed when the 5'-UTR of NUDR was placed onto a heterologous thymidine kinase promoter in an analogous 5'-UTR position but not when placed upstream of transcription initiation. These results suggest that NUDR may regulate the in vivo expression of hnRNP A2/B1 and NUDR genes and imply that inactivation of NUDR could contribute to the overexpression of hnRNP A2/B1 observed in some human cancers. PMID:10521432

Michelson, R J; Collard, M W; Ziemba, A J; Persinger, J; Bartholomew, B; Huggenvik, J I



The quantitative assessment of the role played by basic amino acid clusters in the nuclear uptake of human ribosomal protein L7  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we used a multiple copy (EGFP){sub 3} reporter system to establish a numeric nuclear index system to assess the degree of nuclear import. The system was first validated by a FRAP assay, and then was applied to evaluate the essential and multifaceted nature of basic amino acid clusters during the nuclear import of ribosomal protein L7. The results indicate that the sequence context of the basic cluster determines the degree of nuclear import, and that the number of basic residues in the cluster is irrelevant; rather the position of the pertinent basic residues is crucial. Moreover, it also found that the type of carrier protein used by basic cluster has a great impact on the degree of nuclear import. In case of L7, importin ?2 or importin ?3 are preferentially used by clusters with a high import efficiency, notwithstanding that other importins are also used by clusters with a weaker level of nuclear import. Such a preferential usage of multiple basic clusters and importins to gain nuclear entry would seem to be a common practice among ribosomal proteins in order to ensure their full participation in high rate ribosome synthesis. - Highlights: ? We introduce a numeric index system that represents the degree of nuclear import. ? The rate of nuclear import is dictated by the sequence context of the basic cluster. ? Importin ?2 and ?3 were mainly responsible for the N4 mediated nuclear import.

Tai, Lin-Ru [Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Chang-Wei [Institute of Clinical Dentistry Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, I-Fang; Kirby, Ralph [Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Alan, E-mail: [Institute of Genome Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Clinical Dentistry Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)



Flower-enhanced expression of a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial respiratory protein is associated with changes in mitochondrion number.  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial Rieske iron-sulfur protein is an obligatory component of the respiratory electron transport chain that is encoded by a single-copy gene in mammals and fungi. In contrast, this protein is encoded by a small gene family in dicotyledonous tobacco and monocotyledonous maize. We cloned four cDNAs from tobacco that encode the mitochondrial Rieske iron-sulfur protein. These clones, along with a previously isolated cDNA, represent five independent members of the gene family that can be divided into three subfamilies. All of these genes were derived from the two progenitor species and were expressed in amphidiploid tobacco. The proteins encoded by these five genes are probably functional because they all contain the universally conserved hexyl peptides necessary for the 2Fe-2S cluster formation. The expression of the Rieske protein gene family is differentially regulated; a 6- to 11-fold higher level of steady state transcripts was found in flowers than in leaves, stems, and roots. Members of at least two subfamilies were preferentially expressed in flowers, indicating that they share a common cis-regulatory element(s), which can respond to a flower-specific signal(s). Although approximately 10 times more transcripts occurred in flowers than in leaves, flower and leaf mitochondria contained a similar amount of the Rieske protein. Flowers, however, contained seven times more Rieske proteins than leaves. These results indicated an increase in mitochondrion number in flowers. High-energy demands during anther development might bring about an increase in mitochondrion numbers in flowers and the flower-enhanced expression of the Rieske protein gene family. Our results suggested that nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial respiratory proteins could sense and respond to changes in energy metabolism and/or changes in mitochondrion numbers. PMID:8180500

Huang, J; Struck, F; Matzinger, D F; Levings, C S



Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences.  


The remarkable antiquity, diversity and ecological significance of arthropods have inspired numerous attempts to resolve their deep phylogenetic history, but the results of two decades of intensive molecular phylogenetics have been mixed. The discovery that terrestrial insects (Hexapoda) are more closely related to aquatic Crustacea than to the terrestrial centipedes and millipedes (Myriapoda) was an early, if exceptional, success. More typically, analyses based on limited samples of taxa and genes have generated results that are inconsistent, weakly supported and highly sensitive to analytical conditions. Here we present strongly supported results from likelihood, Bayesian and parsimony analyses of over 41 kilobases of aligned DNA sequence from 62 single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes from 75 arthropod species. These species represent every major arthropod lineage, plus five species of tardigrades and onychophorans as outgroups. Our results strongly support Pancrustacea (Hexapoda plus Crustacea) but also strongly favour the traditional morphology-based Mandibulata (Myriapoda plus Pancrustacea) over the molecule-based Paradoxopoda (Myriapoda plus Chelicerata). In addition to Hexapoda, Pancrustacea includes three major extant lineages of 'crustaceans', each spanning a significant range of morphological disparity. These are Oligostraca (ostracods, mystacocarids, branchiurans and pentastomids), Vericrustacea (malacostracans, thecostracans, copepods and branchiopods) and Xenocarida (cephalocarids and remipedes). Finally, within Pancrustacea we identify Xenocarida as the long-sought sister group to the Hexapoda, a result confirming that 'crustaceans' are not monophyletic. These results provide a statistically well-supported phylogenetic framework for the largest animal phylum and represent a step towards ending the often-heated, century-long debate on arthropod relationships. PMID:20147900

Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Zwick, Andreas; Hussey, April; Ball, Bernard; Wetzer, Regina; Martin, Joel W; Cunningham, Clifford W



Matefin, a Caenorhabditis elegans germ line-specific SUN-domain nuclear membrane protein, is essential for early embryonic and germ cell development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caenorhabditis elegans mtf-1 encodes matefin, which has a predicted SUN domain, a coiled-coil region, an anti-erbB-2 IgG domain, and two hydrophobic regions. We show that matefin is a nuclear membrane protein that colocalizes in vivo with Ce-lamin, the single nuclear lamin protein in C. elegans, and binds Ce-lamin in vitro but does not require Ce-lamin for its localization. Matefin is

Alexandra Fridkin; Erez Mills; Ayelet Margalit; Esther Neufeld; Kenneth K. Lee; Naomi Feinstein; Merav Cohen; Katherine L. Wilson; Yosef Gruenbaum



Novel nuclear matrix protein HET binds to and influences activity of the HSP27 promoter in human breast cancer cells.  


Since the small heat shock protein hsp27 enhances both growth and drug resistance in breast cancer cells, and is a bad prognostic factor in certain subsets of breast cancer patients, we have characterized the transcriptional regulation of hsp27, with the long-term goal of targeting its expression clinically. The majority of the promoter activity resides in the most proximal 200 bp. This region contains an imperfect estrogen response element (ERE) that is separated by a 13-bp spacer that contains a TATA box. Gel-shift analysis revealed the binding of a protein (termed HET for Hsp27-ERE-TATA-binding protein) to this region that was neither the estrogen receptor nor TATA-binding protein. We cloned a complete cDNA (2.9 kb) for HET from an MCF-7 cDNA library. To confirm the identity of the HET clone, we expressed a partial HET clone as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, and showed binding to the hsp27 promoter fragment in gel-retardation assays. The HET clone is almost identical to a recently published scaffold attachment factor (SAF-B) cloned from a HeLa cell cDNA library. Scaffold attachment factors are a subset of nuclear matrix proteins (NMP) that interact with matrix attachment regions. Analyzing how HET could act as a regulator of hsp27 transcription and as a SAF/NMP, we studied its subnuclear localization and its effect on hsp27 transcription in human breast cancer cells. We were able to show that HET is localized in the nuclear matrix in various breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, in transient transfection assays using hsp27 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, HET overexpression resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of hsp27 promoter activity in several cell lines. PMID:9328833

Oesterreich, S; Lee, A V; Sullivan, T M; Samuel, S K; Davie, J R; Fuqua, S A



Mapping of functional region conferring nuclear localization and karyopherin ?-binding activity of the C2 protein of bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus.  


Bhendi yellow vein mosaic disease is caused by a complex consisting of a monopartite begomovirus associated with a ?-satellite. The C2 protein of bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus (BYVMV) is a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing and also functions as a transcriptional activator. To explore the molecular mechanisms of its nuclear trafficking and self-interaction, fusion proteins of fluorescent proteins with wild-type or mutated constructs of BYVMV C2 were expressed in tobacco protoplasts. Analyses revealed that the BYVMV C2 nuclear localization signal (NLS) was located in the N terminus of the protein, comprising aa 17-31 of C2. NLSs are recognized by a class of soluble transport receptors termed karyopherins ? and ?. The BYVMV C2 NLS was found to be necessary for this protein's interaction with its nuclear import mediator, karyopherin ?, ensuring its nuclear localization. Nevertheless, when deleted, C2 was found in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, suggesting NLS-independent nuclear import of this protein. Homotypic interaction of BYVMV C2 was also found, which correlates with the nuclear localization needed for efficient activation of transcription. PMID:22357749

Chandran, Sam A; Levy, Yael; Mett, Anahit; Belausov, Eduard; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Gafni, Yedidya



Regulation of RNA processing and transport by a nuclear guanine nucleotide release protein and members of the Ras superfamily.  

PubMed Central

The RCC1 gene of mammals encodes a guanine nucleotide release protein (GNRP). RCC1 and a homolog in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MTR1/PRP20/SRM1) have previously been implicated in control of mRNA metabolism and export from the nucleus. We here demonstrate that a temperature-sensitive fission yeast mutant which has a mutation in a homologous gene, and two of three additional (mtr1/prp20/srm1) mutants accumulate nuclear poly(A)+ RNA at 37 degrees C. In S.cerevisiae, maturation of rRNA and tRNA is also inhibited at 37 degrees C. Nevertheless, studies with the corresponding BHK-21 cell mutant indicate that protein import into the nucleus continues. MTR1 homologs regulate RNA processing at a point which is distinct from their regulation of chromosome condensation since: (i) poly(A)+ RNA accumulation in the fission yeast mutant precedes chromosome condensation, and (ii) unlike chromosome condensation, accumulation of nuclear poly(A)+ RNA does not require p34cdc28 kinase activation or protein synthesis. Moreover, experiments involving inhibition of DNA synthesis indicate that the S.cerevisiae homolog does not govern cell cycle checkpoint control. Since RCC1p acts as GNRP for Ran, a small nuclear GTPase of the ras superfamily, we have identified two homologs of Ran in S.cerevisiae (CNR1 and CNR2). Only CNR1 is essential, but both code for proteins extremely similar to Ran and can suppress mtr1 mutations in allele-specific fashion. Thus, MTR1 and its homologs appear to act as GNRPs for a family of conserved GTPases in controlling RNA metabolism and transport. Their role in governing checkpoint control appears to be restricted to higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:7687541

Kadowaki, T; Goldfarb, D; Spitz, L M; Tartakoff, A M; Ohno, M



The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) family of proteins: transcriptional modifiers with multi-functional protein interfaces.  


The basic Helix-Loop-Helix/PER-ARNT-SIM (bHLH-PAS) domain family of transcription factors mediates cellular responses to a variety of internal and external stimuli. As functional transcription factors, these proteins act as bHLH-PAS heterodimers and can be further sub-classified into sensory/activated subunits and regulatory or ARNT-like proteins. This class of proteins act as master regulators of the bHLH-PAS superfamily of transcription factors that mediate circadian rhythm gene programs, innate and adaptive immune responses, oxygen-sensing mechanisms and compensate for deleterious environmental exposures. Some contribute to the etiology of human pathologies including cancer because of their effects on cell growth and metabolism. We will review the canonical roles of ARNT and ARNT-like proteins with an emphasis on coactivator selectivity and recruitment. We will also discuss recent advances in our understanding of noncanonical DNA-binding independent or off-target roles of ARNT that are uncoupled from its classic heterodimeric bHLH-PAS binding partners. Understanding the DNA binding-independent functions of ARNT may identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of a large spectrum of disease states. PMID:23116263

Labrecque, M P; Prefontaine, G G; Beischlag, T V



A Novel Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein-Like Protein Interacts with NS1 of the Minute Virus of Mice  

PubMed Central

NS1, the major nonstructural parvovirus protein of the minute virus of mice, is a multifunctional protein responsible for several aspects of viral replication. NS1 transactivates the P38 promoter (used to express the structural proteins), as well as its own strong promoter, P4. To study the mechanism of activation and to map regions of NS1 responsible for transactivation, NS1 and various deletions of NS1 were cloned in frame with the GAL4DB and cotransfected into COS-7 and LA9 cells with a synthetic GAL4-responsive reporter plasmid. These studies showed NS1 can directly activate transcription through its 129 carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues. Any deletion from this region of the C terminus, even as few as 8 amino acids, completely abolishes transactivation. A yeast two-hybrid system used to identify protein-protein interactions demonstrated that NS1 is able to dimerize when expressed in yeast cells. However, only an almost complete NS11638 bait was able to interact with the full-length NS1. A two-hybrid screen identified a HeLa cell cDNA clone (NS1-associated protein 1 [NSAP1]) that interacts with NS11276 and NS11638. An additional sequence was predicted from human EST (expressed sequence tag) data, and the cDNA was estimated to be at least 2,221 bp long, potentially encoding a 562-amino-acid protein product. A polyclonal antibody raised to a synthetic peptide within NSAP1 recognizes an ?65-kDa cellular protein. This NSAP1 cDNA has not previously been characterized, but the predicted protein sequence is 80% identical to the recently identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) R (W. Hassfeld et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 26:439445, 1998). NSAP1 contains four ribonucleoprotein domains, as well as a highly repetitive C-terminal region. A closely related mouse cDNA (deduced from murine EST data) encodes a protein with only a single amino acid residue change from the human protein. NSAP1 is predicted to be a 65-kDa polynucleotide binding protein, and it likely functions in the regulation of splicing and/or transport of mRNAs from the nucleus. PMID:9847309

Harris, Colin E.; Boden, Richard A.; Astell, Caroline R.



Regulation of Hepatitis C Virus Replication by Nuclear Translocation of Nonstructural 5A Protein and Transcriptional Activation of Host Genes  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) is involved in regulating viral replication through its direct interaction with the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. NS5A also alters infected cell metabolism through complex interactions with numerous host cell proteins. NS5A has furthermore been suggested to act as a transcriptional activator, although the impact on viral replication is unclear. To study this, HCV NS5A variants were amplified from hepatic tissue from an HCV-infected patient, and their abilities to activate gene transcription were analyzed in a single-hybrid yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) model. Different variants isolated from the same patient displayed different transactivational activities. When these variants were inserted into the HCV subgenomic replicon system, they demonstrated various levels of RNA replication, which correlated with their transactivational activities. We showed that the C-terminal fragment of NS5A was localized to the nucleus and that a functional NS5A nuclear localization signal and cellular caspase activity were required for this process. Furthermore, nuclear localization of NS5A was necessary for viral replication. Finally, we demonstrate that nuclear NS5A binds to host cell promoters of several genes previously identified as important for efficient HCV RNA replication, inducing their transcription. Taken together, these results demonstrate a new mechanism by which HCV modulates its cellular environment, thereby enhancing viral replication. PMID:23468497

Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Imache, Mohamed R.; Higgs, Martin R.; Carmouse, Sophie; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel



Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are scavenged by Cockayne syndrome B protein in human fibroblasts without nuclear DNA damage.  


Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human DNA repair-deficient disease that involves transcription coupled repair (TCR), in which three gene products, Cockayne syndrome A (CSA), Cockayne syndrome B (CSB), and ultraviolet stimulated scaffold protein A (UVSSA) cooperate in relieving RNA polymerase II arrest at damaged sites to permit repair of the template strand. Mutation of any of these three genes results in cells with increased sensitivity to UV light and defective TCR. Mutations in CSA or CSB are associated with severe neurological disease but mutations in UVSSA are for the most part only associated with increased photosensitivity. This difference raises questions about the relevance of TCR to neurological disease in CS. We find that CSB-mutated cells, but not UVSSA-deficient cells, have increased levels of intramitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially when mitochondrial complex I is inhibited by rotenone. Increased ROS would result in oxidative damage to mitochondrial proteins, lipids, and DNA. CSB appears to behave as an electron scavenger in the mitochondria whose absence leads to increased oxidative stress. Mitochondrial ROS, however, did not cause detectable nuclear DNA damage even when base excision repair was blocked by an inhibitor of polyADP ribose polymerase. Neurodegeneration in Cockayne syndrome may therefore be associated with ROS-induced damage in the mitochondria, independent of nuclear TCR. An implication of our present results is that mitochondrial dysfunction involving ROS has a major impact on CS-B pathology, whereas nuclear TCR may have a minimal role. PMID:25136123

Cleaver, James E; Brennan-Minnella, Angela M; Swanson, Raymond A; Fong, Ka-wing; Chen, Junjie; Chou, Kai-ming; Chen, Yih-wen; Revet, Ingrid; Bezrookove, Vladimir



Distinct affinity of nuclear proteins to the surface of chrysotile and crocidolite  

PubMed Central

The inhalation of asbestos is a risk factor for the development of malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer. Based on the broad surface area of asbestos fibers and their ability to enter the cytoplasm and nuclei of cells, it was hypothesized that proteins that adsorb onto the fiber surface play a role in the cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis of asbestos fibers. However, little is known about which proteins adsorb onto asbestos. Previously, we systematically identified asbestos-interacting proteins and classified them into eight sub-categories: chromatin/nucleotide/RNA-binding proteins, ribosomal proteins, cytoprotective proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, histones and hemoglobin. Here, we report an adsorption profile of proteins for the three commercially used asbestos compounds: chrysotile, crocidolite and amosite. We quantified the amounts of adsorbed proteins by analyzing the silver-stained gels of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with ImageJ software, using the bands for amosite as a standard. We found that histones were most adsorptive to crocidolite and that chromatin-binding proteins were most adsorptive to chrysotile. The results suggest that chrysotile and crocidolite directly interact with chromatin structure through different mechanisms. Furthermore, RNA-binding proteins preferably interacted with chrysotile, suggesting that chrysotile may interfere with transcription and translation. Our results provide novel evidence demonstrating that the specific molecular interactions leading to carcinogenesis are different between chrysotile and crocidolite. PMID:23170051

Kubo, Yurika; Takenaka, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Hirotaka; Toyokuni, Shinya



FoxO proteins' nuclear retention and BH3-only protein Bim induction evoke mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated apoptosis in berberine-treated HepG2 cells.  


Mammalian forkhead-box family members belonging to the 'O' category (FoxO) manipulate a plethora of genes modulating a wide array of cellular functions including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage repair, and energy metabolism. FoxO overexpression and nuclear accumulation have been reported to show correlation with hindered tumor growth in vitro and size in vivo, while FoxO's downregulation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway has been linked with tumor promotion. In this study, we have explored for the first time intervention of berberine, a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid, with FoxO family proteins in hepatoma cells. We observed that berberine significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of both FoxO1 and FoxO3a. Their phosphorylation-mediated cytoplasmic sequestration followed by degradation was prevented by berberine-induced downmodulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway which promoted FoxO nuclear retention. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene and negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt axis, was upregulated while phosphorylation of its Ser380 residue (possible mechanism of PTEN degradation) was significantly decreased in treated HepG2 cells. Exposure to berberine induced a significant increase in transcriptional activity of FoxO, as shown by GFP reporter assay. FoxO transcription factors effectively heightened BH3-only protein Bim expression, which in turn, being a direct activator of proapoptotic protein Bax, altered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, culminating into mitochondrial dysfunction, caspases activation, and DNA fragmentation. The pivotal role of Bim in berberine-mediated cytotoxicity was further corroborated by knockdown experiments where Bim-silencing partially restored HepG2 cell viability during berberine exposure. In addition, a correlation between oxidative overload and FoxO's nuclear accumulation via JNK activation was evident as berberine treatment led to a pronounced increase in JNK phosphorylation together with enhanced ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, decreased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and diminished glutathione levels. Thus, our findings suggest that the antiproliferative effect of berberine may in part be due to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis with Bim acting as a pivotal downstream factor of FoxO-induced transcriptional activation. PMID:25128467

Shukla, Shatrunajay; Rizvi, Fatima; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kakkar, Poonam



Nuclear Eg5 (kinesin spindle protein) expression predicts docetaxel response and prostate cancer aggressiveness  

PubMed Central

Novel biomarkers predicting prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness and docetaxel therapy response of PCa patients are needed. In this study the correlation between nuclear Eg5-expression, PCa docetaxel response and PCa aggressiveness was assessed. Immunohistochemical staining for nuclear Eg5 was performed on 117 archival specimens from 110 PCa patients treated with docetaxel between 2004 and 2012. Samples were histologically categorized as positive/negative. Median follow-up time from diagnosis was 11.6 years. Nuclear Eg5-expression was significantly related to docetaxel response (p=0.036) in tissues acquired within three years before docetaxel initiation. Nuclear Eg5-expression was not related to Gleason-score (p=0.994). Survival of patients after docetaxel initiation did not differ based on nuclear Eg5-expression (p=0.540). Analyzing samples taken before hormonal therapy, overall survival and time to docetaxel use were significantly decreased in patients with nuclear Eg5-expressing tumors (p<0.01). Eg5-positive nuclei were found more frequently in T4-staged tumors (p=0.04), Gleason 8-10 tumors (p=0.08), and in metastasized tumors (p<0.01). Multivariate analyses indicated that nuclear Eg5-expression may be an independent parameter for tumor aggressiveness. Limitations of a retrospective analysis apply. In conclusion, nuclear Eg5-expression may be a predictive biomarker for docetaxel response in metastatic castrate-resistant PCa patients and a prognostic biomarker for hormone-naive PCa patients. Prospective validation studies are needed. PMID:25277178

Dezentj, Vincent O.; Buijs, Jeroen T.; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Smit, Vincent T.H.B.M.; Van Weerden, Wytske M.; Gelderblom, Hans; van der Pluijm, Gabri



The hydrogenase-like Nar1p is essential for maturation of cytosolic and nuclear ironsulphur proteins  

PubMed Central

The genome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the essential protein Nar1p that is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes and exhibits striking sequence similarity to bacterial iron-only hydrogenases. A human homologue of Nar1p was shown previously to bind prenylated prelamin A in the nucleus. However, yeast neither exhibits hydrogenase activity nor contains nuclear lamins. Here, we demonstrate that Nar1p is predominantly located in the cytosol and contains two adjacent ironsulphur (Fe/S) clusters. Assembly of its Fe/S clusters crucially depends on components of the mitochondrial Fe/S cluster biosynthesis apparatus such as the cysteine desulphurase Nfs1p, the ferredoxin Yah1p and the ABC transporter Atm1p. Using functional studies in vivo, we show that Nar1p is required for maturation of cytosolic and nuclear, but not of mitochondrial, Fe/S proteins. Nar1p-depleted cells do not accumulate iron in mitochondria, distinguishing these cells from mutants in components of the mitochondrial Fe/S cluster biosynthesis apparatus. In conclusion, Nar1p represents a crucial, novel component of the emerging cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly machinery that catalyses an essential and ancient process in eukaryotes. PMID:15103330

Balk, Janneke; Pierik, Antonio J; Netz, Daili J Aguilar; Mhlenhoff, Ulrich; Lill, Roland



Interaction of nucleosome assembly proteins abolishes nuclear localization of DGK{zeta} by attenuating its association with importins  

SciTech Connect

Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is involved in the regulation of lipid-mediated signal transduction through the metabolism of a second messenger diacylglycerol. Of the DGK family, DGK{zeta}, which contains a nuclear localization signal, localizes mainly to the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm under pathological conditions. However, the detailed mechanism of translocation and its functional significance remain unclear. To elucidate these issues, we used a proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with DGK{zeta}. Results show that nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) 1-like 1 (NAP1L1) and NAP1-like 4 (NAP1L4) are identified as novel DGK{zeta} binding partners. NAP1Ls constitutively shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in transfected HEK293 cells. The molecular interaction of DGK{zeta} and NAP1Ls prohibits nuclear import of DGK{zeta} because binding of NAP1Ls to DGK{zeta} blocks import carrier proteins, Qip1 and NPI1, to interact with DGK{zeta}, leading to cytoplasmic tethering of DGK{zeta}. In addition, overexpression of NAP1Ls exerts a protective effect against doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that NAP1Ls are involved in a novel molecular basis for the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of DGK{zeta} and provide a clue to examine functional significance of its translocation under pathological conditions.

Okada, Masashi; Hozumi, Yasukazu [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Ichimura, Tohru [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Takahashi, Nobuya [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Iseki, Ken [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)] [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Yagisawa, Hitoshi [Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Biological Signaling, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Shinkawa, Takashi; Isobe, Toshiaki [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan)] [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Sciences and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan); Goto, Kaoru, E-mail: [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)] [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan)



Global human frequencies of predicted nuclear pathogenic variants and the role played by protein hydrophobicity in pathogenicity potential  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial proteins are coded by nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genes, implying a complex cross-talk between the two genomes. Here we investigated the diversity displayed in 104 nuclear-coded mitochondrial proteins from 1,092 individuals from the 1000 Genomes dataset, in order to evaluate if these genes are under the effects of purifying selection and how that selection compares with their mitochondrial encoded counterparts. Only the very rare variants (frequency < 0.1%) in these nDNA genes are indistinguishable from a random set from all possible variants in terms of predicted pathogenicity score, but more frequent variants display distinct signs of purifying selection. Comparisons of selection strength indicate stronger selection in the mtDNA genes compared to this set of nDNA genes, accounted for by the high hydrophobicity of the proteins coded by the mtDNA. Most of the predicted pathogenic variants in the nDNA genes were restricted to a single continental population. The proportion of individuals having at least one potential pathogenic mutation in this gene set was significantly lower in Europeans than in Africans and Asians. This difference may reflect demographic asymmetries, since African and Asian populations experienced main expansions in middle Holocene, while in Europeans the main expansions occurred earlier in the post-glacial period. PMID:25412673

Pereira, Lusa; Soares, Pedro; Triska, Petr; Rito, Teresa; van der Waerden, Agnes; Li, Biao; Radivojac, Predrag; Samuels, David C.



A single amino acid mutation, R42A, in the Newcastle disease virus matrix protein abrogates its nuclear localization and attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity.  


The Newcastle disease virus (NDV) matrix (M) protein is a highly basic and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling viral protein. Previous study has demonstrated that the N-terminal 100 aa of NDV M protein are somewhat acidic overall, but the remainder of the polypeptide is strongly basic. In this study, we investigated the role of the N-terminal basic residues in the subcellular localization of M protein and in the replication and pathogenicity of NDV. We found that mutation of the basic residue arginine (R) to alanine (A) at position 42 disrupted M's nuclear localization. Moreover, a recombinant virus with R42A mutation in the M protein reduced viral replication in DF-1 cells and attenuated the virulence and pathogenicity of the virus in chickens. This is the first report to show that a basic residue mutation in the NDV M protein abrogates its nuclear localization and attenuates viral replication and pathogenicity. PMID:24603525

Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Juan; Zhu, Jie; Chen, Jian; Xu, Haixu; Wang, Yuyang; Liu, Huimou; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan



Evolutionarily conserved heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A/B proteins functionally interact with human and Drosophila TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43).  


Human TDP-43 represents the main component of neuronal inclusions found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, especially frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) Drosophila ortholog (TBPH) can biochemically and functionally overlap the properties of the human factor. The recent direct implication of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) A2B1 and A1, known TDP-43 partners, in the pathogenesis of multisystem proteinopathy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis supports the hypothesis that the physical and functional interplay between TDP-43 and hnRNP A/B orthologs might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. To test this hypothesis and further validate the fly system as a useful model to study this type of diseases, we have now characterized human TDP-43 and Drosophila TBPH similarity in terms of protein-protein interaction pathways. In this work we show that TDP-43 and TBPH share the ability to associate in vitro with Hrp38/Hrb98DE/CG9983, the fruit fly ortholog of the human hnRNP A1/A2 factors. Interestingly, the protein regions of TDP-43 and Hrp38 responsible for reciprocal interactions are conserved through evolution. Functionally, experiments in HeLa cells demonstrate that TDP-43 is necessary for the inhibitory activity of Hrp38 on splicing. Finally, Drosophila in vivo studies show that Hrp38 deficiency produces locomotive defects and life span shortening in TDP-43 with and without animals. These results suggest that hnRNP protein levels can play a modulatory role on TDP-43 functions. PMID:24492607

Romano, Maurizio; Buratti, Emanuele; Romano, Giulia; Klima, Raffaella; Del Bel Belluz, Lisa; Stuani, Cristiana; Baralle, Francisco; Feiguin, Fabian



The Human Cytomegalovirus IE2 and UL112-113 Proteins Accumulate in Viral DNA Replication Compartments That Initiate from the Periphery of Promyelocytic Leukemia Protein-Associated Nuclear Bodies (PODs or ND10)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the periphery of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML)- associated nuclear bodies (also known as PML oncogenic domains (PODs) or ND10) are sites for both input viral genome deposition and immediate-early (IE) gene transcription. At very early times after infection, the IE1 protein localizes to and subsequently disrupts PODs, whereas the IE2 protein localizes within or adjacent




Dynamic nuclear protein interactions investigated using fluorescence lifetime and fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery and engineering of novel fluorescent proteins (FPs) from diverse organisms is yielding fluorophores with exceptional characteristics for live-cell imaging. In particular, the development of FPs for Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy and fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) provide important tools for monitoring dynamic protein interactions inside living cells. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) quantitatively maps changes in the spatial distribution of donor FP lifetimes that result from FRET with acceptor FPs. FFS probes dynamic protein associations through its capacity to monitor localized protein diffusion. Here, we use FRET-FLIM combined with FFS in living cells to investigate changes in protein mobility due to protein-protein interactions involving transcription factors and chromatin modifying proteins that function in anterior pituitary gene regulation. The heterochromatin protein 1 alpha (HP1?) plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin through its interactions with histone methyltransferases. Recent studies, however, also highlight the importance of HP1? as a positive regulator of active transcription in euchromatin. Intriguingly, we observed that the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?) interacts with HP1? in regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin in mouse pituitary cells. These observations prompted us to investigate the relationship between HP1? dynamic interactions in pituitary specific gene regulation.

Siegel, Amanda P.; Hays, Nicole M.; Day, Richard N.



Identification of the Hypoxia-inducible Factor 2? Nuclear Interactome in Melanoma Cells Reveals Master Proteins Involved in Melanoma Development*  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors that play a key role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia. HIF proteins are composed of an ? subunit regulated by oxygen pressure (essentially HIF1? or HIF2?) and a constitutively expressed ? subunit. These proteins are often overexpressed in cancer cells, and HIF overexpression frequently correlates with poor prognosis, making HIF proteins promising therapeutic targets. HIF proteins are involved in melanoma initiation and progression; however, the specific function of HIF2 in melanoma has not yet been studied comprehensively. Identifying protein complexes is a valuable way to uncover protein function, and affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry and label-free quantification is a reliable method for this approach. We therefore applied quantitative interaction proteomics to identify exhaustively the nuclear complexes containing HIF2? in a human melanoma cell line, 501mel. We report, for the first time, a high-throughput analysis of the interactome of an HIF subunit. Seventy proteins were identified that interact with HIF2?, including some well-known HIF partners and some new interactors. The new HIF2? partners microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, SOX10, and AP2?, which are master actors of melanoma development, were confirmed via co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Their ability to bind to HIF1? was also tested: microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and SOX10 were confirmed as HIF1? partners, but the transcription factor AP2? was not. AP2? expression correlates with low invasive capacities. Interestingly, we demonstrated that when HIF2? was overexpressed, only cells expressing large amounts of AP2? exhibited decreased invasive capacities in hypoxia relative to normoxia. The simultaneous presence of both transcription factors therefore reduces cells' invasive properties. Knowledge of the HIF2? interactome is thus a useful resource for investigating the general mechanisms of HIF function and regulation, and here we reveal unexpected, distinct roles for the HIF1 and HIF2 isoforms in melanoma progression. PMID:23275444

Steunou, Anne-Lise; Ducoux-Petit, Manuelle; Lazar, Ikrame; Monsarrat, Bernard; Erard, Monique; Muller, Catherine; Clottes, Eric; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Nieto, Laurence



Transcriptome analysis reveals nuclear-encoded proteins for the maintenance of temporary plastids in the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata  

PubMed Central

Background Dinophysis is exceptional among dinoflagellates, possessing plastids derived from cryptophyte algae. Although Dinophysis can be maintained in pure culture for several months, the genus is mixotrophic and needs to feed either to acquire plastids (a process known as kleptoplastidy) or obtain growth factors necessary for plastid maintenance. Dinophysis does not feed directly on cryptophyte algae, but rather on a ciliate (Myrionecta rubra) that has consumed the cryptophytes and retained their plastids. Despite the apparent absence of cryptophyte nuclear genes required for plastid function, Dinophysis can retain cryptophyte plastids for months without feeding. Results To determine if this dinoflagellate has nuclear-encoded genes for plastid function, we sequenced cDNA from Dinophysis acuminata, its ciliate prey M. rubra, and the cryptophyte source of the plastid Geminigera cryophila. We identified five proteins complete with plastid-targeting peptides encoded in the nuclear genome of D. acuminata that function in photosystem stabilization and metabolite transport. Phylogenetic analyses show that the genes are derived from multiple algal sources indicating some were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions These findings suggest that D. acuminata has some functional control of its plastid, and may be able to extend the useful life of the plastid by replacing damaged transporters and protecting components of the photosystem from stress. However, the dearth of plastid-related genes compared to other fully phototrophic algae suggests that D. acuminata does not have the nuclear repertoire necessary to maintain the plastid permanently. PMID:20537123



LRP130, a Pentatricopeptide Motif Protein with a Noncanonical RNA-Binding Domain, Is Bound In Vivo to Mitochondrial and Nuclear RNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

LRP130 (also known as LRPPRC) is an RNA-binding protein that is a constituent of postsplicing nuclear RNP complexes associated with mature mRNA. It belongs to a growing family of pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motif-containing proteins, several of which have been implicated in organellar RNA metabolism. We show here that only a fraction of LRP130 proteins are in nuclei and are directly

Stavroula Mili; Serafn Pinol-Roma



A nuclear localization of the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus NV protein is necessary for optimal viral growth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-?EGDL in which the 32EGDL35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-?NV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-?NV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-?EGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-?NV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-?EGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-?NV and rIHNV-NV-?EGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV.

Choi, M.K.; Moon, C.H.; Ko, M.S.; Lee, U.-H.; Cho, W.J.; Cha, S.J.; Do, J.W.; Heo, G.J.; Jeong, S.G.; Hahm, Y.S.; Harmache, A.; Bremont, M.; Kurath, G.; Park, J.-W.



Nuclear Localization and DNA Binding Properties of a Protein Expressed by Human c-myc Oncogene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antisera to the human cellular myc oncogene product were used to identify a human c-myc specific protein with a molecular weight of 65,000. Subcellular fractionation showed that the human c-myc protein is predominantly found in the cell nucleus. The p65 Kc-myc protein binds to double- and single-stranded DNA as measured by a DNA affinity chromatography assay.

Persson, Hakan; Leder, Philip



Specific Inactivation and Nuclear Anchoring of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 by the Inducible Dual-Specificity Protein Phosphatase DUSP5  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms which determine the nuclear accumulation and inactivation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) or ERK2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that DUSP5, an inducible nuclear phosphatase, interacts specifically with ERK2 via a kinase interaction motif (KIM) within its amino-terminal noncatalytic domain. This binding determines the substrate specificity of DUSP5 in vivo, as it inactivates ERK2 but not Jun N-terminal protein kinase or p38 MAP kinase. Using green fluorescent protein fusions, we identify within this same domain of DUSP5 a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) which functions independently of the KIM. Moreover, we demonstrate that the expression of DUSP5 causes both nuclear translocation and sequestration of inactive ERK2. Nuclear anchoring is ERK2 specific and requires both interactions between the DUSP5 KIM and the common docking site of ERK2 and a functional NLS within DUSP5. Finally, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of DUSP5 also tethers ERK2 within the nucleus. Furthermore, this nuclear ERK2 is phosphorylated by MAP kinase kinase in response to growth factors and also activates transcription factor Elk-1. We conclude that DUSP5 is an inducible nuclear ERK-specific MAP kinase phosphatase that functions as both an inactivator of and a nuclear anchor for ERK2 in mammalian cells. In addition, our data indicate that the cytoplasm may not be an exclusive site of MAP kinase activation. PMID:15713638

Mandl, Margret; Slack, David N.; Keyse, Stephen M.



Determining the DUF55-domain structure of human thymocyte nuclear protein 1 from crystals partially twinned by tetartohedry.  


Human thymocyte nuclear protein 1 contains a unique DUF55 domain consisting of 167 residues (55-221), but its cellular function remains unclear. Crystals of DUF55 belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1), but twinning caused the data to approach apparent 622 symmetry. Two data sets were collected to 2.3 A resolution. Statistical analysis confirmed that both data sets were partially twinned by tetartohedry. Tetartohedral twin fractions were estimated. After the structure had been determined, only one twofold axis of rotational pseudosymmetry was found in the crystal structure. Using the DALI program, a YTH domain, which is a potential RNA-binding domain from human YTH-domain-containing protein 2, was identified as having the most similar three-dimensional fold to that of DUF55. It is thus implied that DUF55 might be a potential RNA-related domain. PMID:19237743

Yu, Feng; Song, Aixin; Xu, Chunyan; Sun, Lihua; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Yu, Minmin; Yeates, Todd O; Hu, Hongyu; He, Jianhua



Determining the DUF55-domain structure of human thymocyte nuclear protein 1 from crystals partially twinned by tetartohedry  

SciTech Connect

Human thymocyte nuclear protein 1 (hTHYN1) contains a unique DUF55 domain of 167 residues (55-221), but its cellular function is unclear. Crystals of DUF55 belong to the trigonal space group P3{sub 1}, but twinning causes the data to approach an apparent 622 symmetry. Two datasets to 2.3 {angstrom} resolution were collected. Statistical analysis confirmed that both datasets were partially twinned by tetartohedry. Tetartohedral twin fractions were estimated. After the structure was determined, only one twofold axis of rotational pseudosymmetry was found in the crystal structure. Using the DALI program, a YTH domain, which is a potential RNA binding domain from human YTH domain-containing protein 2, was identified to have the most similar three-dimensional fold to DUF55. It is implied that DUF55 might be a potential RNA-related domain.

Yu, Feng; Song, Aixin; Xu, Chunyan; Sun, Lihua; Li, Jian; Tang, Lin; Yu, Minmin; Yeates, Todd O.; Hu, Hongyu; He, Jianhua



A nuclear juvenile hormone-binding protein from larvae of Manduca sexta: a putative receptor for the metamorphic action of juvenile hormone.  

PubMed Central

A 29-kDa nuclear juvenile hormone (JH)-binding protein from the epidermis of Manduca sexta larvae was purified by using the photoaffinity analog for JH II ([3H]epoxyhomofarnesyldiazoacetate) and partially sequenced. A 1.1-kb cDNA was isolated by using degenerate oligonucleotide primers for PCR based on these sequences. The cDNA encoded a 262-amino acid protein that showed no similarity with other known proteins, except for short stretches of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, and human nuclear protein p68. Recombinant baculovirus containing this cDNA made a 29-kDa protein that was covalently modified by [3H]epoxyhomofarnesyldiazoacetate and specifically bound the natural enantiomer of JH I (Kd = 10.7 nM). This binding was inhibited by the natural JHs but not by methoprene. Immunocytochemical analysis showed localization of this 29-kDa protein to epidermal nuclei. Both mRNA and protein are present during the intermolt periods; during the larval molt, the mRNA disappears but the protein persists. Later when cells become pupally committed, both the mRNA and protein disappear with a transient reappearance near pupal ecdysis. The properties of this protein are consistent with its being the receptor necessary for the antimetamorphic effects of JH. Images PMID:8016136

Palli, S R; Touhara, K; Charles, J P; Bonning, B C; Atkinson, J K; Trowell, S C; Hiruma, K; Goodman, W G; Kyriakides, T; Prestwich, G D



Dynamic nuclear polarization in biomolecular solid state NMR : methods and applications in peptides and membrane proteins  

E-print Network

Solid state NMR can probe structure and dynamics on length scales from the atomic to the supramolecular. However, low sensitivity limits its application in macromolecules. NMR sensitivity can be improved by dynamic nuclear ...

Bajaj, Vikram Singh



Nuclear Matrix Protein Matrin3 regulates alternative splicing and forms overlapping regulatory networks with PTB  

E-print Network

(Senderek et al, 2009) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Johnson et al, 2014). Matrin3 is located diffusely throughout the nucleoplasm and is concentrated in the nuclear scaffold (Zeitz et al, 2009), and its DNA- and RNA- binding domains suggest...

Coelho, Miguel B.; Attig, Jan; Bellora, Nicols; Knig, Julian; Hallegger, Martina; Kayikci, Melis; Eyras, Eduardo; Ule, Jernej; Smith, Christopher W.J.



Characterization of a synthetic peroxodiiron(III) protein model complex by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy  

E-print Network

The vibrational spectrum of an ?[superscript 1],?[superscript 1]-1,2-peroxodiiron(III) complex was measured by nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy and fit using an empirical force field analysis. Isotopic 18O2 ...

Do, Loi Hung


Structures and Metal-Binding Properties of Helicobacter pylori Neutrophil-Activating Protein with a Di-Nuclear Ferroxidase Center  

PubMed Central

Helicobacter pylori causes severe diseases, such as chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancers. H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is an iron storage protein that forms a dodecameric shell, promotes the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells, and induces the production of reactive oxygen radicals. HP-NAP belongs to the DNA-protecting proteins under starved conditions (Dps) family, which has significant structural similarities to the dodecameric ferritin family. The crystal structures of the apo form and metal-ion bound forms, such as iron, zinc, and cadmium, of HP-NAP have been determined. This review focused on the structures and metal-binding properties of HP-NAP. These metal ions bind at the di-nuclear ferroxidase center (FOC) by different coordinating patterns. In comparison with the apo structure, metal loading causes a series of conformational changes in conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins (Trp26, Asp52, and Glu56) at the FOC. HP-NAP forms a spherical dodecamer with 23 symmetry including two kinds of pores. Metal ions have been identified around one of the pores; therefore, the negatively-charged pore is suitable for the passage of metal ions. PMID:24971723

Yokoyama, Hideshi; Fujii, Satoshi



Resolving arthropod phylogeny: exploring phylogenetic signal within 41 kb of protein-coding nuclear gene sequence.  


This study attempts to resolve relationships among and within the four basal arthropod lineages (Pancrustacea, Myriapoda, Euchelicerata, Pycnogonida) and to assess the widespread expectation that remaining phylogenetic problems will yield to increasing amounts of sequence data. Sixty-eight regions of 62 protein-coding nuclear genes (approximately 41 kilobases (kb)/taxon) were sequenced for 12 taxonomically diverse arthropod taxa and a tardigrade outgroup. Parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of total nucleotide data generally strongly supported the monophyly of each of the basal lineages represented by more than one species. Other relationships within the Arthropoda were also supported, with support levels depending on method of analysis and inclusion/exclusion of synonymous changes. Removing third codon positions, where the assumption of base compositional homogeneity was rejected, altered the results. Removing the final class of synonymous mutations--first codon positions encoding leucine and arginine, which were also compositionally heterogeneous--yielded a data set that was consistent with a hypothesis of base compositional homogeneity. Furthermore, under such a data-exclusion regime, all 68 gene regions individually were consistent with base compositional homogeneity. Restricting likelihood analyses to nonsynonymous change recovered trees with strong support for the basal lineages but not for other groups that were variably supported with more inclusive data sets. In a further effort to increase phylogenetic signal, three types of data exploration were undertaken. (1) Individual genes were ranked by their average rate of nonsynonymous change, and three rate categories were assigned--fast, intermediate, and slow. Then, bootstrap analysis of each gene was performed separately to see which taxonomic groups received strong support. Five taxonomic groups were strongly supported independently by two or more genes, and these genes mostly belonged to the slow or intermediate categories, whereas groups supported only by a single gene region tended to be from genes of the fast category, arguing that fast genes provide a less consistent signal. (2) A sensitivity analysis was performed in which increasing numbers of genes were excluded, beginning with the fastest. The number of strongly supported nodes increased up to a point and then decreased slightly. Recovery of Hexapoda required removal of fast genes. Support for Mandibulata (Pancrustacea + Myriapoda) also increased, at times to "strong" levels, with removal of the fastest genes. (3) Concordance selection was evaluated by clustering genes according to their ability to recover Pancrustacea, Euchelicerata, or Myriapoda and analyzing the three clusters separately. All clusters of genes recovered the three concordance clades but were at times inconsistent in the relationships recovered among and within these clades, a result that indicates that the a priori concordance criteria may bias phylogenetic signal in unexpected ways. In a further attempt to increase support of taxonomic relationships, sequence data from 49 additional taxa for three slow genes (i.e., EF-1 alpha, EF-2, and Pol II) were combined with the various 13-taxon data sets. The 62-taxon analyses supported the results of the 13-taxon analyses and provided increased support for additional pancrustacean clades found in an earlier analysis including only EF-1 alpha, EF-2, and Pol II. PMID:19085333

Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Ganley, Austen R D; Hussey, April; Shi, Diane; Ball, Bernard; Zwick, Andreas; Stajich, Jason E; Cummings, Michael P; Martin, Joel W; Cunningham, Clifford W



The proliferating cell nuclear antigen regulates retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activity through direct proteinprotein interaction  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) interact, in a ligand-dependent fashion, with many coregulators that participate in a wide spectrum of biological responses, ranging from embryonic development to cellular growth control. The transactivating function of these ligand-inducible transcription factors reside mainly, but not exclusively, in their ligand-binding domain (AF2), which recruits or dismiss coregulators in a ligand-dependent fashion. However, little is known about AF2-independent function(s) of RARs. We have isolated the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a repressor of RAR transcriptional activity, able to interact with an AF2-crippled RAR. The N-terminus of PCNA interacts directly with the DNA-binding domain of RAR, and PCNA is recruited to a retinoid-regulated promoter in intact cells. This interaction affects the transcriptional response to retinoic acid in a promoter-specific manner, conferring an unanticipated role to PCNA in transcriptional regulation. Our findings also suggest a role for RAR as a factor coordinating DNA transcription and repair. PMID:16055921

Martin, Perrine J.; Lardeux, Virginie; Lefebvre, Philippe



Proteasome-mediated degradation of integral inner nuclear membrane protein emerin in fibroblasts lacking A-type lamins  

SciTech Connect

We previously identified and characterized a homozygous LMNA nonsense mutation leading to the absence of A-type lamins in a premature neonate who died at birth. We show here that the absence of A-type lamins is due to degradation of the aberrant mRNA transcript with a premature termination codon. In cultured fibroblasts from the subject with the homozygous LMNA nonsense mutation, there was a decreased steady-state expression of the integral inner nuclear membrane proteins emerin and nesprin-1{alpha} associated with their mislocalization to the bulk endoplasmic reticulum and a hyperphosphorylation of emerin. To determine if decreased emerin expression occurred post-translationally, we treated cells with a selective proteasome inhibitor and observed an increase in expression. Our results show that mislocalization of integral inner nuclear membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum in human cells lacking A-type lamins leads to their degradation and provides the first evidence that their degradation is mediated by the proteasome.

Muchir, Antoine [Departments of Medicine and Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Massart, Catherine [Inserm, U582, Institut de Myologie, Paris F-75013 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S582, IFR14, Paris F-75013 (France); Engelen, Baziel G. van [Neuromuscular Centre Nijmegen, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lammens, Martin [Neuromuscular Centre Nijmegen, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bonne, Gisele [Inserm, U582, Institut de Myologie, Paris F-75013 (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR S582, IFR14, Paris F-75013 (France); AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, U.F. Myogenetique et Cardiogenetique, Service de Biochimie B, Paris F-75013 (France); Worman, Howard J. [Departments of Medicine and Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032 (United States)]. E-mail:



Involvement of the UL24 protein in herpes simplex virus 1-induced dispersal of B23 and in nuclear egress  

SciTech Connect

UL24 of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widely conserved within the Herpesviridae family. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that UL24, which we have previously shown to induce the redistribution of nucleolin, also affects the localization of the nucleolar protein B23. We found that HSV-1-induced dispersal of B23 was dependent on UL24. The conserved N-terminal portion of UL24 was sufficient to induce the redistribution of B23 in transient transfection assays. Mutational analysis revealed that the endonuclease motif of UL24 was important for B23 dispersal in both transfected and infected cells. Nucleolar protein relocalization during HSV-1 infection was also observed in non-immortalized cells. Analysis of infected cells by electron microscopy revealed a decrease in the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear viral particles in cells infected with a UL24-deficient strain compared to KOS-infected cells. Our results suggest that UL24 promotes nuclear egress of nucleocapsids during HSV-1 infection, possibly though effects on nucleoli.

Lymberopoulos, Maria H.; Bourget, Amelie; Abdeljelil, Nawel Ben; Pearson, Angela, E-mail: angela.pearson@iaf.inrs.c



Cross-species Analysis Reveals Evolving and Conserved Features of the Nuclear Factor ?B (NF-?B) Proteins*  

PubMed Central

NF-?B is a key regulator of immune gene expression in metazoans. It is currently unclear what changes occurred in NF-?B during animal evolution and what features remained conserved. To address this question, we compared the biochemical and functional properties of NF-?B proteins derived from human and the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) in 1) a high-throughput assay of in vitro preferences for DNA sequences, 2) ChIP analysis of in vivo recruitment to the promoters of target genes, 3) a LUMIER-assisted examination of interactions with cofactors, and 4) a transactivation assay. We observed a remarkable evolutionary conservation of the DNA binding preferences of the animal NF-?B orthologs. We also show that NF-?B dimerization properties, nuclear localization signals, and binding to cytosolic I?Bs are conserved. Surprisingly, the Bcl3-type nuclear I?B proteins functionally pair up only with NF-?B derived from their own species. The basis of the differential NF-?B recognition by I?B subfamilies is discussed. PMID:23508954

Ryzhakov, Grigory; Teixeira, Ana; Saliba, David; Blazek, Katrina; Muta, Tatsushi; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Udalova, Irina A.



Structural polymorphism within a regulatory element of the human KRAS promoter: formation of G4-DNA recognized by nuclear proteins  

PubMed Central

The human KRAS proto-oncogene contains a critical nuclease hypersensitive element (NHE) upstream of the major transcription initiation site. In this article, we demonstrate by primer-extension experiments, PAGE, chemical footprinting, CD, UV and FRET experiments that the G-rich strand of NHE (32R) folds into intra-molecular G-quadruplex structures. Fluorescence data show that 32R in 100 mM KCl melts with a biphasic profile, showing the formation of two distinct G-quadruplexes with Tm of ?55C (Q1) and ?72C (Q2). DMS-footprinting and CD suggest that Q1 can be a parallel and Q2 a mixed parallel/antiparallel G-quadruplex. When dsNHE (32R hybridized to its complementary) is incubated with a nuclear extract from Panc-1 cells, three DNAprotein complexes are observed by EMSA. The complex of slower mobility is competed by quadruplex 32R, but not by mutant oligonucleotides, which cannot form a quadruplex structure. Using paramagnetic beads coupled with 32R, we pulled down from the Panc-1 extract proteins with affinity for quadruplex 32R. One of these is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1, which was previously reported to unfold quadruplex DNA. Our study suggests a role of quadruplex DNA in KRAS transcription and provides the basis for the rationale design of molecular strategies to inhibit the expression of KRAS. PMID:18490377

Cogoi, Susanna; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Spolaore, Barbara; Xodo, Luigi E.



Immunohistochemical Assessment of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Protein Expression in Plaque, Reticular and Erosive Types of Oral Lichen Planus  

PubMed Central

Background: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein synthesized in the late G1 and S-phase of the cell cycle. Immunodetection of this protein represents a useful marker of the proliferation status of lesions. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of PCNA in oral lichen planus (OLP) and to assess the PCNA expression in a different layer of epithelium in different types of OLP. Subjects and Methods: A total of 96 cases of histologically proven OLP, 32 cases each of erosive, reticular and plaque type were selected. Two sections were taken from each one for H and E. Other sections were stained according to super sensitive polymer horseradish peroxidase method for identifying PCNA expression. Results: Of the three types of OLP, erosive type showed higher expression of PCNA (average 66.8%, minimum of 55% and maximum of 80.3%) followed by reticular (average 37.7%, minimum of 26% and maximum of 47%) and plaque type (average 17%, minimum of 5% and maximum of 25%) indicating increased proliferative activity. The erosive type also showed higher expression of PCNA in all the layers of epithelium followed by reticular and plaque type. Conclusion: PCNA is a good marker to indicate proliferation status of disease. Out of three types, erosive type possess more proliferative ratio, chances of malignant changes is more in this type. PMID:25221712

Pramod, RC; Pandit, S; Desai, D; Suresh, KV; Ingaleshwar, PS; Shetty, SJ; Ahamad, S



Disturbance of Nuclear and Cytoplasmic TAR DNA-binding Protein (TDP-43) Induces Disease-like Redistribution, Sequestration, and Aggregate Formation*S?  

PubMed Central

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is the disease protein in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Although normal TDP-43 is a nuclear protein, pathological TDP-43 is redistributed and sequestered as insoluble aggregates in neuronal nuclei, perikarya, and neurites. Here we recapitulate these pathological phenotypes in cultured cells by altering endogenous TDP-43 nuclear trafficking and by expressing mutants with defective nuclear localization (TDP-43-?NLS) or nuclear export signals (TDP-43-?NES). Restricting endogenous cytoplasmic TDP-43 from entering the nucleus or preventing its exit out of the nucleus resulted in TDP-43 aggregate formation. TDP-43-?NLS accumulates as insoluble cytoplasmic aggregates and sequesters endogenous TDP-43, thereby depleting normal nuclear TDP-43, whereas TDP-43-?NES forms insoluble nuclear aggregates with endogenous TDP-43. Mutant forms of TDP-43 also replicate the biochemical profile of pathological TDP-43 in FTLD-U/ALS. Thus, FTLD-U/ALS pathogenesis may be linked mechanistically to deleterious perturbations of nuclear trafficking and solubility of TDP-43. PMID:18305110

Winton, Matthew J.; Igaz, Lionel M.; Wong, Margaret M.; Kwong, Linda K.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.



A novel function for the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90): facilitating nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits.  


Ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleus, and mature 40 S and 60 S subunits are exported stoichiometrically into the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of ribosomal subunits is a unidirectional, saturable and energy-dependent process. An in vitro assay for the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits involves the use of resealed nuclear envelopes. The export of ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes is enhanced by cytoplasmic proteins. Here we present evidence that the export-promoting activity was due to the cytoplasmic 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90). Isolated, purified Hsp90 vastly enhanced the export of 60 S ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes, while inhibition of Hsp90 function, either with the Hsp90-binding drug geldanamycin or with anti-Hsp90 antibodies, resulted in reduced release of 60 S ribosomal subunits. To confirm these findings under in vivo conditions, corresponding experiments were performed with Xenopus oocytes using microinjection techniques; the results obtained confirmed the findings obtained with resealed nuclear envelopes. These findings suggest that Hsp90 facilitates the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits, probably by chaperoning protein interactions during the export process. PMID:11879195

Schlatter, Harald; Langer, Thomas; Rosmus, Susann; Onneken, Marie-Luise; Fasold, Hugo



A novel function for the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90): facilitating nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits.  

PubMed Central

Ribosomal subunits are assembled in the nucleus, and mature 40 S and 60 S subunits are exported stoichiometrically into the cytoplasm. The nuclear export of ribosomal subunits is a unidirectional, saturable and energy-dependent process. An in vitro assay for the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits involves the use of resealed nuclear envelopes. The export of ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes is enhanced by cytoplasmic proteins. Here we present evidence that the export-promoting activity was due to the cytoplasmic 90 kDa heat-shock protein (Hsp90). Isolated, purified Hsp90 vastly enhanced the export of 60 S ribosomal subunits from resealed nuclear envelopes, while inhibition of Hsp90 function, either with the Hsp90-binding drug geldanamycin or with anti-Hsp90 antibodies, resulted in reduced release of 60 S ribosomal subunits. To confirm these findings under in vivo conditions, corresponding experiments were performed with Xenopus oocytes using microinjection techniques; the results obtained confirmed the findings obtained with resealed nuclear envelopes. These findings suggest that Hsp90 facilitates the nuclear export of 60 S ribosomal subunits, probably by chaperoning protein interactions during the export process. PMID:11879195

Schlatter, Harald; Langer, Thomas; Rosmus, Susann; Onneken, Marie-Luise; Fasold, Hugo



Nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription proteins regulate genes involved in adipocyte metabolism and lipolysis  

SciTech Connect

NFAT involvement in adipocyte physiological processes was examined by treatment with CsA and/or GSK3{beta} inhibitors (Li{sup +} or TZDZ-8), which prevent or increase NFAT nuclear translocation, respectively. CsA treatment reduced basal and TNF{alpha}-induced rates of lipolysis by 50%. Adipocytes preincubated with Li{sup +} or TZDZ-8 prior to CsA and/or TNF{alpha}, exhibited enhanced basal rates of lipolysis and complete inhibition of CsA-mediated decreased rates of lipolysis. CsA treatment dramatically reduced the mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (aP2, HSL, PPAR{gamma}, ACS and Adn), compared with control or TNF{alpha}-treatment, whereas Li{sup +} pretreatment blocked the inhibitory effects of CsA, and mRNA levels of aP2, HSL, PPAR{gamma}, and ACS were found at or above control levels. NFAT nuclear localization, assessed by EMSA, confirmed that CsA or Li{sup +} treatments inhibited or increased NFAT nuclear translocation, respectively. These results show that NFAT proteins in mature adipocytes participate in the transcriptional control of genes involved in adipocyte metabolism and lipolysis.

Holowachuk, Eugene W. [Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Research Institute, 1 Atwell Road, Cooperstown, NY 13326 (United States)]. E-mail: