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Sample records for nuclear reactions induced

  1. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-12-16

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that {mu}Ci of {sup 62}Cu can be generated via the ({gamma},n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 19} Wcm{sup -2}.

  2. Nuclear reactions induced by a pyroelectric accelerator.

    PubMed

    Geuther, Jeffrey; Danon, Yaron; Saglime, Frank

    2006-02-10

    This work demonstrates the use of pyroelectric crystals to induce nuclear reactions. A system based on a pair of pyroelectric crystals is used to ionize gas and accelerate the ions to energies of up to 200 keV. The system operates above room temperature by simply heating or cooling the pyroelectric crystals. A D-D fusion reaction was achieved with this technique, and 2.5 MeV neutrons were detected. The measured neutron yield is in good agreement with the calculated yield. This work also verifies the results published by Naranjo, Gimzewski, and Putterman [Nature (London) 434, 1115 (2005)]. PMID:16486940

  3. (Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research projects; decay of excited nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV; mass and charge distributions in Cl-induced heavy ion reactions; and mass and charge distributions in {sup 56}Fe + {sup 165}Ho at E/A = 12 MeV.

  4. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  5. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Induced Reactions: Quasi-Free Reactions and RIBs

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Coc, A.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; De Sereville, N.

    2010-08-12

    The use of quasi-free reactions in studying nuclear reactions between charged particles of astrophysical interest has received much attention over the last two decades. The Trojan Horse Method is based on this approach and it has been used to study a number of reactions relevant for Nuclear Astrophysics. Recently we applied this method to the study of nuclear reactions that involve radioactive species, namely to the study of the {sup 18}F+p{yields}{sup 15}O+{alpha} process at temperatures corresponding to the energies available in the classical novae scenario. Quasi-free reactions can also be exploited to study processes induced by neutrons. This technique is particularly interesting when applied to reaction induced by neutrons on unstable short-lived nuclei. Such processes are very important in the nucleosynthesis of elements in the sand r-processes scenarios and this technique can give hints for solving key questions in nuclear astrophysics where direct measurements are practically impossible.

  6. A Transport Model for Nuclear Reactions Induced by Radioactive Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Das, Champak B.; Das Gupta, Subal; Gale, Charles; Ko, C.M.; Yong, G.-C.; Zuo Wei

    2005-10-14

    Major ingredients of an isospin and momentum dependent transport model for nuclear reactions induced by radioactive beams are outlined. Within the IBUU04 version of this model we study several experimental probes of the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, especially the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. Comparing with the recent experimental data from NSCL/MSU on isospin diffusion, we found a nuclear symmetry energy of Esym({rho}) {approx_equal} 31.6({rho}/{rho}0)1.05 at subnormal densities. Predictions on several observables sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy at supranormal densities accessible at GSI and the planned Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) are also made.

  7. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: nuclear structure; fusion reactions near and below the barrier; incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and instrumentation and analysis. (LSP).

  8. A Theory of Laser Induced Nuclear Reaction in Single Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Faisal, F. H. M.; Donner, C.

    2010-02-02

    An 'electron-bridge' mechanism of nuclear reaction in an atom or ion by ultra-intense laser fields is presented. A preliminary estimate of the intensity dependence of the rate of disintegration reaction of deuteron nucleus in deuterium atom is made for 800 nm laser fields. For intensities below 5x10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}, the rate of disintegration by the 'electron-bridge' mechanism is found to be small, but it rises sharply and becomes large already for {approx_equal}10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}.

  9. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  10. Nuclear reactions induced by. pi. /sup -/ at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Gadioli, E.; Gadioli Erba, E.

    1987-08-01

    The experimental information on reactions induced by stopped ..pi../sup -/ absorbed in nuclei is critically reviewed. Evidence for the presence of ..cap alpha..-cluster absorptions is presented and arguments are given to show that approx. =25% of ..pi../sup -/ absorptions are of this kind. In the case of two-nucleon absorption, the existing experimental information concerning the ratio of n-p to p-p absorbing pairs is discussed. Calculations of particle spectra and residue spallation yield distributions that, in addition to two-nucleon absorption, include ..cap alpha..-cluster absorption are presented, and it is shown that a satisfactory reproduction of the data is achieved.

  11. Delayed gamma radiation from lightning induced nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, M. B.; Sakuma, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Kubo, K.

    2004-03-01

    An increase in atmospheric gamma radiation observed with NaI and Ge detectors positioned about 15 m above ground was observed following natural lightning near Tokyo, Japan [1]. Background subtracted gamma ray rates GRR following numerous lightning strokes observed since 2001 persisted for a few hours and subsequently decayed with a half-life of about 50 minutes. Using a 3x3 Ge detector, with 2 KeV resolution, positioned about 2 m from one of the NaI detectors increases in GRR were observed minutes after the onset of lightning with a delayed 50 min exponential decay. Although most of the increase in activity occured at less than a few 100 KeV, on July 11, 2003 a 1267 +/-2 KeV line was observed. Although the statistics of this event were poor, the appearance of this line with an exponential decay of 50 min half-life suggests the possibility that it may be due to 39Cl (1267 MeV; half-life = 55.5 min) via the 40Ar(gamma,p)39Cl, 40Ar(p,2p)39Cl and/or 40Ar(n,d)39Cl reactions. Observations of > 10 MeV gamma rays observed in NaI detectors within 10s of meters from and coincident with rocket-triggered lightning at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing suggest that charged particles accelerated in intense electric fields associated with lightning give rise to photons with sufficient energy to initiate nuclear reactions [2]. Further work to explain the cause of this anomalous activity is underway using natural and triggered lightning. 1. M. B. Greenfield et al., Journal of Applied Physics 93 no. 3 (2003) pp 1839-184. 2. J. R. Dwyer et al., Science 299, (2003), pp 694-697 and recent communications

  12. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The research program of our group touches five areas of nuclear physics: (1) Nuclear structure studies at high spin; (2) Studies at the interface between structure and reactions; (3) Production and study of hot nuclei; (4) Incomplete fusion and fragmentation reactions; and (5) Development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. The papers from these areas are discussed in this report.

  13. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. Annual progress report, [January 1992--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  14. Assessment of nuclear-reaction codes for proton-induced reactions on light nuclei below 250 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunn, Benjamin; Boudard, Alain; David, Jean-Christophe; Koning, Arjan J.; Leprince, Anne; Leray, Sylvie; Mancusi, Davide

    2015-07-01

    We assess the suitability of nuclear-reaction codes for the generation of accurate cross-section libraries targeted at the simulation of the transport of high-energy protons (up to 250 MeV) in the human body, or in any material containing light nuclides. To this end we present an extensive study of elastic, reaction and fragmentation cross sections for proton-induced reactions on several nuclides. We compare TALYS evaluations against experimental data and, wherever applicable, against the predictions of the INCL/ABLA07 nuclear-reaction model. The TALYS evaluations have been cast in the form of a new cross-section library, which also includes evaluated proton-proton cross sections based on the NN-OnLine tool.

  15. Mass and charge distributions in chlorine-induced nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, A.A.

    1991-12-31

    Projectile-like fragments were detected and characterized in terms of A, Z, and energy for the reactions {sup 37}Cl on {sup 40}Ca and {sup 209}Bi at E/A = 7.3 MeV, and {sup 35}Cl, on {sup 209}Bi at E/A = 15 MeV, at angles close to the grazing angle. Mass and charge distributions were generated in the N-Z plane as a function of energy loss, and have been parameterized in terms of their centroids, variances, and coefficients of correlation. Due to experimental problems, the mass resolution corresponding to the {sup 31}Cl on {sup 209}Bi reaction was very poor. This prompted the study and application of a deconvolution technique for peak enhancement. The drifts of the charge and mass centroids for the system {sup 37}Cl on {sup 40}Ca are consistent with a process of mass and charge equilibration mediated by nucleon exchange between the two partners, followed by evaporation. The asymmetric systems show a strong drift towards larger asymmetry, with the production of neutron-rich nuclei. It was concluded that this is indicative of a net transfer of protons from the light to the heavy partner, and a net flow of neutrons in the opposite direction. The variances for all systems increase with energy loss, as it would be expected from a nucleon exchange mechanism; however, the variances for the reaction {sup 37}Cl on {sup 40}Ca are higher than those expected from that mechanism. The coefficients of correlation indicate that the transfer of nucleons between projectile and target is correlated. The results were compared to the predictions of two current models based on a stochastic nucleon exchange mechanism. In general, the comparisons between experimental and predicted variances support this mechanism; however, the need for more realistic driving forces in the model calculations is indicated by the disagreement between predicted and experimental centroids.

  16. Experimental investigation and theoretical calculation for 3He induced nuclear reactions on vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, B. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Seddik, U.; El-Kameesy, S. U.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2016-04-01

    Using stacked-foil activation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry, excitation functions for 3He induced nuclear reactions on natV were measured. Cross-sections for natV(3He, xn)52m,gMn and natV(3He, pxn)51Cr nuclear reactions were measured up to 27 MeV utilizing the MGC-20E cyclotron of ATOMKI. The measurements establish for the first time consistent excitation curves. Comparisons with results for values derived from different theoretical codes were included. Integral yield were calculated.

  17. Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1981-07-01

    The research summarized in this report was performed during the period August 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981. The experimental emphasis in the heavy-ion-induced reaction studies continues to be discrete charge and mass resolution of all projectile-like fragments measured. In an experiment performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Superconducting LINAC, the /sup 37/Cl beam was used to bombard targets of /sup 40/Ca and /sup 209/Bi. This experiment is compared to results of our previous /sup 56/Fe-induced experiments. Attempts were made to extend the /sup 56/Fe reactions to lower energies at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC. In a desire to improve the mass and charge resolution of previous experiments we tried a time-of-flight telescope employing both a channel-plate start and stop signal. This was backed by an ion chamber ..delta..E and silicon E detector. The operational difficulties encountered are being corrected and we hope to have a reliable system ready this fall. Studies of target fragmentation in /sup 4/He-induced reactions are continuing via experiments and model calculations. The program which began at the University of Maryland Cyclotron has been continued at the Indiana University Cyclotron with 120 and 200 MeV /sup 4/He incident on /sup 12/C and /sup 27/Al targets. While the Indiana data are currently being analyzed and no results are yet available, a summary of the Maryland work is given. Also presented in this section are the model calculations used to describe the data. 28 refs.

  18. Reactions Induced by Real Photons for Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, J.

    This contribution presents examples for recent experimental studies with real photons. Topics include the electric dipole response below the particle separation energy (pygmy resonance), the magnetic scissors mode in deformed nu, an analysis of low-lying electric quadrupole strength and astrophysical applications. Results of reactions induced by real photons are compared to those obtained from virtual photons (electron scattering, Coulomb excitation).

  19. Investigation of the α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    Cross-sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+), 94Ru, 95Ru,97Ru, 103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy by using a stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of alpha beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analyzed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011).

  20. Excitation function of (3)He-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural palladium.

    PubMed

    Al-Abyad, M; Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S

    2014-12-01

    Excitation functions of (3)He-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural palladium were measured using the standard stacked foil technique and high resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. From their threshold energies up to 27MeV, cross-sections for (nat)Pd((3)He,x)(103,104,105,106m,110m,111,112)Ag and (nat)Pd((3)He,x)(104,105,107,111m)Cd reactions were measured. The nuclear model codes TALYS-1.4, and EMPIRE-3.1 were used to describe the formation of these products. The present data were compared to theoretical results and to the available experimental data. Integral yields for some important radioisotopes were determined. PMID:25218461

  1. The use of low energy, ion induced nuclear reactions for proton radiotherapy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.; Segal, M.N.; Hamm, R.W.; Adler, R.J.; Glatstein, E.

    1995-04-01

    Medical radiotherapy has traditionally relied upon the use of external photon beams and internally implanted radioisotopes as the chief means of irradiating tumors. However, advances in accelerator technology and the exploitation of novel means of producing radiation may provide useful alternatives to some current modes of medical radiation delivery with reduced total dose to surrounding healthy tissue, reduced expense, or increased treatment accessibility. This paper will briefly overview currently established modes of radiation therapy, techniques still considered experimental but in clinical use, innovative concepts under study that may enable new forms of treatment or enhance existing ones. The potential role of low energy, ion-induced nuclear reactions in radiotherapy applications is examined specifically for the 650 keV d({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction. This examination will describe the basic physics associated with this reaction`s production of 17.4 MeV protons and the processes used to fabricate the necessary materials used in the technique. Calculations of the delivered radiation dose, heat generation, and required exposure times are presented. Experimental data are also presented validating the dose calculations. The design of small, lower cost ion accelerators, as embodied in `nested`-tandem and radio frequency quadrupole accelerators is examined, as is the potential use of high-output {sup 3}He and deuterium ion sources. Finally, potential clinical applications are discussed in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to current radiotherapy methods and equipment.

  2. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium up to 80MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Csikai, J; Hermanne, A; Uddin, M S; Baba, M

    2016-08-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium were measured up to 80MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma ray spectrometry. The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the excitation functions of monitor reactions measured in parallel. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross-sections were measured for the production of (104m,104g,105g,106m,110m)Ag, (100,101)Pd, (99m,99g,100,101m,101g,102m,102g,105)Rh and (103,97)Ru radioisotopes. The cross section data were compared with the theoretical predictions of TENDL-2014 and -2015 libraries. For practical applications thick target yields were derived from the measured excitation functions. Application in the field of medical radionuclide production is shortly discussed. PMID:27235887

  3. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Nuclear excitation and precompound nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    De, A.; Ray, S.; Ghosh, S.K.

    1988-06-01

    The angular distribution of nucleons emitted in nucleon-induced precompound nuclear reactions are calculated taking into account the effect of excitation on the kinematics of nucleon-nucleon scattering inside the target-plus-projectile system. The results are compared with quantum mechanical calculations and those of reaction models based on a pure nucleon-nucleon collision picture.

  5. Nuclear Reaction Models Responsible for Simulation of Neutron-induced Soft Errors in Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y. Abe, S.

    2014-06-15

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in MOSFETs from a 65 nm down to a 25 nm design rule are analyzed by means of multi-scale Monte Carlo simulation using the PHITS-HyENEXSS code system. Nuclear reaction models implemented in PHITS code are validated by comparisons with experimental data. From the analysis of calculated soft error rates, it is clarified that secondary He and H ions provide a major impact on soft errors with decreasing critical charge. It is also found that the high energy component from 10 MeV up to several hundreds of MeV in secondary cosmic-ray neutrons has the most significant source of soft errors regardless of design rule.

  6. Analysis of the Nuclear Structure of 186 Re Using Neutron-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matters, David; McClory, John; Carroll, James; Chiara, Chris; Fotiades, Nikolaos; Devlin, Matt; Nelson, Ron O.

    2015-04-01

    Evaluated nuclear structure data for 186 Re identifies the majority of spin-parity assignments as tentative, with approximate values associated with the energies of several levels and transitions. In particular, the absence of known transitions that feed the Jπ =8+ isomer motivates their discovery, which would have astrophysical implications and a potential application in the development of an isomer power source. Using the GErmanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE) spectrometer at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, the (n,2n γ) and (n,n' γ) reactions in a 99.52% enriched 187 Re target were used to measure γ-ray excitation functions in 186 Re and 187 Re, respectively. A preliminary analysis of the data obtained from the experiment reveals several new transitions in 186 Re and 187 Re.

  7. Tungsten fragmentation in nuclear reactions induced by high-energy cosmic-ray protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chechenin, N. G.; Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, A. A.; Kadmenskii, A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten fragmentation arising in nuclear reactions induced by cosmic-ray protons in space-vehicle electronics is considered. In modern technologies of integrated circuits featuring a three-dimensional layered architecture, tungsten is frequently used as a material for interlayer conducting connections. Within the preequilibrium model, tungsten-fragmentation features, including the cross sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons of energy between 30 and 240 MeV; the yields of isotopes and isobars; their energy, charge, and mass distributions; and recoil energy spectra, are calculated on the basis of the TALYS and EMPIRE-II-19 codes. It is shown that tungsten fragmentation affects substantially forecasts of failures of space-vehicle electronics.

  8. Tungsten fragmentation in nuclear reactions induced by high-energy cosmic-ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Chechenin, N. G. Chuvilskaya, T. V.; Shirokova, A. A.; Kadmenskii, A. G.

    2015-01-15

    Tungsten fragmentation arising in nuclear reactions induced by cosmic-ray protons in space-vehicle electronics is considered. In modern technologies of integrated circuits featuring a three-dimensional layered architecture, tungsten is frequently used as a material for interlayer conducting connections. Within the preequilibrium model, tungsten-fragmentation features, including the cross sections for the elastic and inelastic scattering of protons of energy between 30 and 240 MeV; the yields of isotopes and isobars; their energy, charge, and mass distributions; and recoil energy spectra, are calculated on the basis of the TALYS and EMPIRE-II-19 codes. It is shown that tungsten fragmentation affects substantially forecasts of failures of space-vehicle electronics.

  9. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2014-08-01

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on natCd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the 110,113g,117mSn, 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117gIn, and 111m,115gCd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  10. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. [Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  11. Monoenergetic proton emission from nuclear reaction induced by high intensity laser-generated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Krasa, J.; Margarone, D.; Velyhan, A.; Ullschmied, J.; Kravarik, J.; Wolowski, J.; Szydlowski, A.; Rosinski, M.

    2012-02-15

    A 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} Asterix laser pulse intensity, 1315 nm at the fundamental frequency, 300 ps pulse duration, was employed at PALS laboratory of Prague, to irradiate thick and thin primary CD{sub 2} targets placed inside a high vacuum chamber. The laser irradiation produces non-equilibrium plasma with deutons and carbon ions emission with energy of up to about 4 MeV per charge state, as measured by time-of-flight (TOF) techniques by using ion collectors and silicon carbide detectors. Accelerated deutons may induce high D-D cross section for fusion processes generating 3 MeV protons and 2.5 MeV neutrons, as measured by TOF analyses. In order to increase the mono-energetic proton yield, secondary CD{sub 2} targets can be employed to be irradiated by the plasma-accelerated deutons. Experiments demonstrated that high intensity laser pulses can be employed to promote nuclear reactions from which characteristic ion streams may be developed. Results open new scenario for applications of laser-generated plasma to the fields of ion sources and ion accelerators.

  12. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-12-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A {approx_equal} 182 region, structure of {sup 182}Hg and {sup 182}Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm and the anomalous h{sub 11/2} proton crossing in the A{approximately}135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier {alpha} particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4{pi} channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  13. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. [Dept. of Chemistry, Washington Univ. , St. Louis, Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The research program described touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin (hyperdeformation in the mass A [approx equal] 182 region, structure of [sup 182]Hg and [sup 182]Au at high spin, a highly deformed band in [sup 136]Pm and the anomalous h[sub 11/2] proton crossing in the A[approximately]135 superdeformed region), studies at the interface between structure and reactions (population of entry states in heavy-ion fusion reactions, nuclear structure effects in proton evaporation spectra, nuclear structure- dependent entry state population by total spectroscopy, entrance channel effects in fusion near the barrier, lifetimes of subbarrier [alpha] particles by the atomic clock method), production and study of hot nuclei (the statistical model evaporation code EVAP, statistical emission of deuterons and tritons from highly excited compound nuclei, heavy-fragment emission as a probe of the thermal properties of highly excited compound nuclei, use of incoming-wave boundary condition transmission coefficients in the statistical model: implications in the particle evaporation spectra, study of transparency in the optical model), reaction mechanism studies (binary character of highly dissipative [sup 209]Bi + [sup 136]Xe collisions at E/A=28.2 MeV), and development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in these areas of research (including a 4[pi] channel selection device, a novel x-ray detector, and a simple channel-selecting detector).

  14. Experimental study to explore the 8Be-induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Qun-Gang; Li, Cheng-Bo; Zhou, Shu-Hua; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Fu, Yuan-Yong; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Zhou, Jing; Meng, Qiu-Ying; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for 8Be induced astrophysical reactions, the 8Be=(8Be+n ) cluster structure has been studied via the Trojan horse method. For the first time a 8Be nucleus having an ultrashort lifetime is studied by the Trojan horse method and a 9Be nucleus in the ground state is used for this purpose. The 9Be nucleus is assumed to have a (8Be+n ) cluster structure and used as a Trojan horse nucleus. The 8Be nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual 8Be+d →α +6Li reaction via the 3-body reaction 8Be+d →α +6Li+n . The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside 9Be has been reconstructed. The agreement between the experimental momentum distribution and the theoretical one indicates that a (8Be+n ) cluster structure inside 9Be is very likely. Therefore, the experimental study of 8Be induced reactions, for example, the measurement of the 8Be+α →12C reaction proceeding through the Hoyle state, is possible.

  15. Deuteron Induced ( d,p) and ( d,2p) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Kara, A.

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that the nuclear reactions of charged particles with nuclei are very important in many fields of nuclear physics. The interactions of deuterons with nuclei have been especially the subject of common research in the history of nuclear physics. Moreover, the knowledge of cross section for deuteron-nucleus interactions are required for various application such as space applications, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, nuclear medicine, nuclear fission reactors and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors. Particularly, the future of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors is largely dependent on the nuclear reaction cross section data and the selection of structural fusion materials. Finally, the reaction cross section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development and design of both experimental and commercial fusion devices. In this work, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as Al ( Aluminium), Ti ( Titanium), Cu ( Copper), Ni ( Nickel), Co ( Cobalt), Fe ( Iron), Zr ( Zirconium), Hf ( Hafnium) and Ta ( Tantalum) have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27 Al( d,2p) 27 Mg, 47 Ti( d,2p) 47 Sc, 65 Cu( d,2p) 65 Ni, 58 Ni( d,2p) 58 Co, 59 Co( d,2p) 59 Fe, 58 Fe( d,p) 59 Fe, 96 Zr( d,p) 97 Zr, 180 Hf ( d,p) 181 Hf and 181 Ta( d,p) 182 Ta have been carried out for incident deuteron energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the equilibrium and pre-equilibrium effects for ( d,p) and ( d,2p) reactions have been investigated. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing ( WE) Model. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model ( GDH) and Hybrid Model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the

  16. Experimental cross-sections for proton-induced nuclear reactions on natMo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červenák, Jaroslav; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the Co-ordinated Research Project of the IAEA, we measured in detail cross-sections of the nuclear reactions natMo(p,x)93gTc, 93mTc, 93m+gTc, 94gTc, 94mTc, 95gTc, 95mTc, 96m+gTc, 97mTc, 99mTc, 90Mo, 93mMo, 99Mo, 88gNb, 88mNb, 89gNb, 89mNb, 90m+gNb, 90m+gNbcum, 91mNb, 92mNb, 95gNb, 95mNb, 95m+gNb, 96Nb, 97m+gNb, 88m+gZrcum and 89m+gZrcum in the energy range of 6.9-35.8 MeV. The data for formation of 97mTc, 88gNb, 88mNb and 89mNb are reported for the first time. The obtained results were compared to the prediction of the nuclear reaction model code TALYS adopted from the TENDL-2015 library and to the previously published cross-sections. The thick target yields for all the radionuclides were calculated from the measured data. We suggest recommended cross-sections and thick target yields for the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc, 100Mo(p,x)99Mo and natMo(p,x)96m+gTc nuclear reactions deduced from the selected experimental data.

  17. Non-thermal processes in standard big bang nucleosynthesis: I. In-flight nuclear reactions induced by energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronchev, V. T.; Nakao, Y.; Nakamura, M.

    2008-05-01

    The standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) relies on a nuclear reaction network operating with thermal reactivities for Maxwellian plasma. In the primordial plasma, however, a number of non-thermal processes triggered by energetic particles of various origins can take place. In the present work we examine in-flight nuclear reactions induced in the plasma by MeV protons generated in D(d, p)T and 3He(d, p)4He fusions. We particularly focus on several low threshold endoergic processes. These are reactions omitted in the standard network—proton-induced break-ups of loosely bound D, 7Li, 7Be nuclei—and the 3H(p, n)3He charge-exchange reaction important for the interconversion of A = 3 nuclei in the early universe. It is found that the break-up processes in the plasma take the form of Maxwellian processes at temperatures T>70 keV, while in the lower temperature range they proceed as non-thermal reactions. It is shown that at T<70 keV the in-flight reaction channels can enhance the break-up reactivities by several orders of magnitude. The levels of these reactivities however remain insufficiently high to affect BBN kinetics and change the standard prediction of light element abundances. The abundances are found to be: Yp = 0.2457, D/H = 2.542 × 10-5, 3He/H = 1.004 × 10-5, 7Li/H = 4.444 × 10-10. Future steps in the study of non-thermal processes in the primordial plasma are briefly discussed.

  18. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2016-07-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced reactions on gold for production of (197m,197g,195m,195g, 193m,193g,192)Hg, (196m,196g(cum),195g(cum),194,191(cum))Au, (191(cum))Pt and (192)Ir were measured up to 65MeV proton energy, some of them for the first time. The new data are in acceptably good agreement with the recently published earlier experimental data in the overlapping energy region. The experimental data are compared with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 (results in TENDL-2015 on-line library) and EMPIRE 3.2 code. PMID:27156194

  19. Measurements and analysis of alpha-induced reactions of importance for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Messieres, Genevieve Escande

    2011-11-01

    Reactions during stellar helium burning are of primary importance for understanding nucleosynthesis. A detailed understanding of the critical reaction chain 4He(2alpha, gamma)12C( alpha, gamma)16O(alpha, gamma) 20Ne is necessary both because it is the primary energy source and because it determines the ratio of 12C to 16O produced, which in turn significantly effects subsequent nucleosynthesis. Also during Helium burning, the reactions 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg and 22Ne(alpha, gamma )26Mg are crucial in determining the amount of neutrons available for the astrophysical s-process. This thesis presents new experimental results concerning the 16O(alpha, gamma) 20Ne, 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg, and 22Ne(alpha, gamma)26Mg reaction rates. These results are then applied to the calculation of the associated stellar reaction rates in order to achieve better accuracy.

  20. Theory of Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal grains and particles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeong E

    2009-07-01

    Recently, there have been many reports of experimental results which indicate occurrences of anomalous deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in metals at low energies. A consistent conventional theoretical description is presented for anomalous low-energy deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in metal. The theory is based on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state occupied by deuterons trapped in a micro/nano-scale metal grain or particle. The theory is capable of explaining most of the experimentally observed results and also provides theoretical predictions, which can be tested experimentally. Scalabilities of the observed effects are discussed based on theoretical predictions. PMID:19440686

  1. Disassembly of hot nuclear matter formed in Au-induced reactions near the Fermi energy

    SciTech Connect

    Delis, D.N.

    1993-09-01

    Complex fragment emission has been studied in the 60 MeV/A {sup 197}Au + {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 51}V, {sup nat}Cu, and {sup 197}Au reactions. Velocity spectra, angular distributions and cross sections have been constructed for each target from the inclusive data. Coincidence data including 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-fold events have also been examined. Furthermore neutron multiplicity distributions have been obtained for the above reactions by utilizing a novel neutron calorimetric approach.

  2. Transfer reactions in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardayan, D. W.

    2016-08-01

    To a high degree many aspects of the large-scale behavior of objects in the Universe are governed by the underlying nuclear physics. In fact the shell structure of nuclear physics is directly imprinted into the chemical abundances of the elements. The tranquility of the night sky is a direct result of the relatively slow rate of nuclear reactions that control and determines a star’s fate. Understanding the nuclear structure and reaction rates between nuclei is vital to understanding our Universe. Nuclear-transfer reactions make accessible a wealth of knowledge from which we can extract much of the required nuclear physics information. A review of transfer reactions for nuclear astrophysics is presented with an emphasis on the experimental challenges and opportunities for future development.

  3. Nuclear reactions induced by deuterons and their applicability to skin tumor treatment through BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, A. A.; Roldán, T. del V.; Kreiner, A. J.; Minsky, D. M.; Valda, A. A.

    2008-11-01

    In this work the D(d,n) 3He and 9Be(d,n) 10B reactions have been studied in a low-energy regime as neutron sources for skin tumor treatment in the frame of accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT). The total neutron production and the energy and angular distributions for each reaction at different bombarding energies and for the thick targets considered (TiD 2, Be) have been determined using the available data in the literature. From this information, a feasibility study has been performed by means of MCNP simulations. The thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes and doses at skin tumor positions (loaded with 40 ppm 10B) which are located on a whole-body human phantom have been simulated for different D 2O moderator depths. The best-case performance shows that a high tumor control probability (TCP) of 99% corresponding to a weighted dose in tumor of 40 Gy can be reached at the tumor position keeping the weighted dose in healthy tissue below 12.5 Gy, by means of the 9Be(d,n) 10B reaction at 1.1 MeV for a deuteron current of 20 mA and a 30 cm D 2O moderator in 52 min. The availability of low-energy neutrons in the 9Be(d,n) 10B reaction from the population of excited levels between 5.1 to 5.2 MeV in 10B and the convenience of a thin beryllium target are discussed. As a complement concerning alternatives to the Li(metal) + p reaction, the neutron yield of refractory lithium compounds (LiH, Li 3N and Li 2O) were calculated and compared with a Li metal target.

  4. Special features of isomeric ratios in nuclear reactions induced by various projectile particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H.; Bakhshiyan, T. M.; Martirosyan, G. V.

    2016-05-01

    Calculations for ( p, n) and (α, p3 n) reactions were performed with the aid of the TALYS-1.4 code. Reactions in which the mass numbers of target and product nuclei were identical were examined in the range of A = 44-124. Excitation functions were obtained for product nuclei in ground and isomeric states, and isomeric ratios were calculated. The calculated data reflect well the dependence of the isomeric ratios on the projectile type. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data reveals, that, for some nuclei in a high-spin state, the calculated data fall greatly short of their experimental counterparts. These discrepancies may be due to the presence of high-spin yrast states and rotational bands in these nuclei. Calculations involving various level-density models included in the TALYS-1.4 code with allowance for the enhancement of collective effects do not remove the discrepancies in the majority of cases.

  5. ''Subthreshold'' reactions involving nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, M.; Shrock, R.

    2001-02-01

    We analyze reactions of several types that are naively below threshold but can proceed because of the release of binding energy from nuclear fission and occasionally the formation of Coulombic bound states. These reactions include (i) photofission with pion production and (ii) charged current neutrino-nucleus reactions that lead to fission and/or formation of a Coulomb bound state of a {mu}{sup -} with the nucleus of a fission fragment. We comment on the possible experimental observation of these reactions.

  6. Depth Profiling of N and C in Ion Implanted ZnO and Si Using Deuterium Induced Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, John; Murmu, Peter; Markwitz, Andreas

    2008-11-03

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) with deuteron ion beams has been used to probe for ion implanted nitrogen and carbon with high sensitivity in zinc oxide and silicon single crystals. The ion implanted N was measured using 1.4 MeV deuteron ion beams and was found to be in agreement with calculated values. The limit of detection for N in ZnO is 8x10{sup 14} ions cm{sup -2}. Raman measurements of the ion implanted samples showed three additional modes at 275, 504, and 644 cm{sup -1} compared to the un-implanted ZnO crystals. The NRA and Raman results provided information on the N concentration, depth distribution, and structural changes that occur in dependence on the nitrogen ion fluences. The deuterium induced {sup 12}C(d,p){sup 13}C reaction was used to measure the carbon impurity/dose in ion implanted silicon. It was found that the use of a large cold shield (liquid nitrogen trap) in the ion implanter chamber greatly reduces the amount of carbon impurity on the surface of ion implanted silicon. Various implantations with N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2} and Pb ions were performed with and without cooling of the liquid nitrogen trap. Simultaneous detection of ppm-level concentrations of {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O and {sup 14}N enables highly sensitive measurement of impurities that may be incorporated during the fabrication process, transport of the samples and/or storage of the samples in air.

  7. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1983-07-31

    This is an interim report describing completed, continuing and proposed research activities for the period 1 August 1983-31 January 1985. These activities include studies of few-body systems, nuclear reaction models, atomic and molecular structure, nuclear electroexcitation and photon scattering from nuclei.

  8. Tilting mode in nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dossing, T.; Randrup, J.

    1986-02-01

    The relation between tilting relaxation and the reaction plane dynamics is discussed, providing an intuitive understanding of the expression for the cross section close to the beam direction, which has recently been derived. Second, the tilting relaxation time and the related wriggling relaxation time are discussed, based upon nucleon exchange transport (window friction). Finally, recent experimental information on the tilting mode relaxation is discussed, and the dynamics of the tilting mode is discussed qualitatively for the three different types of nuclear reactions considered, compound nucleus fission, quasifission, and damped nuclear reactions. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Activation cross sections of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of ¹⁷⁸W/(178m)Ta generator.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of (178m)Ta through (nat)Hf(α,xn)(178)W-(178m)Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions (nat)Hf(α,x)(179,177,176,175)W, (183,182,178g,177,176,175)Ta, (179m,177m,175)Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and γ-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the (nat)Ta(d,xn)(178)W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ((3)He,x)) production routes for (178)W. PMID:24926946

  10. Nuclear reaction techniques in materials analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Amsel, G.; Lanford, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses nuclear reaction microanalysis (NRA). In NRA, data accumulated in the frame of low-energy nuclear physics is put to advantage for analytical purposes. Unknown targets are bombarded and known reactions are observed. For NRA, the accelerator, detectors, spectrum recording and interpretation must be reliable, simple, and fast. Other MeV ion-beam analytical techniques are described which are complementary to NRA, such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS), proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), and the more recent method of elastic recoil detection (ERD). Applications for NRA range from solid-state physics and electrochemistry, semiconductor technology, metallurgy, materials science, and surface science to biology and archeology.

  11. The nuclear reaction code McGNASH.

    SciTech Connect

    Talou, P.; Chadwick, M. B.; Chadwick, M B; Young, P. G. ,; Kawano, T.

    2004-01-01

    McGNASH is a modern statitistical/preequilibrium nuclear reaction code, being developed at Los Alamos, which can simulate neutron-, proton- and photon-induced reactions in the energy range from a few-keV to about 150 MeV. It is written in modern Fortran 95 scientific language, offering new capabilities both for the developer and the user. McGNASH is still in a development stage, and a first public release is planned for later in 2005. The statisticaUpre-equilibrium nuclear reaction code GNASH has been used successfully over the years to compute neutron-, proton- and photon-induced reactions cross sections on a variety of nuclei targets, and for incident particle energies from tens of keV up to 150-200 MeV. This code has been instrumental in producing numerous nuclear data evaluation files for various ENDF libraries around the World, and in particular the ENDFB-VI and pre-ENDFB-VII libraries in the US. More recently, GNASH was used extensively for the creation of the LA1501ibrary, including data on neutron- and proton-induced reactions up to 150 MeV incident energy. We are now developing a modern version of the code, called McGNASH.

  12. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyam, Radhey

    2016-05-01

    In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5) to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  13. Investigation of activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natMo up to 40 MeV: New data and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 90Mo(cum), 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(cum), 92mNb, 95mNb, 95gNb, 96Nb and 88Zr(cum), 89Zr(cum) were measured up to 40 MeV proton energy by a using stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to study the production possibility of the medically important 99mTc and its 99Mo parent nucleus, to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of proton beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analysed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes.

  14. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  15. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-01-13

    In this study, one of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculationsmore » of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.« less

  16. Investigations of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions induced by complex projectiles. Progress report for the period September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantites, D.G.

    1993-09-06

    This is a progress report on activities of the Washington University group in nuclear reaction studies for the period Sept 1, 1992 to Aug 31, 1993. This group has a research program which touches five areas of nuclear physics: nuclear structure studies at high spin; studies at the interface between structure and reactions; production and study of hot nuclei; reaction mechanism studies; development and use of novel techniques and instrumentation in the above areas of research. Specific activities of the group include in part: superdeformation in {sup 82}Sr; structure of and identical bands in {sup 182}Hg and {sup 178}Pt; a highly deformed band in {sup 136}Pm; particle decay of the {sup 164}Yb compound nucleus; fusion reactions; proton evaporation; two-proton decay of {sup 12}O; modeling and theoretical studies; excited {sup 16}O disassembly into four alpha particles; {sup 209}Bi + {sup 136}Xe collisions at 28.2 MeV/amu; and development work on 4{pi} solid angle gamma detectors, and x-ray detectors.

  17. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  18. EMPIRE: A Reaction Model Code for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Capote, R.

    2014-06-01

    The correct modeling of abundances requires knowledge of nuclear cross sections for a variety of neutron, charged particle and γ induced reactions. These involve targets far from stability and are therefore difficult (or currently impossible) to measure. Nuclear reaction theory provides the only way to estimate values of such cross sections. In this paper we present application of the EMPIRE reaction code to nuclear astrophysics. Recent measurements are compared to the calculated cross sections showing consistent agreement for n-, p- and α-induced reactions of strophysical relevance.

  19. EMPIRE: A Reaction Model Code for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, A.; Herman, M.; Capote, R.

    2014-06-15

    The correct modeling of abundances requires knowledge of nuclear cross sections for a variety of neutron, charged particle and γ induced reactions. These involve targets far from stability and are therefore difficult (or currently impossible) to measure. Nuclear reaction theory provides the only way to estimate values of such cross sections. In this paper we present application of the EMPIRE reaction code to nuclear astrophysics. Recent measurements are compared to the calculated cross sections showing consistent agreement for n-, p- and α-induced reactions of strophysical relevance.

  20. Nuclear Reactions on Unstable Nuclei and the Surrogate Reaction Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J

    2004-03-01

    Determining reaction cross sections on short-lived nuclear species is a major challenge for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics. Many of these nuclei are too difficult to produce with currently available experimental techniques or too short-lived to serve as targets in present-day set-ups. Some nuclear reactions will remain immeasurable even at upcoming and planned radioactive beam facilities. It is therefore important to explore alternative methods for determining reaction cross sections on unstable nuclei.

  1. Reaction models in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    We present different reaction models commonly used in nuclear astrophysics, in particular for the nucleosynthesis of light elements. Pioneering works were performed within the potential model, where the internal structure of the colliding nuclei is completely ignored. Significant advances in microscopic cluster models provided the first microscopic description of the 3He(α,&gamma)7 Be reaction more than thirty years ago. In this approach, the calculations are based on an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, but the cluster approximation should be made to simplify the calculations. Nowadays, modern microscopic calculations are able to go beyond the cluster approximation, and aim at finding exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation with realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. We discuss recent examples on the d+d reactions at low energies.

  2. Activation cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on thulium in the 20-45 MeV energy range.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Spahn, I; Ignatyuk, A V

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on (169)Tm were measured in the 20-45MeV energy range using the standard stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross-sections and derived integral yields are reported for the production of (169,167,166)Yb and (168,167,166)Tm radioisotopes. The experimental data are analysed and compared to results of the earlier measurements and the theoretical model codes ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS. Application of the new cross-sections to the production of the (167)Tm medical radioisotope is discussed. PMID:21920768

  3. Model for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions: /sup 93/Nb(. cap alpha. ,x. cap alpha. ypzn) from 40--140 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Gadioli, E.; Gadioli-Erba, E.; Hogan, J.J.; Jacak, B.V.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive model is introduced for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions. Five different mechanisms are examined and discussed. These include inelastic scattering of the incident alpha particle, nucleon pickup, binary fragmentation, dissolution of the alpha in the nuclear field, and preequilibrium processes initiated by alpha-nucleon collisions. A series of experiments was performed to measure the excitation functions of many nuclides produced from the irradiation of /sup 93/Nb by 40--140 MeV alpha particles. Together with alpha particle and proton spectra measured by other authors, these data form the basis of a test of the model introduced. A detailed analysis of the comparison between the calculated and experimental results, with particular emphasis on the interpretation of breakup processes, leads to the conclusion that breakup to four nucleons is preferred to the more commonly assumed binary fragmentation in that a much broader range of experimental data may be reproduced.

  4. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section data for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y via proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced transmutations.

    PubMed

    Zaneb, H; Hussain, M; Amjad, N; Qaim, S M

    2016-06-01

    Proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced reactions on (87,88)Sr, (nat)Zr and (85)Rb targets were evaluated for the production of (87,88)Y. The literature data were compared with nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The evaluated cross sections were generated; therefrom thick target yields of (87,88)Y were calculated. Analysis of radio-yttrium impurities and yield showed that the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y and (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reactions are the best routes for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y respectively. The calculated yield for the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y reaction is 104 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 14→2.7MeV. Similarly, the calculated yield for the (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reaction is 3.2 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 15→7MeV. PMID:27016709

  5. Neutron-induced reaction studies using stored ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorius, Jan; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Reifarth, René

    2015-11-01

    Storage rings provide unique possibilities for investigations of nuclear reactions. Radioactive ions can be stored if the ring is connected to an appropriate facility and reaction studies are feasible at low beam intensities because of the recycling of beam particles. Using gas jet or droplet targets, charged particle-induced reactions on short-lived isotopes can be studied in inverse kinematics. In such a system a high-flux reactor could serve as a neutron target extending the experimental spectrum to neutron-induced reactions. Those could be studied over a wide energy range covering the research fields of nuclear astrophysics and reactor safety, transmutation of nuclear waste and fusion.

  6. The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2007-03-01

    The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy without significant radiation or radioactivity. Edmund K Storms, The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in press (2006). Also see: http://www.lenr-canr.org/StudentsGuide.htm .

  7. Nucleon exchange in damped nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J.

    1986-04-01

    Starting from the general context of one-body nuclear dynamics, the nucleon-exchange mechanism in damped nuclear reactions is discussed. Some of its characteristic effects on various dinuclear observables are highlighted and a few recent advances are described.

  8. Photochemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization Observed by Solid-State NMR in a Uniformly (13)C-Isotope-Labeled Photosynthetic Reaction Center.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shubhajit; Bode, Bela E; Matysik, Jörg; Alia, A

    2015-10-29

    A sample of solubilized and quinone-depleted reaction centers from the purple bacterium Rhodobacter (R.) sphaeroides wild type has been prepared entirely (13)C and (15)N isotope labeled at all positions of the protein as well as of the cofactors. In this sample, the occurrence of the solid-state photo-CIDNP (photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization) effect has been probed by (13)C solid-state magic-angle spinning NMR under illumination. Under continuous illumination, signal intensities are modified by the three-spin mixing (TSM) mechanism. Time-resolved illumination experiments reveal the occurrence of light-induced nuclear polarization on the time scale of hundreds of microseconds, initially dominated by the transient polarization of the singlet branch of the radical-pair mechanism. A first kinetic analysis shows that the lifetime of the polarization from the singlet branch, indicated by the enhanced absorptive intensities of the signals from aliphatic carbons, is significantly extended. Upon arrival of the polarization from the triplet decay branch, emissive polarization caused by the TSM mechanism is observed. Also, this arrival is significantly delayed. The decay of TSM polarization occurs in two steps, assigned to intra- and intermolecular spin diffusion. PMID:26110356

  9. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. PMID:26226220

  10. PICA95: An intranuclear-cascade code for 25-MeV to 3.5-GeV photon-induced nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Gabriel, T.A.; Lillie, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    PICA95, an intranuclear-cascade code for calculating photon-induced nuclear reactions for incident photon energies up to 3.5 GeV, is an extension of the original PICA code package that works for incident photon energies up to 400 MeV. The original code includes the quasi-deuteron breakup and single-pion production channels. The extension to an incident photon energy of 3.5 GeV requires the addition of multiple-pion production channels capable of emitting up to five pions. Relativistic phase-space relations are used to conserve energy and momentum in multi-body breakups. Fermi motion of the struck nucleon is included in the phase-space calculations as well as secondary nuclear collisions of the produced particles. Calculated doubly differential cross sections for the productions of protons, neutrons, {pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup 0}, and {pi}{sup {minus}} for incident photon energies of 500 MeV, 1 GeV, and 2 GeV are compared with predictions by other codes. Due to the sparsity of experimental data, more experiments are needed in order to refine the gamma nuclear collision model.

  11. Student Reactions to Nuclear Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Nelson, Linden

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a study that focused on the psychological impact of nuclear education curriculum on middle school students. Concluded that instruction about nuclear issues rarely increases students' fear or worry about nuclear war. (RT)

  12. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B.L.

    1996-08-20

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue. 25 figs.

  13. Ion-induced nuclear radiotherapy

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.; Doyle, Barney L.

    1996-01-01

    Ion-induced Nuclear Radiotherapy (INRT) is a technique for conducting radiosurgery and radiotherapy with a very high degree of control over the spatial extent of the irradiated volume and the delivered dose. Based upon the concept that low energy, ion induced atomic and nuclear reactions can be used to produce highly energetic reaction products at the site of a tumor, the INRT technique is implemented through the use of a conduit-needle or tube which conducts a low energy ion beam to a position above or within the intended treatment area. At the end of the conduit-needle or tube is a specially fabricated target which, only when struck by the ion beam, acts as a source of energetic radiation products. The inherent limitations in the energy, and therefore range, of the resulting reaction products limits the spatial extent of irradiation to a pre-defined volume about the point of reaction. Furthermore, since no damage is done to tissue outside this irradiated volume, the delivered dose may be made arbitrarily large. INRT may be used both as a point-source of radiation at the site of a small tumor, or as a topical bath of radiation to broad areas of diseased tissue.

  14. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: 2007 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivit, Steven B.

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of low energy nuclear reactions, a subset of the field of condensed matter nuclear science. Condensed matter nuclear science studies nuclear effects in and/or on condensed matter, including low energy nuclear reactions, an entirely new branch of science that gained widespread attention and notoriety beginning in 1989 with the announcement of a previously unrecognized source of energy by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that came to be known as cold fusion. Two branches of LENR are recognized. The first includes a set of reactions like those observed by Fleischmann and Pons that use palladium and deuterium and yield excess heat and helium-4. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain these reactions, however there is no consensus for, or general acceptance of, any of the theories. The claim of fusion is still considered speculative and, as such, is not an ideal term for this work. The other branch is a wide assortment of nuclear reactions that may occur with either hydrogen or deuterium. Anomalous nuclear transmutations are reported that involve light as well as heavy elements. The significant questions that face this field of research are: 1) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? 2) If so, is there a release of excess energy? 3) If there is, is the energy release cost-effective?

  15. EXFOR Library of Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The EXFOR library contains an extensive compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data up to 1 GeV. Neutron reactions have been compiled systematically since the discovery of the neutron, while charged particle(up to carbon) and photon reactions have been covered less extensively. Files contain nuclear reaction data such as cross sections, spectra, angular distributions, polarizations, etc, along with information on experimental technique, error analysis, and applied standards. Numerous search parameters include: target, beam, product, experimental method, and even author and publication names. The library contains data from more than 20,000 experiments. (Specialized Interface)

  16. New activation cross section data on longer lived radio-nuclei produced in proton induced nuclear reaction on zirconium.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Al-Abyad, M; Yamazaki, H; Baba, M; Mohammadi, M A

    2015-03-01

    The excitation functions of (96)Nb, (95m)Nb, (95g)Nb, (92m)Nb, (91m)Nb, (90)Nb, (95)Zr, (89)Zr, (88)Zr, (86)Zr, (88)Y, (87m)Y, (87g)Y, (86)Y were measured up to 70MeV proton energy by using the stacked foil technique and the activation method. The new data were compared with the critically analyzed experimental data in the literature and with the TALYS based model results in TENDL-2013 library. The possible role of the investigated reactions in the production of medically relevant (90)Nb, (95m)Nb, (89)Zr, and (88)Y radionuclides is discussed. PMID:25579457

  17. Nuclear model analysis of excitation functions of proton induced reactions on ⁸⁶Sr, ⁸⁸Sr and natZr: Evaluation of production routes of ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Zaneb, H; Hussain, M; Amjed, N; Qaim, S M

    2015-10-01

    The proton induced nuclear reactions on (86)Sr, (88)Sr and (nat)Zr were investigated for the production of (86)Y. The literature data were compared with the results of nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The thick target yields of (86)Y were calculated from the recommended excitation functions. Analysis of radioyttrium impurities was also performed. A comparison of the various production routes showed that for medical applications of (86)Y, the reaction (86)Sr(p,n)(86)Y is the method of choice, which gives efficient yield with minimum impurities. PMID:26210800

  18. Experimental cross-sections for proton induced nuclear reactions on mercury up to 65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szücs, Z.; Brezovcsik, K.

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sections for formation of activation products induced by protons on natural mercury targets were measured. Results for 196m,196g,197g(cum), 198m,198g,199g(cum), 200g(cum), 201,202Tl, 194g(cum), 195g(cum), 196g(cum), 198m,199g(cum) Au and 195m,197m,203Hg are presented up to 65 MeV incident particle energy, many of these for the first time. The experimental data are compared with literature values and with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 code (results taken from TENDL-2015 on-line library), thick target yields were derived and possible applications in biomedical sciences are discussed.

  19. New data on cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 50 MeV and comparison of production routes of medically relevant Au and Hg radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Adam Rebeles, R.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Investigations of cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold were extended up to 50 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. New cross-sections are reported for the 197Au(d,xn)197m,197g,195m,195g,193m,193gHg and 197Au(d,x)198m,198g,196m,196g,195,194Au nuclear reactions. The application for production of the medically relevant isotopes 198Au and 195m,195g,197m,197gHg is discussed, including the comparison with other charged particle induced production routes. The possible use of the 197Au(d,x)197m,197g,195m,193mHg and 196m,196gAu reactions for monitoring deuteron beam parameters is also investigated.

  20. Compilation of Nuclear Reaction Data from RIBF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinaga, Ayano; Ebata, Shuichiro; Aikawa, Masayuki; Furutachi, Naoya; Ichinkhorloo, Dagvadorj; Katō, Kiyoshi; Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Devi, Vidya; Otuka, Naohiko; Kohama, Akihisa; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi

    Nuclear reaction data are useful in many fields, e.g., nuclear physics, astrophysics, nuclear engineering, and radiation therapy. It is therefore desirable to make such data freely available through a database. One such database is the EXFOR library, which is maintained under international cooperation. For the benefit of nuclear data users worldwide, the experimental nuclear data obtained at the RIKEN Radioisotope Beam Factory (RIBF) are continuously transmitted into the EXFOR library. We are effectively improving the completeness and usability of the data produced at the RIBF. In addition, a new format is being discussed to create convenient access to the databases for experimentalists and users.

  1. Clindamycin-induced hypersensitivity reaction.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Baccas, Jonathan T; Arnold, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced anaphylaxis is an unpredictable adverse reaction. Although it may occur with any medication, antibiotics induce more cases of anaphylaxis than any other medication class with most cases being induced by β-lactam antibiotics. Clindamycin is an antibiotic with good gram-positive and anaerobe coverage which is often used in patients with β-lactam allergies. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who experienced anaphylaxis after a dose of intravenous (IV) clindamycin. Following treatment with methylprednisolone, epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol, the patient stabilized. The patient's score on the Naranjo's algorithm was 8 (probable); a score of 9 (definite) limited only by absence of drug re-challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clindamycin-induced anaphylaxis where the patient was not exposed to any other agent that may have triggered the response, the first case in the United States, and only the third documented case in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug-induced anaphylaxis in all medications. PMID:26216470

  2. NUCLEAR REACTION MODELING FOR RIA ISOL TARGET DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    S. MASHNIK; ET AL

    2001-03-01

    Los Alamos scientists are collaborating with researchers at Argonne and Oak Ridge on the development of improved nuclear reaction physics for modeling radionuclide production in ISOL targets. This is being done in the context of the MCNPX simulation code, which is a merger of MCNP and the LAHET intranuclear cascade code, and simulates both nuclear reaction cross sections and radiation transport in the target. The CINDER code is also used to calculate the time-dependent nuclear decays for estimating induced radioactivities. They give an overview of the reaction physics improvements they are addressing, including intranuclear cascade (INC) physics, where recent high-quality inverse-kinematics residue data from GSI have led to INC spallation and fission model improvements; and preequilibrium reactions important in modeling (p,xn) and (p,xnyp) cross sections for the production of nuclides far from stability.

  3. Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin Weinberg, and others who participated in the first chain reaction experiments. The proceedings reflect differences of opinion among the scientists as well as the general public. References, slides, and tables used to illustrate the individual talks are included with the papers.

  4. Experimental nuclear reaction data collection EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Otuka, N.; Simakov, S. P.; Zerkin, V.

    2011-07-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) constitutes a worldwide cooperation of 14 nuclear data centres. The main activity of the NRDC Network is collection and compilation of experimental nuclear reaction cross section data and the related bibliographic information in the EXFOR and CINDA databases as well as dissemination of nuclear reaction data and associated documentation to users. The database contains information and numerical data from more than about 19000 experiments consisting of more than 140000 datasets. EXFOR is kept up to date by constantly adding newly published experimental information. Tools developed for data dissemination utilise modern database technologies with fast online capabilities over the Internet. Users are provided with sophisticated search options, a user-friendly retrieval interface for downloading data in different formats, and additional output options such as improved data plotting capabilities. The present status of the EXFOR database will be presented together with the latest development for data access and retrieval. (authors)

  5. Alternate Alpha Induced Reactions for NIF Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, D A; Moody, K J; Bernstein, L A

    2010-02-26

    Radiochemical analysis of NIF capsule residues has been identified as a potential diagnostic of NIF capsule performance. In particular, alpha-induced nuclear reactions that occur on tracer elements added to the NIF capsule have been shown through simulation to be a very sensitive diagnostic for mix. The short range of the alpha particles makes them representative of the hot spot where they are created through the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Reactions on elements doped into the innermost part of the capsule ablator would therefore be sensitive to material that had mixed into the hot spot. Radiochemical determinations of activated detector elements may perhaps be the only true measure of mix that occurs in a NIF capsule, particularly in cases when the capsule fails.

  6. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, (4)He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart. PMID:27558995

  7. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart. PMID:27558995

  8. MEANS FOR TERMINATING NUCLEAR REACTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, C.M.

    1959-02-17

    An apparatus is presented for use in a reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled type for the purpose of quickly terminating the reaction, the coolant being circulated through coolant tubes extending through the reactor core. Several of the tubes in the critical region are connected through valves to a tank containing a poisoning fluid having a high neutron capture crosssection and to a reservoir. When it is desired to quickly terminate the reaction, the valves are operated to permit the flow of the poisoning fluid through these particular tubes and into the reservoir while normal coolant is being circulated through the remaining tubes. The apparatus is designed to prevent contamination of the primary coolant by the poisoning fluid.

  9. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    PubMed

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat. PMID:23949247

  10. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. PMID:25644082

  11. Nuclear reactions for nucleosynthesis beyond Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2015-10-15

    Many more nuclear transitions have to be known in the determination of stellar reactivities for trans-iron nucleosynthesis than for reactions of light nuclei. This requires different theoretical and experimental approaches. Some of the issues specific for trans-iron nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  12. A Nuclear Reactions Primer with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calle, Carlos I.; Roach, Jennifer A.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a microcomputer software program NUCLEAR REACTIONS designed for college level students and in use at Sweet Briar College (Sweet Briar, VA). The program is written in Microsoft Basic Version 2.1 for the Apple Macintosh Microcomputer. It introduces two conservation principles: (1) conservation of charge; and (2) conservation of nucleon…

  13. Activation cross sections of proton and deuteron induced nuclear reactions on holmium and erbium, related to the production of (161)Er and (160)Er medical isotopes.

    PubMed

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Baba, M

    2016-09-01

    Experimental excitation functions for long-lived products in proton induced reactions were measured with the activation method in the 37-65MeV energy range on natural holmium. Stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma spectrometry were used in order to measure cross-section data for the production of (161)Er, (160)Er and (1)(59,157)Dy. For comparison of the production routes of medically related (161)Er and (160)Er radioisotopes new experimental cross section data were deduced for the (162)Er(p,x)(161,160)Er and (162)Er(d,x)(161,160)Er reactions by re-evaluating gamma-ray spectra from earlier measurements. No earlier data were found in the literature for these reactions. The experimental data are compared with results of TALYS theoretical code reported in TENDL-2015. PMID:27451109

  14. Nuclear reactions used for superheavy element research

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A

    2008-02-26

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the 'Island of Stability' exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z > 112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using 48Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets ({sup 233,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 242,244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245,248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  15. Nuclear Reactions Used For Superheavy Element Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, Mark A.

    2008-04-17

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the 'Island of Stability' exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z>112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using {sup 48}Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets ({sup 233,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 242,244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245,248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  16. Nuclear Reactions Used For Superheavy Element Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the "Island of Stability" exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z>112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using 48Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets (233,238U, 237Np, 242,244Pu, 243Am, 245,248Cm, 249Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  17. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs.

  18. Simulation and evaluation of nuclear reaction spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizkelethy, G.

    1990-01-01

    A RUMP-like-[1] computer code was written for PCs in order to simulate and evaluate nuclear reaction spectra. The code was written in Turbo Pascal. Any particle-target combination can be used; the stopping power calculation based on the ZBL algorithm [2] and the cross sections are taken from experimental data. The effects of straggling and geometrical spread are included in the simulation. Examples are given for the 16O(d,P) 17O, 18O(P,α) 15N, 16O( 3He,α) 15O and 16O(α,α) 16O reactions and for ERDA measurements.

  19. Effective radii of deuteron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shintaro; Chiba, Satoshi; Yahiro, Masanobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Minomo, Kosho

    2011-05-15

    The continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) for exclusive reactions and the eikonal reaction theory (ERT) as an extension of CDCC to inclusive reactions are applied to deuteron-induced reactions. The CDCC result reproduces experimental data on the reaction cross section for d+{sup 58}Ni scattering at 200 MeV/nucleon, and ERT provides data on the neutron-stripping cross section for inclusive {sup 7}Li(d,n) reaction at 40 MeV. For deuteron-induced reactions at 200 MeV/nucleon, target-dependence of the reaction, elastic-breakup, nucleon-stripping, nucleon-removal, and complete- and incomplete-fusion cross sections is clearly explained by simple formulas. Accuracy of the Glauber model is also investigated.

  20. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  1. Development of a Nuclear Reaction Database on Silicon for Simulation of Neutron-Induced Single-Event Upsets in Microelectronics and its Application

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kodama, Akihiro; Tukamoto, Yasuyuki; Nakashima, Hideki

    2005-05-24

    We have developed a cross-section database for neutron-induced reactions on 28Si in the energy range between 2 MeV and 3 GeV in order to analyze single-event upsets (SEUs) phenomena induced by cosmic-ray neutrons in microelectronic devices. A simplified spherical device model is proposed for simulation of the initial processes of SEUs. The model is applied to SEU cross-section calculations for semiconductor memory devices. The calculated results are compared with measured SEU cross sections and the other simulation result. The dependence of SEU cross sections on incident neutron energy and secondary ions having the most important effects on SEUs are discussed.

  2. The CRISP Code for Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Anefalos, S.; Deppman, A.; Silva, Gilson da; Arruda-Neto, J.D. T.; Garcia, F.

    2005-05-24

    The CRISP package performs the intranuclear cascade process and the evaporation/fission competition resulting in a code that represents a good tool to describe complexes characteristics of the nuclear reactions, and opens the opportunity for applications in different fields, such as medical physics, photonuclear reactions, spallation or fission process initiated by different probes and in Accelerator Driven Systems, where precise description of energetic and angular neutron distribution, neutron multiplicity and spallation products information are needed. In the CRISP model, was included the time-sequence characteristics of the MCMC code and the evaporation/fission competition process model of the MCEF. Also, includes improvements in the code, as the excitation of nucleonic resonances heavier than Delta; the initial nuclear ground state construction according to the Fermi model and Pauli principle; and a more realistic Pauli blocking mechanism. Some consequences of the improvements performed in the code will be discussed, as, e.g., the absence of Pauli Principle violations observed in the occupation number for single-particle bound states, and the absence the lack of the unphysical nuclear boiling. At the present two other reaction channels are being includes, namely, the quasi-deuteron mechanism at energies between 40 MeV and 140 MeV, and the photon hadronization process, which gives rise to the shadowing effect. With these modifications it will be possible to use the CRISP code for energies above 40 MeV up to a few GeV not only for reactions initiated by protons and neutrons, but also by photons. We will describe some of the consequences resulting of these modifications and present some results in order to illustrate the possible applications, for which this package can be used, mainly those related to spallation process involving high-energy protons.

  3. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Mănăilescu, C.

    2015-02-24

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei.

  4. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Mǎnǎilescu, C.

    2015-02-01

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei.

  5. Laser-initiated primary and secondary nuclear reactions in Boron-Nitride.

    PubMed

    Labaune, C; Baccou, C; Yahia, V; Neuville, C; Rafelski, J

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams are a promising new approach to many applications, from medical radioisotopes to aneutronic energy production. We present results demonstrating the occurrence of secondary nuclear reactions, initiated by the primary nuclear reaction products, using multicomponent targets composed of either natural boron (B) or natural boron nitride (BN). The primary proton-boron reaction (p + (11)B → 3 α + 8.7 MeV), is one of the most attractive aneutronic fusion reaction. We report radioactive decay signatures in targets irradiated at the Elfie laser facility by laser-accelerated particle beams which we interpret as due to secondary reactions induced by alpha (α) particles produced in the primary reactions. Use of a second nanosecond laser beam, adequately synchronized with the short laser pulse to produce a plasma target, further enhanced the reaction rates. High rates and chains of reactions are essential for most applications. PMID:26882988

  6. Laser-initiated primary and secondary nuclear reactions in Boron-Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Yahia, V.; Neuville, C.; Rafelski, J.

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams are a promising new approach to many applications, from medical radioisotopes to aneutronic energy production. We present results demonstrating the occurrence of secondary nuclear reactions, initiated by the primary nuclear reaction products, using multicomponent targets composed of either natural boron (B) or natural boron nitride (BN). The primary proton-boron reaction (p + 11B → 3 α + 8.7 MeV), is one of the most attractive aneutronic fusion reaction. We report radioactive decay signatures in targets irradiated at the Elfie laser facility by laser-accelerated particle beams which we interpret as due to secondary reactions induced by alpha (α) particles produced in the primary reactions. Use of a second nanosecond laser beam, adequately synchronized with the short laser pulse to produce a plasma target, further enhanced the reaction rates. High rates and chains of reactions are essential for most applications.

  7. Laser-initiated primary and secondary nuclear reactions in Boron-Nitride

    PubMed Central

    Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Yahia, V.; Neuville, C.; Rafelski, J.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams are a promising new approach to many applications, from medical radioisotopes to aneutronic energy production. We present results demonstrating the occurrence of secondary nuclear reactions, initiated by the primary nuclear reaction products, using multicomponent targets composed of either natural boron (B) or natural boron nitride (BN). The primary proton-boron reaction (p + 11B → 3 α + 8.7 MeV), is one of the most attractive aneutronic fusion reaction. We report radioactive decay signatures in targets irradiated at the Elfie laser facility by laser-accelerated particle beams which we interpret as due to secondary reactions induced by alpha (α) particles produced in the primary reactions. Use of a second nanosecond laser beam, adequately synchronized with the short laser pulse to produce a plasma target, further enhanced the reaction rates. High rates and chains of reactions are essential for most applications. PMID:26882988

  8. Transport description of damped nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Randrup, J.

    1983-04-01

    Part I is an elementary introduction to the general transport theory of nuclear dynamics. It can be read without any special knowledge of the field, although basic quantum mechanics is required for the formal derivation of the general expression for the transport coefficients. The results can also be used in a wider context than the present one. Part II gives the student an up-to-date orientation about recent progress in the understanding of the angular-momentum variables in damped reactions. The emphasis is here on the qualitative understanding of the physics rather than the, at times somewhat tedious, formal derivations. (WHK)

  9. Photo- and neutrino-induced reactions for SNe nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Tatsushi

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino-induced nuclear reactions are considered to play important roles in the dynamics of supernova explosions and in supernova nucleosynthesis. For example, neutrino-inelastic scattering off light nuclei are supposed to assist the explosion by supplying the kinetic energy to the outgoing matters. The neutrino-nucleus reactions via the neutral and charged current of the weak interaction are the key reactions in the r-process nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven wind. To quantitatively understand those phenomena, precise data of the neutrino-nucleus reaction rates are indispensable. Recently developed secondary particle beams provide good experimental opportunities for determining the neutrino-nucleus reaction rates. A quasi-monochromatic laser Compton-scattered (LCS) photon beam is useful for studying the photonuclear reactions which are the direct analogue of the neutrino inelastic scatterings caused by the weak neutral current. On the other hand, real neutrino beams are ideal tools to directly measure the absolute neutrino-nucleus reaction rates. Another interesting probe will be the nuclear muon-capture reaction, because it can be applied for measurement of the targets with very small quantities thanks to its large capture probability. In this talk recent progress in ongoing experiments with LCS gamma-rays and muon beams will be presented. A new plan for direct measurement of the neutrino-nucleus reactions with an accelerator-driven neutrino beam will be also discussed.

  10. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickhoff, W. H.

    2016-06-01

    A review of the recent applications of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Emphasis is on the nonlocal implementation of the DOM that is capable of describing ground-state properties accurately when data like the nuclear charge density are available. The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied mostly on data from the (e, e' p) reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The DOM, conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. We have recently introduced a nonlocal dispersive optical potential for both the real and imaginary part. Nonlocal absorptive potentials yield equivalent elastic differential cross sections for 40Ca as compared to local ones but change the l-dependent absorption profile suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e' p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly described, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum protons obtained at Jefferson Lab. The nonlocal DOM allows a complete description of experimental data both above (up to 200 MeV) and below the Fermi energy in 40Ca. It is further demonstrated that elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering data constrain the spectral strength in the continuum of orbits that are nominally bound in the independent-particle model. Extension of this analysis to 48Ca allows a prediction of the neutron skin of this nucleus that is larger than most predictions made so far.

  11. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  12. The CCONE Code System and its Application to Nuclear Data Evaluation for Fission and Other Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, O.; Iwamoto, N.; Kunieda, S.; Minato, F.; Shibata, K.

    2016-01-01

    A computer code system, CCONE, was developed for nuclear data evaluation within the JENDL project. The CCONE code system integrates various nuclear reaction models needed to describe nucleon, light charged nuclei up to alpha-particle and photon induced reactions. The code is written in the C++ programming language using an object-oriented technology. At first, it was applied to neutron-induced reaction data on actinides, which were compiled into JENDL Actinide File 2008 and JENDL-4.0. It has been extensively used in various nuclear data evaluations for both actinide and non-actinide nuclei. The CCONE code has been upgraded to nuclear data evaluation at higher incident energies for neutron-, proton-, and photon-induced reactions. It was also used for estimating β-delayed neutron emission. This paper describes the CCONE code system indicating the concept and design of coding and inputs. Details of the formulation for modelings of the direct, pre-equilibrium and compound reactions are presented. Applications to the nuclear data evaluations such as neutron-induced reactions on actinides and medium-heavy nuclei, high-energy nucleon-induced reactions, photonuclear reaction and β-delayed neutron emission are mentioned.

  13. NNDC PERSPECTIVE ON NUCLEAR REACTION DATABASES AND ORELA.

    SciTech Connect

    OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-07-14

    We discuss perspective of the National Nuclear Data Center on nuclear reaction databases, focusing on contributions from the ORELA machine over more than 3 decades. We conclude that ORELA had profound impact on nuclear reaction databases, in particular CSISRS and ENDF. In addition, ORELA contributed considerable amount of data included in the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances, along with data of critical importance for nuclear reaction model calculations by codes such as EMPIRE.

  14. [4-aminopyridine induced rage reaction in mice].

    PubMed

    Xu, J H; Liu, H C; Zhang, Y P

    1991-03-01

    Rage reaction was induced in mice by sc 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 6 mg . kg-1. Mice appeared hyperreactive after 8-12 min and then squeaked and fought each other. These manifestations were most distinct in 10-30 min and subsided after 40-60 min. The occurrence of rage reaction on this dose level was around 90%. At higher doses 4-AP caused convulsions and death after evocation of rage reaction. The ED50 of 4-AP for eliciting rage reaction was 4.7 +/- 0.7 mg . kg-1 sc. No significant difference in induction of rage reaction was seen between male and female mice of different body weights. Both neuroleptic drugs (chlorpromazine, haloperidol, tarden and clozapine) and anxiolytic drugs (diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and meprobamate) inhibited 4-AP-induced rage reaction in mice. Barbiturates, Chloral hydrate, methaqualone, morphine hydrochloride, aspirin, phenytoin sodium, diphenhydramine hydrochloride, atropine sulfate, and procaine hydrochloride did not affect rage reaction. The 4-AP-induced aggressive behavior, similar to that induced by electric footshock or isolation, has the merits of convenience to deal with and time saving. Hence we recommended it as a screening method for drugs with neuroleptic and anxiolytic activities. PMID:1685615

  15. Applying Renormalization Group Techniques to Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldredge, Zachary; Bogner, Scott; Nunes, Filomena

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear reactions are commonly used to explore the physics of unstable nuclei. Therefore, it is important that accurate, computationally favorable methods exist to describe them. Reaction models often make use of effective nucleon-nucleus potentials (optical potentials) which fit low-energy scattering data and include an imaginary component to account for the removal of flux from the elastic channel. When describing reactions in momentum space, the coupling between low- and high-momentum states can pose a technical challenge. We would like potentials which allow us to compute low-momentum interactions without including highly virtual momentum states. A solution to this problem is to apply renormalization group (RG) techniques to produce a new effective potential in which high and low momentum degrees of freedom are decoupled, so that we need only consider momenta below some cutoff. This poster will present results relating to an implementation of RG techniques on optical potentials, including complex potentials and spin-orbit effects. We show that our evolved optical potentials reproduce bound states and scattering phase shifts without the inclusion of any momenta above a selected cutoff, and compare new potentials to old ones to examine the effect of transformation.

  16. Modeling Proton- and Light Ion-Induced Reactions at Low Energies in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.

    2015-04-25

    An implementation of both ALICE code and TENDL evaluated nuclear data library in order to describe nuclear reactions induced by low-energy projectiles in the Monte Carlo code MARS15 is presented. Comparisons between results of modeling and experimental data on reaction cross sections and secondary particle distributions are shown.

  17. Nuclear physics reactions of astrophysical importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Patrick D.

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the origin of elements in the universe is one of the main goals of nuclear science and astrophysics today. Achieving this goal involves determining how the elements and their isotopes formed and being able to predict their abundances. At the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an experimental program has been established to use transfer reactions (such as (p,d) or (d,p)) to study the properties of many nuclei important to understanding the origins of various elements. Three measurements were done to aid in the determination of the origins of different light isotopes. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis calculations, constrained by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results, produce primordial 7Li abundances almost a factor of four larger than those extrapolated from observations. Since primordial 7Li is believed to be mostly produced by the beta decay of 7Be, one proposed solution to this discrepancy is a resonant enhancement of the 7Be(d, p)2α reaction rate through the 5/2+ 16.7-MeV state in 9B. The 2H(7Be,d) 7Be reaction was used to search for such a resonance; none was observed. An upper limit on the width of the proposed resonance was deduced. 19F is believed to have formed in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars, but current models cannot reproduce the observed abundances of this nucleus. One of the key reactions responsible for the creation of 19F is 15N(α,γ). Therefore, it is important to understand reactions that might destroy 15N, such as 15N(n,γ). The magnitude of the 15N( n,γ) reaction rate depends directly on the neutron spectroscopic factors of low-lying 16N levels. Currently the measured spectroscopic factors differ from those expected from theory by a factor of 2. A study has been done to resolve this discrepancy using the d( 15N,p) reaction. The spectroscopic factors were all found to be

  18. EMPIRE: Nuclear Reaction Model Code System for Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M. Capote, R.; Carlson, B.V.; Oblozinsky, P.; Sin, M.; Trkov, A.; Wienke, H.; Zerkin, V.

    2007-12-15

    EMPIRE is a modular system of nuclear reaction codes, comprising various nuclear models, and designed for calculations over a broad range of energies and incident particles. A projectile can be a neutron, proton, any ion (including heavy-ions) or a photon. The energy range extends from the beginning of the unresolved resonance region for neutron-induced reactions ({approx} keV) and goes up to several hundred MeV for heavy-ion induced reactions. The code accounts for the major nuclear reaction mechanisms, including direct, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus ones. Direct reactions are described by a generalized optical model (ECIS03) or by the simplified coupled-channels approach (CCFUS). The pre-equilibrium mechanism can be treated by a deformation dependent multi-step direct (ORION + TRISTAN) model, by a NVWY multi-step compound one or by either a pre-equilibrium exciton model with cluster emission (PCROSS) or by another with full angular momentum coupling (DEGAS). Finally, the compound nucleus decay is described by the full featured Hauser-Feshbach model with {gamma}-cascade and width-fluctuations. Advanced treatment of the fission channel takes into account transmission through a multiple-humped fission barrier with absorption in the wells. The fission probability is derived in the WKB approximation within the optical model of fission. Several options for nuclear level densities include the EMPIRE-specific approach, which accounts for the effects of the dynamic deformation of a fast rotating nucleus, the classical Gilbert-Cameron approach and pre-calculated tables obtained with a microscopic model based on HFB single-particle level schemes with collective enhancement. A comprehensive library of input parameters covers nuclear masses, optical model parameters, ground state deformations, discrete levels and decay schemes, level densities, fission barriers, moments of inertia and {gamma}-ray strength functions. The results can be converted into ENDF-6 formatted

  19. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1986-08-01

    Theoretical research is being conducted on the following topics: photon scattering, gauge invariance and the extension of Siefert's Theorem; retardation effects in photonuclear absorption and the Cabibbo Radicati Sum Rule; isovector transition densities, currents and response functions; the electric polarizability, the magnetic susceptibility and the distribution of oscillator strengths in some elementary systems; relativistic models and processes; properties of skyrmions; multiquark compound bags and the charge form factor of the A = 3 nuclei; nuclear reaction theory; three-particle scattering theory; deuteron-nucleus model calculations; asymptotia in three-particle scattering systems; and time-dependent approach to few-nucleon collisions. Progress in each of these areas is reviewed briefly. A list of invited talks and of publications for the fiscal year 1986 is included. 27 refs. (DWL)

  20. Forging the link between nuclear reactions and nuclear structure.

    PubMed

    Mahzoon, M H; Charity, R J; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2014-04-25

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus Ca40 is generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. The introduction of nonlocality in the absorptive potentials yields equivalent elastic differential cross sections as compared to local versions but changes the absorption profile as a function of angular momentum suggesting important consequences for the analysis of nuclear reactions. Below the Fermi energy, nonlocality is essential to allow for an accurate representation of particle number and the nuclear charge density. Spectral properties implied by (e, e'p) and (p, 2p) reactions are correctly incorporated, including the energy distribution of about 10% high-momentum nucleons, as experimentally determined by data from Jefferson Lab. These high-momentum nucleons provide a substantial contribution to the energy of the ground state, indicating a residual attractive contribution from higher-body interactions for Ca40 of about 0.64  MeV/A. PMID:24815643

  1. Ion transport of Fr nuclear reaction products

    SciTech Connect

    Behr, J.A.; Cahn, S.B.; Dutta, S.B.

    1993-04-01

    Experiments planned for fundamental studies of radioactive atoms in magneto-optic traps require efficient deceleration and transport of nuclear reaction products to energies and locations where they can be trapped. The authors have built a low-energy ion transport system for Francium and other alkalis. A thick Au target is held on a W rod at 45{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The heavy-ion fusion reaction 115 MeV {sup 18}O + {sup 197}Au produces {sup 211,210,209}Fr recoil products which are stopped in the target. The target is heated to close to the melting point of Au to allow the Fr to diffuse to the surface, where it is ionized due to Au`s high work function, and is directly extracted by an electrode at 90{degrees} to the accelerator beam direction. The Fr is transported by electrostatic optics {approximately}1 m to a catcher viewed by an {alpha} detector: {ge}15% of the Fr produced in the target reaches the catcher. 2{times}10{sup 5} Fr/sec have been produced at the catcher, yielding at equilibrium a sample of 3x10{sup 7}Fr nuclei. This scheme physically decouples the target diffusion from the surface neutralization process, which can occur at a lower temperature more compatible with the neutral-atom trap.

  2. Advanced scheme for high-yield laser driven nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margarone, D.; Picciotto, A.; Velyhan, A.; Krasa, J.; Kucharik, M.; Mangione, A.; Szydlowsky, A.; Malinowska, A.; Bertuccio, G.; Shi, Y.; Crivellari, M.; Ullschmied, J.; Bellutti, P.; Korn, G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of a low contrast nanosecond laser pulse with a relatively low intensity (3  ×  1016 W cm-2) allowed the enhancing of the yield of induced nuclear reactions in advanced solid targets. In particular the ‘ultraclean’ proton-boron fusion reaction, producing energetic alpha particles without neutron generation, was chosen. A spatially well-defined layer of boron dopants in a hydrogen-enriched silicon substrate was used as a target. A combination of the specific target composition and the laser pulse temporal shape allowed the enhancing of the yield of alpha particles up to 109 per steradian. This result can be ascribed to the interaction of the long-laser pre-pulse with the target and to the optimal target geometry and composition.

  3. Thermally Induced And Base Catalyzed Reactions Of Naphthoquinone Diazides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshiba, Mitsunobu; Murata, Makoto; Matsui, Mariko; Harita, Yoshiyuki

    1988-01-01

    Thermally induced and base catalyzed reactions of a phenol ester of 1,2-naphthoquinone-diazide-5-sulfonic acid (DAM) with p-cresol were investigated. In total seven reaction products were obtained for the thermally induced reaction. The three major products, TR--F4, TR-F6 and TR-F7, were isolated and their structures were determined by means of several advanced spectroscopic techniques like Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (FTNMR) and field desorption mass spectroscopy (FD-MS). Besides a cresol ester of indenecarboxylic acid (TR-F6) and an azo compound which contains two DAM originated moieties and cresol (TR-F7), the formation of a novel compound was found; a phenol ester of 2-cresyl-l-naphthol-5-sulfonic acid. On the other hand, four reaction products were found in the base (a 2.38wt% tetramethylammonium hydroxide aq. solution) catalyzed reaction products of DAM with p-cresol, and two major products, BC-Fl and BC-F3, which appeared at the initial stage of the reaction were isolated. The structure determination of the two major products was carried out in the same manner as described above. It was discovered that BC-Fl was a cresol ester of 1-naphthol while BC-F3 was an azoxy compound. Brief discussions will be made on those reactions of naphthoquinone diazides with a matrix novolak resin with reference to the results obtained by the present study.

  4. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirdt, J. A.; Brown, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  5. Permeability Changes in Reaction Induced Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Kalia, Rajiv

    2013-04-01

    The process of fracture formation due to a volume increasing chemical reaction has been studied in a variety of different settings, e.g. weathering of dolerites by Røyne et al.[4], serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite by Rudge et al.[3] and replacement reactions in silica-poor igneous rocks by Jamtveit et al.[1]. It is generally assumed that fracture formation will increase the net permeability of the rock, and thus increase the reactant transport rate and subsequently the total reaction rate, as summarised by Kelemen et al.[2]. Røyne et al.[4] have shown that transport in fractures will have an effect on the fracture pattern formed. Understanding the feedback process between fracture formation and permeability changes is essential in assessing industrial scale CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rock, but little is seemingly known about how large the permeability change will be in reaction-induced fracturing under compression, and it remains an open question how sensitive a fracture pattern is to permeability changes. In this work, we study the permeability of fractures formed under compression, and we use a 2D discrete element model to study the fracture patterns and total reaction rates achieved with different permeabilities. We achieve an improved understanding of the feedback processes in reaction-driven fracturing, thus improving our ability to decide whether industrial scale CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rock is a viable option for long-term handling of CO2. References [1] Jamtveit, B, Putnis, C. V., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A., "Reaction induced fracturing during replacement processes," Contrib. Mineral Petrol. 157, 2009, pp. 127 - 133. [2] Kelemen, P., Matter, J., Streit, E. E., Rudge, J. F., Curry, W. B., and Blusztajn, J., "Rates and Mechanisms of Mineral Carbonation in Peridotite: Natural Processes and Recipes for Enhanced, in situ CO2 Capture and Storage," Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 2011. 39:545-76. [3] Rudge, J. F., Kelemen, P. B., and

  6. Nuclear waste vitrification efficiency: cold cap reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Kruger, Albert A.; Pokorny, Richard

    2012-12-15

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe2O3 and Al2O3), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup and melter conditions

  7. NUCLEAR WASTE VITRIFICATION EFFICIENCY COLD CAP REACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR; POKORNY R

    2011-07-29

    The cost and schedule of nuclear waste treatment and immobilization are greatly affected by the rate of glass production. Various factors influence the performance of a waste-glass melter. One of the most significant, and also one of the least understood, is the process of batch melting. Studies are being conducted to gain fundamental understanding of the batch reactions, particularly those that influence the rate of melting, and models are being developed to link batch makeup and melter operation to the melting rate. Batch melting takes place within the cold cap, i.e., a batch layer floating on the surface of molten glass. The conversion of batch to glass consists of various chemical reactions, phase transitions, and diffusion-controlled processes. These include water evaporation (slurry feed contains as high as 60% water), gas evolution, the melting of salts, the formation of borate melt, reactions of borate melt with molten salts and with amorphous oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the formation of intermediate crystalline phases, the formation of a continuous glass-forming melt, the growth and collapse of primary foam, and the dissolution of residual solids. To this list we also need to add the formation of secondary foam that originates from molten glass but accumulates on the bottom of the cold cap. This study presents relevant data obtained for a high-level-waste melter feed and introduces a one-dimensional (1D) mathematical model of the cold cap as a step toward an advanced three-dimensional (3D) version for a complete model of the waste glass melter. The 1D model describes the batch-to-glass conversion within the cold cap as it progresses in a vertical direction. With constitutive equations and key parameters based on measured data, and simplified boundary conditions on the cold-cap interfaces with the glass melt and the plenum space of the melter, the model provides sensitivity analysis of the response of the cold cap to the batch makeup

  8. Deexcitation Modes in Spallation Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, F. G.; Guzmán, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Tumbarell, O.; Souza, D. A.; Samana, A. R.; Andrade-II, E.; Bernal Castillo, J. L.; Deppman, A.

    2016-08-01

    Spallation nuclear reactions in the range of 0.2 to 1.2 GeV are studied using the CRISP code. A new approach for the deexcitation stage of the compound nucleus was introduced. For the calculations of the level densities, this approach is based on the Back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFG), which takes into account pairing effects and shell corrections, whereas the calculation of the fission barriers were performed by means of the Extended Thomas-Fermi plus Strutinsky Integral (ETFSI) method, which is a high-speed approximation to the Hartree-Fock method with pairing correlations treated as in the usual BCS plus blocking approach. This procedure is more appropriate to calculate level densities for exotic nuclei. Satisfactory results were obtained and compared with experimental data obtained in the GSI experiments. As another important result, we highlight some directions for the development of a qualitatively superior version of the CRISP code with the implementation of more realistic and suitable physical models to be applied in stable and exotic nuclei that participate in the process. This new version of the code includes several substantial changes in the decay of the hot compound nucleus which allow satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and a reduction of the adjustment parameters.

  9. The Symmetry Energy in Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, W.; Bianchin, S.; Botvina, A. S.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leifels, Y.; Sfienti, C.; Buyukcizmeci, N.; Ogul, R.; Mishustin, I. N.; Chartier, M.; Wu, P. Z.; Lemmon, R. C.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Pawłowski, P.; Pagano, A.; Russotto, P.; ALADIN Collaboration

    New results for the strength of the symmetry energy are presented which illustrate the complementary aspects encountered in reactions probing nuclear densities below and above saturation. A systematic study of isotopic effects in spectator fragmentation was performed at the ALADIN spectrometer with 124Sn primary and 107Sn and 124La secondary beams of 600 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The analysis within the Statistical Fragmentation Model shows that the symmetry-term coefficient entering the liquid-drop description of the emerging fragments decreases significantly as the multiplicity of fragments and light particles from the disintegration of the produced spectator systems increases. Higher densities were probed in the FOPI/LAND study of nucleon and light-particle flows in central and mid-peripheral collisions of 197Au+197Au nuclei at 400 MeV/nucleon incident energy. From the comparison of the measured neutron and hydrogen squeeze-out ratios with predictions of the UrQMD model a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to (ρ/ρ0)γ with γ = 0.9 ± 0.3 is favored.

  10. Neutron Transfer Reactions: Surrogates for Neutron Capture for Basic and Applied Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Peters, W. A.; Allen, J.; Hatarik, R.; Matthews, C.; O'Malley, P.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Howard, J.; Patterson, N.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Rogers, J.; Sissom, D. J.; Pain, S. D.; Adekola, A.; Bardayan, D. W.; Blackmon, J. C.; Liang, F.; Nesaraja, C. D.; Pittman, S. T.

    2009-03-10

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  11. Neutron transfer reactions: Surrogates for neutron capture for basic and applied nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Cizewski, J. A.; Jones, K. L.; Kozub, R. L.; Pain, Steven D; Peters, W. A.; Adekola, Aderemi S; Allen, J.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Becker, J.; Blackmon, Jeff C; Chae, K. Y.; Chipps, K.; Erikson, Luke; Gaddis, A. L.; Harlin, Christopher W; Hatarik, Robert; Howard, Joshua A; Jandel, M.; Johnson, Micah; Kapler, R.; Krolas, W.; Liang, J Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Matei, Catalin; Matthews, C.; Moazen, Brian; Nesaraja, Caroline D; O'Malley, Patrick; Patterson, N. P.; Paulauskas, Stanley; Pelham, T.; Pittman, S. T.; Radford, David C; Rogers, J.; Schmitt, Kyle; Shapira, Dan; ShrinerJr., J. F.; Sissom, D. J.; Smith, Michael Scott; Swan, T. P.; Thomas, J. S.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilson, Gemma L

    2009-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on unstable nuclei are important for both basic and applied nuclear science. A program has been developed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study single-neutron transfer (d,p) reactions with rare isotope beams to provide information on neutron-induced reactions on unstable nuclei. Results from (d,p) studies on {sup 130,132}Sn, {sup 134}Te and {sup 75}As are discussed.

  12. Overview of Light Hydrogen-Based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George H.; Shrestha, Prajakti J.

    This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions, and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

  13. Solar He-3: Information from nuclear reactions in flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.

    1974-01-01

    Information on solar He-3 from nuclear reactions in flares was considered. Consideration was also given to the development of models for these reactions as well as the abundance of He-3 in the photosphere. Data show that abundances may be explained by nuclear reactions of flare acceleration protons and alpha particles with the ambient atmosphere, provided that various assumptions are made on the directionality of the interacting beams and acceleration of the particles after production.

  14. Nuclear Structure and Reaction Mechanism Studies with Multinucleon Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, P. H.; Jones, G. A.; Podolyak, Zs.; Abdullah, M.; Gelletly, W.; Langdown, S. D.; Wollel, G.; De Angelis, G.; Gadea, A.; Kroell, Th.; Marginean, N.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.; Rusu, C.; Tonev, D.; Zhang, Y. H.; Ur, C. A.; Axiotis, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Farnea, E.

    2006-08-14

    This contribution reports on the results of an experiment to study the near-yrast states in selenium- and osmium-like nuclei, following their population in thick-target, multinucleon transfer reactions between an 82Se beam and a 192Os target. The experimental results for the level scheme for 84Se are presented together with investigations into the use of multi-dimensional gamma-ray energy gating to investigate angular momentum population in such heavy-ion binary reactions.

  15. CW CO2 Laser Induced Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Joseph

    1989-05-01

    CW CO2 laser driven reactions between sulfur hexafluoride and carbon oxide, carbon suboxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide proceed at subatmospheric pressures and yield fluorinated carbon compounds and sulfur tetrafluoride. CW CO2 laser driven reactions of organic compounds in the presence of energy-conveying sulfur hexafluoride show reaction course different from that normally observed due to elimination of reactor hot surface effects. The examples concern the decomposition of polychlorohydrocarbons, 2-nitropropane, tert.-butylamine, allyl chloride, spirohexane, isobornyl acetate and the oxidation of haloolefins. CW CO2 laser induced fragmentation of 1-methyl-l-silacyclobutanes and 4-silaspiro(3.4)octane in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride is an effective way for preparation and deposition of stable organosilicon polymers.

  16. Helium-induced reactions in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.M.

    1997-11-01

    Helium-induced reactions play a crucial role in stellar nucleosynthesis. Carbon and oxygen are produced mainly during the helium-burning phase by the chain of reactions {sup 8}Be({alpha}, {gamma} + e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}){sup 12}C({alpha}, {gamma}){sup 16}O. The first step, often called triple-{alpha} capture, was proposed by Hoyle to bypass the mass stability gap at {sup 8}Be. The second step gives rise to the largest uncertainty in most of the calculated stellar abundances. Later {alpha}-captures on {sup 13}C are believed to be a major source of s-process neutrons. The status of each of these important reactions is reviewed here.

  17. Systemic immunotoxicity reactions induced by adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Batista-Duharte, Alexander; Portuondo, Deivys; Pérez, O; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2014-05-01

    Vaccine safety is a topic of concern for the treated individual, the family, the health care personnel, and the others involved in vaccination programs as recipients or providers. Adjuvants are necessary components to warrant the efficacy of vaccines, however the overstimulation of the immune system is also associated with adverse effects. Local reactions are the most frequent manifestation of toxicity induced by adjuvanted vaccines and, with the exception of the acute phase response (APR), much less is known about the systemic reactions that follow vaccination. Their low frequency or subclinical expression meant that this matter has been neglected. In this review, various systemic reactions associated with immune stimulation will be addressed, including: APR, hypersensitivity, induction or worsening of autoimmune diseases, modification of hepatic metabolism and vascular leak syndrome (VLS), with an emphasis on the mechanism involved. Finally, the authors analyze the current focus of discussion about vaccine safety and opportunities to improve the design of new adjuvanted vaccines in the future. PMID:24607449

  18. Spin distribution in neutron induced preequilibrium reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dashdorj, D; Kawano, T; Chadwick, M; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Mitchell, G E; Garrett, P E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Macri, R; Younes, W

    2005-10-04

    The preequilibrium reaction mechanism makes an important contribution to neutron-induced reactions above E{sub n} {approx} 10 MeV. The preequilibrium process has been studied exclusively via the characteristic high energy neutrons produced at bombarding energies greater than 10 MeV. They are expanding the study of the preequilibrium reaction mechanism through {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Cross-section measurements were made of prompt {gamma}-ray production as a function of incident neutron energy (E{sub n} = 1 to 250 MeV) on a {sup 48}Ti sample. Energetic neutrons were delivered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation neutron source located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility. The prompt-reaction {gamma} rays were detected with the large-scale Compton-suppressed Germanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. The {gamma}-ray excitation functions were converted to partial {gamma}-ray cross sections taking into account the dead-time correction, target thickness, detector efficiency and neutron flux (monitored with an in-line fission chamber). Residual state population was predicted using the GNASH reaction code, enhanced for preequilibrium. The preequilibrium reaction spin distribution was calculated using the quantum mechanical theory of Feshback, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK). The multistep direct part of the FKK theory was calculated for a one-step process. The FKK preequilibrium spin distribution was incorporated into the GNASH calculations and the {gamma}-ray production cross sections were calculated and compared with experimental data. The difference in the partial {gamma}-ray cross sections using spin distributions with and without preequilibrium effects is significant.

  19. Fluid transport in reaction induced fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulven, Ole Ivar; Sun, WaiChing; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The process of fracture formation due to a volume increasing chemical reaction has been studied in a variety of different settings, e.g. weathering of dolerites by Røyne et al. te{royne}, serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite by Rudge et al. te{rudge} and replacement reactions in silica-poor igneous rocks by Jamtveit et al. te{jamtveit}. It is generally assumed that fracture formation will increase the net permeability of the rock, and thus increase the reactant transport rate and subsequently the total rate of material conversion, as summarised by Kelemen et al. te{kelemen}. Ulven et al. te{ulven_1} have shown that for fluid-mediated processes the ratio between chemical reaction rate and fluid transport rate in bulk rock controls the fracture pattern formed, and Ulven et al. te{ulven_2} have shown that instantaneous fluid transport in fractures lead to a significant increase in the total rate of the volume expanding process. However, instantaneous fluid transport in fractures is clearly an overestimate, and achievable fluid transport rates in fractures have apparently not been studied in any detail. Fractures cutting through an entire domain might experience relatively fast advective reactant transport, whereas dead-end fractures will be limited to diffusion of reactants in the fluid, internal fluid mixing in the fracture or capillary flow into newly formed fractures. Understanding the feedback process between fracture formation and permeability changes is essential in assessing industrial scale CO2 sequestration in ultramafic rock, but little is seemingly known about how large the permeability change will be in reaction-induced fracturing. In this work, we study the feedback between fracture formation during volume expansion and fluid transport in different fracture settings. We combine a discrete element model (DEM) describing a volume expanding process and the related fracture formation with different models that describe the fluid transport in the

  20. Comprehensive Nuclear Model Code, Nucleons, Ions, Induced Cross-Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-27

    EMPIRE-II is a flexible code for calculation of nuclear reactions in the frame of combined op0tical, Multistep Direct (TUL), Multistep Compound (NVWY) and statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) models. Incident particle can be a nucleon or any nucleus (Heavy Ion). Isomer ratios, residue production cross sections and emission spectra for neutrons, protons, alpha- particles, gamma-rays, and one type of Light Ion can be calculated. The energy range starts just above the resonance region for neutron induced reactions andmore » extends up to several hundreds of MeV for the Heavy Ion induced reactions.« less

  1. Comprehensive Nuclear Model Code, Nucleons, Ions, Induced Cross-Sections

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-27

    EMPIRE-II is a flexible code for calculation of nuclear reactions in the frame of combined op0tical, Multistep Direct (TUL), Multistep Compound (NVWY) and statistical (Hauser-Feshbach) models. Incident particle can be a nucleon or any nucleus (Heavy Ion). Isomer ratios, residue production cross sections and emission spectra for neutrons, protons, alpha- particles, gamma-rays, and one type of Light Ion can be calculated. The energy range starts just above the resonance region for neutron induced reactions and extends up to several hundreds of MeV for the Heavy Ion induced reactions.

  2. Nuclear reactions and synthesis of new transuranium species

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this short review, I shall describe the special aspects of heavy ion nuclear reaction mechanisms operative in the transuranium region, the role of new techniques, possible nuclear reactions for the production of additional transuranium elements and nuclear species and the importance of work in this region for the development of nuclear models and theoretical concepts. This discussion should make it clear that a continuing supply of leements and isotopes, some fo them relatively short-lived, produced by the HFIR-TRU facilities, will be a requirement for future synthesis of new elements and isotopes.

  3. Nuclear reaction modeling, verification experiments, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.S.

    1995-10-01

    This presentation summarized the recent accomplishments and future promise of the neutron nuclear physics program at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scatter Center (MLNSC) and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility. The unique capabilities of the spallation sources enable a broad range of experiments in weapons-related physics, basic science, nuclear technology, industrial applications, and medical physics.

  4. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO/sub 2/ laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D/sub 2/CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D/sub 2/CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D/sub 2/CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 ..mu..m ir fluorescence from D/sub 2/CO is proportional to the square of the D/sub 2/CO pressure in pure D/sub 2/CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D/sub 2/CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm/sup 2/ at 946.0 cm/sup -1/. The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D/sub 2/CO. In H/sub 2/CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF/sub 4/ - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel.

  5. Recent Developments of the Nuclear Reaction Model Code EMPIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Capote, R.; Trkov, A.; Zerkin, V.; Sin, M.; Ventura, A.

    2005-05-24

    Recent extensions and improvements of the EMPIRE code system are outlined. They add to the code new capabilities such as fission of actinides, preequilibrium emission of clusters, photo-nuclear reactions, and reactions on excited targets. These features, along with improved ENDF formatting, exclusive spectra, and recoils make the forthcoming 2.19 release a complete tool for evaluation of nuclear data at incident energies above the resonance region.

  6. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon's mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon's mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  7. Theoretical studies in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. Hadrons in nuclear matter; the structure of hadrons; relativistic nuclear physics and heavy ion dynamics and related processes. The section on hadrons in nuclear matter groups together research items which are aimed at exploring ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. A very interesting result has been the finding that QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate, which characterizes spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking of the late QCD vacuum, decreases in nuclear matter and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the structure of hadrons contains progress reports on our research aimed at understanding the structure of the nucleon. Widely different approaches are being studied, e.g., lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. A major goal of this type of research is to develop appropriate links between nuclear physics and QCD. The section on relativistic nuclear physics represents our continuing interest in developing an appropriate relativistic framework for nuclear dynamics. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a similar decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium as has been found from QCD sum rules. Work in progress extends previous successes in elastic scattering to inelastic scattering of protons by nuclei. The section on heavy ion dynamics and related processes reports on research into the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} problem and heavy ion dynamics.

  8. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Products at Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, David J.

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines the evidence for LENR occurring on or very near to the surface of materials. Several types of experimental indications for LENR surface reactions have been reported and will be reviewed. LENR result in two types of products, energy and the appearance of new elements. The level of instantaneous power production can be written as the product of four factors: (1) the total area of the surface on which the reactions can occur, (2) the fraction of the area that is active at any time, (3) the reaction rate, that is, the number of reactions per unit active area per second, and (4) the energy produced per reaction. Each of these factors, and their limits, are reviewed. A graphical means of relating these four factors over their wide variations has been devised. The instantaneous generation of atoms of new elements can also be written as the product of the first three factors and the new elemental mass produced per reaction. Again, a graphical means of presenting the factors and their results over many orders of magnitude has been developed.

  9. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. PMID:25813003

  10. Direct reactions for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Katherine Louise

    2014-12-18

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106Sn at the NSCL, and on 131Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  11. New Mechanism of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superlow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2006-03-01

    We proposed a new mechanism of LENR (low energy nuclear reactions) cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei+atoms+condensed matter can occur at smaller threshold than the corresponding ones assoiciated with free constituents. The cooperative processes can be induced and enhanced by (``superlow energy'') external fields. The excess heat is the emission of internal energy, and transmutations from LENR are the result of redistribution of the internal energy of the whole system. A review of possible stimulation mechanisms of LENR is presented. We have concluded that transmutation of nuclei at low energies and excess heat are possible in the framework of the known fundamental physical laws: The universal resonance synchronization principle, and based on it, different enhancement mechanisms of reaction rates are responsible for these processes. The excitation and ionization of atoms may play the role of a trigger for LENR. F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0511092 v1 30 Nov 2005. F.A. Gareev, In: FPB-98, Novosibirsk, June 1998, p.92; F.A.Gareev, G.F. Gareeva, in: Novosibirsk, July 2000, p.161. F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova and Yu.L. Ratis, Preprint JINR P4-2004-68, Dubna, 2004. F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0505021 9 May 2005.

  12. Nuclear Reaction and Structure Databases of the National Nuclear Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Arcilla, R.; Herman, M. W.; Oblozinsky, P.; Rochman, D.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Tuli, J. K.; Winchell, D. F.

    2006-03-13

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic research and applied nuclear technologies. In 2004, the NNDC migrated all databases into modern relational database software, installed new generation of Linux servers and developed new Java-based Web service. This nuclear database development means much faster, more flexible and more convenient service to all users in the United States. These nuclear reaction and structure database developments as well as related Web services are briefly described.

  13. Opportunities in nuclear structure and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Filomena

    2015-10-01

    The last decade has seen important advances in the area of low energy nuclear physics. New measurements have provided crucial insight into the behavior of nuclei at the limits of stability, including the mapping of the neutron dripline up to Oxygen, investigations of unbound nuclear states, and the discovery of new super-heavy elements. In parallel we have seen a revolution in low-energy nuclear theory, moving toward quantified predictability, rooted in the underlying inter-nucleon forces. But the next decade offers even more opportunities with a new generation factory of rare isotopes, and the anticipated developments in high performance computing. The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams coupled with new state-of-the-art detectors will allow us to access a large fraction of the necessary information for the r-process responsible for making at least half of the heavy elements in our universe. FRIB will provide the needed intensities to study global nuclear properties, shell structure, and collective phenomena far from stability. Key measurements are anticipated, at various facilities, which will inform symmetry tests with rare isotopes. We expect to put strict constraints on the equation of state. These and many other opportunities will be highlighted in this overview talk.

  14. Neutrino-induced nuclear excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    We present an improved, compared to that of Belusevic and Rein, theoretical value of the cross section for the neutrino-induced nuclear excitation of iron. This result is based on a measurement of the photoabsorption cross section on the same nucleus, which can be related to the transverse part of the neutrino cross section via the conserved vector current hypothesis. The longitudinal part is related to the pion absorption cross section through the partial conservation of the axial-vector current, and thus reflects the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. A general formula for the excitation cross section is derived, which is valid for both low and high incident neutrino energies. When caused by a weak neutral current, this process may play an important role in core-collapse supernovae. It can also be detected using low-temperature techniques with the purpose of cosmological and weak-interaction studies. A new estimate of the cross sections for neutrino-induced nonscaling processes described by Belusevic and Rein is discussed in the context of two experiments using iron targets, but at very different beam energies.

  15. Experiments on nuclear fission induced by radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Skobelev, N.K.

    1994-07-01

    The cross sections of {sup 209}Bi nuclear fission induced by secondary beams of {sup 6}He and {sup 4}He are measured under identical conditions. The experimental data are in good agreement with earlier results on the fission cross section of the {sup 4}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction. The measured values of the cross section of {sup 209}Bi fission induced by {sup 6}He ions are much higher than the cross sections of fission induced by {alpha}-particles. It is found that the fission threshold for the {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction is shifted as compared to that of the {sup 4}He + {sup 209}Bi reaction. Various factors that can be responsible for the observed peculiarities in the {sup 209}Bi fission induced by the {sup 6}He ions are analyzed. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Studying Nuclear Level Densities of 238U in the Nuclear Reactions within the Macroscopic Nuclear Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Rohallah; Rahmatinejad, Azam; Kakavand, Tayeb; Taheri, Fariba; Aghajani, Maghsood; Khooy, Asghar

    2016-02-01

    In this work the nuclear level density parameters of 238U have been extracted in the back-shifted Fermi gas model (BSFGM), as well as the constant temperature model (CTM), through fitting with the recent experimental data on nuclear level densities measured by the Oslo group. The excitation functions for 238U(p,2nα)233Pa, and 238U(p,4n)235Np reactions and the fragment yields for the fragments of the 238U(p,f) reaction have been calculated using obtained level density parameters. The results are compared to their corresponding experimental values. It was found that the extracted excitation functions and the fragment yields in the CTM coincide well with the experimental values in the low-energy region. This finding is according to the claim made by the Oslo group that the extracted level densities of 238U show a constant temperature behaviour.

  17. Low-energy nuclear reaction studies with RI beams in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubono, S.; Teranishi, T.; Kato, S.

    2003-07-01

    After a brief discussion on the recent development in nuclear astrophysics, two reaction studies of typical astrophysical reactions at low energies where nuclear reactions play the main contributions to the nucleosynthesis in the universe, are discussed. One is the proton capture reaction, 11C(p, γ)12N, studied by the direct method using a 11C beam produced with a new low-energy RIB separator CRIB at CNS, Japan. The second one is the 13C(α, n)16O rearrangement reaction, which is believed to be the main neutron source for the s-process at low temperatures, investigated by an indirect method using the direct α-transfer reaction 13C(6Li, d)17O. Detailed investigations are suggested on the nuclear reactions relevant.

  18. Research in Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Petitt, G.A.; Nelson, W.H.; He, Xiaochun; Lee, W.

    1999-04-14

    This is the final progress report for the experimental nuclear physics program at Georgia State University (GSU) under the leadership of Gus Petitt. In June, 1996, Professor Petitt retired for health reasons and the DOE contract was extended for another year to enable the group to continue it's work. This year has been a productive one. The group has been heavily involved in the E866 experiment at Fermilab where we have taken on the responsibility of developing a new level-3 trigger for the experiment. Bill Lee, the graduate student in our group expects to obtain his thesis data from the run extension currently in progress, which focuses on the A dependence of J/{psi}'s and {Upsilon}'s from beryllium, tungsten, and iron targets. In the past year and a half the GSU group has led the development of a new level-3 software trigger system for E866. Our work on this project is described.

  19. Investigation of GEV Proton-Induced Spallation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilscher, D.; Herbach, C.-M.; Jahnke, U.; Tishchenko, V. G.; Galin, J.; Lott, B.; Letourneau, A.; Peghaire, A.; Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Nünighoff, K.; Schaal, H.; Sterzenbach, G.; Wohlmuther, M.; Pienkowski, L.; Schröder, W. U.; Toke, J.

    2004-09-01

    A reliable modeling of GeV proton-induced spallation reactions is indispensable for the design of the spallation module and the target station of future accelerator driven hybrid reactors (ADS) or spallation neutron sources (ESS), in particular, to provide precise predictions for the neutron production, the radiation damage of materials (window), and the production of radioactivity (3H, 7Be etc.) in the target medium. Detailed experimental nuclear data are needed for sensitive validations and improvements of the models, whose predictive power is strongly dependent on the correct physical description of the three main stages of a spallation reaction: (i) the Intra-Nuclear-Cascade (INC) with the fast heating of the target nucleus, (ii) the de-excitation due to pre-equilibrium emission including the possibility of multi-fragmentation, and (iii) the statistical decay of thermally excited nuclei by evaporation of light particles and fission in the case of heavy nuclei. Key experimental data for this endeavor are absolute production cross sections and energy spectra for neutrons and light charged-particles (LCPs), emission of composite particles prior and post to the attainment of an equilibrated system, distribution of excitation energies deposited in the nuclei after the INC, and fission probabilities. Systematic measurements of such data are furthermore needed over large ranges of target nuclei and incident proton energies. Such data has been measured with the NESSI detector. An overview of new and previous results will be given.

  20. Spectroscopy of Light Nuclei with Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, I.; Dell'Aquila, D.; Vigilante, M.

    2016-07-01

    We discuss new results concerning the investigation of the 19F(p,α 0)16O and 10B(p,α 0)7Be reactions at low energies. Both reactions are important for the nuclear spectroscopy of the formed compound nucleus, i.e. 20Ne and 11C respectively, and play a role in nuclear astrophysics. For the 10B(p,α 0)7Be case, a comprehensive analysis of our reaction data and other scattering data points out the possible presence of an unreported state in 11C at Ex ≈ 9.36 MeV. For the 19F(p,α 0)16O case, the study of the low energy angular distributions testifies the role played by low energy resonances in the S-factor, leading to an enhanced reaction rate at stellar energies.

  1. EXFOR SYSTEMS MANUAL NUCLEAR REACTION DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT.

    SciTech Connect

    MCLANE,V.; NUCLEAR DATA CENTER NETWORK

    2000-05-19

    EXFOR is an exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear reaction data between the members of the Nuclear Data Centers Network. This document has been written for use by the members of the Network and includes matters of procedure and protocol, as well as detailed rules for the compilation of data. Users may prefer to consult EXFOR Basics' for a brief description of the format.

  2. Exclusive nuclear reactions: Can you count on the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Three of the simplest nuclear reactions -- (1) electron-deuteron elastic scattering, (2) electro-disintegration of the deuteron near threshold and at high momentum transfer, and (3) photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy -- were believed to have unique signatures for OCD effects in nuclei. The progress in the past few years with regard to these reactions will be traced and the results will be compared with recent theoretical predictions. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Development of the Experimental Photo-Nuclear Reaction Database in Hokkaido University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makinaga, A.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear databases are important tools to apply nuclear phenomena to various fields of nuclear engineering. It is now recognized that the databases must be further developed for photo-nuclear reaction data for nuclear security, safety and nonproliferation applications. Hokkaido University Nuclear Reaction Data Centre (JCPRG) has contributed to the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Library (EXFOR) which is developed by the International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres under coordination by IAEA. We report here on the recent compilation of the nuclear data files for the photonuclear reaction.

  4. Photonuclear Reaction Studies at HIγS: Developing the Science of Remote Detection of Nuclear Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, C. R.

    2015-10-01

    Development of gamma-ray beam interrogation technologies for remote detection of special nuclear materials and isotope analysis requires comprehensive databases of nuclear structure information and gamma-ray induced nuclear reaction observables. Relevant nuclear structure details include the energy, spin and parity of excited states that have significant probability for electromagnetic transition from the ground state, i.e, the angular momentum transferred in the reaction is Δl ≤ 2. This talk will report recent Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) measurements to identify and characterize new low-spin states in actinide nuclei at energies from 1 to 4 MeV, which is the energy range most important for remote analysis methods. These measurements are carried out using the nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized gamma-ray beam at the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIγS) at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Also, studies of the (γ, n) reaction on a variety of nuclei with linearly polarized beams at HIγS indicate that this reaction might be used to discern between fissile and non-fissile materials. This work will be described. In addition, an overview will be given of a concept for a next generation laser Compton-backing scattering gamma-ray source to be implemented as an upgrade to increase the beam intensity at HIγS by more than an order of magnitude.

  5. Towards many-body based nuclear reaction modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilaire, Stéphane; Goriely, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematic expressions. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical principles, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all the ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. This concerns nuclear masses, optical model potential, nuclear level densities, photon strength functions, as well as fission barriers. All these nuclear model ingredients, traditionally given by phenomenological expressions, now have a microscopic counterpart implemented in the TALYS nuclear reaction code. We are thus now able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. Perspectives for the coming years will be drawn on the improvements one can expect.

  6. The symmetry energy in nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trautmann, W.

    2010-03-01

    The complementary aspects of the strength of the symmetry energy at nuclear densities below and above saturation are illustrated with recent results from experiments performed at the GSI laboratory with relativistic heavy-ion beams. A systematic study of isotopic effects in spectator fragmentation was performed at the ALADIN spectrometer with 124Sn primary and 107Sn and 124La secondary beams of 600 MeV/nucleon incident energy. The analysis within the Statistical Fragmentation Model reveals that the symmetry-term coefficient entering the liquid-drop description of the emerging fragments decreases significantly as the disintegration of the spectator system into fragments and light particles increases. Higher densities were probed in more central collisions of 197Au + 197Au nuclei at 400 MeV/nucleon. The results obtained from the analysis of the FOPI/LAND experimental data on neutron and hydrogen squeeze-out in comparison with UrQMD model predictions favor a moderately soft symmetry term with a density dependence of the potential term proportional to (ρ with γ=0.9±0.3.

  7. Indirect measurement of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W. P.; Li, Z. H.; Bai, X. X.; Wang, Y. B.; Guo, B.; Lian, G.; Su, J.; Zeng, S.; Wang, B. X.; Yan, S. Q.; Li, Y. J.; Li, E. T.; Jin, S. J.

    2010-05-12

    Systematic indirect measurements of nuclear astrophysical reactions using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE in CIAE were performed. We have measured the angular distributions of transfer reactions, such as {sup 8}Li(d,p){sup 9}Li, {sup 8}Li(d,n){sup 9}Be and {sup 8}Li(p,d){sup 7}Li in inverse kinematics, and derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates for {sup 8}Li(n,gamma){sup 9}Li and {sup 8}Li(p,gamma){sup 9}Be by using asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) or spectroscopic factor methods.

  8. Three-body equations for nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, S.H.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of calculating three-body differential cross sections for two-body interactions which are local in configuration space is considered. The integral equations of Faddeev and recent modifications are reviewed. The difficulties both in solving and interpreting the various equations are discussed. An alternative set of exact operator equations is proposed. This new set of operator equations involve the two-body potentials directly rather than the two-body t-matrices. The solutions represent quantities different from those of previous equations. The formal structure of the operator equations is similar to but different from the Faddeev equations. It is demonstrated that the equations contain no terms which correspond to disconnected diagrams. The transformation of the equations to the Faddeev equations is given. Integral equations are obtained using the momentum representation. Only Cauchy-type singularities occur in the Green's function, and the equations have unique solutions. No off-energy shell t-matrices are required. Transition amplitudes are obtained from the solutions by quadrature, so that effects which result from the nature of the final state can be separated from the three-body effects. The angular momentum reduction of Omnes is used to obtain two-dimensional coupled integral equations. A method of numerical solution is developed using a generalization of the approximate product integration method due to Young. Examples corresponding to the reactions /sup 16/O(d,p)/sup 17/O g.s and /sup 16/O(d,d)/sup 16/O in two dimensions and /sup 16/O(d,p)/sup 17/O* (0.87 MeV) in three dimensions for a deuteron enegy of 5 MeV are considered using Gaussian potentials. The convergence of the summation over angular momentum is examined and a comparison is made with experiment to obtain the spectroscopic factor for the 0.87 MeV state of /sup 17/O.

  9. Towards a More Complete and Accurate Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Library (EXFOR). International Collaboration Between Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Pritychenko, B.; Otuka, N.; Dupont, E.; Semkova, V.; Pritychenko, B.; Blokhin, A. I.; Aikawa, M.; Babykina, S.; Bossant, M.; Chen, G.; Dunaeva, S.; Forrest, R. A.; Fukahori, T.; Furutachi, N.; Ganesan, S.; Ge, Z.; Gritzay, O. O.; Herman, M.; Hlavac, S.; Kato, K.; Lalremruata, B.; Lee, Y. O.; Makinaga, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Mikhaylyukova, M.; Pikulina, G.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Saxena, A.; Schwerer, O.; Simakov, S. P.; Soppera, N.; Suzuki, R.; Takacs, S.; Tao, X.; Taova, S.; Tarkanyi, F.; Varlamov, V. V.; Wang, J.; Yang, S. C.; Zerkin, V.; Zhuang, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) successfully collaborates in the maintenance and development of the EXFOR library. Likewise, as the scope of published data expands (e.g. to higher energy, to heavier projectile) to meet the needs of research and applications, it has become a challenging task to maintain both the completeness and accuracy of the EXFOR library. Evolution of the library highlighting recent developments is described.

  10. Towards a More Complete and Accurate Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Library (EXFOR): International Collaboration Between Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC)

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Dupont, E.; Semkova, V.; Pritychenko, B.; Blokhin, A.I.; Aikawa, M.; Babykina, S.; Bossant, M.; Chen, G.; Dunaeva, S.; Forrest, R.A.; Fukahori, T.; Furutachi, N.; Ganesan, S.; Ge, Z.; Gritzay, O.O.; Herman, M.; Hlavač, S.; and others

    2014-06-15

    The International Network of Nuclear Reaction Data Centres (NRDC) coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (NDS) successfully collaborates in the maintenance and development of the EXFOR library. As the scope of published data expands (e.g. to higher energy, to heavier projectile) to meet the needs of research and applications, it has become a challenging task to maintain both the completeness and accuracy of the EXFOR library. Evolution of the library highlighting recent developments is described.

  11. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada.

  12. Nuclear reaction effects in use of newly recommended quality factor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The biological risk for energetic ion exposure cannot be reliably estimated exclusive of the target nuclear reaction products produced within the local tissue. A theoretical basis is derived for evaluating target fragment contributions that are evaluated for the newly proposed quality factor.

  13. Do nuclear reactions take place under chemical stimulation?

    SciTech Connect

    Bockris, J.O.; Lin, G.H.; Bush, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    Several examples of nuclear reactions occurring under the stimulation of chemical type energies are given. The production of tritium from deuterium in Pd has more than 100 published confirmations. Three models suggest circumstances such that barriers between nucleii may become transparent. 24 refs.

  14. People's Reactions to Nuclear War: Implications for Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Susan T.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews available data documenting modal adults' beliefs, feelings, and actions regarding nuclear war. Examines discrepancies between peoples's beliefs and their relative lack of affective and behavioral response. Reviews data on possible psychological and social sources of those reactions. Contrasts average citizens, antinuclear activists, and…

  15. A Laboratory Experiment on the Statistical Theory of Nuclear Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Walter

    1971-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment on the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The experiment involves measuring the relative cross sections for formation of a nucleus in its meta stable excited state and its ground state by applying gamma-ray spectroscopy to an irradiated sample. Involves 3-4 hours of laboratory time plus…

  16. Nuclear Reactions Governing the Nucleosynthesis of 44Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; Jin, L.; Meyer, B. S.

    1998-09-01

    Large excesses of 44Ca in certain presolar graphite and silicon carbide grains give strong evidence for 44Ti production in supernovae. Furthermore, recent detection of the 44Ti γ line from the Cas A supernova remnant by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton Telescope shows that radioactive 44Ti is produced in supernovae. These make the 44Ti abundance an observable diagnostic of supernovae. Through use of a nuclear reaction network, we have systematically varied reaction rates and groups of reaction rates to experimentally identify those that govern 44Ti abundance in core-collapse supernova nucleosynthesis. We survey the nuclear-rate dependence by repeated calculations of the identical adiabatic expansion, with peak temperature and density chosen to be 5.5 × 109 K and 107 g cm-3, respectively, to approximate the conditions in detailed supernova models. We find that, for equal total numbers of neutrons and protons (η = 0), 44Ti production is most sensitive to the following reaction rates: 44Ti(α, p)47V, α(2α, γ)12C, 44Ti(α, γ)48Cr, and 45V(p, γ)46Cr. We tabulate the most sensitive reactions in order of their importance to the 44Ti production near the standard values of currently accepted reaction rates, at both a reduced reaction rate (times 0.01) and an increased reaction rate (times 100) relative to their standard values. Although most reactions retain their importance for η > 0, that of 45V(p, γ)46Cr drops rapidly for η >= 0.0004. Other reactions assume greater significance at greater neutron excess: 12C(α, γ)16O, 40Ca(α, γ)44Ti, 27Al(α, n)30P, 30Si(α, n)33S. Because many of these rates are unknown experimentally, our results suggest the most important targets for future cross section measurements governing the value of this observable abundance.

  17. Differences between Drug-Induced and Contrast Media-Induced Adverse Reactions Based on Spontaneously Reported Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Suh, JinUk; Yang, MyungSuk; Kang, WonKu; Kim, EunYoung

    2015-01-01

    Objective We analyzed differences between spontaneously reported drug-induced (not including contrast media) and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Methods Adverse drug reactions reported by an in-hospital pharmacovigilance center (St. Mary’s teaching hospital, Daejeon, Korea) from 2010–2012 were classified as drug-induced or contrast media-induced. Clinical patterns, frequency, causality, severity, Schumock and Thornton’s preventability, and type A/B reactions were recorded. The trends among causality tools measuring drug and contrast-induced adverse reactions were analyzed. Results Of 1,335 reports, 636 drug-induced and contrast media-induced adverse reactions were identified. The prevalence of spontaneously reported adverse drug reaction-related admissions revealed a suspected adverse drug reaction-reporting rate of 20.9/100,000 (inpatient, 0.021%) and 3.9/100,000 (outpatients, 0.004%). The most common adverse drug reaction-associated drug classes included nervous system agents and anti-infectives. Dermatological and gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions were most frequently and similarly reported between drug and contrast media-induced adverse reactions. Compared to contrast media-induced adverse reactions, drug-induced adverse reactions were milder, more likely to be preventable (9.8% vs. 1.1%, p < 0.001), and more likely to be type A reactions (73.5% vs. 18.8%, p < 0.001). Females were over-represented among drug-induced adverse reactions (68.1%, p < 0.001) but not among contrast media-induced adverse reactions (56.6%, p = 0.066). Causality patterns differed between the two adverse reaction classes. The World Health Organization–Uppsala Monitoring Centre causality evaluation and Naranjo algorithm results significantly differed from those of the Korean algorithm version II (p < 0.001). Conclusions We found differences in sex, preventability, severity, and type A/B reactions between spontaneously reported drug and contrast media-induced adverse

  18. The ``light-est'' of all Projectiles: Nuclear Structure Studies Using Photonuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietralla, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by photons have had and continue to have a large impact on the course of nuclear physics. Photons interact purely electromagnetically with the atomic nucleus and induce minimal momentum transfer at given excitation energy. Photonuclear reaction processes can be expanded in terms of QED and photonuclear excitations are by far dominated by one-step processes. They allow for a model independent measurement of nuclear observables and, hence, for a clean characterization of effective nuclear forces. Apart from the pioneering photonuclear reactions by Bothe and Gentner in the 1930s, bremsstrahlung has been used most widely as an intense source of gamma-rays for photonuclear reactions from the 1940s until today. The nuclear dipole strength distribution has largely been mapped out at bremsstrahlung facilities. While the continuous-energy distribution of bremsstrahlung photons offers a complete view of the spectrum of photonuclear excitations, it suffers from a poor sensitivity to specific energy intervals. Intense, energy-tunable, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams from laser-Compton backscattering processes have revolutionized the field of photonuclear reactions for the last ten years. A set of new techniques is under development and new information on fundamental nuclear modes, such as the IVGDR, IVGQR, Pygmy Dipole Resonance, and the Scissors Mode, has recently been obtained. We will attempt to give a brief overview of the state of the art and dare an outlook at the research opportunities at the next generation of gamma-ray facilities under construction in the U.S. and Europe. Supported by the DFG under grant No. SFB634.

  19. Theoretical studies on shaking processes in nuclear transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, Tapan

    2015-09-01

    The probabilities of shaking processes during nuclear transfer reactions have been studied using the Mukoyama formalism after the re-examination of formalism for β-decay processes. Electron shakeoff probabilities have been calculated for the α-transfer reaction in the range of Z = 10- 50. The Z-dependence on the shakeoff probabilities so obtained has been represented by an analytical equation with two parameters. The formalism has been applied on a typical nuclear transfer reaction Fe5626 +C126 →Ni6028 +Be84 and it is found that electron shakeup, shakedown and shakeoff probabilities dominate for low l quantum number of the respective shells of the projectile-like fragment ion. However, for a particular value of l these processes show high probabilities for low values of n quantum number.

  20. Studies of alpha-induced astrophysical reactions at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.

    2010-08-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator ) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Using the RI beams at CRIB, many measurements on proton alpha resonance scatterings, (α,p) reactions, and others were performed in recent years mainly for studying astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among them, the results on the 7Li+α resonance scatterings are presented.

  1. Studies of alpha-induced astrophysical reactions at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.

    2010-08-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Using the RI beams at CRIB, many measurements on proton alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha},p) reactions, and others were performed in recent years mainly for studying astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among them, the results on the {sup 7}Li+{alpha} resonance scatterings are presented.

  2. Unified ab initio approaches to nuclear structure and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Calci, Angelo

    2016-05-01

    The description of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the realistic interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. In addition to the complex nature of the nuclear forces, with two-, three- and possibly higher many-nucleon components, one faces the quantum-mechanical many-nucleon problem governed by an interplay between bound and continuum states. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD-employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. After a brief overview of the field, we focus on ab initio many-body approaches—built upon the no-core shell model—that are capable of simultaneously describing both bound and scattering nuclear states, and present results for resonances in light nuclei, reactions important for astrophysics and fusion research. In particular, we review recent calculations of resonances in the 6He halo nucleus, of five- and six-nucleon scattering, and an investigation of the role of chiral three-nucleon interactions in the structure of 9Be. Further, we discuss applications to the 7Be {({{p}},γ )}8{{B}} radiative capture. Finally, we highlight our efforts to describe transfer reactions including the 3H{({{d}},{{n}})}4He fusion.

  3. Cross Sections Calculations of ( d, t) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Yiğit, M.; Tanır, G.

    2013-04-01

    In nuclear fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In contrast with fission power, the fusion reaction processes does not produce radioactive nuclides. The fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2. So the fusion energy will not contribute to environmental problems such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. Fusion powered electricity generation was initially believed to be readily achievable, as fission power had been. However, the extreme requirements for continuous reactions and plasma containment led to projections being extended by several decades. In 2010, more than 60 years after the first attempts, commercial power production is still believed to be unlikely before 2050. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. In the fusion reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. Therefore, for self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( d, t) nuclear reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. Since the experimental data of charged particle induced reactions are scarce, self-consistent calculation and analyses using nuclear theoretical models are very important. In this study, ( d, t) cross sections for target nuclei 19F, 50Cr, 54Fe, 58Ni, 75As, 89Y, 90Zr, 107Ag, 127I, 197Au and 238U have been investigated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy. The excitation functions for ( d, t) reactions have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in

  4. EXFOR basics: A short guide to the nuclear reaction data exchange format

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.

    1996-07-01

    This manual is intended as a guide to users of nuclear reaction data compiled in the EXFOR format, and is not intended as a complete guide to the EXFOR System. EXFOR is the exchange format designed to allow transmission of nuclear data between the Nuclear Reaction Data Centers. In addition to storing the data and its` bibliographic information, experimental information, including source of uncertainties, is also compiled. The status and history of the data set is also included, e.g., the source of the data, any updates which have been made, and correlations to other data sets. EXFOR is designed for flexibility in order to meet the diverse needs of the nuclear data compilation centers. This format should not be confused with a center-to-user format. Although users may obtain data from the centers in the EXFOR format, other center-to-user formats have been developed to meet the needs of the users within each center`s own sphere of responsibility. The exchange format, as outlined, allows a large variety of numerical data tables with explanatory and bibliographic information to be transmitted in an easily machine-readable format (for checking and indicating possible errors) and a format that can be read by personnel (for passing judgment on and correcting any errors indicated by the machine). The data presently included in the EXFOR exchange include: a complete compilation of experimental neutron-induced reaction data, a selected compilation of charged-particle induced reaction data, a selected compilation of photon-induced reaction data.

  5. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko,B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-06-24

    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma.

  6. Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. E.

    2013-03-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system.

  7. The Super-Radiant Mechanism, Doorway States, and Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, Naftali

    2010-11-24

    In 1954 the possibility of forming a 'super-radiant' (SR) state in a gas of atoms confined to a volume of a size smaller than the wave length of radiation was suggested by Dicke. The atoms, with two levels, are coupled through their common radiation field. This indirect coupling leads to a redistribution of decay widths among unstable intrinsic states. A strongly decaying SR state is created at the expense of the rest of the states of the system. The connection of this mechanism to the notion of doorway states in low-energy nuclear reactions is discussed and applications to well known nuclear physics phenomena are presented.

  8. Fusion Reactions of Superheavy and Giant Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Walter; Zagrebaev, Valery

    2007-05-22

    The problem of production and study of superheavy elements is discussed in the talk. Different nuclear reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are analyzed. Collisions of transactinide nuclei are investigated as an alternative way for production of neutron-rich superheavy elements. In many events lifetime of the composite giant nuclear system consisting of two touching nuclei turns out to be rather long ({>=} 10-20 s); sufficient for observing line structure in spontaneous positron emission from super-strong electric fields, a fundamental QED process.

  9. Probing the nuclear structure with heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Broglia, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei display distortions in both ordinary space and in gauge space. It is suggested that it is possible to learn about the spatial distribution of the Nilsson orbitals and about the change of the pairing gap with the rotational frequency through the analysis of one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions induced in heavy-ion collisions.

  10. Nefazadone-induced acute dystonic reaction.

    PubMed

    Burda, A; Webster, K; Leikin, J B; Chan, S B; Stokes, K A

    1999-10-01

    A 53-y-o patient presented approximately 2 h after taking her first dose of nefazadone. Chief complaint was lip smacking with hand and arm gesturing. The patient also took 25 mg meclizine which she had used before with no adverse effects. Diphenhydramine followed by benztropine led to resolution of symptoms within 1 h. Patient subsequently used meclizine with no untoward reactions. Nefazadone should be added to the list of agents that cause acute dystonic reactions. PMID:10509438

  11. Approximate penetration factors for nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humblet, J.; Fowler, W. A.; Zimmerman, B. A.

    1987-01-01

    The ranges of validity of approximations of P(l), the penetration factor which appears in the parameterization of nuclear-reaction cross sections at low energies and is employed in the extrapolation of laboratory data to even lower energies of astrophysical interest, are investigated analytically. Consideration is given to the WKB approximation, P(l) at the energy of the total barrier, approximations derived from the asymptotic expansion of G(l) for large eta, approximations for small values of the parameter x, applications of P(l) to nuclear reactions, and the dependence of P(l) on channel radius. Numerical results are presented in tables and graphs, and parameter ranges where the danger of serious errors is high are identified.

  12. Assessment and Requirements of Nuclear Reaction Databases for GCR Transport in the Atmosphere and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Tripathi, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    The transport properties of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in the atmosphere, material structures, and human body (self-shielding) am of interest in risk assessment for supersonic and subsonic aircraft and for space travel in low-Earth orbit and on interplanetary missions. Nuclear reactions, such as knockout and fragmentation, present large modifications of particle type and energies of the galactic cosmic rays in penetrating materials. We make an assessment of the current nuclear reaction models and improvements in these model for developing required transport code data bases. A new fragmentation data base (QMSFRG) based on microscopic models is compared to the NUCFRG2 model and implications for shield assessment made using the HZETRN radiation transport code. For deep penetration problems, the build-up of light particles, such as nucleons, light clusters and mesons from nuclear reactions in conjunction with the absorption of the heavy ions, leads to the dominance of the charge Z = 0, 1, and 2 hadrons in the exposures at large penetration depths. Light particles are produced through nuclear or cluster knockout and in evaporation events with characteristically distinct spectra which play unique roles in the build-up of secondary radiation's in shielding. We describe models of light particle production in nucleon and heavy ion induced reactions and make an assessment of the importance of light particle multiplicity and spectral parameters in these exposures.

  13. Databases and tools for nuclear astrophysics applications. BRUSsels Nuclear LIBrary (BRUSLIB), Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REactions II (NACRE II) and Nuclear NETwork GENerator (NETGEN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Chen, G. L.; Arnould, M.

    2013-01-01

    An update of a previous description of the BRUSLIB + NACRE package of nuclear data for astrophysics and of the web-based nuclear network generator NETGEN is presented. The new version of BRUSLIB contains the latest predictions of a wide variety of nuclear data based on the most recent version of the Brussels-Montreal Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model. The nuclear masses, radii, spin/parities, deformations, single-particle schemes, matter densities, nuclear level densities, E1 strength functions, fission properties, and partition functions are provided for all nuclei lying between the proton and neutron drip lines over the 8 ≤ Z ≤ 110 range, whose evaluation is based on a unique microscopic model that ensures a good compromise between accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. In addition, these various ingredients are used to calculate about 100 000 Hauser-Feshbach neutron-, proton-, α-, and γ-induced reaction rates based on the reaction code TALYS. NACRE is superseded by the NACRE II compilation for 15 charged-particle transfer reactions and 19 charged-particle radiative captures on stable targets with mass numbers A < 16. NACRE II features the inclusion of experimental data made available after the publication of NACRE in 1999 and up to 2011. In addition, the extrapolation of the available data to the very low energies of astrophysical relevance is improved through the systematic use of phenomenological potential models. Uncertainties in the rates are also evaluated on this basis. Finally, the latest release v10.0 of the web-based tool NETGEN is presented. In addition to the data already used in the previous NETGEN package, it contains in a fully documented form the new BRUSLIB and NACRE II data, as well as new experiment-based radiative neutron capture cross sections. The full new versions of BRUSLIB, NACRE II, and NETGEN are available electronically from the nuclear database at http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/NuclearData. The nuclear material is presented in

  14. Compound-nuclear reactions with unstable nuclei: Constraining theory through innovative experimental approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, J. E.; Tonchev, A. P.; Burke, J. T.; Bedrossian, P.; Casperson, R. J.; Cooper, N.; Hughes, R. O.; Humby, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Ota, S.; Pietralla, N.; Scielzo, N. D.; Werner, V.

    2016-06-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have recently been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider three approaches that aim at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from the decay of the compound nucleus relevant to the desired reaction. Each method produces this compound nucleus in a different manner (via a light-ion reaction, a photon-induced reaction, or β-decay) and requires additional ingredients to yield the sought-after cross section. We give a brief outline of the approaches and employ preliminary results from recent measurements to illustrate the methods. We discuss the main advantages and challenges of each approach.

  15. Visualized kinematics code for two-body nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. J.; Chae, K. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The one or few nucleon transfer reaction has been a great tool for investigating the single-particle properties of a nucleus. Both stable and exotic beams are utilized to study transfer reactions in normal and inverse kinematics, respectively. Because many energy levels of the heavy recoil from the two-body nuclear reaction can be populated by using a single beam energy, identifying each populated state, which is not often trivial owing to high level-density of the nucleus, is essential. For identification of the energy levels, a visualized kinematics code called VISKIN has been developed by utilizing the Java programming language. The development procedure, usage, and application of the VISKIN is reported.

  16. FIGARO: a New Facility for Studying Neutron-Induced Reactions that Produce Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, L.; Haight, R. C.; Devlin, M.; Aprahamian, A.

    2000-04-01

    FIGARO (Fast neutron-Induced GAmma-Ray Observer) was established in 1999 at LANSCE/WNR. This new capability is intended to extend our research into nuclear reactions and nuclear structure using gamma rays as the principal probe. The detector will consist of an array of germanium and NE-213 neutron detectors, operating in coincidence, placed at a distance of about 20 m from the neutron source. The scientific goals of FIGARO include: investigation of nuclear level densities using gamma-ray transitions as an indicator of angular momentum populated in the reaction; investigations of pre-equilibrium reactions; and study of cross sections and neutron emission spectra in (n,n') excitations. A first measurement, with the detection of only gamma-rays, has been performed with a ^59Co sample. By comparison with existing data(T. E. Slusarchyk, ORNL/TM-11404(1989)) we can assess the performance of the detector. Results will be discussed.

  17. Ofloxacin Induced Cutaneous Reactions in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sailen Kumar; Rath, Bandana; Rath, Saroj Sekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse effects to antimicrobials are a major health problem. Though majority of them are mild and self-limiting, severe variants like Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are not uncommon. Ofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone widely used for the treatment of urinary tract infections, acute bacterial diarrheas, enteric fever, STDs and other soft tissue infections either as a single drug or in combination with other drugs. Earlier a case of mucocutaneous maculopapular rash with oral ofloxacin and was reported in an adult. In the present hospital set up there were few reports of such reactions to adults. Here we report three different variants of reactions associated with oral ofloxacin in chlidren. Early detection of cutaneous lesions and immediate withdrawal of the offending drug can prevent progression of such reactions to their severe variants as well as morbidity and mortality. PMID:26266136

  18. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions]. Progress summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p), {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p{sub 0}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 0}), comparison of the {sup 12}C(e, e{prime}p{sub 0}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 3}) reactions, quadrupole strength in the {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}{alpha}{sub 0}) reaction, quadrupole strength in the {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}{alpha}) reaction, analysis of the {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}p{sub 1}) and {sup 16}O(e,e{prime}p{sub 3}) angular distributions, analysis of the {sup 40}Ca(e,e{prime}x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q {sup 12}C(e,e{prime}x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments).

  19. Properties of carbon-based structures synthesized in nuclear reactions induced by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with threshold energy of 10 MeV at helium pressure of 1.1 kbar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didyk, A. Yu.; Wiśniewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    Helium gas with an initial pressure of about 1.1 kbar inside a high-pressure chamber (HeHPC) has been irradiated by bremsstrahlung γ quanta with a threshold energy of 10 MeV for 1.0 × 105 s produced by an electron-beam current of 22-24 μA. After opening the HeHPC, the residual pressure of helium is equal to 430 bar. Synthesized black foils with a variety of other objects are found inside the HeHPC. They are located on the inner surfaces of the reaction chamber made of high-purity copper (99.99%), the entrance the window of γ quanta made of beryllium bronze and a copper container of nuclear and chemical reaction products. Elemental analysis with the use of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis has revealed that the foils contain predominantly carbon and small quantities of other elements from carbon to iron. The results are in good agreement with the cycle of investigations of the authors devoted to the γ-quanta irradiation of dense hydrogen and helium gases in the presence (absence) of metals in a reaction chamber.

  20. α and 2 p 2 n emission in fast neutron-induced reactions on 60Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotiades, N.; Devlin, M.; Haight, R. C.; Nelson, R. O.; Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.

    2015-06-01

    Background: The cross sections for populating the residual nucleus in the reaction ZAX(n,x) Z -2 A -4Y exhibit peaks as a function of incident neutron energy corresponding to the (n ,n'α ) reaction and, at higher energy, to the (n ,2 p 3 n ) reaction. The relative magnitudes of these peaks vary with the Z of the target nucleus. Purpose: Study fast neutron-induced reactions on 60Ni. Locate experimentally the nuclear charge region along the line of stability where the cross sections for α emission and for 2 p 2 n emission in fast neutron-induced reactions are comparable as a further test of reaction models. Methods: Data were taken by using the Germanium Array for Neutron-Induced Excitations. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's Weapons Neutron Research facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 1 to 250 MeV. The time-of-flight technique was used to determine the incident-neutron energies. Results: Absolute partial cross sections for production of seven discrete Fe γ rays populated in 60Ni (n ,α /2 p x n γ ) reactions with 2 ≤x ≤5 were measured for neutron energies 1 MeVinduced reactions on stable targets via α emission at the peak of the (n ,α ) and (n ,n'α ) reactions is comparable to that for 2 p 2 n and 2 p 3 n emission at higher incident energies in the nuclear charge region around Fe.

  1. Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E. K.

    2001-03-01

    Although conventional science ignores and rejects it, a new phenomenon has been reported in hundreds of studies from laboratories throughout the world. The phenomenon involves initiating nuclear reactions within special solid structures without applying high energy, as is the usual method. In particular, fusion of ^2H to form He, ^3H, and significant energy has been duplicated in several laboratories in Japan and in the U.S.. A new understanding of nuclear interaction has been stimulated, resulting in extensions of the conventional theoretical understanding of the fusion process. As theories are further developed, many advantages will become obvious including an easy and clean production of nuclear energy as well as elimination of present nuclear waste. These potential advantages must take precedence over the difficulty in accepting these novel concepts. The low energy nuclear processes take place in a solid lattice where the atomic and electron structures are able to interfere with the barrier between nuclei. This unusual structure has been hard to reproduce so that the phenomenon is still hard to replicate. However, persistent efforts in many laboratories have now identified several methods for creating this environment. This work will be reviewed, including original work by the author. See also: http://home.netcom.com/ storms2/index.html

  2. Rydberg phases of Hydrogen and low energy nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olafsson, Sveinn; Holmlid, Leif

    2016-03-01

    For over the last 26 years the science of cold fusion/LENR has been researched around the world with slow pace of progress. Modest quantity of excess heat and signatures of nuclear transmutation and helium production have been confirmed in experiments and theoretical work has only resulted in a large flora of inadequate theoretical scenarios. Here we review current state of research in Rydberg matter of Hydrogen that is showing strong signature of nuclear processes. In the presentation experimental behavior of Rydberg matter of hydrogen is described. An extensive collaboration effort of surface physics, catalysis, atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum information is need to tackle the surprising experimental results that have so far been obtained. Rydberg matter of Hydrogen is the only known state of matter that is able to bring huge collection of protons to so short distances and for so long time that tunneling becomes a reasonable process for making low energy nuclear reactions. Nuclear quantum entanglement can also become realistic process at theses conditions.

  3. The branchings of the main s-process: their sensitivity to α-induced reactions on 13C and 22Ne and to the uncertainties of the nuclear network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisterzo, S.; Gallino, R.; Käppeler, F.; Wiescher, M.; Imbriani, G.; Straniero, O.; Cristallo, S.; Görres, J.; deBoer, R. J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the main component of the slow neutron capture process (the s-process), which accounts for the solar abundances of half of the nuclei with 90 ≲ A ≲ 208. We examine the impact of the uncertainties of the two neutron sources operating in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars: the 13C(α, n)16O reaction, which releases neutrons radiatively during interpulse periods (kT ˜ 8 keV), and the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg reaction, partially activated during the convective thermal pulses (TPs). We focus our attention on the branching points that mainly influence the abundance of s-only isotopes. In our AGB models, the 13C is fully consumed radiatively during interpulse. In this case, we find that the present uncertainty associated with the 13C(α, n)16O reaction has marginal effects on s-only nuclei. On the other hand, a reduction of this rate may increase the amount of residual (or unburned) 13C at the end of the interpulse: in this condition, the residual 13C is burned at higher temperature in the convective zone powered by the following TP. The neutron burst produced by the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg reaction has major effects on the branches along the s-path. The contributions of s-only isotopes with 90 ≲ A ≤ 204 are reproduced within solar and nuclear uncertainties, even if the 22Ne(α, n)25Mg rate is varied by a factor of 2. Improved β-decay and neutron capture rates of a few key radioactive nuclides would help to attain a comprehensive understanding of the solar main component.

  4. Alpha-induced reactions in iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, M.K.; Rizvi, I.A.; Chaubey, A.K. )

    1992-05-01

    The excitation function of ({alpha},{ital xn}) reactions on {sup 191}Ir (abundance 37.3%) and on {sup 193}Ir (abundance 62.7%) has been measured for the 17--55 MeV alpha-particle bombarding energy range. The stacked foil activation technique and {gamma}-ray spectroscopy were used to determine the cross sections. The experimental data were compared with calculated values obtained by means of a geometry-dependent hybrid model. The initial exciton number {ital n}{sub 0}=4 with {ital n}=2, {ital p}=2, and {ital h}=0 gives the best agreements with the presently measured results. To calculate the excitation function theoretically a computer code was used. This set of excitation functions provides a data basis for probing the validity of combined equilibrium and preequilibrium reaction models in a considerable energy range.

  5. EXTENSION OF THE NUCLEAR REACTION MODEL CODE EMPIRE TO ACTINIDES NUCLEAR DATA EVALUATION.

    SciTech Connect

    CAPOTE,R.; SIN, M.; TRKOV, A.; HERMAN, M.; CARLSON, B.V.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2007-04-22

    Recent extensions and improvements of the EMPIRE code system are outlined. They add new capabilities to the code, such as prompt fission neutron spectra calculations using Hauser-Feshbach plus pre-equilibrium pre-fission spectra, cross section covariance matrix calculations by Monte Carlo method, fitting of optical model parameters, extended set of optical model potentials including new dispersive coupled channel potentials, parity-dependent level densities and transmission through numerically defined fission barriers. These features, along with improved and validated ENDF formatting, exclusive/inclusive spectra, and recoils make the current EMPIRE release a complete and well validated tool for evaluation of nuclear data at incident energies above the resonance region. The current EMPIRE release has been used in evaluations of neutron induced reaction files for {sup 232}Th and {sup 231,233}Pa nuclei in the fast neutron region at IAEA. Triple-humped fission barriers and exclusive pre-fission neutron spectra were considered for the fission data evaluation. Total, fission, capture and neutron emission cross section, average resonance parameters and angular distributions of neutron scattering are in excellent agreement with the available experimental data.

  6. Microscopic Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations in the FMD Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.; Langanke, K.

    We present here a first application of the Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) approach to low-energy nuclear reactions, namely the $^3$He($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^7$Be radiative capture reaction. We divide the Hilbert space into an external region where the system is described as $^3$He and $^4$He clusters interacting only via the Coulomb interaction and an internal region where the nuclear interaction will polarize the clusters. Polarized configurations are obtained by a variation after parity and angular momentum projection procedure with respect to the parameters of all single particle states. A constraint on the radius of the intrinsic many-body state is employed to obtain polarized clusters at desired distances. The boundary conditions for bound and scattering states are implemented using the Bloch operator. The FMD calculations reproduce the correct energy for the centroid of the $3/2^-$ and $1/2^-$ bound states in $^7$Be. The charge radius of the ground state is in good agreement with recent experimental results. The FMD calculations also describe well the experimental phase shift data in the $1/2^+$, $3/2^+$ and $5/2^+$ channels that are important for the capture reaction at low energies. Using the bound and scattering many-body wave functions we calculate the radiative capture cross section. The calculated $S$ factor agrees very well, both in absolute normalization and energy dependence, with the recent experimental data from the Weizmann, LUNA, Seattle and ERNA experiments.

  7. Trojan Horse technique to measure nuclear astrophysics rearrangement reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitaleri, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The knowledge of nucleosynthesis and of energy production in stars requires an increasingly precise measurement of nuclear fusion reactions at the Gamow energy. Because of the Coulomb barrier reaction cross sections in astrophysics cannot be accessed directly at ultra -low energies, unless very favorable conditions are met. Moreover, the energies characterizing nuclear processes in several astrophysical contexts are so low that the presence of atomic electrons must be taken into account. Theoretical extrapolations of available data are then needed to derive astrophysical S(E)-factors. To overcome these experimental difficulties the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been introduced. The method provides a valid alternative path to measure unscreened low-energy cross sections of reactions between charged particles, and to retrieve information on the electron screening potential when ultra-low energy direct measurements are available. While the theory has been discussed in detail in some theoretical works, present in the scientific literature, also in relation to different types of excitation functions (e.g. non-resonant and resonant), work on detailed methodology used to extract the events to be considered for the bare nucleus cross section measurements is still on going. In this work we will present some critical points in the application of THM that deserve to be discussed in more detail.

  8. Laser-induced reactions in energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Ping

    1999-07-01

    Several energetic materials have been investigated under shock wave loading, heating, and photodissociation. This dissertation highlights some efforts to understand energetic material from an angle of basic physical processes and elementary chemical reactions. The first series of experiments was performed to study laser-generated shock waves in energetic materials. Shock waves are generated by pulsed laser vaporization of thin aluminum films. The rapidly expanding aluminum plasma launches a shock wave into the adjacent layer of energetic material, initiating chemical reactions. The shock velocity has been measured by a velocity interferometer. Shock pressures as high as 8 GPa have been generated in this manner. A simple model is proposed to predict laser-generated shock pressure. Several energetic materials have been studied under laser- generated shock wave. The second series of experiments was conducted to study thermal decomposition and photodissociation of energetic materials. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) and poly(glycidyl nitrate) (PGN) have been investigated by pulsed infrared laser pyrolysis and ultraviolet laser photolysis of thin films at 17-77 K. Reactions are monitored by transmission infrared spectroscopy. Photolysis of GAP at 266 nm shows that the initial reaction steps are elimination of molecular nitrogen with subsequent formation of imines. Thermal decomposition of GAP by infrared laser pyrolysis reveals products similar to the UV experiments after warming. Laser pyrolysis of PGN indicated that the main steps of decomposition are elimination of NO2 and CH2O from the nitrate ester functional group. It seems that the initial thermal decomposition mechanism of GAP and PGN are the same from heating rate of several degrees per second to 107 oC/s. The third series of experiments is about detailed study of photodissociation mechanism of methyl nitrate. Photodissociation of methyl nitrate isolated in an argon matrix at 17 K has been investigated by 266 nm

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (Aikawa+, 2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-07-01

    The present data is part of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (BRUSLIB) for astrophysics applications and concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within the statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation and making use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities (nuclear masses, nuclear structure properties, nuclear level densities, gamma-ray strength functions, optical potentials) entering the rate calculations. (4 data files).

  10. Computational Catalysis Using the Artificial Force Induced Reaction Method.

    PubMed

    Sameera, W M C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-04-19

    The artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method in the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy is an automatic approach to explore all important reaction paths of complex reactions. Most traditional methods in computational catalysis require guess reaction paths. On the other hand, the AFIR approach locates local minima (LMs) and transition states (TSs) of reaction paths without a guess, and therefore finds unanticipated as well as anticipated reaction paths. The AFIR method has been applied for multicomponent organic reactions, such as the aldol reaction, Passerini reaction, Biginelli reaction, and phase-transfer catalysis. In the presence of several reactants, many equilibrium structures are possible, leading to a number of reaction pathways. The AFIR method in the GRRM strategy determines all of the important equilibrium structures and subsequent reaction paths systematically. As the AFIR search is fully automatic, exhaustive trial-and-error and guess-and-check processes by the user can be eliminated. At the same time, the AFIR search is systematic, and therefore a more accurate and comprehensive description of the reaction mechanism can be determined. The AFIR method has been used for the study of full catalytic cycles and reaction steps in transition metal catalysis, such as cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation and iron-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in aqueous media. Some AFIR applications have targeted the selectivity-determining step of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, including stereoselective water-tolerant lanthanide Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reactions. In terms of establishing the selectivity of a reaction, systematic sampling of the transition states is critical. In this direction, AFIR is very useful for performing a systematic and automatic determination of TSs. In the presence of a comprehensive description of the transition states, the selectivity of the reaction can be calculated more accurately

  11. Lost alpha-particle diagnostics from a D-T plasma by using nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2014-08-21

    Among various methods proposed for alpha-particles loss measurement, we studied on those by measuring gamma rays of three cases, from (1) nuclear reactions induced by alpha particles, (2) those from short-life-time activities and (3) those from long-life-time activities induced by alpha particles. The time evolution of local alpha flux may possibly be measured by using the {sup 9}Be (a, n) {sup 12}C reaction (1). Using the same system, but with a target set up close to the first wall, activation measurement on site right after turning-off the discharge is possible (2). Nuclear reaction, {sup 25}Mg (a, p) {sup 28}Al, that produce radioisotopes of short lifetime of 2.2 minutes in one of the best candidates. As to the activation to a long lifetime (3), it is predicted that the gamma ray yield from {sup 19}F (a, n) {sup 22}Na reaction is enough for the measurement at the reactor site.

  12. Shock-induced reaction synthesis (SRS) of nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Thadhani, N.N.; Work, S. , New Mexico Tech, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 ); Graham, R.A.; Hammetter, W.F. )

    1992-05-01

    Shock-induced chemical reactions between nickel and aluminum powders (mixed in Ni{sub 3}Al stoichiometry) are used for the synthesis of nickel aluminides. It is shown that the extent of shock-induced chemical reactions and the nature of the shock-synthesized products are influenced by the morphology of the starting powders. Irregular (flaky type) and fine morphologies of the powders undergo complete reactions in contrast to partial reactions occurring in coarse and uniform morphology powders under identical shock loading conditions. Furthermore, irregular morphology powders result in the formation of the equiatomic (B2 phase) NiAl compound while the Ni{sub 3}Al (L1{sub 2} phase) compound is the reaction product with coarse and regular morphology powders. Shock-induced reaction synthesis can be characterized as a bulk reaction process involving an intense mechanochemical'' mechanism. It is a process in which shock compression induces fluid-like plastic flow and mixing, and enhances the reactivity due to the introduction of defects and cleansing of particle surfaces, which strongly influence the synthesis process.

  13. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium

    SciTech Connect

    J. Dufour; D. Murat; X. Dufour; J. Foos

    2001-11-12

    By submitting various metals (Pd, U) containing hydrogen (from 2000 to 700 000 atoms of hydrogen for 1 000 000 atoms of the host metal) to the combined action of electrical currents and magnetic fields, we have observed a sizeable exothermal effect (from 0.1 to 8 W for 500 mg of metal used). This effect is beyond experimental errors, the energy output being typically 130 to 250{percent} of the energy input and not of chemical origin (exothermal effect in the range of 7000 MJ/mol of metal in the case of palladium and of 60 MJ/mol in the case of uranium). New chemical species also appear in the processes metals. It has been shown by a QED calculation that resonances of long lifetime (s), nuclear dimensions (fm), and low energy of formation (eV) could exist. This concept seems to look like the 'shrunken hydrogen atoms' proposed by various authors. It is indeed very different in two ways (a) being a metastable state, it needs energy to be formed (a few eV) and reverts to normal hydrogen after a few seconds, liberating back its energy of formation (it is thus not the source of the energy observed); (b) its formation can be described as the electron spin/proton nuclear spin interaction becoming first order in the lattice environment (whereas it is third order in a normal hydrogen atom). Moreover, we consider that the hydrex cannot yield a neutron because this reaction is strongly endothermic. To explain our results, we put forward the following working hypothesis: In a metal lattice and under proper conditions, the formation of such resonances (metastable state) could be favored. We propose to call them HYDREX, and we assume that they are actually formed in cold fusion (CF) and low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Once formed, a number of HYDREX could gather around a nucleus of the lattice to form a cluster of nuclear size and of very long life time compared to nuclear time (10{sup -22} s). In this cluster, nuclear rearrangements could take place, yielding

  14. Ab Initio Calculations Of Nuclear Reactions And Exotic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S.

    2014-05-05

    Our ultimate goal is to develop a fundamental theory and efficient computational tools to describe dynamic processes between nuclei and to use such tools toward supporting several DOE milestones by: 1) performing predictive calculations of difficult-to-measure landmark reactions for nuclear astrophysics, such as those driving the neutrino signature of our sun; 2) improving our understanding of the structure of nuclei near the neutron drip line, which will be the focus of the DOE’s Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) being constructed at Michigan State University; but also 3) helping to reveal the true nature of the nuclear force. Furthermore, these theoretical developments will support plasma diagnostic efforts at facilities dedicated to the development of terrestrial fusion energy.

  15. Indirect measurements of nuclear astrophysics reactions at CIAE

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Weiping; Li Zhihong; Bai Xixiang; Wang Youbao; Lian Gang; Guo Bing; Zeng Sheng; Yan Shengquan; Wang Baoxiang; Su Jun; Shu Nengchuan; Chen Yongshou

    2006-11-02

    This paper described the nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE, by indirect measurements. We measured the angular distributions for some single proton or neutron transfer reactions, such as 7Be(d,n)8B, 11C(d,n)12N, 8Li(d,n)9Be, 8Li(d,p)9Li and 13N(d,n)14O in inverse kinematics, and derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 7Be(p,{gamma})8B, 11C(p,{gamma})12N, 8Li(n,{gamma})9Li, 13N(p,{gamma})14O by asymptotic normalization coefficient, spectroscopic factor, and R-matrix approach at astrophysically relevant energies.

  16. A Nuclear Reaction Analysis study of fluorine uptake in flint

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Jian-Yue; Weathers, D. L.; Picton, F.; Hughes, B. F.; Duggan, J. L.; McDaniel, F. D.; Matteson, S.

    1999-06-10

    Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 16}O resonance reaction is a powerful method of fluorine depth profiling. We have used this method to study the fluorine uptake phenomenon in mineral flint, which could potentially develop into a method of dating archeological flint artifacts. Flint samples cut with a rock saw were immersed in aqueous fluoride solutions for different times for the uptake study. The results suggest that fluorine uptake is not a simple phenomenon, but rather a combination of several simultaneous processes. Fluorine surface adsorption appears to play an important role in developing the fluorine profiles. The surface adsorption was affected by several parameters such as pH value and fluorine concentration in the solution, among others. The problem of surface charging for the insulator materials during ion bombardment is also reported.

  17. Nuclear fission: reaction to the discovery in 1939

    SciTech Connect

    Badash, L.; Hodes, E.; Tiddens, A.

    1985-01-01

    Historical aspects of the behavior of scientists in the aftermath of the discovery of nuclear fission are presented. An extensive background section is given which documents the worldwide discussion of atomic energy over the preceding four decades. A second section briefly surveys the research highlights of 1939. The third section examines the reactions of scientists, primarily in the United States, and includes coverage by newspapers, magazines and radio. The final section includes a number of themes to explain why there was little acknowledgment of the potential of the bomb to affect personal morality, the scientific community and international relations.

  18. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagielski, J.; Ostaszewska, U.; Bielinski, D. M.; Grambole, D.; Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R.; Kosinska, A.

    2016-03-01

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H+, He+ and Ar+ studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  19. Nuclear Structure of 97Mo from the (d, p) Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, M. S.; Booth, W.

    The reaction 96Mo(d, p)97Mo has been studied at 12 MeV using the tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and a multi-channel magnetic spectrograph at the Atomic Weapon Research Establishment, Aldermaston, England. Angular distributions of protons are measured at 12 different angles from 5° to 87.5° at an interval of 7.5° and the reaction products are detected in nuclear emulsion plates. Thirty levels in the energy range from 0.000 to 2.458 MeV have been observed and absolute differential cross-sections for these levels have been measured. The data are analyzed in terms of the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) theory of the direct reactions, and spins, parities and spectroscopic factors are deduced for various levels. Ambiguity in the spin assignments of d5/2 and d3/2 which is allowed in ln = 2(d, p) transition is removed by using the corresponding L-value of the 95 Mo(t, p)97Mo reaction at Et = 12 MeV. Determined value of the sum of spectroscopic factors for transfers of d5/2 neutrons suggests configuration mixing in the ground state of 96Mo. The properties of the levels in 97Mo are compared with previous experimental results and theoretical predictions.

  20. Influence of nuclear spin on chemical reactions: Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    1983-01-01

    The course of chemical reactions involving radical pairs may depend on occurrence and orientation of nuclear spins in the pairs. The influence of nuclear spins is maximized when the radical pairs are confined to a space that serves as a cage that allows a certain degree of independent diffusional and rotational motion of the partners of the pair but that also encourages reencounters of the partners within a period which allows the nuclear spins to operate on the odd electron spins of the pair. Under the proper conditions, the nuclear spins can induce intersystem crossing between triplet and singlet states of radical pairs. It is shown that this dependence of intersystem crossing on nuclear spin leads to a magnetic isotope effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of separating isotopes on the basis of nuclear spins rather than nuclear masses and also leads to a magnetic field effect on the chemistry of radical pairs which provides a means of influencing the course of polymerization by the application of weak magnetic fields. PMID:16593273

  1. Secondary Nuclear Reactions in Magneto-Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    The goal of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) is to relax the extreme pressure requirements of inertial confinement fusion by magnetizing the fuel. Understanding the level of magnetization at stagnation is critical for charting the performance of any MIF concept. We show here that the secondary nuclear reactions in magnetized deuterium plasma can be used to infer the magnetic field-radius product (BR), the critical confinement parameter for MIF. The secondary neutron yields and spectra are examined and shown to be extremely sensitive to BR. In particular, embedded magnetic fields are shown to affect profoundly the isotropy of the secondary neutron spectra. Detailed modeling of these spectra along with the ratio of overall secondary to primary neutron yields is used to form the basis of a diagnostic technique used to infer BR at stagnation. Effects of gradients in density, temperature and magnetic field strength are examined, as well as other possible non-uniform fuel configurations. Computational results employing a fully kinetic treatment of charged reaction product transport and Monte Carlo treatment of secondary reactions are compared to results from recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories' Z machine testing the MAGnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) concept. The technique reveals that the charged reaction products were highly magnetized in these experiments. Implications for eventual ignition-relevant experiments with deuterium-tritium fuel are discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  2. Studies of nuclear reaction at very low energies

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.

    1992-01-15

    The deuteron radiative capture reactions on {sup 2}H, {sup 6}Li and {sup 10}B have been measured between center of mass energies of 20 and 140 keV. Of note is the observation that the gamma ray-to-charged particle branching ratio for the DD reaction appears independent of energy down to a center of mass energy of 20 keV, consistent with some and contrary to other theoretical models. We have investigated the ratio of the reactions D(d,p)T and D(d,n){sup 3}He down to c.m. energies of 3 keV and the ratio of the reactions 6Li(d,p){sup 7}Li and {sup 6}LI(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He down to a c.m. energy of 19 keV. The DD reaction ratio is independent of energy while the (d,p) branch of the D-{sup 6}Li evinces a significant enhancement at the lowest measured energies. We have continued our investigation of charged particle production from deuterium-metal systems at a modest level of activity. Noteworthy in this investigation is the observation of 3 MeV protons from deuteron beam loaded Ti and LiD targets subjected to extreme thermal disequilibria. Significant facility improvements were realized during the most recent contract period. Specifically the downstream magnetic analysis system proposed to eliminate beam induced contaminants has been installed and thoroughly tested. This improvement should allow the D(a,{gamma}){sup 6}Li reaction to be measured in the coming contract period. A scattering chamber required for the measurement of the {sup 7}Li({sup 3}He,p){sup 9}Be reaction has been designed, fabricated and installed on the accelerator. A CAMAC based charged particle identification system has been assembled also for use in our proposed measurement of the {sup 7}Li({sup 3}He, p){sup 9}Be.

  3. Cinnamon-induced Oral Mucosal Contact Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Ana P. M; Migliari, Dante A

    2015-01-01

    Contact stomatitis associated with consumption of cinnamon flavoring agents is a relatively uncommon disorder. Of relevance, both clinical features and the histopathologic findings of this condition are nonspecific, and, more importantly, may resemble some other inflammatory oral mucosa disorders, eventually making diagnosis difficult. Usually a patient exhibits a combination of white and erythematous patches of abrupt onset, accompanied by a burning sensation. To shed some light on this subject, a case of a 64-year-old woman with hypersensitivity contact reaction on the oral mucosa due to cinnamon mints is presented, with emphasis on differential diagnosis and the process for confirmation of the diagnosis. The treatment consists of discontinuing the use of cinnamon products. Clinicians will be able to recognize this disorder following a careful clinical examination and detailed history. This recognition is important in order to avoid invasive and expensive diagnostic procedures. PMID:26312097

  4. Direct measurements of astrophysically important α-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Melina

    2016-03-01

    Understanding stellar evolution is one of the primary objectives of nuclear astrophysics. Reaction rates involving α-particles are often key nuclear physics inputs in stellar models. For instance, there are numerous (α , p) reactions fundamental for the understanding of X-ray bursts and the production of 44Ti in core-collapse supernovae. Furthermore, some (α , n) reactions are considered as one of the main neutron sources in the s-process. However, direct measurements of these reactions at relevant astrophysical energies are experimentally challenging because of their small cross section and intensity limitation of radioactive beams. The active target system MUSIC offers a unique opportunity to study (α , p) and (α , n) reactions because its segmented anode allows the investigation of a large energy range in the excitation function with a single measurement. Recent results on the direct measurement of (α , n) and (α , p) measurements in the MUSIC detector will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research used resources of ANL's ATLAS facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User.

  5. Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Draayer, Jerry P.

    2014-09-28

    We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  6. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2008-03-01

    Basic ideas about how resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) can take place in finite solids are reviewed. These ideas not only provide a basis for conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but they also explain how through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. The underlying formalism predicts that the orientation of the external fields in the SPAWAR protocolootnotetextKrivit, Steven B., New Energy Times, 2007, issue 21, item 10. http://newenergytimes.com/news/2007/NET21.htm^,ootnotetextSzpak, S.; Mosier-Boss, P.A.; Gordon, F.E. Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwissenschaften 94,511(2007)..has direct bearing on the emission of high-energy particles. Resonant EMI also implies that nano-scale solids, of a particular size, provide an optimal environment for initiating Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) in the PdD system.

  7. Neutron Induced Capture Reaction Studies in the Resonance Region at GELINA

    SciTech Connect

    Schillebeeckx, Peter; Borella, A.; Kopecky, S.; Mihailescu, L. C.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Massimi, C.; Moxon, M.; Ware, T.

    2009-01-28

    The neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA installed at the IRMM Geel (B) has been designed to study neutron-induced reactions in the resonance region. It is a multi-user facility, providing a pulsed white neutron source, with a neutron energy range between 10 meV and 20 MeV and a time resolution of 1 ns. The research program concentrates on cross section data needs for nuclear energy applications. In this paper efforts to improve the quality of cross section data for neutron induced capture reactions in the resolved and unresolved resonance region are presented together with examples of cross section data to support the development of advanced reactor concepts and to optimize the use of present nuclear power plants.

  8. Low-energy electron-induced reactions in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumainayagam, Christopher R.; Lee, Hsiao-Lu; Nelson, Rachel B.; Haines, David R.; Gunawardane, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss post-irradiation analysis of low-energy (≤50 eV) electron-induced processes in nanoscale thin films. Because electron-induced surface reactions in monolayer adsorbates have been extensively reviewed, we will instead focus on low-energy electron-induced reactions in multilayer adsorbates. The latter studies, involving nanoscale thin films, serve to elucidate the pivotal role that the low-energy electron-induced reactions play in high-energy radiation-induced chemical reactions in condensed matter. Although electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) experiments conducted during irradiation have yielded vital information relevant to primary or initial electron-induced processes, we wish to demonstrate in this review that analyzing the products following low-energy electron irradiation can provide new insights into radiation chemistry. This review presents studies of electron-induced reactions in nanoscale films of molecular species such as oxygen, nitrogen trifluoride, water, alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitriles, halocarbons, alkane and phenyl thiols, thiophenes, ferrocene, amino acids, nucleotides, and DNA using post-irradiation techniques such as temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), gel electrophoresis, and microarray fluorescence. Post-irradiation temperature-programmed desorption, in particular, has been shown to be useful in identifying labile radiolysis products as demonstrated by the first identification of methoxymethanol as a reaction product of methanol radiolysis. Results of post-irradiation studies have been used not only to identify radiolysis products, but also to determine the dynamics of electron-induced reactions. For example, studies of the radiolysis yield as a function of incident electron energy have shown that dissociative

  9. Neutral Current {nu} Induced Reactions in Nuclei at Supernova Neutrino Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S. K.

    2011-11-23

    We calculate cross sections for the neutral current induced neutrino/antineutrino reaction from {sup 208}Pb target and applied it to study Supernova neutrino event rates. The calculations are done in local density approximation taking into account Pauli blocking, Fermi motion effects and renormalization of weak transition strengths in the nuclear medium. The numerical results for the neutrino nucleus total cross sections have been averaged over the various Supernova neutrino/antineutrino fluxes available in literature.

  10. A Theory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Its Implications to Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angus, Andrew

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Theory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and its implications to nuclear physics. A new theory called Electrical Theory of K Capture is introduced as an alternative to the conventional Heat Theory of K Capture. This paper explains how fusion can be achieved at low temperature with the help of electricity. Furthermore, the author explains the "heat-after-death" phenomenon observed scientists in deuterium oxide electrolysis experiments. The author debunks Dr. K.P. Sinha's Theory of K Capture by way of mathematical equations. Meanwhile, the author explains why plasmic state- hot fusion theory is not sustainable by introducing the Laws of Concentration Density. An important implication of this paper is a paradigm shift in nuclear physics from the conventional Hot Fusion Theory to the new Cold Fusion Theory otherwise known as Theory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Secondly, a paradigm shift from the conventional Heat Theory of K Capture to the new Electrical Theory of K Capture. A third implication is the overthrow of the thermonuclear reaction models of Hans Bethe and Ernest Rutherford. Finally, mankind will benefit from the limitless, cheap, clean source of energy using light water or heavy water as fuel. Global Warming due to carbon dioxide release from fossil fuel will be a thing of the past.

  11. Deuterium cluster model for low energy nuclear reactions (LENR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Hora, Heinrich

    2007-11-01

    For studying the possible reactions of high density deuterons on the background of a degenerate electron gas, a summary of experimental observations resulted in the possibility of reactions in pm distance and more than ksec duration similar to the K-shell electron capture [1]. The essential reason was the screening of the deuterons by a factor of 14 based on the observations. Using the bosonic properties for a cluster formation of the deuterons and a model of compound nuclear reactions [2], the measured distribution of the resulting nuclei may be explained as known from the Maruhn-Greiner theory for fission. The local maximum of the distribution at the main minimum indicates the excited states of the compound nuclei during their intermediary state. This measured local maximum may be an independent proof for the deuteron clusters at LENR. [1] H. Hora, G.H. Miley et al. Physics Letters A175, 138 (1993) [2] H. Hora and G.H. Miley, APS March Meeting 2007, Program p. 116

  12. Redox reaction and foaming in nuclear waste glass melting

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    This document was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and is an attempt to analyze and estimate the effects of feed composition variables and reducing agent variables on the expected chemistry of reactions occurring in the cold cap and in the glass melt in the nuclear waste glass Slurry-fed, joule-heated melters as they might affect foaming during the glass-making process. Numerous redox reactions of waste glass components and potential feed additives, and the effects of other feed variables on these reactions are reviewed with regard to their potential effect on glass foaming. A major emphasis of this report is to examine the potential positive or negative aspects of adjusting feed with formic acid as opposed to other feed modification techniques including but not limited to use of other reducing agents. Feed modification techniques other than the use of reductants that should influence foaming behavior include control of glass melter feed pH through use of nitric acid. They also include partial replacement of sodium salts by lithium salts. This latter action (b) apparently lowers glass viscosity and raises surface tension. This replacement should decrease foaming by decreasing foam stability.

  13. Linking Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure on the Way to the Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickhoff, Willem

    2012-10-01

    The present understanding of the role of short- and long-range physics in determining proton properties near the Fermi energy for stable closed-shell nuclei has relied on data from the (e,e'p) reaction. Hadronic tools to extract such spectroscopic information have been hampered by the lack of a consistent reaction description that provides unambiguous and undisputed results. The dispersive optical model (DOM), originally conceived by Claude Mahaux, provides a unified description of both elastic nucleon scattering and structure information related to single-particle properties below the Fermi energy. The DOM provides the starting point to provide a framework in which nuclear reactions and structure data can be analyzed consistently to provide unambiguous spectroscopic information including its asymmetry dependence. Recent extensions of this approach include the treatment of non-locality to describe experimental data like the nuclear charge density based on information of the spectral density below the Fermi energy, the application of the DOM ingredients to the description of transfer reactions, a comparison of the microscopic content of the nucleon self-energy based on Faddeev-RPA calculations emphasizing long-range correlations with DOM potentials, and a study of the relation between a self-energy which includes the effect of short-range correlations with DOM potentials. The most recent Dom implementation currently in progress abandons the constraint of local potentials completely to allow an accurate description of various properties of the nuclear ground state.

  14. Deuterium separation by infrared-induced addition reaction

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1977-01-01

    A method for deuterium enrichment by the infrared-induced addition reaction of a deuterium halide with an unsaturated aliphatic compound. A gaseous mixture of a hydrogen halide feedstock and an unsaturated aliphatic compound, particularly an olefin, is irradiated to selectively vibrationally excite the deuterium halide contained therein. The excited deuterium halide preferentially reacts with the unsaturated aliphatic compound to produce a deuterated addition product which is removed from the reaction mixture.

  15. Field-resolved measurement of reaction-induced spectral densities by polarizability response spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Andrew M.; Nome, Rene A.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2007-11-01

    The experimental design and theoretical description of a novel five-pulse laser spectroscopy is presented with an application to a pyridinium charge transfer complex in acetonitrile and methanol. In field-resolved polarizability response spectroscopy (PORS), an electronically resonant laser pulse first excites a solvated chromophore (reactant) and off-resonant Raman spectra of the resulting nuclear motions are measured as a function of the reaction time. The present apparatus differs from our earlier design by performing the Raman probe measurement (with fixed pulse delays) in the frequency domain. In addition, the full electric fields of the signals are measured by spectral interferometry to separate nonresonant and Raman responses. Our theoretical model shows how the PORS signal arises from nuclear motions that are displaced/driven by the photoinduced reaction. The field-resolved off-resonant (of the solute's electronic transitions) probing favors detection of solvent (as opposed to solute) dynamics coupled to the reaction. The sign of the signal represents the relative strengths of polarization responses associated with the ground and photoexcited solutions. Signatures of nonresonant and PORS signal contributions to the experimental results are analyzed with numerical calculations based on a theoretical model we have developed for reaction-induced PORS. Our model identifies two mechanisms of PORS signal generation: (i) structural relaxation induced resonance; (ii) dephasing induced resonance. In the charge transfer reaction investigated, the solvent-dependent and time-evolving (solvent) polarizability spectral density (PSD) is readily obtained. The general trend of an initial broadband inertial nuclear response followed by a decrease in the linewidth of the PSD establishes that the measured PSD is inconsistent with the approximation of a linear response. Furthermore, the explicit time evolution of the PSD is important for properly describing solvent control of

  16. Field-resolved measurement of reaction-induced spectral densities by polarizability response spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Andrew M.; Nome, Rene A.; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2007-11-14

    The experimental design and theoretical description of a novel five-pulse laser spectroscopy is presented with an application to a pyridinium charge transfer complex in acetonitrile and methanol. In field-resolved polarizability response spectroscopy (PORS), an electronically resonant laser pulse first excites a solvated chromophore (reactant) and off-resonant Raman spectra of the resulting nuclear motions are measured as a function of the reaction time. The present apparatus differs from our earlier design by performing the Raman probe measurement (with fixed pulse delays) in the frequency domain. In addition, the full electric fields of the signals are measured by spectral interferometry to separate nonresonant and Raman responses. Our theoretical model shows how the PORS signal arises from nuclear motions that are displaced/driven by the photoinduced reaction. The field-resolved off-resonant (of the solute's electronic transitions) probing favors detection of solvent (as opposed to solute) dynamics coupled to the reaction. The sign of the signal represents the relative strengths of polarization responses associated with the ground and photoexcited solutions. Signatures of nonresonant and PORS signal contributions to the experimental results are analyzed with numerical calculations based on a theoretical model we have developed for reaction-induced PORS. Our model identifies two mechanisms of PORS signal generation: (i) structural relaxation induced resonance; (ii) dephasing induced resonance. In the charge transfer reaction investigated, the solvent-dependent and time-evolving (solvent) polarizability spectral density (PSD) is readily obtained. The general trend of an initial broadband inertial nuclear response followed by a decrease in the linewidth of the PSD establishes that the measured PSD is inconsistent with the approximation of a linear response. Furthermore, the explicit time evolution of the PSD is important for properly describing solvent control of

  17. The harmony between nuclear reactions and nuclear reactor structures and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Popa-Simil, L.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced nuclear energy is one extremely viable approach for achieving the required goals. With its extraordinarily high energy density (both, per unit mass and per unit volume), it produces over seven orders of magnitude less waste than fossil fuels per unit of energy generated. Applying nano-technologies to nuclear reactors could potentially produce the extraordinary performance required. The actual nuclear reactors lack of performances, the complexity and hazard of the fuel cycle are in part due to the lack of understanding of the nature's laws related to energy distribution applied to fission products, and in part to the current technologic capabilities that make the economical optimum. In order to produce the desired increase of performances a novel multi-scale multi-physics and engineering approach have been developed, starting from the nuclear reactions involved, analyzing in detail the key features and requirements of the 'key players' in the process (neutrons, compound nucleus, fission products, transmutation products, decay radiation), the consequences of their interaction with matter. That complex interaction generates new reactions and new key-players (knock-on electrons, photons, phonons) that further interact with the matter represented by the nuclear fuel, cladding, cooling agents, structural materials and control systems. The understanding of this complexity of problems from fm-ps scale up to macro-system and mitigating all the requirements drives to that desired harmony that provides a safe energy delivery. (authors)

  18. Dynamics of synchrotron VUV-induced intracluster reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, J.R.

    1993-12-01

    Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) using the tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation available at the National Synchrotron Light Source is being exploited to study photoionization-induced reactions in small van der Waals mixed complexes. The information gained includes the observation and classification of reaction paths, the measurement of onsets, and the determination of relative yields of competing reactions. Additional information is obtained by comparison of the properties of different reacting systems. Special attention is given to finding unexpected features, and most of the reactions investigated to date display such features. However, understanding these reactions demands dynamical information, in addition to what is provided by PIMS. Therefore the program has been expanded to include the measurement of kinetic energy release distributions.

  19. Delta excitations in heavy nuclei induced by (3He,t) and (p,n) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esbensen, H.; Lee, T.-S. H.

    1985-12-01

    Delta excitations in heavy nuclei, induced by charge exchange reactions, are studied using the surface response model. The residual pion-exchange interaction and the self-energy of the delta in a nuclear medium is included in the random-phase-approximation response. The peak position observed in (3He,t) reactions can be explained by the self-energy of the delta extracted from pion-nucleus scattering, and the magnitude of the cross section is consistent with Glauber theory. The comparison to (p,n) data is reasonable; contributions from neutron decay of the delta, which are left out in the calculations, constitute a substantial experimental background.

  20. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of {alpha}-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanne, A.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Szucs, Z.

    2005-05-24

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E{alpha}=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi({alpha},2n)211At, 209Bi({alpha},3n)210At, 209Bi({alpha},x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  1. Barites - Anomalous xenon from spallation and neutron-induced reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sedimentary barites from South Africa and Western Australia (about 3 billion years old) contain spallogenic Xe isotopes produced by reactions of Ba with nuclear-active particles in cosmic rays. 'Surface residence time' of these samples was calculated from the observed concentrations of spallogenic Xe-126. Comparison of spallogenic ratios of Xe-131/Xe-126 in the two samples provides evidence for the reaction Ba-130(n, gamma) yields Xe-131, which is characterized by a large number of resonances for neutron absorption in the epithermal region. This observation lends additional support to the conclusions already reached regarding the origin of anomalous Xe-131 in lunar samples.

  2. Tween-80 and impurity induce anaphylactoid reaction in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Lao, Qiao-Cong; Yu, Hang-Ping; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Hong-Cui; Luan, Lin; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Chun-Qi

    2015-03-01

    A number of recent reports suspected that Tween-80 in injectable medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine injections could cause life-threatening anaphylactoid reaction, but no sound conclusion was drawn. A drug-induced anaphylactoid reaction is hard to be assayed in vitro and in conventional animal models. In this study, we developed a microplate-based quantitative in vivo zebrafish assay for assessing anaphylactoid reaction and live whole zebrafish mast cell tryptase activity was quantitatively measured at a wavelength of 405 nm using N-benzoyl-dl-arginine p-nitroanilide as a substrate. We assessed 10 batches of Tween-80 solutions from various national and international suppliers and three Tween-80 impurities (ethylene glycol, 2-chloroethanol and hydrogen peroxide) in this model and found that three batches of Tween-80 (nos 2, 20080709 and 20080616) and one Tween-80 impurity, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), induced anaphylactoid reactions in zebrafish. Furthermore, we found that H2 O2 residue and peroxide value were much higher in Tween-80 samples 2, 20080709 and 20080616. These findings suggest that H2 O2 residue in combination with oxidized fatty acid residues (measured as peroxide value) or more likely the oxidized fatty acid residues in Tween-80 samples, but not Tween-80 itself, may induce anaphylactoid reaction. High-throughput zebrafish tryptase assay developed in this report could be used for assessing safety of Tween-80-containing injectable medicines and potentially for screening novel mast cell-modulating drugs. PMID:25345596

  3. Impact of phonon coupling on the radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Avdeenkov, Alexander; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance and photon strength functions (PSF) in stable and unstable Ni and Sn isotopes are calculated within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The approach includes phonon coupling (PC) effects in addition to the standard QRPA approach. The Skyrme force SLy4 is used. A pygmy dipole resonance in 72Ni is predicted at the mean energy of 12.4 MeV exhausting 25.7% of the total energy-weighted sum rule. With our microscopic E1 PSFs in the EMPIRE 3.1 code, the following radiative nuclear reaction characteristics have been calculated for several stable and unstable even-even Sn and Ni isotopes: 1) neutron capture cross sections, 2) corresponding neutron capture gamma-spectra, 3) average radiative widths of neutron resonances. Here, three variants of the microscopic nuclear level density models have been used and a comparison with the phenomenological generalized superfluid model has been performed. In all the considered properties, including the recent experimental data for PSF in Sn isotopes, the PC contributions turned out to be significant, as compared with the QRPA one, and necessary to explain the available experimental data.

  4. Toward a Fundamental Understanding of Nuclear Reactions and Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaglioni, Sofia; Hupin, Guillaume; Langhammer, Joachim; Romero-Redondo, Carolina; Schuster, Micah D.; Johnson, Calvin W.; Navrátil, Petr; Roth, Robert

    Nuclear systems near the drip lines offer an exciting opportunity to advance our understanding of the interactions among nucleons, which has so far been mostly based on the study of stable nuclei. However, this is not a goal devoid of challenges. From a theoretical standpoint, it requires the capability to address within an ab initio framework not only bound, but also resonant and scattering states, all of which can be strongly coupled. In recent years, significant progress has been made in ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from Quantum Chromodynamics employing Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of one of such methods, the ab initio no-core shell model with continuum, and its applications to nucleon and deuterium scattering on light nuclei. The first investigation of the low-lying continuum spectrum of 6He within an ab initio framework that encompasses the 4He + n + n three-cluster dynamics characterizing its lowest particle-decay channel will also be briefly presented.

  5. Nuclear Halos and Borromeans in the Primordial Nucleosynthesis Process and in Astrophysical Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, M.; Oezer, O.

    2007-04-23

    Nuclear halo structures and Borromean nuclei have been intensely studied almost two decades. They have a cloud of neutrons and protons extended well beyond the surface of tightly bound core of neutrons and protons which is classically forbidden. Since the extended tail of the valance neutron wave-function of the neutron halos the cross-sections are much larger and their sizes become substantially much larger than the ordinary nuclei. Inferred expectations of halo and Borroeman nuclei in astrophysics due to their novel structures have been suggested to influence the astrophysical reactions, especially in the primordial furnace during the Standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (SBBN) process. It is seen that the large spatial extension directly implies that both elastic and absorption cross-sections are large for the reactions involving halo nuclei. The Trojan Horse Method (THM) and the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) reaction cross-sections calculations are discussed for low energies.

  6. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Watanabe, Takehito; Chadwick, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. [Electromagnetic studies of nuclear structure and reactions]. [Nuclear Physics Group, Univ. of New Hampshire

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The experimental goals are focused on developing an understanding of strong interactions and the structure of hadronic systems by determination of the electromagnetic response; these goals will be accomplished through coincidence detection of final states. Nuclear modeling objectives are to organize and interpret the data through a consistent description of a broad spectrum of reaction observables; calculations are performed in a nonrelativistic diagrammatic framework as well as a relativistic QHD approach. Work is described according to the following arrangement: direct knockout reactions (completion of [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p), [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]pp) progress, large acceptance detector physics simulations), giant resonance studies (intermediate-energy experiments with solid-state detectors, the third response function in [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]p[sub 0]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 0]), comparison of the [sup 12]C(e, e[prime]p[sub 0]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 3]) reactions, quadrupole strength in the [sup 16]O(e,e[prime][alpha][sub 0]) reaction, quadrupole strength in the [sup 12]C(e,e[prime][alpha]) reaction, analysis of the [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]p[sub 1]) and [sup 16]O(e,e[prime]p[sub 3]) angular distributions, analysis of the [sup 40]Ca(e,e[prime]x) reaction at low q, analysis of the higher-q [sup 12]C(e,e[prime]x) data from Bates), models of nuclear structure (experimental work, Hartree-Fock calculations, phonon excitations in spherical nuclei, shell model calculations, variational methods for relativistic fields), and instrumentation development efforts (developments at CEBAF, CLAS contracts, BLAST developments).

  8. Application of the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron induced reactions: the 17O(n, α)14C reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tang, X. D.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; Bucher, B.; Burjan, V.; Couder, M.; Davies, P.; deBoer, R.; Fang, X.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Lamm, L.; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Ma, C.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Notani, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Roberson, D.; Sergi, M. L.; Tan, W.; Thompson, I. J.; Wiescher, M.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction 17O(n, α)14C was studied using virtual neutrons coming from the quasi-free deuteron break-up in the three body reaction 17O+d → α+14C+p. This technique, called virtual neutron method, extends the Trojan Horse method to neutron-induced reactions allowing to study the reaction cross section avoiding the suppression effects coming from the penetrability of the centrifugal barrier. For incident neutron energies from thermal up to a few hundred keV, direct experiments have shown the population of two out of three expected excited states at energies 8213 keV and 8282 keV and the influence of the sub-threshold level at 8038 keV. In the present experiment the 18O excited state at E* = 8.125 MeV, missing in the direct measurement, is observed. The angular distributions of the populated resonances have been measured for the first time. The results unambiguously indicate the ability of the method to overcome the centrifugal barrier suppression effect and to pick out the contribution of the bare nuclear interaction.

  9. Oxygen determination in materials by 18O(p,αγ)15N nuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjiv; Sunitha, Y.; Reddy, G. L. N.; Sukumar, A. A.; Ramana, J. V.; Sarkar, A.; Verma, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents a proton induced γ-ray emission method based on 18O(p,αγ)15N nuclear reaction to determine bulk oxygen in materials. The determination involves the measurement of 5.27 MeV γ-rays emitted following the de-excitation of 15N nuclei. A description of the energetics of the reaction is given to provide an insight into the origin of 5.27 MeV γ-rays. In addition, thick target γ-ray yields and the limits of detection are measured to ascertain the analytical potential of the reaction. The thick-target γ-ray yields are measured with a high purity germanium detector and a bismuth germanate detector at 0° as well as 90° angles in 3.0-4.2 MeV proton energy region. The best limit of detection of about 1.3 at.% is achieved at 4.2 MeV proton energy for measurements at 0° as well 90° angles with the bismuth germanate detector while the uncertainty in quantitative analysis is <8%. The reaction has a probing depth of several tens of microns. Interferences can arise from fluorine due to the occurrence of 19F(p,αγ)16O reaction that emits 6-7 MeV γ-rays. The analytical potential of the methodology is demonstrated by determining oxygen in several oxide as well as non-oxide materials.

  10. Computer subroutines for the estimation of nuclear reaction effects in proton-tissue-dose calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Khandelwal, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    Calculational methods for estimation of dose from external proton exposure of arbitrary convex bodies are briefly reviewed. All the necessary information for the estimation of dose in soft tissue is presented. Special emphasis is placed on retaining the effects of nuclear reaction, especially in relation to the dose equivalent. Computer subroutines to evaluate all of the relevant functions are discussed. Nuclear reaction contributions for standard space radiations are in most cases found to be significant. Many of the existing computer programs for estimating dose in which nuclear reaction effects are neglected can be readily converted to include nuclear reaction effects by use of the subroutines described herein.

  11. Study of nuclear multifragmentation induced by ultrarelativistic μ-mesons in nuclear track emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Firu, E.; Kornegrutsa, N. K.; Haiduc, M.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Neagu, A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Rusakova, V. V.; Stanoeva, R.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three α-particles are indicative of the nuclear-diffraction interaction mechanism.

  12. Neutron transfer reactions induced by Li8 on Be9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lichtenthäler, R.; Camargo, O.; Barioni, A.; Assunção, M.; Kolata, J. J.; Amro, H.; Becchetti, F. D.; Jiang, Hao; Aguilera, E. F.; Lizcano, D.; Martines-Quiroz, E.; Garcia, H.

    2007-05-01

    Angular distributions for the elastic scattering of Li8 on Be9 and the neutron transfer reactions Be9(Li8,Li7)Be10 and Be9(Li8,Li9)Be8 were measured with a 27 MeV Li8 radioactive nuclear beam. Spectr- oscopic factors for Li8 ⊗n= Li9 and Li7 ⊗n= Li8 bound systems were obtained from the comparison between the experimental differential cross section and finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation calculations with the code FRESCO. The spectroscopic factors obtained were compared to shell model calculations and to other experimental values from (d,p) reactions. Using the present values for the spectroscopic factor, cross sections for the direct neutron-capture reactions Li7(n,γ)Li8 and Li8(n,γ)Li9 were calculated in the framework of a potential model.

  13. Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Meng; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2015-03-15

    Photo-induced chemical reaction of trans-resveratrol has been studied. UV B, liquid state and sufficient exposure time are essential conditions to the photochemical change of trans-resveratrol. Three principal compounds, cis-resveratrol, 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol and 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione, were successively generated in the reaction solution of trans-resveratrol (0.25 mM, 100% ethanol) under 100 μW cm(-2) UV B radiation for 4h. cis-Resveratrol, originated from isomerization of trans-resveratrol, resulted in 2,4,6-phenanthrenetriol through photocyclisation reaction meanwhile loss of 2 H. 2,4,6-Phenanthrenetriol played a role of photosensitizer producing singlet oxygen in the reaction pathway. The singlet oxygen triggered [4+2] cycloaddition reaction of trans-resveratrol, and then resulted in the generation of 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-benzofurandione through photorearrangement and oxidation reaction. The singlet oxygen reaction was closely related to the substrate concentration of trans-resveratrol in solution. PMID:25308653

  14. The US nuclear reaction data network. Summary of the first meeting, March 13 & 14 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The first meeting of the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network (USNRDN) was held at the Colorado School of Mines, March 13-14, 1996 chaired by F. Edward Cecil. The Agenda of the meeting is attached. The Network, its mission, products and services; related nuclear data and data networks, members, and organization are described in Attachment 1. The following progress reports from the members of the USNRDN were distributed prior to the meeting and are given as Attachment 2. (1) Measurements and Development of Analytic Techniques for Basic Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Applications; (2) Nuclear Reaction Data Activities at the National Nuclear Data Center; (3) Studies of nuclear reactions at very low energies; (4) Nuclear Reaction Data Activities, Nuclear Data Group; (5) Progress in Neutron Physics at Los Alamos - Experiments; (6) Nuclear Reaction Data Activities in Group T2; (7) Progress Report for the US Nuclear Reaction Data Network Meeting; (8) Nuclear Astrophysics Research Group (ORNL); (9) Progress Report from Ohio University; (10) Exciton Model Phenomenology; and (11) Progress Report for Coordination Meeting USNRDN.

  15. 3D reconstruction of nuclear reactions using GEM TPC with planar readout

    SciTech Connect

    Bihałowicz, Jan Stefan

    2015-02-24

    The research program of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) laboratory under construction in Magurele, Romania facilities the need of developing a gaseous active-target detector providing 3D reconstruction of charged products of nuclear reactions induced by gamma beam. The monoenergetic, high-energy (E{sub γ} > 19 MeV) gamma beam of intensity 10{sup 13}γ/s allows studying nuclear reactions in astrophysics. A Time Projection Chamber with crossed strip readout (eTPC) is proposed as one of the imaging detectors. The special feature of the readout electrode structure is a 2D reconstruction based on the information read out simultaneously from three arrays of strips that form virtual pixels. It is expected to reach similar spatial resolution as for pixel readout at largely reduced cost of electronics. The paper presents the current progress and first results of the small scale prototype TPC which is a one of implementation steps towards eTPC detector proposed in the Technical Design Report of Charged Particles Detection at ELI-NP.

  16. Neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering with nuclei in low and high neutrino energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Ha, Eunja; Yang, Ghil-Seok; Kim, K. S.; Kajino, T.

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed present status regarding theoretical approaches for neutrino-induced reactions and neutrino scattering. With a short introduction of relevant data, our recent calculations by distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) for quasielastic region are presented for MiniBooNE data. We also discussed that one step-process estimated by the DWBA is comparable to the two-step process, which has been usually used in the neutrino-nucleosynthesis. For much higher energy neutrino data, such as NOMAD data, elementary process approach was shown to be useful instead of using complicated nuclear models. But, in the low energy region, detailed nuclear structure model, such as QRPA and shell model, turn out to be inescapable to explain the reaction data.

  17. Alpha Induced Reaction Cross Section Calculations of Tantalum Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Ugur, F. A.; Gokce, A. A.

    2013-04-01

    The fusion energy is attractive as an energy source because the fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and so fusion will not contribute to environmental problems, such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. The fusion reaction does not produce radioactive nuclides and it is not self-sustaining, as is a fission reaction when a critical mass of fissionable material is assembled. Since the fusion reaction is easily and quickly quenched the primary sources of heat to drive such an accident are heat from radioactive decay and heat from chemical reactions. Both the magnitude and time dependence of the generation of heat from radioactive decay can be controlled by proper selection and design of materials. Tantalum is one of the candidate materials for the first wall of fusion reactors and for component parts of irradiation chambers. Accurate experimental cross-section data of alpha induced reactions on Tantalum are also of great importance for thermonuclear reaction rate determinations since the models used in the study of stellar nucleosynthesis are strongly dependent on these rates (Santos et al. in J Phys G 26:301, 2000). In this study, neutron-production cross sections for target nuclei 181Ta have been investigated up to 100 MeV alpha energy. The excitation functions for (α, xn) reactions (x = 1, 2, 3) have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. And also neutron emission spectra for 181Ta (α, xn) reactions at 26.8 and 45.2 MeV have been calculated. The mean free path multiplier parameters has been investigated. The pre-equilibrium results have been calculated by using the hybrid model, the geometry dependent hybrid (GDH) model. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in literature.

  18. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Singla, Atul; Amini, Mohammad R; Alpert, Martin A; Gornik, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    Acute systemic (anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid) reactions have been well described in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Both necrotizing and non-necrotizing skin lesions at heparin injection sites have been reported and may occur in 10-20% of patients with HIT. We report herein a patient treated with subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium who developed non-necrotizing erythematous skin lesions at enoxaparin sodium injection sites. A subsequent intravenous bolus of unfractionated heparin produced a fatal anaphylactoid reaction. This suggests that caution should be exercised in the administration of intravenous heparin to patients with non-necrotizing erythematous skin lesions at prior heparin injection sites. PMID:23579400

  19. Nuclear quantum effects and kinetic isotope effects in enzyme reactions.

    PubMed

    Vardi-Kilshtain, Alexandra; Nitoker, Neta; Major, Dan Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Enzymes are extraordinarily effective catalysts evolved to perform well-defined and highly specific chemical transformations. Studying the nature of rate enhancements and the mechanistic strategies in enzymes is very important, both from a basic scientific point of view, as well as in order to improve rational design of biomimetics. Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) is a very important tool in the study of chemical reactions and has been used extensively in the field of enzymology. Theoretically, the prediction of KIEs in condensed phase environments such as enzymes is challenging due to the need to include nuclear quantum effects (NQEs). Herein we describe recent progress in our group in the development of multi-scale simulation methods for the calculation of NQEs and accurate computation of KIEs. We also describe their application to several enzyme systems. In particular we describe the use of combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods in classical and quantum simulations. The development of various novel path-integral methods is reviewed. These methods are tailor suited to enzyme systems, where only a few degrees of freedom involved in the chemistry need to be quantized. The application of the hybrid QM/MM quantum-classical simulation approach to three case studies is presented. The first case involves the proton transfer in alanine racemase. The second case presented involves orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase where multidimensional free energy simulations together with kinetic isotope effects are combined in the study of the reaction mechanism. Finally, we discuss the proton transfer in nitroalkane oxidase, where the enzyme employs tunneling as a catalytic fine-tuning tool. PMID:25769515

  20. Heparin-induced anaphylactoid reaction associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in the ED.

    PubMed

    Foreman, Juron S; Daniels, Lauren M; Stettner, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Although rare, heparin-induced anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions have been previously described in the literature. We present a case of a patient who presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and was subsequently diagnosed with an acute pulmonary venous thromboembolism. Shortly after being started on intravenous unfractionated heparin, she developed sudden cardiovascular collapse leading to a cardiopulmonary arrest. She was successfully resuscitated and, after further diagnostic evaluation, was found to have developed a heparin-induced anaphylactoid reaction. PMID:25097093

  1. A systematic review of drug induced ocular reactions in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, J; Harvey, J

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To conduct a systematic review of drug induced adverse ocular effects in diabetes to determine if this approach identified any previously unrecognised adverse drug effects; to make a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of this approach in identifying adverse drug reactions; and to assess the current accessibility of this information to prescribing physicians.
METHODS—Literature search of online biomedical databases. The search strategy linked eye disorders with adverse drug reactions and diabetes. Source journals were classified as medical, pharmaceutical, diabetes related, or ophthalmological. It was determined whether the reactions identified were recorded in drug datasheets and the British National Formulary.
RESULTS—63 references fulfilled the selection criteria, of which 45 were considered to be relevant to the study. The majority of these were case reports but cross sectional surveys, case-control and cohort studies, and review articles were also identified. 61% of the reactions were not recorded in the British National Formulary and 41% were not recorded in the datasheets. 55% appeared in specialist ophthalmology journals.
CONCLUSIONS—This is a feasible approach to the identification of adverse drug reactions. Adverse reactions not listed in the most commonly used reference sources were found. The majority were published in specialist ophthalmology journals which might not be seen by prescribing physicians.

 PMID:10655188

  2. A study of heavy-heavy nuclear reactions. [nuclear research/nuclear particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, G. S.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations are presented for the reaction products in high energy collisions and of the atmospheric transport of particles such as protons, neutrons and other nucleons. The magnetic moments of charmed baryons are examined. Total cross sections which are required for cosmic heavy ion transport and shielding studies are also examined.

  3. Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Actinide Targets Extracted from Surrogate Experiments: A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Lesher, S R; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J; Younes, W

    2009-10-01

    The Surrogate nuclear reactions method, an indirect approach for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving difficult-to-measure targets, is reviewed. Focusing on cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides, we review the successes of past and present applications of the method and assess its uncertainties and limitations. The approximations used in the analyses of most experiments work reasonably well for (n,f) cross sections for neutron energies above 1-2 MeV, but lead to discrepancies for low-energy (n,f) reactions, as well as for (n,{gamma}) applications. Correcting for some of the effects neglected in the approximate analyses leads to improved (n,f) results. We outline steps that will further improve the accuracy and reliability of the Surrogate method and extend its applicability to reactions that cannot be approached with the present implementation of the method.

  4. Estimation of Nuclear Reaction Effects in Proton-Tissue-Dose Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1983-01-14

    Version 00 REPC reviews calculational methods for the estimation of dose from external proton exposure of arbitrary convex bodies and presents the necessary information for the estimation of dose in soft tissue. The effects of nuclear reactions, especially in relation to the dose equivalent, are retained. REPC subroutines can be used to convert existing computer programs which neglect nuclear reaction effects to include them.

  5. Nuclear Reactions: Studying Peaceful Applications in the Middle and Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski Sunal, Cynthia; Sunal, Dennis W.

    1999-01-01

    Asserts that students must learn about nuclear fission and fusion in the social studies curriculum to help them develop a foundation for considering the social issues associated with the everyday use of nuclear reactions. Gives background on the two types of reactions and provides three lessons for middle and secondary classrooms. (CMK)

  6. A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    PubMed

    Krivit, Steven B; Marwan, Jan

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research, a field that has developed from one of the most controversial subjects in science, "cold fusion." Early in the history of this controversy, beginning in 1989, a strong polarity existed; many scientists fiercely defended the claim of new physical effects as well as a new process in which like-charged atomic nuclei overcome the Coulomb barrier at normal temperatures and pressures. Many other scientists considered the entire collection of physical observations-along with the hypothesis of a "cold fusion"--entirely a mistake. Twenty years later, some people who had dismissed the field in its entirety are considering the validity of at least some of the reported experimental phenomena. As well, some researchers in the field are wondering whether the underlying phenomena may be not a fusion process but a neutron capture/absorption process. In 2002, a related tabletop form of thermonuclear fusion was discovered in the field of acoustic inertial confinement fusion. We briefly review some of this work, as well. PMID:19809695

  7. Nuclear structure and reaction studies at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, G.W.; Ray, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    This document constitutes the (1988--1991) technical progress report for the ongoing medium energy physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics;(2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics.

  8. RIPL - Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R. , E-Mail: r.capotenoy@iaea.org; Herman, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Young, P.G.; Goriely, S.; Belgya, T.; Ignatyuk, A.V.; Koning, A.J.; Hilaire, S.; Plujko, V.A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Bersillon, O.; Chadwick, M.B.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han, Yinlu; Kailas, S.; Kopecky, J.; Maslov, V.M.; Reffo, G.

    2009-12-15

    We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through (http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/). This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and {gamma}-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains

  9. RIPL - Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Obložinský, P.; Young, P. G.; Goriely, S.; Belgya, T.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Koning, A. J.; Hilaire, S.; Plujko, V. A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Bersillon, O.; Chadwick, M. B.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han, Yinlu; Kailas, S.; Kopecky, J.; Maslov, V. M.; Reffo, G.; Sin, M.; Soukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Talou, P.

    2009-12-01

    We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/. This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and γ-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains

  10. RIPL-Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Capote,R.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Young,P.G.; Goriely,S.; Belgy,T.; Ignatyuk,A.V.; Koning,A.J.; Hilaire,S.; Pljko,V.A.; Avrigeanu,M.; Bersillon,O.; Chadwick,M.B.; Fukahori,T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han,Yinl,; Kailas,S.; Kopecky,J.; Maslov,V.M.; Reffo,G.; Sin,M.; Soukhovitskii,E.Sh.; Talou,P

    2009-12-01

    We describe the physics and data included in the Reference Input Parameter Library, which is devoted to input parameters needed in calculations of nuclear reactions and nuclear data evaluations. Advanced modelling codes require substantial numerical input, therefore the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked extensively since 1993 on a library of validated nuclear-model input parameters, referred to as the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL). A final RIPL coordinated research project (RIPL-3) was brought to a successful conclusion in December 2008, after 15 years of challenging work carried out through three consecutive IAEA projects. The RIPL-3 library was released in January 2009, and is available on the Web through http://www-nds.iaea.org/RIPL-3/. This work and the resulting database are extremely important to theoreticians involved in the development and use of nuclear reaction modelling (ALICE, EMPIRE, GNASH, UNF, TALYS) both for theoretical research and nuclear data evaluations. The numerical data and computer codes included in RIPL-3 are arranged in seven segments: MASSES contains ground-state properties of nuclei for about 9000 nuclei, including three theoretical predictions of masses and the evaluated experimental masses of Audi et al. (2003). DISCRETE LEVELS contains 117 datasets (one for each element) with all known level schemes, electromagnetic and {gamma}-ray decay probabilities available from ENSDF in October 2007. NEUTRON RESONANCES contains average resonance parameters prepared on the basis of the evaluations performed by Ignatyuk and Mughabghab. OPTICAL MODEL contains 495 sets of phenomenological optical model parameters defined in a wide energy range. When there are insufficient experimental data, the evaluator has to resort to either global parameterizations or microscopic approaches. Radial density distributions to be used as input for microscopic calculations are stored in the MASSES segment. LEVEL DENSITIES contains

  11. Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

  12. Discreteness-induced transitions in multibody reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yohei; Sughiyama, Yuki; Kaneko, Kunihiko; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J

    2016-08-01

    A decrease in system size can induce qualitatively different behavior compared to the macroscopic behavior of the corresponding large-size system. The mechanisms of this transition, which is known as the small-size transition, can be attributed to either a relative increase in the noise intensity or to the discreteness of the state space due to the small system size. The former mechanism has been intensively investigated using several toy and realistic models. However, the latter has rarely been analyzed and is sometimes confused with the former, because a toy model that extracts the essence of the discreteness-induced transition mechanism is lacking. In this work, we propose a one- and three-body reaction system as a minimal model of the discreteness-induced transition and derive the conditions under which this transition occurs in more complex systems. This work enriches our understanding of the influence of small system size on system behavior. PMID:27627279

  13. Role of Electronic Structure In Ion Band State Theory of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2004-03-01

    The Nuts and Bolts of our Ion Band State (IBS) theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR's) in palladium-deuteride (PdD) and palladium-hydride (PdH) are the electrons that hold together or tear apart the bonds (or lack of bonds) between deuterons (d's) or protons (p's) and the host material. In PdDx and PdH_x, this bonding is strongly correlated with loading: in ambient loading conditions (x< 0. 6), the bonding in hibits IBS occupation. As x arrow 1, slight increases and decreases in loading can lead to vibrations (which have conventionally been thought to occur from phonons) that can induce potential losses or increases of p/d. Naive assumptions about phonons fail to include these losses and increases. These effects can occur because neither H or D has core electrons and because in either PdD or PdH, the electrons near the Fermi Energy have negligible overlap with the nucleus of either D or H. I use these ideas to develop a formal justification, based on a generalization of conventional band theory (Scott Chubb, "Semi-Classical Conduction of Charged and Neutral Particles in Finite Lattices," 2004 March Meeting."), for the idea that occupation of IBS's can occur and that this can lead to nuclear reactions.

  14. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  15. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method frommore » being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.« less

  16. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  17. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  18. The formation and decay of superheavy nuclei produced in 48Ca-induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sushil; Balasubramaniam, M.; Gupta, Raj K.; Münzenberg, G.; Scheid, W.

    2003-04-01

    The formation of superheavy nuclei in 48Ca+232Th, 238U, 242,244Pu and 248Cm reactions and their subsequent decay are studied within the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) and the QMFT-based preformed cluster decay model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators. According to QMFT, all these 48Ca-induced reactions are cold fusion reactions with relative excitation energies larger than those for the Pb-induced cold fusion reactions and smaller than those for the lighter beam, i.e. Mg, Si or S-induced hot fusion reactions. The same reactions were first suggested by Gupta et al in 1977 on the basis of QMFT, and this study re-establishes the same result. In fact, for such heavy isotopes of Z = 110 to 116, 50Ca is shown to be a better beam for cold fusion, but 50Ca is a radioactive nucleus. The alpha-decay half-lives of these nuclei after 3n and/or 4n evaporations, i.e. of the evaporation residues of these compound systems, calculated on PCM compare reasonably well with the experiments published by the Dubna group and another recent calculation. As expected for such rare decays, PCM calculations show that the alpha-preformation factors are small, ~10-8 to 10-10. The possible competition of alpha-decays with heavy cluster emissions from these superheavy nuclei is also probed from the point of view of searching for new nuclear structure information and possible future experiments with such exotic nuclei. The decay half-lives for some clusters are in fact shown to be lower than the limits of experiments for nuclei with enough available atoms.

  19. Laser-induced reaction alumina coating on ceramic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chenghe

    Silicon carbide ceramics are susceptible to corrosion by certain industrial furnace environments. It is also true for a new class of silicon carbide-particulate reinforced alumina-matrix composite (SiCsb(P)Alsb2Osb3) since it contains more than 55% of SiC particulate within the composite. This behavior would limit the use of SiCsb(P)Alsb2Osb3 composites in ceramic heat exchangers. Because oxide ceramics corrode substantially less in the same environments, a laser-induced reaction alumina coating technique has been developed for improving corrosion resistance of the SiCsb(P)Alsb2Osb3 composite. Specimens with and without the laser-induced reaction alumina coating were subjected to corrosion testing at 1200sp°C in an air atmosphere containing Nasb2COsb3 for 50 ˜ 200 hours. Corroded specimens were characterized via x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The uncoated SiCsbP/Alsb2Osb3 composite samples experienced an initial increase in weight during the exposure to Nasb2COsb3 at 1200sp°C due to the oxidation of residual aluminum metal in the composite. There was no significant weight change difference experienced during exposure times between 50 and 200 hours. The oxidation layer formed on the as-received composite surface consisted of Si and Alsb2Osb3 (after washing with a HF solution). The oxidation layer grew outward and inward from the original surface of the composite. The growth rate in the outward direction was faster than in the inward direction. The formation of the Si/Alsb2Osb3 oxidation layer on the as-received composite was nonuniform, and localized corrosion was observed. The coated samples experienced very little mass increase. The laser-induced reaction alumina coating effectively provided protection for the SiCsbP/Alsb2Osb3 composite by keeping the corrodents from contacting the composite and by the formation of some refractory compounds such as Nasb2OAlsb2Osb3SiOsb2 and Nasb2Alsb{22}Osb

  20. The effect of nuclear reaction rates and convective mixing on the evolution of a 6M{sub ȯ} star

    SciTech Connect

    Halabi, Ghina M.

    2014-05-09

    We present the evolution of a 6M{sub ȯ} star, of solar-like initial metallicity, and investigate the effects of key nuclear reaction rates, as well as the treatment of the convective mixing on its evolution along the Cepheid instability strip. In particular, we study the effect of recent estimates of the {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O reaction on the formation and extension of the blue loop during core helium burning. We also investigate the effects induced on this blue loop by the adoption of non-standard convective mixing prescriptions, as well as the implications of modifying the Mixing Length Theory.

  1. Deuteron-induced reactions on Ni isotopes up to 60 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Šimečková, E.; Fischer, U.; Mrázek, J.; Novak, J.; Štefánik, M.; Costache, C.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2016-07-01

    Background: The high complexity of the deuteron-nucleus interaction from the deuteron weak binding energy of 2.224 MeV is also related to a variety of reactions induced by the deuteron-breakup (BU) nucleons. Thus, specific noncompound processes as BU and direct reactions (DR) make the deuteron-induced reactions so different from reactions with other incident particles. The scarce consideration of only pre-equilibrium emission (PE) and compound-nucleus (CN) mechanisms led to significant discrepancies with experimental results so that recommended reaction cross sections of high-priority elements as, e.g., Ni have mainly been obtained by fit of the data. Purpose: The unitary and consistent BU and DR account in deuteron-induced reactions on natural nickel may take advantage of an extended database for this element, including new accurate measurements of particular reaction cross sections. Method: The activation cross sections of 64,61,60Cu, Ni,5765, and 55,56,57,58,59m,60Co nuclei for deuterons incident on natural Ni at energies up to 20 MeV, were measured by the stacked-foil technique and high-resolution gamma spectrometry using U-120M cyclotron of CANAM, NPI CAS. Then, within an extended analysis of deuteron interactions with Ni isotopes up to 60 MeV, all processes from elastic scattering until the evaporation from fully equilibrated compound system have been taken into account while an increased attention is paid especially to the BU and DR mechanisms. Results: The deuteron activation cross-section analysis, completed by consideration of the PE and CN contributions corrected for decrease of the total-reaction cross section from the leakage of the initial deuteron flux towards BU and DR processes, is proved satisfactory for the first time to all available data. Conclusions: The overall agreement of the measured data and model calculations validates the description of nuclear mechanisms taken into account for deuteron-induced reactions on Ni, particularly the BU and

  2. (Studies of heavy-ion induced reactions): Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1986-10-01

    An experiment was performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac, extending previous studies using inverse reactions to 50 MeV/u /sup 139/La incident on targets of C and Al. Studies of excitation energy division in lower energy division in lower energy heavy-ion reactions were furthered using kinematic coincidences to measure the excitation energies of primary products in the Fe + Ho reaction at 12 MeV/u. These results will provide important systematics for comparisons with previous measurements at 9 MeV/u on the same system and at 15 MeV/u on the Fe + Fe and Fe + U systems. Also studied were different aspects of 15 MeV/u Fe-induced reactions, with experiments performed at the Oak Ridge HHIRF. The first three contributions of this report constitute a major portion of the results from this research. Finally, at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac a large detector array for coincident detection of fragmentation products in heavy-ion collisions below 100 MeV/u is being built. A list of publications, personnel, and activities is provided.

  3. Granulomatous tattoo reaction induced by intense pulse light treatment.

    PubMed

    Tourlaki, Athanasia; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tosi, Diego; Pigatto, Paolo; Brambilla, Lucia

    2010-10-01

    Cosmetic tattooing involves implantation of pigments into the dermis in order to create a permanent makeup. Here, we report a case of sarcoidal granulomatous reaction to old cosmetic tattoos after an intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment for facial skin rejuvenation. We consider this case as a peculiar example of photo-induced reaction to tattoo. In addition, we hypothesize that an underlying immune dysfunction was present, and acted as a predisposing factor for this unusual response, as the patient had suffered from an episode of acute pulmonary sarcoidosis 15 years before. Overall, our observation suggests that IPL treatment should be used cautiously in patients with tattoos, especially when a history of autoimmune disease is present. PMID:21175859

  4. Two-photon-induced cycloreversion reaction of chalcone photodimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Träger, J.; Härtner, S.; Heinzer, J.; Kim, H.-C.; Hampp, N.

    2008-04-01

    The photocleavage reaction of chalcone photodimers has been studied using a two-photon process. For this purpose, a novel chalcone dimer has been synthesized as a low molecular weight model substance for polymer bound chalcones and its photochemistry triggered by two-photon-absorption (2PA) has been investigated using a pulsed frequency-doubled Nd:YAG-laser. The 2PA-induced cycloreversion reaction selectively leads to the cleavage of the chalcone photodimers resulting in the formation of monomeric chalcone molecules. Hence, as an application chalcones can be used as a photosensitive linker which can be cleaved beyond an UV-absorbing barrier. The 2PA cross section of the chalcone photodimer was determined to be of 1.1 × 10 -49 cm 4 s photon -1 (11 GM).

  5. Establishing a theory for deuteron induced surrogate reactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Potel, G; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J

    2015-09-18

    Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the priormore » formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the Nb93(d,p)X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We then look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states.Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. We finally make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.« less

  6. Establishing a theory for deuteron induced surrogate reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Potel, G; Nunes, F M; Thompson, I J

    2015-09-18

    Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the prior formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the Nb93(d,p)X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We then look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states.Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. We finally make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.

  7. Establishing a theory for deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potel, G.; Nunes, F. M.; Thompson, I. J.

    2015-09-01

    Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the prior formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the 93Nb(d ,p )X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states. Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. Finally, we make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.

  8. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  9. Spin Modes, Neutrino-Induced Reactions and Nucleosynthesis in Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu; Honma, Michio; Higashiyama, Koji

    2008-11-11

    Recent advances in shell model calculations of spin modes in nuclei with the use of new shell model Hamiltonians are discussed. Important roles of tensor interaction in shell evolutions toward drip-lines are pointed out. Electromagnetic transitions in exotic carbon isotopes are investigated. Anomalous supressions of transition strengths in the isotopes are found to be rather well explained. Neutrino-induced reactions on {sup 56}Fe and {sup 56}Ni are studied, and implications on production yields of heavy elements in stars are discussed.

  10. Nuclear-Pumped Lasers. [efficient conversion of energy liberated in nuclear reactions to coherent radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The state of the art in nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Nuclear pumped laser modeling, nuclear volume and foil excitation of laser plasmas, proton beam simulations, nuclear flashlamp excitation, and reactor laser systems studies are covered.

  11. Shock induced chemical reactions in energetic structural materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reding, Derek J.

    Energetic structural materials (ESMs) constitute a new class of materials that provide dual functions of strength and energetic characteristics. ESMs are typically composed of micron-scale or nano-scale intermetallic mixtures or mixtures of metals and metal oxides, polymer binders, and structural reinforcements. Voids are included to produce a composite with favorable chemical reaction characteristics. In this thesis, a continuum approach is used to simulate gas-gun or explosive loading experiments where a strong shock is induced in the ESM by an impacting plate. Algorithms are developed to obtain equations of state of mixtures. It is usually assumed that the shock loading increases the energy of the ESM and causes the ESM to reach the transition state. It is also assumed that the activation energy needed to reach the transition state is a function of the temperature of the mixture. In this thesis, it is proposed that the activation energy is a function of temperature and the stress state of the mixture. The incorporation of such an activation energy is selected in this thesis. Then, a multi-scale chemical reaction model for a heterogeneous mixture is introduced. This model incorporates reaction initiation, propagation, and extent of completed reaction in spatially heterogeneous distributions of reactants. A new model is proposed for the pore collapse of mixtures. This model is formulated by modifying the Carol, Holt, and Nesterenko spherically symmetric model to include mixtures and compressibility effects. Uncertainties in the model result from assumptions in formulating the models for continuum relationships and chemical reactions in mixtures that are distributed heterogeneously in space and in numerical integration of the resulting equations. It is important to quantify these uncertainties. In this thesis, such an uncertainty quantification is investigated by systematically identifying the physical processes that occur during shock compression of ESMs which are

  12. Nucleation and reaction rates controlled by local reaction volume and reaction-induced stress - spinel layer growth as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götze, Lutz C.; Milke, Ralf; Dohmen, Ralf; Wirth, Richard

    2014-05-01

    %) and a positive volume change at the Sp-Cor interface (by +17 %). We observed in TEM images formation of porosity at the Sp-Per substrate interface and lattice strain in the polycrystalline corundum substrate at the Sp-Cor substrate interface, both observations being fully in line with the respective local volume changes. We infer that the local stress field between the growing reaction layer and the rigid single crystal substrate is responsible for the dramatic effect on both the nucleation and reaction rates. With respect to minerals growing at dry conditions in the Earth's crust (granulite facies) we infer that rates of reactions might strongly depend on local volume changes at interfaces, that reactions are impeded by compressive reaction-induced stress applied to rigid neighboring grains, and that nucleation of thermodynamically stable phases on grain boundaries might be suppressed by a positive reaction volume.

  13. Children's reactions to the threat of nuclear plant accidents.

    PubMed

    Schwebel, M; Schwebel, B

    1981-04-01

    In the wake of Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident, questionnaire and interview responses of children in elementary and secondary schools revealed their perceptions of the dangers entailed in the continued use of nuclear reactors. Results are compared with a parallel study conducted close to 20 years ago, and implications for mental health are examined. PMID:7223871

  14. PHASE-OTI: A pre-equilibrium model code for nuclear reactions calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K.

    2009-09-01

    The present work focuses on a pre-equilibrium nuclear reaction code (based on the one, two and infinity hypothesis of pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions). In the PHASE-OTI code, pre-equilibrium decays are assumed to be single nucleon emissions, and the statistical probabilities come from the independence of nuclei decay. The code has proved to be a good tool to provide predictions of energy-differential cross sections. The probability of emission was calculated statistically using bases of hybrid model and exciton model. However, more precise depletion factors were used in the calculations. The present calculations were restricted to nucleon-nucleon interactions and one nucleon emission. Program summaryProgram title: PHASE-OTI Catalogue identifier: AEDN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEDN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5858 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 149 405 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Pentium 4 and Centrino Duo Operating system: MS Windows RAM: 128 MB Classification: 17.12 Nature of problem: Calculation of the differential cross section for nucleon induced nuclear reaction in the framework of pre-equilibrium emission model. Solution method: Single neutron emission was treated by assuming occurrence of the reaction in successive steps. Each step is called phase because of the phase transition nature of the theory. The probability of emission was calculated statistically using bases of hybrid model [1] and exciton model [2]. However, more precise depletion factor was used in the calculations. Exciton configuration used in the code is that described in earlier work [3]. Restrictions: The program is restricted to single nucleon emission and nucleon

  15. Proton Reaction Data Library for Nuclear Activation (Medium Energy Nuclear Data Library.)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-01

    Version 00 GROUPXS does file handling and processing of the double-differential continuum-emission cross sections stored in the new MF6 format of ENDF/VI. It treats the energy-angle data that are supposed to be represented by a Legendre-polynomial expansion in the center-of-mass system and can do the following: (1) Conversion of MF6 data from center-of-mass system to the laboratory system, with the possibility to continue the calculation with the options (2), (3), and (4). (2) Conversion ofmore » Legendre-polynomial representation into point-wise angular data, in MF6 format. (3) Conversion of data from MF6 into MF4 + MF5 (ENDF-V). (4) Calculation of group constants, scattering matrices and transfer matrices for arbitrary group structures with a fusion micro-flux weighting spectrum (PN-approximation). The code treats only continuum reaction types that are stored in the MF6 format with the restrictions as specified for the European Fusion File (EFF1). These restrictions are not inconvenient for the purpose of fusion neutronics calculations and they facilitate relatively simple processing . This neutron reaction data library can be used for nuclear activation and transmutation applications at energies up to 100 MeV.« less

  16. Mass and charge distributions in Fe-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, H.; Mignerey, A.C.; Marchetti, A.A.; Weston-Dawkes, A.P.; Kehoe, W.L.; Obenshain, F.

    1995-02-21

    The charge and mass of the projectile-like fragments produced in the 12-MeV/nucleon {sup 56}Fe + {sup 165}Ho reaction were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 16 degrees. The mass and charge distributions of the projectile-like fragments were generated as a function of total kinetic energy loss (TKEL), and characterized by their neutron and proton centroids and variances, and correlation factors. A weak drift of the system towards mass asymmetry, opposite to the direction which minimizes the potential energy of the composite system, was observed. The increase in the variances with energy loss is consistent with a nucleon exchange mechanism as a means for energy dissipation. Predictions of two nucleon exchange models, Randrup`s and, Tassan-Got`s models, are compared to the experimental results of the 672-MeV {sup 56}Fe + {sup 165}Ho reaction and to other Fe-induced reactions. The proton and neutron centroids were found to be generally better reproduced by Tassan-Got`s model than by Randrup`s model. The variances and correlation factor are well reproduced for asymmetric systems by both models.

  17. Reactions induced by beams of neutron and proton halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    1997-02-01

    Within the collaboration Dubna-GANIL (Caen, France) - IPN (Orsay, France) - NPI (Rez, Czech Republic) - IAP (Bucharest, Romania) at GANIL and the Dubna U400M accelerator, experiments have been carried out to study elastic scattering, fusion and fission using secondary ion beams of 6He, 11Li and 8B. The fission cross-section for the 6He isotopes has been found to be significantly higher than for the 4He nuclei. This enhancement depends mainly on the entrance channel and it is connected with the neutron skin of the 6He nuclei. Also, investigation of the elastic scattering of 11Li (neutron halo), 7Be and 8B (proton halo) has been performed. The microscopic analysis supports the existence of a neutron halo in 11Li and the proton skin in 8B and 7Be. Perspectives for investigations in this field at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions JINR are also discussed.

  18. Mass and charge distributions in chlorine-induced nuclear reactions. [[sup 35]Cl at E/A = 15 MeV, [sup 37]Cl at E/A = 7. 3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Projectile-like fragments were detected and characterized in terms of A, Z, and energy for the reactions [sup 37]Cl on [sup 40]Ca and [sup 209]Bi at E/A = 7.3 MeV, and [sup 35]Cl, on [sup 209]Bi at E/A = 15 MeV, at angles close to the grazing angle. Mass and charge distributions were generated in the N-Z plane as a function of energy loss, and have been parameterized in terms of their centroids, variances, and coefficients of correlation. Due to experimental problems, the mass resolution corresponding to the [sup 31]Cl on [sup 209]Bi reaction was very poor. This prompted the study and application of a deconvolution technique for peak enhancement. The drifts of the charge and mass centroids for the system [sup 37]Cl on [sup 40]Ca are consistent with a process of mass and charge equilibration mediated by nucleon exchange between the two partners, followed by evaporation. The asymmetric systems show a strong drift towards larger asymmetry, with the production of neutron-rich nuclei. It was concluded that this is indicative of a net transfer of protons from the light to the heavy partner, and a net flow of neutrons in the opposite direction. The variances for all systems increase with energy loss, as it would be expected from a nucleon exchange mechanism; however, the variances for the reaction [sup 37]Cl on [sup 40]Ca are higher than those expected from that mechanism. The coefficients of correlation indicate that the transfer of nucleons between projectile and target is correlated. The results were compared to the predictions of two current models based on a stochastic nucleon exchange mechanism. In general, the comparisons between experimental and predicted variances support this mechanism; however, the need for more realistic driving forces in the model calculations is indicated by the disagreement between predicted and experimental centroids.

  19. Bayesian Evaluation Including Covariance Matrices of Neutron-induced Reaction Cross Sections of {sup 181}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Leeb, H. Schnabel, G.; Srdinko, Th.; Wildpaner, V.

    2015-01-15

    A new evaluation of neutron-induced reactions on {sup 181}Ta using a consistent procedure based on Bayesian statistics is presented. Starting point of the evaluation is the description of nuclear reactions via nuclear models implemented in TALYS 1.4. A retrieval of experimental data was performed and covariance matrices of the experiments were generated from an extensive study of the corresponding literature. All reaction channels required for a transport file up to 200 MeV have been considered and the covariance matrices of cross section uncertainties for the most important channels are determined. The evaluation has been performed in one step including all available experimental data. A comparison of the evaluated cross sections and spectra with experimental data and available evaluations is performed. In general the evaluated cross section reflect our best knowledge and give a fair description of the observables. However, there are few deviations from expectation which clearly indicate the impact of the prior and the need to account for model defects. Using the results of the evaluation a complete ENDF-file similarly to those of the TENDL library is generated.

  20. Nuclear reaction cross sections of exotic nuclei in the Glauber model for relativistic mean field densities

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, S. K.; Panda, R. N.; Arumugam, P.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2009-12-15

    We have calculated the total nuclear reaction cross sections of exotic nuclei in the framework of the Glauber model, using as inputs the standard relativistic mean field (RMF) densities and the densities obtained from the more recently developed effective-field-theory-motivated RMF (the E-RMF). Both light and heavy nuclei are taken as the representative targets, and the light neutron-rich nuclei as projectiles. We found the total nuclear reaction cross section to increase as a function of the mass number, for both the target and projectile nuclei. The differential nuclear elastic scattering cross sections are evaluated for some selected systems at various incident energies. We found a large dependence of the differential elastic scattering cross section on incident energy. Finally, we have applied the same formalism to calculate both the total nuclear reaction cross section and the differential nuclear elastic scattering cross section for the recently discussed superheavy nucleus with atomic number Z=122.

  1. Summary Report of the Workshop on The Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database

    SciTech Connect

    Semkova, V.; Pritychenko, B.

    2014-10-10

    The Workshop on the Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data Database (EXFOR) was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 6 to 10 October 2014. The workshop was organized to discuss various aspects of the EXFOR compilation process including compilation rules, different techniques for nuclear reaction data measurements, software developments, etc. A summary of the presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop is reported here.

  2. Shell and explosive hydrogen burning. Nuclear reaction rates for hydrogen burning in RGB, AGB and Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeltzig, A.; Bruno, C. G.; Cavanna, F.; Cristallo, S.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; deBoer, R. J.; Di Leva, A.; Ferraro, F.; Imbriani, G.; Marigo, P.; Terrasi, F.; Wiescher, M.

    2016-04-01

    The nucleosynthesis of light elements, from helium up to silicon, mainly occurs in Red Giant and Asymptotic Giant Branch stars and Novae. The relative abundances of the synthesized nuclides critically depend on the rates of the nuclear processes involved, often through non-trivial reaction chains, combined with complex mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we summarize the contributions made by LUNA experiments in furthering our understanding of nuclear reaction rates necessary for modeling nucleosynthesis in AGB stars and Novae explosions.

  3. Evaluation of photon production data from neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.

    1980-01-01

    The evaluation methods and procedures used for generating the photon production data in the current Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B, Version V) are reviewed. There are 42 materials in the General Purpose File of ENDF/B-V that contain data for prompt photon production. Almost all evaluations had substantial experimental data bases, but fewer than half of them employed any of the following evaluation methods. Only a few used theoretical techniques that are sophisticated enough to ensure internal consistency with other particle production data. Comments are made on four evaluation methods: the empirical formalism of Howerton et al., the Troubetzkoy model, the multiparticle Hauser-Feshbach/precompound model, and the Yost method. Critiques are also made on three procedures used for conserving photon energies in neutron capture reactions. The presence of photon production data in the file is useful for studying energy balance, since photon production generally accounts for a large portion of the reaction energy output. Problems found in energy balance checks are discussed. 9 figures, 1 table.

  4. Neutron-induced reaction studies at FIGARO using a spallation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, D.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Devlin, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Granier, T.

    2004-05-01

    A description is given of the new flexible facility Fast Neutron-Induced Gamma-Ray Observer (FIGARO) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. FIGARO is designed to study fast-neutron-induced reactions that result in the emission of γ rays and neutrons, using the white neutron beam of the Weapons Neutron Research Facility. The emitted neutrons and γ rays are detected by several liquid scintillators and one high-resolution germanium or one barium-fluoride detector, respectively. As an example, the inelastic neutron scattering on Si from 4 to 20 MeV is presented and the results are compared with predictions of the nuclear model calculations performed with the codes GNASH and EMPIRE II.

  5. From nuclear reactions to compact stars: A unified approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, D. N.; Roy Chowdhury, Partha; Mishra, Abhishek

    2014-04-01

    An equation of state (EoS) for symmetric nuclear matter is constructed using the density-dependent M3Y effective interaction and extended for isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. Theoretically obtained values of symmetric nuclear matter incompressibility, isobaric incompressibility, symmetry energy and its slope agree well with experimentally extracted values. Folded microscopic potentials using this effective interaction, whose density dependence is determined from nuclear matter calculations, provide excellent descriptions for proton, alpha and cluster radioactivities, elastic and inelastic scattering. The nuclear deformation parameters extracted from the inelastic scattering of protons agree well with other available results. The high-density behavior of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter satisfies the constraints from the observed flow data of heavy-ion collisions. The neutron star properties studied using -equilibrated neutron star matter obtained from this effective interaction for a pure hadronic model agree with the recent observations of the massive compact stars such as PSR J1614-2230, but if a phase transition to quark matter is considered such agreement is no longer possible.

  6. Clinical Features of Oxaliplatin Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions and Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Bano, Nusrat; Najam, Rahila; Qazi, Faaiza; Mateen, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Oxaliplatin, a third generation novel platinum compound is the most effective first line chemotherapeutic agent for colorectal cancer (CRC) in combination with 5FU and leucovorin. It is indicated for pancreatic, gastric and testicular cancers combined with bevacuzimab, capecitabine, irinotecan and other cytotoxic agents. However, moderate to severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSR) during or after oxaliplatin infusion usually require cessation of chemotherapy or substitution of the key therapeutic drug which largely interferes with improved patient prognosis. This mini- review showcases recent and accepted opinions/approaches in oxaliplatin induced HSR management. Physicians and oncologists have varying attitudes regarding the decision to rechallenge the patient after an HSR experience, efficacy of desensitization protocols, effectiveness and selection of drugs for premedication and possibilities of cross sensitivity to other platinum agents (e.g. carboplatin). A brief insight into underlying molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of oxaliplatin induced HSR is offered. We have also discussed the management of oxaliplatin induced HSR and risk stratification for a successful and complete chemotherapeutic plan. PMID:27221832

  7. From the HINDAS Project: Excitation Functions for Residual Nuclide Production by Proton-Induced Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, R.; Gloris, M.; Protoschill, J.; Uosif, M.A.M.; Weug, M.; Herpers, U.; Kuhnhenn, J.; Kubik, P.-W.; Schumann, D.; Synal, H.-A.; Weinreich, R.; Leya, I.; David, J.C.; Leray, S.; Duijvestijn, M.; Koning, A.; Kelic, A.; Schmidt, K.H.; Cugnon, J.

    2005-05-24

    A survey is given about efforts undertaken during the HINDAS project to investigate the energy dependence of residual nuclide production by proton-induced reactions from thresholds up to 2.6 GeV. For proton-induced reactions, our experiments aimed to further develop and complete the cross-section database that was established by our collaboration in recent years. It was extended to the heavy-target elements Ta, W, Pb, and Bi for energies up to 2.6 GeV. In addition, new measurements for the target element iron were performed up to 2.6 GeV and for natural uranium for energies from 21 MeV to 69 MeV. For the target element lead, a comprehensive set of excitation functions published recently was completed by AMS-measurements of cross sections for the production of the long-lived radionuclides Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, and I-129 and by mass spectrometric measurements for stable and radioactive rare gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. Comprehensive tests of the nuclear-reaction codes TALYS and INCL4+ABLA, which were developed within the HINDAS project, were performed with the new experimental results over the entire energy range.

  8. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nasrabadi, M. N. Sepiani, M.

    2015-03-30

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  9. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of 64Cu and 67Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, M. N.; Sepiani, M.

    2015-03-01

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE & LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  10. Nuclear excitations and reaction mechanisms. Progress report, 1 August-31 July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Fallieros, S.; Levin, F.S.

    1984-08-01

    This progress report describes activities of the Nuclear Theory group at Brown University during the period 1 August 1983 to 31 July 1984. Completed and ongoing research include various theoretical and numerical studies of few-particle systems, nuclear reaction models, nuclear electroexcitation and photon scattering from nuclei. In addition, research on atomic and molecular structure has essentially been concluded and no further DOE-supported research in this area is anticipated.

  11. Isospin transport and reaction mechanism in nuclear reactions in the range 20–40 MeV/n

    SciTech Connect

    Barlini, S. Piantelli, S.; Casini, G.; Olmi, A.; Bini, M.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Valdré, S.; Pastore, G.; Bougault, R.; Lopez, O.; Le Neindre, N.; Parlog, M.; Vient, E.; Bonnet, E.; Chibhi, A.; Frankland, J. D. [GANIL, CEA Borderie, B.; Rivet, M. F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS and others

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, many efforts have been devoted to the investigation of the isospin degree of freedom in nuclear reactions. Comparing systems involving partners with different N/Z, it has been possible to investigate the isospin transport process and its influence on the final products population. This can be then related to the symmetry energy term of the nuclear EOS. From the experimental point of view, this task requires detectors able to measure both charge and mass of the emitted products, in the widest possible range of energy and size of the fragments. With this objective, the FAZIA and GARFIELD+RCo apparatus have been used with success in some recent experiments.

  12. Structure effects on reaction mechanisms in collisions induced by radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pietro, A. Di Figuera, P.; Scuderi, V.; Amorini, F.; Angulo, C.; Cardella, G.; Casarejos, E.; Cherubini, S.; Lu, J.; Marchetta, C.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pellegriti, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Raabe, R.; Rizzo, F.; Sida, J. L.; Tian, W.

    2006-08-15

    The present paper concerns the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams of halo and weakly bound nuclei at energies around and above the Coulomb barrier. The results obtained for the reaction induced by the halo nucleus {sup 6}He on {sup 64}Zn have been compared with the results for the reaction induced by {sup 4}He on the same target. The results of the reaction induced by the weakly bound unstable {sup 13}N on the weakly bound {sup 9}Be have been compared with those for the reaction {sup 10}B + {sup 12}C.

  13. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Gheshlaghi, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in Deuterated acetone (C3D6O) using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and -28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 106 K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 106 K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 107 K can be produced in the center of the bubble in which the thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions are promising under the controlled conditions.

  14. Nuclear coherences in photosynthetic reaction centers following light excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, S.; Norris, J.R.; Berthold, T.; Ohmes, E.; Kothe, G.; Thurnauer, M.C.

    1997-07-01

    Transient electron paramagnetic resonance is used to study the secondary radical pair in plant photosystem I. Nuclear coherences are observed in the transverse magnetization at lower temperatures following light excitation. Comparative studies of deuterated and deuterated {sup 15}N-substituted cyanobacteria S. lividus indicate assignment of these coherences to nitrogen nuclei in the primary donor and deuterons in the secondary acceptor. The modulation amplitude of a deuteron matrix line, as a function of the microwave power, reveals a distinct resonance behavior. The maximum amplitude is obtained when the Rabi frequency equals the nuclear Zeeman frequency.

  15. Reaction-induced strain localization: Torsion experiments on dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Piane, Claudio; Burlini, Luigi; Grobety, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of a dolomite marble from Mt. Frerone (Adamello, N-Italy) during decarbonation to calcite and periclase in torsion experiments. Tests were performed in a Paterson gas-medium apparatus on cylindrical samples of 10 mm diameter and 10 mm length. Experiments were conducted at 800 °C, 300 MPa confining pressure under both vented and non-vented conditions, up to a maximum bulk shear strain of about γ = 1.8, at different strain rates (3 × 10 - 5 s - 1 up to 3 × 10 - 4 s - 1 ). Under hydrostatic conditions the nominal equilibrium P(CO 2) should be around 100 MPa, but in the vented experiments the CO 2 was free to escape, causing the breakdown of dolomite. During the decomposition, deformation was systematically localized at the ends of the specimens, near the porous spacers into a fine-grained mixture of calcite and periclase. Due to the low permeability of the marble, pore fluid could not escape from the central part of the sample building up CO 2 pressure which suppressed the decarbonation reaction. The fluid pressure embrittled the material and caused the development of en-echelon tension fractures, inclined opposite to the sense of shear. We conclude that decarbonation produced a weak polyphase matrix composed of submicron sized reaction products. Such a small grain size induced strain localization which was probably promoted by a switch from grain-size insensitive to grain-size sensitive deformation mechanism.

  16. Electro-induced manipulations of liquid marbles for chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhou; Fu, Xiangyu; Binks, Bernard P.; Shum, Ho Cheung; Microfluidics; Soft Matter Group in University of Hong Kong Team; Surfactant; Colloid Group at Hull Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid marbles, liquid droplets coated by non-wetting particles, have been well demonstrated as a promising template for various droplet-based applications, in particular for chemical reactions. In these applications, controlled manipulations on liquid marbles, including coalescence and mixing, are highly demanded but yet rarely investigated. In this work, we study the coalescence and mixing of liquid marbles controlled by an electric field. We found that a sufficiently large applied voltage can cause the coalescence of two or multiple marbles arranged in a chain. This critical voltage, leading to the consequent coalescence, increases with the number of the liquid marbles. In addition, the imposed electric stress can induce convective liquid flow within the different liquid marbles, resulting in rapid and efficient mixing. The mixing efficiency can be conveniently tuned through varying the applied voltage. Our approach based on electro-assisted manipulations of liquids marbles represents a robust and feasible template for chemical or biomedical reactions involving multiple reagents and steps. We have demonstrated its potential by performing a chemiluminescence to detect the hydrogen peroxide encapsulated in liquid marbles.

  17. Modeling chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, S. V.; Gornushkin, I. B.

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, a numerical algorithm is proposed to find the equation of state for laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) in which chemical reactions are permitted in addition to ionization processes. The Coulomb interaction in plasma is accounted for by the Debye-Hückel method. The algorithm is used to calculate the equation of state for LIPs containing carbon, silicon, nitrogen, and argon. The equilibrium reaction constants are calculated using the latest experimental and ab initio data of spectroscopic constants for the molecules {N}_2, {C}_2, {Si}_2, {CN}, {SiN}, {SiC} and their ions. The algorithm is incorporated into a fluid dynamic numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations describing an expansion of LIP plumes into an ambient gas. The dynamics of LIP plumes obtained by the ablation of SiC, solid silicon, or solid carbon in an ambient gas containing {N}_2 and Ar is simulated to study formation of molecules and molecular ions.

  18. Photon- and meson-induced reactions on the nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuster, T.; Mosel, U.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from a unitary effective Lagrangian model for the meson-nucleon scattering developed in T. Feuster and U. Mosel, Phys. Rev. 58, 457 (1998), we come to a unified description of both meson scattering and photon-induced reactions on the nucleon. To this end the photon is added perturbatively, yielding both Compton scattering and meson photoproduction amplitudes. In a simultaneous fit to all available data the parameters of the nucleon resonances are extracted. We find that a global fit to the data of the various channels involving the final states γN, πN, ππN, ηN, and KΛ is possible. Especially in eta photoproduction a readjustment of the masses and widths found in the fits to hadronic reactions alone is necessary to describe the data. Only for the D13(1520) do we find a possible disagreement for the helicity couplings extracted using the combined data set and pion photoproduction multipoles alone. The model dependence introduced by the restoration of gauge invariance is discussed and found to be significant mainly for resonances with small helicity couplings.

  19. Neutrino nuclear responses for double beta decays and astro neutrinos by charge exchange reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, Hiroyasu

    2014-09-01

    Neutrino nuclear responses are crucial for neutrino studies in nuclei. Charge exchange reactions (CER) are shown to be used to study charged current neutrino nuclear responses associated with double beta decays(DBD)and astro neutrino interactions. CERs to be used are high energy-resolution (He3 ,t) reactions at RCNP, photonuclear reactions via IAR at NewSUBARU and muon capture reactions at MUSIC RCNP and MLF J-PARC. The Gamow Teller (GT) strengths studied by CERs reproduce the observed 2 neutrino DBD matrix elements. The GT and spin dipole (SD) matrix elements are found to be reduced much due to the nucleon spin isospin correlations and the non-nucleonic (delta isobar) nuclear medium effects. Impacts of the reductions on the DBD matrix elements and astro neutrino interactions are discussed.

  20. Influence of different data tables on neutron induced reactions in quasi-infinite 238U and 232Th targets irradiated by protons with relativistic energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhivkov, P.; Stoyanov, Ch; Tyutyunnikov, S.; Furman, W.

    2016-06-01

    The last decade saw the emergence of various theoretical analysis and developments of ADS (Accelerator Driving System). Different transport codes, nuclear models and nuclear cross sections have been used to predict and estimate the properties of ADS. The energy of the proton beam is supposed to range between 1 and 1.5 GeV, but some analyses suggest higher energy - up to 10 GeV. The recent papers examine the influence of the nuclear models on neutron induced reactions (n,f), (n,g), (n,xn), (n,el.) and (n,inel.). The experimental set-ups and the presumable ADS constructions consist of thousands of segments and details for example project Myrrha, Belgum [1]. The calculation of the above reactions depends on the neutron spectrum in each segment. There is a considerable difference in the size of these segments in ADS, which makes the estimation of the influence of the nuclear models and the cross sections on the integral number of neutron induced reactions more difficult. This article considers the influence of different cross section data tables on neutron induced reactions in 238U or 232Th targets. One nuclear model describing the high energy part of the nuclear interaction and various cross section data tagble (ENDF, ENDL, TENDL2014 and etc.) are used. All particles generated in the nuclear interaction process deposit their energy in the target volume. MCNP 6.1 transport code was used.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTION AND STRUCTURE DATABASES OF THE NATIONAL NUCLEAR DATA CENTER.

    SciTech Connect

    PRITYCHENKO, B.; HERMAN, M.W.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; SONZOGNI, A.A.

    2006-06-23

    We discuss nuclear data resources of the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) of relevance to nuclear astrophysics applications. These resources include databases, tools and powerful web service at www.nndc.bnl.gov. Our objective is to provide an overview of nuclear databases, related products and demonstrate nuclear astrophysics potential of the ENDF/B-VII beta2 library. A detailed discussion on the Maxwellian neutron capture cross sections obtained from the ENDF/B-VII beta2 library is presented.

  2. Anomalous nuclear reactions in condensed matter: Recent results and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. E.; Palmer, E. P.; Czirr, J. B.; Decker, D. L.; Jensen, G. L.; Thorne, J. M.; Taylor, S. F.; Rafelski, J.

    1990-06-01

    We have observed clear signatures for neutron emission during deuteron infusion into metals, implying the occurrence of nuclear fusion in condensed matter near room temperature. The low-level nuclear phenomenon has been demonstrated in collaborative experiments at Brigham Young University, at the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, and at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. We have shown that neutron emission can be induced in metals using both electrochemical and variational temperature/pressure means to generate non-equilibrium conditions. Observed average neutron emission rates are approximately 0.04-0.4 no/ s. Current efforts focus on trying to understand and control the phenomenon. In particular, we wish to understand the correlation of neutron yields with parameters such as hydrogen/metal ion ratio, pressure (induced, for example, by electrical field or gas pressure or mechanical pressure), temperature variation, hydride phase changes, and surface conditions, e.g., a palladium coating on titanium. We want to know if fusion arises due to the close proximity of the deuterons in the lattice (piezonuclear fusion), or possibly from “microscopic hot fusion”, accompanying strong electric fields at propagating cracks in the hydride. The latter interpretation would imply neutron emission in bursts. Our experiments show clear evidence for emission of ˜102 neutrons in bursts lasting <128 μs, although random neutron-singles emissions were also observed. Experiments now underway to compare the d-d, and p-d, and d-t reaction rates will be important to a consistent description of the new phenomenon. Careful scrutiny of this effect could increase our understanding of heat, helium-3, and tritium production in the earth, other planets, and even the stars.

  3. Capture process in nuclear reactions with a quantum master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Scheid, W.

    2009-09-15

    Projectile-nucleus capture by a target nucleus at bombarding energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier is treated with the reduced-density-matrix formalism. The effects of dissipation and fluctuations on the capture process are taken self-consistently into account within the quantum model suggested. The excitation functions for the capture in the reactions {sup 16}O, {sup 19}F, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 28}Si, {sup 32,34,36,38}S, {sup 40,48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr+{sup 208}Pb with spherical nuclei are calculated and compared with the experimental data. At bombarding energies about (15-25) MeV above the Coulomb barrier the maximum of capture cross section is revealed for the {sup 58}Ni+{sup 208}Pb reaction.

  4. Nuclear broadening of transverse momentum in Drell-Yan reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M. B.; Leitch, M. J.; McGaughey, P. L.; Moss, J. M.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2007-03-15

    Data for Drell-Yan (DY) processes on nuclei are currently available from fixed target experiments up to the highest energy of {radical}(s)=40 GeV. The bulk of the data cover the range of short coherence length, where the amplitudes of the DY reaction on different nucleons do not interfere. In this regime, DY processes provide direct information about broadening of the transverse momentum of the projectile parton experiencing initial-state multiple interactions. We revise a previous analysis of data from the E772 experiment and perform a new analysis of broadening including data from the E866 experiment at Fermilab. We conclude that the observed broadening is about twice as large as the one found previously. This helps to settle controversies that arose from a comparison of the original determination of broadening with data from other experiments and reactions.

  5. Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in 48CA-INDUCED Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Lobanov, Yu. V.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Polyakov, A. N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Gikal, B. N.; Mezentsev, A. N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Subotic, K.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Vostokin, G. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Moody, K. J.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Wilk, P. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Landrum, J. H.; Wild, J. F.; Lougheed, R. W.

    2008-11-01

    Thirty-four new nuclides with Z = 104-116, 118 and N = 161-177 have been synthesized in the complete-fusion reactions of 238U, 237Np, 242,244Pu, 243Am, 245,248Cm, and 249Cf targets with 48Ca beams. The masses of evaporation residues were identified through measurements of the excitation functions of the xn-evaporation channels and from cross bombardments. The decay properties of the new nuclei agree with those of previously known heavy nuclei and with predictions from different theoretical models. A discussion of self-consistent interpretations of all observed decay chains originating from the parent isotopes 282,283112, 282113, 286-289114, 287,288115, 290-293116, and 294118 is presented. Decay energies and lifetimes of the neutron-rich superheavy nuclei as well as their production cross sections indicate a considerable increase in the stability of nuclei with an increasing number of neutrons, which agrees with the predictions of theoretical models concerning the decisive dependence of the structure and radioactive properties of superheavy elements on their proximity to the nuclear shells with N = 184 and Z = 114.

  6. Breakup locations: Intertwining effects of nuclear structure and reaction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, M.; Simpson, E. C.; Luong, D. H.; Kalkal, Sunil; Cook, K. J.; Carter, I. P.; Hinde, D. J.; Williams, E.

    2016-05-01

    Studies at the Australian National University aim to distinguish breakup of the projectile like-nucleus that occurs when approaching the target from that when receding from the target. Helped by breakup simulations, observables have been found that are sensitive to the breakup location, and thus to the mean-lives of unbound states; sensitivity to even sub-zeptosecond lifetime is found. These results provide insights to understand the reaction dynamics of weakly bound nuclei at near barrier energies.

  7. Siderite breakdown and pressure induced Fe-C redox reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavina, Barbara; Dera, Przemyslaw; Kim, Eunja; Downs, Robert T.

    2010-05-01

    Siderite, FeCO3, was investigated at high pressure (up to ~ 40 GPa) and high temperature (up to about 2400K) using a laser heated diamond anvil cell. The structure of the sample was probed with a synchrotron monochromatic beam; powder, multigrain and single crystaldiffraction techniques were used according to changing size of the crystallites in the course of the experiment. At about 35 GPa we observed the breakdown of the carbonate into h-Fe3O4 (the orthorhombic high pressure phase of Fe3O4[1]) and undetected carbon phases. We suggest the breakdown was achieved through a redox reaction where the iron formal valence is increased at the expense of the carbon reduction. This observation is in agreement with results of shock experiments on siderite [2-4] in which however the presence of hematite in the starting material prevented to discriminate among possible reactions determining the synthesis of Fe3O4. Oxygen fugacity and the crystal chemistry of deep Earth mineral assemblages exert a major control on ionic speciation, therefore experimental confirmation are necessary to determine the actual redox equilibrium between iron and carbon in the mantle. Remarkably, perovskite strongly favor the partitioning of Fe3+ [5] and so it might favor the C reduction. If the pressure effect on Fe-C redox equilibrium found in this experiment is active in the deep Earth, the speciation of carbon would be strongly affected, in particular, the stability of carbonates and CO2 might be controlled by pressure induced reductions rather than by the stability of the pure phases. Carbon reduction at pressure might account for the greater subduction of carbon with respect to hydrogen [6]. On the other hand uplifting of reduced carbon assembly might release C-O fluids through reduction of Fe3+. Our results suggest that Fe-C redox reactions might have a crucial role on the carbon speciation which has a major importance on deep Earth processes. References [1] Haavik, et al. (2000) American

  8. Exclusive measurements of nuclear breakup reactions of 17Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamers, F.; Marganiec, J.; Aksouh, F.; Aksyutina, Yu.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Borge, M. J. G.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Egorova, I. A.; Emling, H.; Ershova, O.; Forssén, C.; Fraile, L. M.; Fynbo, H.; Galaviz, D.; Geissel, H.; Grigorenko, L. V.; Heil, M.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Hoffmann, J.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Karagiannis, C.; Karakoç, M.; Kiselev, O. A.; Kratz, J. V.; Kulessa, R.; Kurz, N.; Langer, C.; Lantz, M.; Larsson, K.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Mahata, K.; Müntz, C.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nyman, G.; Ott, W.; Panin, V.; Parfenova, Yu. L.; Paschalis, S.; Perea, A.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Richter, A.; Rodriguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D.; Riisager, K.; Savran, D.; Schrieder, G.; Shul'gina, N. B.; Simon, H.; Stroth, J.; Sümmerer, K.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Tengborn, E.; Weick, H.; Wimmer, C.; Zhukov, M. V.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied one-proton-removal reactions of about 500MeV/u 17Ne beams on a carbon target at the R3B/LAND setup at GSI by detecting beam-like 15O-p and determining their relative-energy distribution. We exclusively selected the removal of a 17Ne halo proton, and the Glauber-model analysis of the 16F momentum distribution resulted in an s2 contribution in the 17Ne ground state of about 40%.

  9. Deexcitation processes in nuclear reactions. [Dept. of Chemistry, Purdue Univ

    SciTech Connect

    Porile, N.T.

    1980-08-01

    The following studies, currently in progress, are discussed: angular distributions and differential ranges of Ba fragments from the interaction of /sup 238/U with 0.8-to 400- GeV protons; target A dependence of the angular distribution of Sc fragments emitted in 400-GeV proton interactions; energy spectra of isotopically resolved fragments emitted in high-energy proton interactions with noble gases; comparative study of fragments emission in the interaction of Cu-U with relativistic /sup 12/C ions and high-energy protons; excitation functions of the /sup 127/I(..pi../sup + -/,..pi../sup + -/xn) reactions. 7 figures.

  10. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals at Picometre Distance

    SciTech Connect

    Heinrich Hora; George H. Miley; Jak C. Kelly

    2000-11-12

    A review is given for the explanation of the measurements of Miley et al. of a fully reproducible generation of nuclei of the whole periodic table by protons in host metals during a several-weeks reaction. Similar low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) were observed by other groups. The fact that the heavy nuclides are not due to pollution can be seen from the fact that such very rare elements as thulium and terbium were detected by unique K-shell X-ray spectra. The nuclear reaction energy goes into the heavy nuclei as measured from much bigger traces in CR39 than from alphas. The fact that any reaction of the protons results in stable daughter nuclei is confirmed by the fact that the highest energy gain is resulting with stable reaction products. This has been explained in Ref. 2, and the energy gain for the heavy element generation by a compound reaction was discussed. The explanation is based on the model of the authors from 1989 to assume free motion of the protons contrary to localized crystalline states. A relation of the reaction time U on distance d of the reacting nuclei by a power law with an exponent 34.8 was derived. Based on few reproducible D-D reactions, a reaction time near the range of megaseconds and a reaction distance of nanometers was concluded. A splendid confirmation of the picometre-megasecond reactions was achieved by Li et al. from his direct quantum mechanical calculations of the hot fusion D-T reactions based on a one-step selective resonance tunneling model. Li et al. were able for the first time to derive the cross sections of the hot fusion. Li's application to picometre distance showed megasecond reaction times with no neutron or gamma emission. Because of the imaginary part in the Schroedinger potential, the problem of the level width is reduced by damping.

  11. Fenton Reaction-Generated Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Induces Inflammation in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells.

    PubMed

    Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna; Cubillos-Rojas, Monica; López, José Luis Rosa; Siebel, Anna Maria; Gomes, Patrícia; de Oliveira, Jarbas Rodrigues; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2016-08-01

    Fenton reaction is a new mechanism able to generate advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) by exposing the human serum albumin to the Fenton system. Here, we characterized the effects of Fenton reaction-generated advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP-FR) on the gene transcription of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). To investigate the effects of AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl on transcription of inflammatory genes, the NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 luciferase promoter activities were analyzed. AOPP-FR and AOPP-HOCl were able to induce the activation of the gene transcription of NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 in HEK 293 cells. However, the effects of AOPP-FR were significantly higher than the effects of AOPP-HOCl in relation to COX-2 and IL-6. AOPP-FR induces the activation of the gene transcription of NF-κB, COX-2, and IL-6 and may represent a novel pathogenic mediator of inflammation in kidney. PMID:27145783

  12. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis with high depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kul'ment'ev, A. I.; Storizhko, V. E.; Zabashta, O. I.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the potential of the resonant NRA technique for measuring the impurity depth profiles. An integrated program package is developed for analysis of the experimental data with high depth resolution. The input information for the package consists of the experimental yield from the impurity reaction selected. The impurity profile can be obtained by solving either a direct or an inverse problem. In the former case the simulated yield from the assigned profile is fitted to the experimental yield. In the latter case the depth profile is obtained by solving the theoretical yield equation. Since the latter procedure is an incorrect problem, we used Tikhonov's regularization method. This approach allows a correct inclusion of the experimental yield errors as well as of the assumptions made in the model describing the incident ion beam interaction with the material. The equation for the yield is derived taking into account the energy distribution of the initial beam, energy loss straggling, resonance width and Doppler effect. The package of programs is menu-driven with a friendly user interface and possibilities of visual representation, which makes the spectrum processing procedure simple and easy even to an unexperienced user. The computational system permits convenient selection of a certain reaction with an arbitrary shape of the resonance, selection of the beam-material interaction and energy loss straggling model and allows the processing of the spectra from a single or several simultaneously excited resonances.

  13. A facility for studying radiative capture reactions induced with radioactive beams at ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, J. M.; Buchmann, L.; Hutcheon, D.; Lipnik, P.; Hunter, D.; Rogers, J.; Helmer, R.; Giesen, U.; Olin, A.; Bricault, P.; Bateman, N.

    The measurement of low energy fusion reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics scenarios are a prime objective of the physics program of the new ISAC facility, located at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. Intense radioactive beams of 19Ne, 14,15O, 20,21Na, 17,18F and other low Z species with energies in the range of 0.15 to 1.5 MeV/mass unit will be available to measure cross sections and resonance strengths of alpha and proton induced reactions. An important component of the experimental configuration will be a new Recoil Product Detection Facility (RPDF) consisting of a windowless gas target, surrounded by a gamma array, while the recoils are separated from the intense radioactive beam using a Electro-Magnetic Separator (EMS) employing Wien filters. The recoiling reaction products will then be detected using either a Si μ-strip array or a gas filled detector. Using these devices along with coincidence requirements and time-of-flight conditions a background reduction factor of the order of 10 +15 is the present goal.

  14. A facility for studying radiative capture reactions induced with radioactive beams at ISAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesen, U.; Buchmann, L.; Hutcheon, D.; Helmer, R.; Olin, A.; Bricault, P.; Bateman, N.; D'Auria, J. M.; Lipnik, P.; Hunter, D.; Rodgers, J.

    1996-04-01

    The measurement of low energy fusion reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics scenarios are a prime objective of the physics program of the new ISAC facility, located at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. Intense radioactive beams of e,19Ne, ,14,15O, a,20,21Na, 17,18F and other low Z species with energies in the range of 0.15 to 1.5 MeV/mass unit will be available to measure cross sections and resonance strengths of alpha and proton induced reactions, An important component of the experimental configuration will be a new Recoil Product Detection Facility (RPDF) consisting of a windowless gas target, surrounded by a gamma array, while the recoils are separated from the intense radioactive beam using a Electro-Magnetic Separator (EMS) employing Wien filters. The recoiling reaction products will then be detected using either a Si μ-strip array or a gas filled detector. Using these devices along with coincidence requirements and time-of-flight conditions a background reduction factor of the order of 10+15 is the present goal.

  15. Thermonuclear Reaction Rate Libraries and Software Tools for Nuclear Astrophysics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael S.; Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik; Wiescher, Michael; Smith, Karl; Warren, Scott; Ferguson, Ryan; Lingerfelt, Eric; Buckner, Kim; Nesaraja, Caroline D.

    2008-05-01

    Thermonuclear reaction rates are a crucial input for simulating a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A new collaboration has been formed to ensure that astrophysical modelers have access to reaction rates based on the most recent experimental and theoretical nuclear physics information. To reach this goal, a new version of the REACLIB library has been created by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA), now available online at http://www.nscl.msu.edu/~nero/db. A complementary effort is the development of software tools in the Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics, online at nucastrodata.org, to streamline, manage, and access the workflow of the reaction evaluations from their initiation to peer review to incorporation into the library. Details of these new projects will be described.

  16. 7Li-induced reactions for fast-timing with LaBr3:Ce detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, P. J. R.; Podolyàk, Zs.; Mǎrginean, N.; Regan, P. H.; Alexander, T.; Algora, A.; Alharbi, T.; Bowry, M.; Britton, R.; Bucurescu, D.; Bruce, A. M.; Bunce, M.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Cǎta-Danil, I.; Cooper, N.; Deleanu, D.; Delion, D.; Filipescu, D.; Gelletly, W.; Glodariu, T.; Gheorghe, I.; Ghiťǎ, D.; Ilie, G.; Ivanova, D.; Kisyov, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Lica, R.; Liddick, S. N.; Mǎrginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Mulholland, K.; Negret, A.; Nita, C. R.; Rice, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Sava, T.; Smith, J. F.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stevenson, P. D.; Stroe, L.; Toma, S.; Townsley, C.; Werner, V.; Wilson, E.; Wood, R. T.; Zamfir, N. V.; Zhekova, M.

    2012-10-01

    7Li induced-reactions have been used with a 186W target to populate nuclei around A˜180-190 at the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering in Bucharest, Romania. An array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) and cerium-doped lanthanum bromide (LaBr3:Ce) detectors have been used to measure sub-nanosecond half-lives with fast-timing techniques. The yrast 2+ state in 190Os was measured to be t1/2 = 375(20)ps, in excellent agreement with the literature value. The previously unreported half-life of the 564-keV state in 189Ir has also been measured and a value of t1/2 = 540(100)ps ps obtained.

  17. Neutron- and proton-induced reactions for analysis of bioenvironmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Spyrou, N.M.; Altaf, W.J.; Khrbish, Y.S. )

    1988-01-01

    The study of the elemental composition of bioenvironmental samples is of continuing interest in a wide variety of medical and environmental investigations, be it as environmental monitors or as indicators of the state of health and disease of an individual or a population. Nuclear activation methods play an important role in these studies as research tools and in certain cases are employed as rapid, routine analytical techniques. Although the authors have been using instrumental neutron activation analysis as the main technique for obtaining information about elemental composition and concentration, they have also developed techniques, for further or complementary analysis, in which proton-induced reactions have been exploited. Two recent studies, in which the composition of human lung tissue and the elemental concentration in plant samples were determined, have been selected as illustrations of the techniques employed.

  18. Experimental study on the reaction between nuclear graphite IG-110 and carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eung Soo; No, Hee Cheon

    2006-03-01

    With nuclear graphite IG-110, we measured various kinetic parameters and reaction rates of the C/CO 2 reaction. As a result, its activation energy is 295 ± 8 kJ/mol and the order of reaction is 0.9. It turns out that the rate of C/CO 2 reaction is much smaller than the rate of the C/O 2 reaction which is dominant in HTGR air-ingress below 1400 °C. Finally, we propose the following rate equation for the C/CO 2 reaction of IG-110: r(kg/m3s)=3.95×103·exp-{290 000}/{R·T}·(p)0.9.

  19. Chemical modeling of irreversible reactions in nuclear waste-water-rock systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.

    1981-02-01

    Chemical models of aqueous geochemical systems are usually built on the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium. Though many elementary reactions in a geochemical system may be close to equilibrium, others may not be. Chemical models of aqueous fluids should take into account that many aqueous redox reactions are among the latter. The behavior of redox reactions may critically affect migration of certain radionuclides, especially the actinides. In addition, the progress of reaction in geochemical systems requires thermodynamic driving forces associated with elementary reactions not at equilibrium, which are termed irreversible reactions. Both static chemical models of fluids and dynamic models of reacting systems have been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water-rock interactions. Potential applications in nuclear waste disposal range from problems in geochemical aspects of site evaluation to those of waste-water-rock interactions. However, much further work in the laboratory and the field will be required to develop and verify such applications of chemical modeling.

  20. Evaluation of Tungsten Nuclear Reaction Data with Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Trkov, A. Capote, R.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, L.

    2008-12-15

    As a follow-up of the work presented at the ND-2007 conference in Nice, additional fast reactor benchmarks were analyzed. Adjustment to the cross sections in the keV region was necessary. Evaluated neutron cross section data files for {sup 180,182,183,184,186}W isotopes were produced. Covariances were generated for all isotopes except {sup 180}W. In the resonance range the retro-active method was used. Above the resolved resonance range the covariance prior was generated by the Monte Carlo technique from nuclear model calculations with the Empire-II code. Experimental data were taken into account through the GANDR system using the generalized least-squares technique. Introducing experimental data results in relatively small changes in the cross sections, but greatly constrains the uncertainties. The covariance files are currently undergoing testing.

  1. Evaluation of Tungsten Nuclear Reaction Data with Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Trkov, A.; Capote, R.; Kodeli, I.; Leal, Luiz C.

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up of the work presented at the ND-2007 conference in Nice, additional fast reactor benchmarks were analyzed. Adjustment to the cross sections in the keV region was necessary. Evaluated neutron cross section data files for 180,182,183,184,186W isotopes were produced. Covariances were generated for all isotopes except 180W. In the resonance range the retro-active method was used. Above the resolved resonance range the covariance prior was generated by the Monte Carlo technique from nuclear model calculations with the Empire-II code. Experimental data were taken into account through the GANDR system using the generalized least-squares technique. Introducing experimental data results in relatively small changes in the cross sections, but greatly constrains the uncertainties. The covariance files are currently undergoing testing.

  2. Pressure-induced metathesis reaction to sequester Cs.

    PubMed

    Im, Junhyuck; Seoung, Donghoon; Lee, Seung Yeop; Blom, Douglas A; Vogt, Thomas; Kao, Chi-Chang; Lee, Yongjae

    2015-01-01

    We report here a pressure-driven metathesis reaction where Ag-exchanged natrolite (Ag16Al16Si24O80·16H2O, Ag-NAT) is pressurized in an aqueous CsI solution, resulting in the exchange of Ag(+) by Cs(+) in the natrolite framework forming Cs16Al16Si24O80·16H2O (Cs-NAT-I) and, above 0.5 GPa, its high-pressure polymorph (Cs-NAT-II). During the initial cation exchange, the precipitation of AgI occurs. Additional pressure and heat at 2 GPa and 160 °C transforms Cs-NAT-II to a pollucite-related, highly dense, and water-free triclinic phase with nominal composition CsAlSi2O6. At ambient temperature after pressure release, the Cs remains sequestered in a now monoclinic pollucite phase at close to 40 wt % and a favorably low Cs leaching rate under back-exchange conditions. This process thus efficiently combines the pressure-driven separation of Cs and I at ambient temperature with the subsequent sequestration of Cs under moderate pressures and temperatures in its preferred waste form suitable for long-term storage at ambient conditions. The zeolite pollucite CsAlSi2O6·H2O has been identified as a potential host material for nuclear waste remediation of anthropogenic (137)Cs due to its chemical and thermal stability, low leaching rate, and the large amount of Cs it can contain. The new water-free pollucite phase we characterize during our process will not display radiolysis of water during longterm storage while maintaining the Cs content and low leaching rate. PMID:25515673

  3. Will water act as a photocatalyst for cluster phase chemical reactions? Vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Zeb C.; Takahashi, Kaito; Skodje, Rex T.; Vaida, Veronica

    2012-04-28

    The possibility of water catalysis in the vibrational overtone-induced dehydration reaction of methanediol is investigated using ab initio dynamical simulations of small methanediol-water clusters. Quantum chemistry calculations employing clusters with one or two water molecules reveal that the barrier to dehydration is lowered by over 20 kcal/mol because of hydrogen-bonding at the transition state. Nevertheless, the simulations of the reaction dynamics following OH-stretch excitation show little catalytic effect of water and, in some cases, even show an anticatalytic effect. The quantum yield for the dehydration reaction exhibits a delayed threshold effect where reaction does not occur until the photon energy is far above the barrier energy. Unlike thermally induced reactions, it is argued that competition between reaction and the irreversible dissipation of photon energy may be expected to raise the dynamical threshold for the reaction above the transition state energy. It is concluded that quantum chemistry calculations showing barrier lowering are not sufficient to infer water catalysis in photochemical reactions, which instead require dynamical modeling.

  4. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy {sup 129}Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, Kin

    1996-05-01

    The {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}Y, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  5. Study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas at future ELI-NP facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzalone, G.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Labate, L.; Lamia, L.; Mascali, D.; Muoio, A.; Negoita, F.; Odorici, F.; Petrascu, H.; Trifirò, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-05-01

    In this contribution we will present the future activities that our collaboration will carry out at ELI-NP (Extreme Light Infrastructure Nuclear Physics), the new multi peta-watt Laser facility, currently under construction at Bucharest (Romania). The activities concerns the study of nuclear reactions in laser plasmas. In this framework we proposed the construction of a new, general-purpose experimental set-up able to detect and identify neutrons and charged particles.

  6. Epinephrine Treatment is Infrequent and Biphasic Reactions Are Rare in Food-Induced Reactions During Oral Food Challenges in Children

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Kirsi M.; Amalanayagam, Sujitha; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Noone, Sally; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Background Data about epinephrine utilization and biphasic reactions in childhood food-induced anaphylaxis during oral food challenges are scarce. Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors of reactions requiring epinephrine and the rate of biphasic reactions during oral food challenges (OFCs) in children. Methods Reaction details of positive OFCs in children between 1999 and 2007 were collected using a computerized database. Selection of patients for OFCs was generally predicated on ≤50% likelihood of a positive challenge and a low likelihood of a severe reaction based on the clinical history, specific IgE levels, and skin prick tests (SPTs). Results A total of 436 of 1273 OFCs resulted in a reaction (34%). Epinephrine was administered in 50 challenges (11% of positive challenges, 3.9% overall); for egg (n=15, 16% of positive OFCs to egg), milk (n=14, 12%), peanut (n=10, 26%), tree nuts (n=4, 33%), soy (n=3, 7%), wheat (n=3, 9%), and fish (n=1, 9%). Reactions requiring epinephrine occurred in older children (median 7.9 vs. 5.8 years, P<0.001), and were more often caused by peanuts (P=0.006) when compared to reactions not treated with epinephrine. There was no difference in the gender, prevalence of asthma, history of anaphylaxis, specific IgE level, SPTs, or amount of food administered. Two doses of epinephrine were required in 3/50 patients (6%) reacting to wheat, cow’s milk, and pistachio. There was one (2%) biphasic reaction. No reaction resulted in life-threatening respiratory or cardiovascular compromise. Conclusion Older age and reactions to peanuts were risk factors for anaphylaxis during oral food challenges. Reactions requiring multiple doses of epinephrine and biphasic reactions were infrequent. PMID:20004784

  7. Photonuclear and radiative capture reaction rates for Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Mary; Frauendorf, S.; Kaempfer, B.; Scwengner, R.; Wiescher, M.

    2011-10-01

    The vast majority of nuclei heavier than iron are synthesisized via the capture of neutrons. There are however 35 naturally occurring nuclei, including isotopes of Mo and La, located on the neutron-deficient size of the valley of stability. It has been proposed that these nuclei, referred to as p-nuclei, are produced via sequential photo-dissociation reactions in the oxygen-neon shell burning regions of a pre-supernova star. As such, cross sections for p-nuclei production are particularly sensitive to the gamma-ray strength function, which, though dominated by the giant dipole resonance, may contain extra strength contributions near to the neutron threshold. Recently new (γ, γ') cross section measurements have been performed at the ELBE facility at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for the nuclei ^92-100Mo, ^88Sr, ^90Zr and ^139La probing the photo-absorption cross section over an energy range 4.5 - 6 MeV, up to the neutron separation threshold. The use of these measurements as a test of existing gamma-ray strength function models, and the consequent impact on p-nuclei production rates, will be discussed.

  8. Experimental Guidance of ISB Corrections via Direct Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, K. G.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Kriicken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    2011-09-01

    The most recent isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections, δc, of Towner and Hardy for superallowed Fermi β-decay transitions, have included the opening of specific core orbitals. This change has resulted in significant deviations in some of the δc factors from their previous calculations, and an improved agreement of the individual corrected Script Ft values with the overall world average of the 13 most precise cases. While this is consistent with the conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the Standard Model, these new calculations must be thoroughly tested, and guidance must be given for the improvement of calculations for the upper-pf shell nuclei. Using the (d,t) reaction mechanism to probe the single neutron wavefunction overlap, information regarding the relevant shell-model configurations needed in the calculation can be determined. An experiment was therefore performed with a 22 MeV polarized deuterium beam from the MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator in Munich, Germany. Using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph, and a cathode-strip focal-plane detector, outgoing tritons were analyzed at 9 angles between 10° and 60°, up to an excitation energy of 4.8 MeV. This proceeding reports the motivational and experimental details for the 64Zn(d,t)63Zn transfer work presented.

  9. [Analyze causes of adverse reactions induced by traditional Chinese medicine injections from its quality standards].

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong-Yu; Liang, Ai-Hu

    2014-03-01

    Reviewing the literatures about adverse reactions induced by traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMI) reported on CNKI from 1983 to 2013. Analyzing the causes of adverse reactions induced by TCMI from its quality standards. Provide ideas for improving security of TCMI and completing its quality standards. This review indicates that TCMI-induced adverse reactions have little relationship with the number of compositions, but have tight connection with chemical ingredients and solvents. Adverse reactions can be decreased by perfecting the quality standards of TCMI. PMID:25204194

  10. Refined scenario of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis allowing for nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Voronchev, Victor T.; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tsukida, Kazuki

    2012-11-12

    The standard scenario of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is generalized to take into account nonthermal nuclear reactions in the primordial plasma. These reactions are naturally triggered in the BBN epoch by fast particles generated in various exoergic processes. It is found that, although such particles can appreciably enhance the rates of some individual reactions, their influence on the whole process of element production is not significant. The nonthermal corrections to element abundances are obtained to be 0.1% ({sup 3}H), -0.03% ({sup 7}Li), and 0.34 %-0.63% (CNO group).

  11. Experimental Study of Level Density and {gamma}-strength Functions from Compound Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Massey, T. N.; Schiller, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.

    2008-04-17

    The current status of experimental study of level density and {gamma}-strength functions is reviewed. Three experimental techniques are used. These are measurements of particle evaporation spectra from compound nuclear reactions, the measurements of particle-{gamma} coincidences from inelastic scattering and pick-up reactions and the method of two-step {gamma}-cascades following neutron/proton radiative capture. Recent experimental data on level densities from neutron evaporation spectra are shown. The first results on the cascade {gamma}-spectrum from the {sup 59}Co(p,2{gamma}){sup 60}Ni reaction are presented.

  12. Spectroscopic study of sub-barrier quasi-elastic nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pass, C.N.; Evans, P.M.; Smith, A.E.; Stuttge, L.; Betts, R.R.; Lilley, J.S.; Connell, K.A.; Simpson, J.; Smith, J.R.; James, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The technique developed in this paper is particularly well suited to the detailed spectroscopic study of low energy quasi-elastic nuclear reactions and by overcoming the limitations of conventional procedure, the prospect of detailed studies of inclusive reaction mechanism may be realised. With only limited statistics we find evidence for strong multistep character in the transfer of a single nucleon from spherical vibrational target to spherical projectile nuclei. The suggestive measurements reported here may be made definitive through extended runs based on this technique and experiments planned for the future offer the real prospect of developing a quantified interpretation of the reaction process. 9 refs. 5 figs.

  13. Direct nuclear-pumped lasers using the He-3/n,p/H-3 reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Jalufka, N. W.; Hohl, F.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of experimental results concerning a specific class of direct nuclear-pumped lasers classified as 'volumetric nuclear lasers'. In the considered laser system a fissioning gas, He-3, is mixed with the lasing gas to form a homogeneous mixture, resulting in uniform volume excitation. In typical volumetric nuclear lasers a fast-burst reactor is used as a source of neutrons which penetrate a polyethylene moderator. Here the fast neutrons are thermalized. After thermalization, neutrons scatter into the laser cell. Nuclear reactions produce a proton of 0.56 MeV and a tritium ion of 0.19. These ions produce secondary electrons which pump the laser medium creating a population inversion. The results reported demonstrate direct nuclear pumping of He-3-Ar, Xe, Kr, and Cl with the considered system.

  14. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Induced Anaphylactic Reaction During Bowel Preparation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Barium enema is used to screen patients with gastrointestinal bleeding who do not want to undergo colonoscopy. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is usually the bowel preparation of choice. Few allergic reactions from this product have been reported; these include urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Reactions are thought to result from a small amount of PEG crossing the intestinal mucosa, which, in some patients, is sufficient to provoke an anaphylactic reaction. PMID:26203443

  15. Cross-checking of Large Evaluated and Experimental Nuclear Reaction Databases

    SciTech Connect

    Zeydina, O.; Koning, A.J.; Soppera, N.; Raffanel, D.; Bossant, M.; Dupont, E.; Beauzamy, B.

    2014-06-15

    Automated methods are presented for the verification of large experimental and evaluated nuclear reaction databases (e.g. EXFOR, JEFF, TENDL). These methods allow an assessment of the overall consistency of the data and detect aberrant values in both evaluated and experimental databases.

  16. Web-Based Search and Plot System for Nuclear Reaction Data

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Nakagawa, T.; Fukahori, T.; Katakura, J.; Aikawa, M.; Suda, T.; Naito, K.; Korennov, S.; Arai, K.; Noto, H.; Ohnishi, A.; Kato, K.

    2005-05-24

    A web-based search and plot system for nuclear reaction data has been developed, covering experimental data in EXFOR format and evaluated data in ENDF format. The system is implemented for Linux OS, with Perl and MySQL used for CGI scripts and the database manager, respectively. Two prototypes for experimental and evaluated data are presented.

  17. Nuclear ADP-Ribosylation Reactions in Mammalian Cells: Where Are We Today and Where Are We Going?

    PubMed Central

    Hassa, Paul O.; Haenni, Sandra S.; Elser, Michael; Hottiger, Michael O.

    2006-01-01

    Since poly-ADP ribose was discovered over 40 years ago, there has been significant progress in research into the biology of mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions. During the last decade, it became clear that ADP-ribosylation reactions play important roles in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inter- and intracellular signaling, transcriptional regulation, DNA repair pathways and maintenance of genomic stability, telomere dynamics, cell differentiation and proliferation, and necrosis and apoptosis. ADP-ribosylation reactions are phylogenetically ancient and can be classified into four major groups: mono-ADP-ribosylation, poly-ADP-ribosylation, ADP-ribose cyclization, and formation of O-acetyl-ADP-ribose. In the human genome, more than 30 different genes coding for enzymes associated with distinct ADP-ribosylation activities have been identified. This review highlights the recent advances in the rapidly growing field of nuclear mono-ADP-ribosylation and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions and the distinct ADP-ribosylating enzyme families involved in these processes, including the proposed family of novel poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-like mono-ADP-ribose transferases and the potential mono-ADP-ribosylation activities of the sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases. A special focus is placed on the known roles of distinct mono- and poly-ADP-ribosylation reactions in physiological processes, such as mitosis, cellular differentiation and proliferation, telomere dynamics, and aging, as well as “programmed necrosis” (i.e., high-mobility-group protein B1 release) and apoptosis (i.e., apoptosis-inducing factor shuttling). The proposed molecular mechanisms involved in these processes, such as signaling, chromatin modification (i.e., “histone code”), and remodeling of chromatin structure (i.e., DNA damage response, transcriptional regulation, and insulator function), are described. A potential cross talk between nuclear

  18. [Adverse cutaneous reactions induced by exposure to woods].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska-Skóra, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Various adverse cutaneous reactions may occur as a result of exposure to wood dust or solid woods. These include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and, more rarely, contact urticaria, photoallergic and phototoxic reactions. Also cases of erythema multiforme-like reactions have been reported. Contact dermatitis, both allergic and irritant, is most frequently provoked by exotic woods, e.g. wood of the Dalbergia spp., Machaerium scleroxylon or Tectona grandis. Cutaneous reactions are usually associated with manual or machine woodworking, in occupational setting or as a hobby. As a result of exposure to wood dust, airborne contact dermatitis is often diagnosed. Cases of allergic contact dermatitis due to solid woods of finished articles as jewelry or musical instruments have also been reported. The aim of the paper is to present various adverse skin reactions related to exposure to woods, their causal factors and sources of exposure, based on the review of literature. PMID:23650772

  19. Nuclear reaction uncertainties, massive gravitino decays and the cosmological lithium problem

    SciTech Connect

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Ellis, John; Fields, Brian D.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.; Spanos, Vassilis C. E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch E-mail: fluo@physics.umn.edu E-mail: spanos@physics.umn.edu

    2010-10-01

    We consider the effects of uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates on the cosmological constraints on the decays of unstable particles during or after Big-Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We identify the nuclear reactions due to non-thermal hadrons that are the most important in perturbing standard BBN, then quantify the uncertainties in these reactions and in the resulting light-element abundances. These results also indicate the key nuclear processes for which improved cross section data would allow different light-element abundances to be determined more accurately, thereby making possible more precise probes of BBN and evaluations of the cosmological constraints on unstable particles. Applying this analysis to models with unstable gravitinos decaying into neutralinos, we calculate the likelihood function for the light-element abundances measured currently, taking into account the current experimental errors in the determinations of the relevant nuclear reaction rates. We find a region of the gravitino mass and abundance in which the abundances of deuterium, {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li may be fit with χ{sup 2} = 5.5, compared with χ{sup 2} = 31.7 if the effects of gravitino decays are unimportant. The best-fit solution is improved to χ{sup 2} ∼ 2.0 when the lithium abundance is taken from globular cluster data. Some such re-evaluation of the observed light-element abundances and/or nuclear reaction rates would be needed if this region of gravitino parameters is to provide a complete solution to the cosmological {sup 7}Li problem.

  20. Measurement of excitation functions in alpha-induced reactions on yttrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Yang, Sung-Chul; Song, Tae-Young

    2015-01-01

    The excitation functions of 89g,m,90,91m,92mNb,88,89Zr, and 87g,m,88,90m,91mY from alpha-induced reactions on 89Y were measured from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier reported data as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2013 library based on the TALYS1.6 code. Our measurements in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target of the produced radionuclides were also deduced from their measured cross sections and the stopping power of 89Y. The measured excitation functions find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  1. Neutrino-Induced Charged-Current Reaction Rates for r-PROCESS Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langanke, K.; Kolbe, E.

    2001-11-01

    Neutrino-induced reactions play an important role during and after the r-process if it occurs in an environment with extreme neutrino fluxes, as in the neutrino-driven wind model or neutron star mergers. The neutrino reactions can excite the daughter nucleus above the neutron threshold, which is quite low for r-process nuclei. Thus the daughter nucleus will decay by emission of one or several neutrons. We have calculated the relevant total (νe, e-) cross sections as well as the partial neutron spallation cross sections for r-process nuclei with neutron numbers N=41-135 and proton numbers Z=21-82. The supernova neutrino spectrum is described by a Fermi-Dirac distribution with various temperature parameters between T=2.8 MeV and T=10 MeV and with the degeneracy parameters α=0 and α=3. Our calculations of the nuclear response are based on the random phase approximation and consider allowed as well as forbidden transitions.

  2. Ampelopsis japonica Makino Extract Inhibits the Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns in Epidermal Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Ra; Choi, Dae-Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Duck; Kim, Sue Jeong; Kim, Dong-Il; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang Deok

    2016-01-01

    Background Keratinocytes are the major cells in epidermis, providing barrier components such as cornified cells through the sophisticated differentiation process. In addition, keratinocytes exerts their role as the defense cells via activation of innate immunity. It has been known that pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including double-strand RNA and nucleotides can provoke inflammatory reaction in keratinocytes. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ampelopsis japonica Makino extract (AE) on PAMPs-induced inflammatory reaction of keratinocytes. Methods The effects of AE were determined using poly (I:C)-induced inflammation and imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis models. Results In cultured keratinocytes, AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α. AE significantly inhibited poly(I:C)-induced release of caspase-1 active form (p20), and down-regulated nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway. In imiquimod-induced psoriasiform dermatitis model, topical application of AE resulted in significant reduction of epidermal hyperplasia. Conclusion These results suggest that AE may be a potential candidate for the treatment of skin inflammation. PMID:27274634

  3. Resonant Interaction, Approximate Symmetry, and Electromagnetic Interaction (EMI) in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott

    2007-03-01

    Only recently (talk by P.A. Mosier-Boss et al, in this session) has it become possible to trigger high energy particle emission and Excess Heat, on demand, in LENR involving PdD. Also, most nuclear physicists are bothered by the fact that the dominant reaction appears to be related to the least common deuteron(d) fusion reaction,d+d ->α+γ. A clear consensus about the underlying effect has also been illusive. One reason for this involves confusion about the approximate (SU2) symmetry: The fact that all d-d fusion reactions conserve isospin has been widely assumed to mean the dynamics is driven by the strong force interaction (SFI), NOT EMI. Thus, most nuclear physicists assume: 1. EMI is static; 2. Dominant reactions have smallest changes in incident kinetic energy (T); and (because of 2), d+d ->α+γ is suppressed. But this assumes a stronger form of SU2 symmetry than is present; d+d ->α+γ reactions are suppressed not because of large changes in T but because the interaction potential involves EMI, is dynamic (not static), the SFI is static, and because the two incident deuterons must have approximate Bose Exchange symmetry and vanishing spin. A generalization of this idea involves a resonant form of reaction, similar to the de-excitation of an atom. These and related (broken gauge) symmetry EMI effects on LENR are discussed.

  4. Photo-induced isomerization and chemical reaction dynamics in superfluid helium droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Jeremy; Douberly, Gary; Miller, Roger

    2008-03-01

    Near threshold photo-induced isomerization and photo-induced chemical reactions have long been sough after as sensitive probes of the underlying potential energy surface. One of the most important questions asked is how the initially bright quantum state couples to the reaction coordinate, and thus relates to energy transfer in general. Helium droplets have now allowed us to stabilize entrance channel clusters behind very small reaction barriers such that vibrational excitation may result in reaction. Through two examples, namely the isomerization of the 2 binary complexes of HF-HCN Douberly et al. PCCP 2005, 7,463, and the induced reaction of the gallium-HCN complex Merritt et al. JPCA 2007, DOI:10.1021/jp074981e we will show how the branching ratios for reaction and predissociation can determined and the influence of the superfluid He solvent.

  5. Ciprofloxacin induced bullous fixed drug reaction: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are seen in about 1–2% cases. Fixed drug reaction (FDR) is responsible for about 10% of all ADRs. It is a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction that occurs as lesions recurs at the same skin site due to repeated intake of an offending drug. The most common drugs causing fixed drug eruption (FDE) are analgesics, antibiotics, muscle relaxants and anticonvulsants. FDE due to ciprofloxacin has been reported earlier also, but bullous variant of FDR is rare. We hereby report three case reports of bullous FDR caused due to ciprofloxacin. PMID:25949980

  6. Levetiracetam Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Waseem Raja; Sofi, Najeebullah; Latief, Muzamil; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kasana, Basharat Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity drug reaction, most frequently associated with antiepileptic drugs, characterized by skin rash, fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and visceral organ involvement, typically presenting within 8 weeks of initiation of therapy. Management involves prompt withdrawal of the offending drug and use of systemic corticosteroids. We here present a rare case of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam. Only few case reports of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam have been published so far. PMID:27057042

  7. Levetiracetam Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dar, Waseem Raja; Sofi, Najeebullah; Latief, Muzamil; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kasana, Basharat Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity drug reaction, most frequently associated with antiepileptic drugs, characterized by skin rash, fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and visceral organ involvement, typically presenting within 8 weeks of initiation of therapy. Management involves prompt withdrawal of the offending drug and use of systemic corticosteroids. We here present a rare case of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam. Only few case reports of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam have been published so far. PMID:27057042

  8. Dark current induced in large CCD arrays by proton-induced elastic reactions and single to multiple-event spallation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; McNulty, P.J.; Larson, S. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Thompson, D.A.; Miller, T.L.; Lee, T. )

    1994-12-01

    Computer simulations of the non-ionizing energy loss deposited in sensitive volumes as a result of proton-induced spallation reactions agree with analytic models for large sensitive volumes exposed to high fluence. They predict unique features for small volumes and low-fluence exposures which are observed in exposures of large arrays of CCD pixels. Calculations of the number of spallation reactions per pixel correlate with the recently reported relative frequency of switching dark-current states.

  9. Investigating resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    La Cognata, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Trippella, O.

    2015-10-15

    Resonances in nuclear cross sections dramatically change their trends. Therefore, the presence of unexpected resonances might lead to unpredicted consequences on astrophysics and nuclear physics. In nuclear physics, resonances allow one to study states in the intermediate compound systems, to evaluate their cluster structure, for instance, especially in the energy regions approaching particle decay thresholds. In astrophysics, resonances might lead to changes in the nucleosynthesis flow, determining different isotopic compositions of the nuclear burning ashes. For these reasons, the Trojan Horse method has been modified to investigate resonant reactions. Thanks to this novel approach, for the first time normalization to direct data might be avoided. Moreover, in the case of sub threshold resonances, the Trojan Horse method modified to investigate resonances allows one to deduce the asymptotic normalization coefficient, showing the close connection between the two indirect approaches.

  10. Investigating resonances above and below the threshold in nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Spitaleri, C.; Trippella, O.

    2015-10-01

    Resonances in nuclear cross sections dramatically change their trends. Therefore, the presence of unexpected resonances might lead to unpredicted consequences on astrophysics and nuclear physics. In nuclear physics, resonances allow one to study states in the intermediate compound systems, to evaluate their cluster structure, for instance, especially in the energy regions approaching particle decay thresholds. In astrophysics, resonances might lead to changes in the nucleosynthesis flow, determining different isotopic compositions of the nuclear burning ashes. For these reasons, the Trojan Horse method has been modified to investigate resonant reactions. Thanks to this novel approach, for the first time normalization to direct data might be avoided. Moreover, in the case of sub threshold resonances, the Trojan Horse method modified to investigate resonances allows one to deduce the asymptotic normalization coefficient, showing the close connection between the two indirect approaches.

  11. Low energy nuclear reactions with RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion Beam in Brasil, system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães, V.; Lépine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthäler, R.; de Faria, P. N.; Barioni, A.; Pires, K. C. C.; Morcelle, V.; Mendes, D. R.; Zamora, J. C.; Morais, M. C.; Condori, R. P.; Benjamim, E. A.; Monteiro, D. S.; Crema, E.; Moro, A. M.; Lubian, J.

    2011-09-01

    RIBRAS, Radioactive Ion beam in Brasil, is a system based on superconducting solenoids which can produce low energy RNB (Radioactive Nuclear Beams) at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Secondary radioactive beams of light particles such as 6He, 7Be and 8Li have been produced and low energy elastic scattering and transfer reaction experiments have been performed. The recent scientific program using this facility includes elastic scattering and transfer reactions of 6He halo nucleus on 9Be, 27Al, 51V and 120Sn targets and 8Li on 9Be, 12C and 51V targets. The total reaction cross section as a function of energy has been extracted from the elastic scattering data and the role of breakup of weakly bound or exotic nuclei is discussed. Also spectroscopic factors have been obtained from the transfer reactions.

  12. Absorption-Fluctuation Theorem for Nuclear Reactions: Brink-Axel, Incomplete Fusion and All That

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, M. S.

    2008-04-17

    We discuss the connection between absorption, averages and fluctuations in nuclear reactions. The fluctuations in the entrance channel result in the compound-nucleus Hauser-Feshbach cross section, and the fluctuations in the intermediate channels result in modifications of multistep reaction cross sections, while the fluctuations in the final channel result in hybrid cross sections that can be used to describe incomplete fusion reactions. We discuss the latter in detail and comment on the validity of the assumptions used in the development of the Surrogate method. We also discuss the theory of multistep reactions with regards to intermediate state fluctuations and the energy dependence and non-locality of the intermediate-channel optical potentials.

  13. Investigations of natTi(d,x)48V nuclear reactions for beam monitoring purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Otuka, Naohiko; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the natTi(d,x)48V reaction cross-sections by using a stacked-foil activation technique in combination with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry at the AVF cyclotron facility of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Wako, Japan. An overall good agreement is found between the measured data and the literature ones, whereas partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2011 library provided by the TALYS model calculations. Measured cross-sections of natTi(d,x)48V reactions find significance in monitoring of deuteron beam parameters from threshold to 50 MeV. Furthermore, IAEA recommended cross-sections of natTi(d,x)48V reaction has been verified here, and found a very good agreement. Additionally, measured cross-sections of the natTi(d,x)48V reactions find significance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine.

  14. Calculation of photo-nuclear reaction cross sections for 16O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasoglu, Ali; Faruk Ozdemir, Omer

    2015-07-01

    Because of the high thermal expansion coefficient of uranium, the fuel used in nuclear power plants is usually in the form of UO2 which has ceramic structure and small thermal expansion coefficient. UO2 include one uranium atom and two oxygen atoms. After fission progress, total energy values of emitted gamma are about 14 MeV. This gamma energy may cause transmutation of 16O isotopes. Transmutation of 16O isotopes changes physical properties of nuclear fuel. Due to above explanations, it is very important to calculate photo-nuclear reaction cross sections of 16O. In this study; for (γ,p), (γ,np), (γ,n) and (γ,2n) reactions of 16O, photo-nuclear reaction cross-sections were calculated using different models for pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects. Taking incident gamma energy values up to 40 MeV, Hybrid and Cascade Exciton Models were used for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing (Equilibrium) Model was used for equilibrium model calculations. Calculation results were compared with experimental and theoretical data. While experimental results were obtained from EXFOR, TENDL-2013, JENDL/PD-2004 and ENDF/B VII.1 data base were used to get theoretical results.

  15. Optically induced dynamic nuclear spin polarisation in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuer, Jochen; Schwartz, Ilai; Chen, Qiong; Schulze-Sünninghausen, David; Carl, Patrick; Höfer, Peter; Retzker, Alexander; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Isoya, Junichi; Luy, Burkhard; Plenio, Martin B.; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depends strongly on nuclear spin polarisation and, motivated by this observation, dynamical nuclear spin polarisation has recently been applied to enhance MRI protocols (Kurhanewicz et al 2011 Neoplasia 13 81). Nuclear spins associated with the 13C carbon isotope (nuclear spin I = 1/2) in diamond possess uniquely long spin lattice relaxation times (Reynhardt and High 2011 Prog. Nucl. Magn. Reson. Spectrosc. 38 37). If they are present in diamond nanocrystals, especially when strongly polarised, they form a promising contrast agent for MRI. Current schemes for achieving nuclear polarisation, however, require cryogenic temperatures. Here we demonstrate an efficient scheme that realises optically induced 13C nuclear spin hyperpolarisation in diamond at room temperature and low ambient magnetic field. Optical pumping of a nitrogen-vacancy centre creates a continuously renewable electron spin polarisation which can be transferred to surrounding 13C nuclear spins. Importantly for future applications we also realise polarisation protocols that are robust against an unknown misalignment between magnetic field and crystal axis.

  16. Perspective: Vibrational-induced steric effects in bimolecular reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kopin

    2015-02-28

    The concept of preferred collision geometry in a bimolecular reaction is at the heart of reaction dynamics. Exemplified by a series of crossed molecular beam studies on the reactions of a C–H stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) with F, Cl, and O({sup 3}P) atoms, two types of steric control of chemical reactivity will be highlighted. A passive control is governed in a reaction with strong anisotropic entry valley that can significantly steer the incoming trajectories. This disorientation effect is illustrated by the F and O({sup 3}P) + CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactions. In the former case, the long-range anisotropic interaction acts like an optical “negative” lens by deflecting the trajectories away from the favored transition-state geometry, and thus inhibiting the bond rupture of the stretch-excited CHD{sub 3}. On the contrary, the interaction between O({sup 3}P) and CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) behaves as a “positive” lens by funneling the large impact-parameter collisions into the cone of acceptance, and thereby enhances the reactivity. As for reactions with relatively weak anisotropic interactions in the entry valley, an active control can be performed by exploiting the polarization property of the infrared excitation laser to polarize the reactants in space, as demonstrated in the reaction of Cl with a pre-aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1) reactant. A simpler case, the end-on versus side-on collisions, will be elucidated for demonstrating a means to disentangle the impact-parameter averaging. A few general remarks about some closely related issues, such as mode-, bond-selectivity, and Polanyi’s rules, are made.

  17. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru; Murakami, Yasufumi; Baiseitov, Diaz; Berikkhanova, Kulzhan; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Imahori, Yoshio; Itami, Jun; Ono, Koji; Masunaga, Shinichiro; Masutani, Mitsuko

    2015-12-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(-) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR. PMID:26302661

  18. Financing new nuclear capacity: Will the ''nuclear renaissance'' Be a Self-Sustaining reaction?

    SciTech Connect

    George, Glenn R.

    2007-04-15

    Although EPAct offers a number of benefits for new nuclear capacity, a host of gaps remain, from the timing of capital formation to the residual risk that the actual cost of the first few plants will significantly exceed estimates. Securitization and related financial techniques could play a role in turning revenue streams into lumps of capital. (author)

  19. Experimental Observation of Nuclear Reactions in Palladium and Uranium - Possible Explanation by Hydrex Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, J.; Murat, D.; Dufour, X.; Foos, J

    2001-07-15

    Experiments with uranium are presented that show a highly exothermal reaction, which can only be of nuclear origin. One striking point of these results is that they clearly show that what is being observed is not some kind of fusion reaction of the deuterium present (only exceedingly small amounts of it are present). This is a strong indication that hydrogen can trigger nuclear reactions that seem to involve the nuclei of the lattice (which would yield a fission-like pattern of products). Confronted with a situation where some experiments in the field yield a fusion-like pattern of products (CF experiments) and others a fissionlike one (LENR experiments), one can reasonably wonder whether one is not observing two aspects of the same phenomenon. Thus, it is proposed to describe CF and LENR reactions as essentially the same phenomenon based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance, which would catalyze fissionlike reactions with a neutron sink. Finally, a series of experiments is proposed to assess this hypothesis.

  20. Fission-Fusion: A new reaction mechanism for nuclear astrophysics based on laser-ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Gross, M.; Allinger, K.; Bin, J.; Henig, A.; Kiefer, D.; Ma, W.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-10-01

    We propose to produce neutron-rich nuclei in the range of the astrophysical r-process around the waiting point N = 126 by fissioning a dense laser-accelerated thorium ion bunch in a thorium target (covered by a CH2 layer), where the light fission fragments of the beam fuse with the light fission fragments of the target. Via the `hole-boring' mode of laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration using a high-intensity, short pulse laser, very efficiently bunches of 232Th with solid-state density can be generated from a Th target and a deuterated CD2 foil, both forming the production target assembly. Laser-accelerated Th ions with about 7 MeV/u will pass through a thin CH2 layer placed in front of a thicker second Th foil (both forming the reaction target) closely behind the production target and disintegrate into light and heavy fission fragments. In addition, light ions (d,C) from the CD2 layer of the production target will be accelerated as well, inducing the fission process of 232Th also in the second Th layer. The laser-accelerated ion bunches with solid-state density, which are about 1014 times more dense than classically accelerated ion bunches, allow for a high probability that generated fission products can fuse again. The high ion beam density may lead to a strong collective modification of the stopping power, leading to significant range and thus yield enhancement. Using a high-intensity laser as envisaged for the ELI-Nuclear Physics project in Bucharest (ELI-NP), order-of-magnitude estimates promise a fusion yield of about 103 ions per laser pulse in the mass range of A = 180-190, thus enabling to approach the r-process waiting point at N = 126.

  1. Faddeev-type calculation of (d ,n ) transfer reactions in three-body nuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deltuva, A.

    2015-12-01

    Exact Faddeev-type three-body equations are applied to the study of the proton transfer reactions (d ,n ) in the system consisting of a nuclear core and two nucleons. The integral equations for the three-body transition operators are solved in the momentum-space framework including the Coulomb interaction via the screening and renormalization method. For a weakly bound final nucleus the calculation of the (d ,n ) reaction is more demanding in terms of the screening radius as compared to the (d ,p ) reaction. Well-converged differential cross section results are obtained for 7Be (d ,n ) 8B, 12C (d ,n ) 13N, and 16O (d ,n ) 17$ reactions. A comparison with the corresponding (d ,p ) reactions is made. The calculations fail to reproduce the shape of the angular distribution for reactions on 12C but provide quite successful description for reactions on 16O, especially for the transfer to the 17F excited state 1 /2+ when using a nonlocal optical potential.

  2. Hot fusion-evaporation cross sections of 44Ca-induced reactions with lanthanide targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werke, T. A.; Mayorov, D. A.; Alfonso, M. C.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Folden, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Background: Previously reported cross sections of 45Sc-induced reactions with lanthanide targets are much smaller than 48Ca-induced reactions on the same targets. 44Ca is one proton removed from 45Sc and could be used to produce nuclei with a relative neutron content between those produced in the 45Sc- and 48Ca-induced reactions. Purpose: As part of a systematic investigation of fusion-evaporation reactions, cross sections of 44Ca-induced reactions on lanthanide targets were measured. These results are compared to available data for 48Ca- and 45Sc-induced fusion-evaporation cross sections on the same lanthanide targets. Collectively, these data provide insight into the importance of the survival against fission of excited compound nuclei produced near spherical shell closures. Methods: A beam of 6+Ca at an energy of ≈5 MeV /u was delivered by the K500 superconducting cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The desired evaporation residues were selected by the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer and identified via their characteristic α -decay energies. Excitation functions for the 44Ca+158Gd ,159Tb, and 162Dy reactions were measured at five or more energies each. A theoretical model was employed to study the fusion-evaporation process. Results: The 44Ca-induced reactions have x n cross sections that are two orders of magnitude larger than 45Sc-induced reactions but two orders of magnitude smaller than 48Ca-induced reactions on the same targets. Proton emission competes effectively with neutron emission for the 44Ca+159Tb and 162Dy reactions. The maximum 4 n cross sections in the 44Ca+158Gd ,159Tb, and 162Dy reactions were 2100 ± 230 ,230 ± 20 , and 130 ±20 μ b , respectively. The 44Ca+158Gd and 159Tb cross sections are in good agreement with the respective cross bombardments of 48Ca+154Gd and 45Sc+158Gd once differences in capture cross sections and compound nucleus formation probabilities are corrected for. Conclusions: Excitation

  3. Calculation of excitation functions of proton, alpha and deuteron induced reactions for production of medical radioisotopes 122-125I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artun, Ozan; Aytekin, Hüseyin

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the excitation functions for production of medical radioisotopes 122-125I with proton, alpha, and deuteron induced reactions were calculated by two different level density models. For the nuclear model calculations, the Talys 1.6 code were used, which is the latest version of Talys code series. Calculations of excitation functions for production of the 122-125I isotopes were carried out by using the generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Fermi-gas model (FGM). The results have shown that generalized superfluid model is more successful than Fermi-gas model in explaining the experimental results.

  4. Nuclear fragmentation reactions in extended media studied with Geant4 toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnov, Igor; Botvina, Alexander; Mishustin, Igor; Greiner, Walter

    2010-03-01

    It is well-known from numerous experiments that nuclear multifragmentation is a dominating mechanism for production of intermediate mass fragments in nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies above 100A MeV. In this paper we investigate the validity and performance of the Fermi break-up model and the statistical multifragmentation model implemented as parts of the Geant4 toolkit. We study the impact of violent nuclear disintegration reactions on the depth-dose profiles and yields of secondary fragments for beams of light and medium-weight nuclei propagating in extended media. Implications for ion-beam cancer therapy and shielding from cosmic radiation are discussed.

  5. Level density inputs in nuclear reaction codes and the role of the spin cutoff parameter

    SciTech Connect

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Burger, A.; Gorgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2014-09-03

    Here, the proton spectrum from the 57Fe(α,p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacing and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much weaker excitation energy dependence than it is predicted by the Fermi-gas model.

  6. Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Iwamoto, A; Ichikawa, I

    2010-09-10

    The scission point in nuclear fission plays a special role where one-body system changes to two-body system. Inverse of this situation is realized in heavy-ion fusion reaction where two-body system changes to one body system. Among several peculiar phenomena expected to occur during this change, we focus our attention to the behavior of compound and fragments shell effects. Some aspects of the interplay between compound and fragments shell effect are discussed related to the topics of the fission valleys in the potential energy surface of actinide nuclei and the fusion-like trajectory found in the cold fusion reaction leading to superheavy nuclei.

  7. Level density inputs in nuclear reaction codes and the role of the spin cutoff parameter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Burger, A.; Gorgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2014-09-03

    Here, the proton spectrum from the 57Fe(α,p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacing and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much weaker excitation energy dependence than it is predicted by the Fermi-gas model.

  8. Level Density Inputs in Nuclear Reaction Codes and the Role of the Spin Cutoff Parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voinov, A. V.; Grimes, S. M.; Brune, C. R.; Bürger, A.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Massey, T. N.; Siem, S.

    2014-05-01

    The proton spectrum from the 57Fe(α, p) reaction has been measured and analyzed with the Hauser-Feshbach model of nuclear reactions. Different input level density models have been tested. It was found that the best description is achieved with either Fermi-gas or constant temperature model functions obtained by fitting them to neutron resonance spacings and to discrete levels and using the spin cutoff parameter with much a weaker excitation energy dependence than predicted by the Fermi-gas model.

  9. Population of Nuclei Via 7Li-Induced Binary Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Rodney M.; Phair, Larry W.; Descovich, M.; Cromaz, Mario; Deleplanque, M.A.; Fall on, Paul; Lee, I-Yang; Macchiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, Margaret A.; Moretto, Luciano G.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Sinha,Shrabani; Stephens, Frank S.; Ward, David; Wiedeking, Mathis

    2005-08-08

    The authors have investigated the population of nuclei formed in binary reactions involving {sup 7}Li beams on targets of {sup 160}Gd and {sup 184}W. The {sup 7}Li + {sup 184}W data were taken in the first experiment using the LIBERACE Ge-array in combination with the STARS Si {Delta}E-E telescope system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model, in combination with a standard evaporation model, they are able to reproduce the experimental results. This is a useful method for predicting the population of neutron-rich heavy nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei and will be of use in future spectroscopic studies.

  10. Physiological environment induces quick response - slow exhaustion reactions.

    PubMed

    Hiroi, Noriko; Lu, James; Iba, Keisuke; Tabira, Akito; Yamashita, Shuji; Okada, Yasunori; Flamm, Christoph; Oka, Kotaro; Köhler, Gottfried; Funahashi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    In vivo environments are highly crowded and inhomogeneous, which may affect reaction processes in cells. In this study we examined the effects of intracellular crowding and an inhomogeneity on the behavior of in vivo reactions by calculating the spectral dimension (d(s)), which can be translated into the reaction rate function. We compared estimates of anomaly parameters obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) data with fractal dimensions derived from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis. FCS analysis indicated that the anomalous property was linked to physiological structure. Subsequent TEM analysis provided an in vivo illustration; soluble molecules likely percolate between intracellular clusters, which are constructed in a self-organizing manner. We estimated a cytoplasmic spectral dimension d(s) to be 1.39 ± 0.084. This result suggests that in vivo reactions initially run faster than the same reactions in a homogeneous space; this conclusion is consistent with the anomalous character indicated by FCS analysis. We further showed that these results were compatible with our Monte-Carlo simulation in which the anomalous behavior of mobile molecules correlates with the intracellular environment, leading to description as a percolation cluster, as demonstrated using TEM analysis. We confirmed by the simulation that the above-mentioned in vivo like properties are different from those of homogeneously concentrated environments. Additionally, simulation results indicated that crowding level of an environment might affect diffusion rate of reactant. Such knowledge of the spatial information enables us to construct realistic models for in vivo diffusion and reaction systems. PMID:21960972

  11. Physiological Environment Induces Quick Response – Slow Exhaustion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hiroi, Noriko; Lu, James; Iba, Keisuke; Tabira, Akito; Yamashita, Shuji; Okada, Yasunori; Flamm, Christoph; Oka, Kotaro; Köhler, Gottfried; Funahashi, Akira

    2011-01-01

    In vivo environments are highly crowded and inhomogeneous, which may affect reaction processes in cells. In this study we examined the effects of intracellular crowding and an inhomogeneity on the behavior of in vivo reactions by calculating the spectral dimension (ds), which can be translated into the reaction rate function. We compared estimates of anomaly parameters obtained from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) data with fractal dimensions derived from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis. FCS analysis indicated that the anomalous property was linked to physiological structure. Subsequent TEM analysis provided an in vivo illustration; soluble molecules likely percolate between intracellular clusters, which are constructed in a self-organizing manner. We estimated a cytoplasmic spectral dimension ds to be 1.39 ± 0.084. This result suggests that in vivo reactions initially run faster than the same reactions in a homogeneous space; this conclusion is consistent with the anomalous character indicated by FCS analysis. We further showed that these results were compatible with our Monte-Carlo simulation in which the anomalous behavior of mobile molecules correlates with the intracellular environment, leading to description as a percolation cluster, as demonstrated using TEM analysis. We confirmed by the simulation that the above-mentioned in vivo like properties are different from those of homogeneously concentrated environments. Additionally, simulation results indicated that crowding level of an environment might affect diffusion rate of reactant. Such knowledge of the spatial information enables us to construct realistic models for in vivo diffusion and reaction systems. PMID:21960972

  12. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Sutin, N.; Creutz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed.

  13. Simulation of Reaction-Induced Phase Separation in Surface Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvejnieks, G.; Tornau, E. E.

    2008-03-01

    Using kinetic Monte Carlo method we simulate the dynamics of biatomic Au0.3Ni0.7 surface alloy separation on Ni(111) due to Ni(CO)4 out-reaction. The experiment of Vestergaard et al. is modeled by counterbalancing dynamical processes and interactions between reactants. The simulations demonstrate step flow rate increase with CO coverage, cCO, in qualitative agreement with the experiment only for cCO ≲ 0.45 monolayer. Moreover, we demonstrate both CO influence on reaction process and Au domain formation.

  14. Fusion probability for neutron-rich radioactive Sn induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J Felix; Gross, Carl J; Kohley, Zachary W; Shapira, Dan; Varner Jr, Robert L; Allmond, James M; Caraley, Anne L; Lagergren, Karin B; Mueller, Paul Edward

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation residue cross sections for $^{124,126,127,128}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn+$^{58}$Ni have been measured to study the effects of neutron excess in neutron-rich radioactive nuclei on fusion. For the reactions with $^{64}$Ni, the fusion probability does not decrease with increasing neutron excess in Sn, contrary to the result of the stable beam Sn+Zr measurement. A comparison of the reduced evaporation residue cross sections for $^{126}$Sn+$^{64}$Ni and $^{132}$Sn+$^{58}$Ni, which make the same compound nucleus, shows that the fusion probability is indistinguishable for reactions involving the same atomic elements but different isotope combinations.

  15. [IgE-induced anaphylactic reaction after eating lamb meat].

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kasper Lorenz; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2014-08-25

    This article presents the case of a 54-year-old male, who was admitted to hospital after suffering a severe anaphylactic reaction after tasting a spoonful of chili con carne and four months later after eating lamb meat. Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose allergy was suspected and the subsequent blood test showed highly elevated specific IgE levels. Delayed allergy to meat is a relatively new type of allergy and the delayed onset of allergic symptoms poses a diagnostic challenge to the physician. This type of allergy should be considered when there has been no obvious allergen exposition prior to the allergic reaction. PMID:25293709

  16. Description of induced nuclear fission with Skyrme energy functionals. II. Finite temperature effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunck, N.; Duke, D.; Carr, H.

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of induced nuclear fission for a broad range of neutron energies could help resolve fundamental science issues, such as the formation of elements in the universe, but could have also a large impact on societal applications in energy production or nuclear waste management. The goal of this paper is to set up the foundations of a microscopic theory to study the static aspects of induced fission as a function of the excitation energy of the incident neutron, from thermal to fast neutrons. To account for the high excitation energy of the compound nucleus, we employ a statistical approach based on finite temperature nuclear density functional theory with Skyrme energy densities, which we benchmark on the 239Pu(n ,f ) reaction. We compute the evolution of the least-energy fission pathway across multidimensional potential energy surfaces with up to five collective variables as a function of the nuclear temperature and predict the evolution of both the inner and the outer fission barriers as a function of the excitation energy of the compound nucleus. We show that the coupling to the continuum induced by the finite temperature is negligible in the range of neutron energies relevant for many applications of neutron-induced fission. We prove that the concept of quantum localization introduced recently can be extended to T >0 , and we apply the method to study the interaction energy and total kinetic energy of fission fragments as a function of the temperature for the most probable fission. While large uncertainties in theoretical modeling remain, we conclude that a finite temperature nuclear density functional may provide a useful framework to obtain accurate predictions of fission fragment properties.

  17. Isospin aspects in nuclear reactions involving Ca beams at 25 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I. Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Auditore, L.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, S.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Filippo, E. De; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Giuliani, G.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Han, J.; La Guidara, E.; Lanzalone, G.; and others

    2011-11-15

    Isospin dependence of dynamical and thermodynamical properties observed in reactions {sup 40}Ca+ {sup 40,48}Ca and {sup 40}Ca + {sup 46}Ti at 25 MeV/nucleon has been studied. We used the CHIMERA multi-detector array. Strong isospin effects are seen in the isotopic distributions of light nuclei and in the competition between different reaction mechanisms in semi-central collisions. We will show also preliminary results obtained in nuclear collision {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25MeV/nucleon, having very high N/Z value in the entrance channel (N/Z = 1.4). The enhancement of evaporation residue production confirms the strong role played by the N/Z degree of freedom in nuclear dynamics.

  18. Single and Multi-Nucleon Transfer Reactions for Nuclear Moment Studies Toward Radioactive-Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lozeva, R. L.; Georgiev, G. P.; Audi, G.; Cabaret, S.; Fiori, E.; Gaulard, C.; Hauschilda, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Risegari, L.; Blazhev, A.; Jolie, J.; Moschner, K.; Zell, K.-O.; Daugas, J.-M.; Faul, T.; Morel, P.; Roig, O.; Ferraton, M.; Ibrahim, F.

    2010-04-30

    This study is a part of an experimental program to measure nuclear moments in transfer reactions. It aims to probe for a first time the nuclear -spin orientation in multi-nucleon transfer. Fist experiments were performed to measure the quadrupole moment of an isomeric state in {sup 66}Cu (I{sup p}i 6{sup -}, E{sub x} = 1154 keV, T{sub 1/2} = 595(20) ns) in single nucleon transfer and the population of mus isomers in {sup 66}Cu and {sup 63}Ni in multi-nucleon transfer. The experimentally tested methodology allows broad applications toward more exotic species and feasibility of these reactions to produce species away from stability.

  19. Rheological monitoring of phase separation induced by chemical reaction in thermoplastic-modified epoxy

    SciTech Connect

    Vinh-Tung, C.; Lachenal, G.; Chabert, B.

    1996-12-31

    The phase separation induced by chemical reaction in blends of tetraglycidyl-diaminodiphenylmethane epoxy resin with an aromatic diamine hardener and a thermoplastic was monitored. Rheological measurements and morphologies are described.

  20. Pulmonary reactions caused by welding-induced decomposed trichloroethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, B.P.; Plato, N.; Alexandersson, R.; Eklund, A.; Falkenberg, C. )

    1991-01-01

    This is the report of a welder who performed argon-shielded electric arc welding in an atmosphere containing trichloroethylene. He developed immediate respiratory symptoms, pulmonary edema 12 hours after exposure, and recurring dyspnea ten days after exposure. These pulmonary reactions might be explained by inhalation of decomposition products of trichloroethylene such as dichloroacetyl chloride and phosgene.

  1. Low-energy deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, P.; Fischer, U.; Honusek, M.; Koning, A. J.; Mrázek, J.; Šimečková, E.; Štefánik, M.; Závorka, L.

    2013-07-01

    The activation cross sections of (d,p), (d,2n), (d,2np+nd+t), (d,2nα), and (d,pα) reactions on 93Nb were measured in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Then, within a simultaneous analysis of elastic scattering and reaction data, the available elastic-scattering data analysis was carried out in order to obtain the optical potential for reaction cross-section calculations. Particular attention was paid to the description of the breakup mechanism and direct reaction stripping and pick-up, followed by pre-equilibrium and compound-nucleus calculations. The measured cross sections as well as all available deuteron activation data of 93Nb were compared with results of local model calculations carried out using the codes fresco and stapre-h and both default and particular predictions of the code talys-1.4 and tendl-2012-evaluated data.

  2. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-30

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials.

  3. Calculation of nuclear reaction cross sections on excited nuclei with the coupled-channels method

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Talou, P.; Lynn, J. E.; Chadwick, M. B.; Madland, D. G.

    2009-08-15

    We calculate nuclear cross sections on excited nuclei in the fast neutron energy range. We partition the whole process into two contributions: the direct reaction part and the compound nuclear reactions. A coupled-channels method is used for calculating the direct transition of the nucleus from the initial excited state, which is a member of the ground-state rotational band, to the final ground and excited low-lying levels. This process is strongly affected by the channel coupling. The compound nuclear reactions on the excited state are calculated with the statistical Hauser-Feshbach model, with the transmission coefficients obtained from the coupled-channels calculation. The calculations are performed for a strongly deformed nucleus {sup 169}Tm, and selected cross sections for the ground and first excited states are compared. The calculation is also made for actinides to investigate possible modification to the fission cross section when the target is excited. It is shown that both the level coupling for the entrance channel, and the different target spin, change the fission cross section.

  4. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes: From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Elster, Charlotte

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the TORUS Topical Collaboration is to develop new methods that will advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes by using three-body techniques to improve direct-reaction calculations, and, by using a new partial-fusion theory, to integrate descriptions of direct and compound-nucleus reactions. Ohio University concentrates its efforts on the first part of the mission. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. For this reason we first embarked in introducing a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type.

  5. Excitation functions of (d,x) nuclear reactions on natural titanium up to 24 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Otuka, Naohiko

    2013-02-01

    Excitation functions of the natTi(d,x)48V and natTi(d,x)43,44m,44g,46,47,48Sc nuclear reactions were measured up to a 24-MeV deuteron energy by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with γ-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector at the AVF cyclotron of the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Wako, Japan. An overall good agreement is found between the measured cross-sections and the literature ones, whereas partial agreements are obtained for the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS code. Physical thick target yields, i.e., induced radioactivities per unit fluence of the 24-MeV deuteron were also deduced, and they were compared with the directly measured ones in the literature. The present results will have an important role in enrichment of the literature database of the deuteron-induced reactions on natural titanium leading to various applications.

  6. Determination of the cross section for nuclear reactions in complex nuclear decay chains.

    PubMed

    Adam, J; Balabekyan, A; Pronskikh, V S; Kalinnikov, V G; Mrázek, J

    2002-04-01

    In the present paper decays of genetically connected nuclei are considered and equations for their independent cross sections are derived. An optimisation parameter is proposed for an experiment where spectra of the residual nuclei are studied by the induced activity method. This parameter depends on irradiation time, delay time and spectrum measurement time. PMID:11999159

  7. Isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY from different nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.-C.; Lee, M. W.; Kang, Y. R.; Shin, S. G.; Cho, M.-H.; Goswami, A.; Song, T. Y.

    2014-07-01

    The independent isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY produced from the 93Nb( γ, α2n) and natZr( γ, p xn) reactions with the end-point bremsstrahlung energy of 45-70 MeV have been determined by an off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique using 100 MeV electron linac at the Pohang accelerator laboratory, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY were also determined from the natZr(p, αxn) and the 89Y(p,p2n) reactions with E P = 15-45 MeV as well as those from the 89Y( α, α2n) reaction with E α = 32-43 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Korea. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY from the present work in the 93Nb( γ, α2n), natZr( γ, p xn), natZr(p, αxn), 89Y(p,p2n), and 89Y( α, α2n) reactions were compared with those of the literature data in the 85Rb( α, 2n), the 86,87,88Sr(d, xn), 89Y(n,3n), and the 89Y( γ, 2n) reactions to examine the role of target, projectiles, and ejectiles through compound nucleus excitation energy and input angular momentum. The isomeric yield ratios of 87m,gY in the above eleven reactions were also calculated using the computer code TALYS 1.4 and compared with the experimental data. The different behaviors between photon- and neutron-induced reactions and charged-particle-induced reactions are discussed from the viewpoint of compound and non-compound (pre-equilibrium) process.

  8. Prospects of Optical Single Atom Detection in Noble Gas Solids for Measurements of Rare Nuclear Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jaideep; Bailey, Kevin G.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; O'Connor, Thomas P.; Xu, Chen-Yu; Tang, Xiaodong

    2013-04-01

    Optical detection of single atoms captured in solid noble gas matrices provides an alternative technique to study rare nuclear reactions relevant to nuclear astrophysics. I will describe the prospects of applying this approach for cross section measurements of the ^22Ne,,),25Mg reaction, which is the crucial neutron source for the weak s process inside of massive stars. Noble gas solids are a promising medium for the capture, detection, and manipulation of atoms and nuclear spins. They provide stable and chemically inert confinement for a wide variety of guest species. Because noble gas solids are transparent at optical wavelengths, the guest atoms can be probed using lasers. We have observed that ytterbium in solid neon exhibits intersystem crossing (ISC) which results in a strong green fluorescence (546 nm) under excitation with blue light (389 nm). Several groups have observed ISC in many other guest-host pairs, notably magnesium in krypton. Because of the large wavelength separation of the excitation light and fluorescence light, optical detection of individual embedded guest atoms is feasible. This work is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  9. Sparking fusion: A step toward laser-initiated nuclear fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, I.

    1996-10-19

    The fusion furnace at the sun`s core burns hydrogen to make helium. Each time two hydrogen nuclei, or protons, merge to create a deuterium nucleus, the process releases energy. A chain of additional energy-producing nuclear reactions then converts deuterium into helium. Because protons, with their like electric charges, naturally repel each other, high temperatures and tremendous pressures are needed to force them together closely enough to initiate and sustain the reactions. These mergers cost energy initially, but the return on that investment proves prodigious. On Earth, such an energy payoff has been achieved only in the uncontrolled fury of a detonated hydrogen bomb. The vision of harnessing and controlling nuclear fusion as a terrestrial energy source has yet to be fulfilled. The proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) represents an ambitious effort to use powerful lasers to deposit sufficient energy in a small capsule of nuclear fuel to trigger fusion. The main justification for the project is to ensure that a core group of physicists and engineers maintains its expertise in the physics of nuclear weapons. This article presents both the scientific and political sides of the NIF facility.

  10. Coupled-Channels Density-Matrix Approach to Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2011-10-28

    Atomic nuclei are complex, quantum many-body systems whose structure manifests itself through intrinsic quantum states associated with different excitation modes or degrees of freedom. Collective modes (vibration and/or rotation) dominate at low energy (near the ground-state). The associated states are usually employed, within a truncated model space, as a basis in (coherent) coupled channels approaches to low-energy reaction dynamics. However, excluded states can be essential, and their effects on the open (nuclear) system dynamics are usually treated through complex potentials. Is this a complete description of open system dynamics? Does it include effects of quantum decoherence? Can decoherence be manifested in reaction observables? In this contribution, I discuss these issues and the main ideas of a coupled-channels density-matrix approach that makes it possible to quantify the role and importance of quantum decoherence in low-energy nuclear reaction dynamics. Topical applications, which refer to understanding the astrophysically important collision {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and achieving a unified quantum dynamical description of relevant reaction processes of weakly-bound nuclei, are highlighted.

  11. Reaction intermediates in the catalytic Gif-type oxidation from nuclear inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Asthalter, T.; Rabe, V.; Laschat, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) of synchrotron radiation, also known as nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS), has been shown to provide valuable insights into metal-centered vibrations at Mössbauer-active nuclei. We present a study of the iron-centered vibrational density of states (VDOS) during the first step of the Gif-type oxidation of cyclohexene with a novel trinuclear Fe3(μ 3-O) complex as catalyst precursor. The experiments were carried out on shock-frozen solutions for different combinations of reactants: Fe3(μ 3-O) in pyridine solution, Fe3(μ 3-O) plus Zn/acetic acid in pyridine without and with addition of either oxygen or cyclohexene, and Fe3(μ 3-O)/Zn/acetic acid/pyridine/cyclohexene (reaction mixture) for reaction times of 1 min, 5 min, and 30 min. The projected VDOS of the Fe atoms was calculated on the basis of pseudopotential density functional calculations. Two possible reaction intermediates were identified as [Fe(III)(C5H5N)2(O2CCH3)2]+ and Fe(II)(C5H5N)4(O2CCH3)2, yielding evidence that NIS (NRVS) allows to identify the presence of iron-centered intermediates also in complex reaction mixtures.

  12. Multimodal Fission in Heavy-Ion Induced Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovskiy, I. V.; Bogachev, A. A.; Iitkis, M. G.; Iitkis, J. M.; Kondratiev, N. A.; Kozulin, E. M.; Dorvaux, O.; Rowley, N.; Schmitt, Ch.; Stuttge, L.

    2006-08-14

    Mass, energy and folding angle distributions of the fission fragments as well as multiplicities of neutron and gamma-quanta emissions accompanying the fission process were measured for fission of 226Th, 227Pa and 234Pu compound nuclei produced in reactions with 18O and 26Mg projectiles over a wide energy range. Data were analyzed with respect to the presence of fission modes. Asymmetric fission was observed even at very high initial excitation for all the measured systems. The so-called fission mode S1 (caused by the proton shell Z{approx}50 and neutron shell N{approx}82 in heavy fragment) was found to be dominant in asymmetric fission of 234Pu. Reactions with not full linear momentum transfer were observed in the folding spectra for all the measured systems.

  13. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  14. Population of Nuclei Via 7Li-Induced Binary Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R M; Phair, L W; Descovich, M; Cromaz, M; Deleplanque, M A; Fallon, P; Lee, I Y; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moretto, L G; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Sinha, S; Stephens, F S; Ward, D; Wiedeking, M; Bernstein, L A; Burke, J T; Church, J A

    2005-08-09

    The authors have investigated the population of nuclei formed in binary reactions involving {sup 7}Li beams on targets of {sup 160}Gd and {sup 184}W. The {sup 7}Li + {sup 184}W data were taken in the first experiment using the LIBERACE Ge-array in combination with the STARS Si {Delta}E-E telescope system at the 88-Inch Cyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By using the Wilczynski binary transfer model, in combination with a standard evaporation model, they are able to reproduce the experimental results. This is a useful method for predicting the population of neutron-rich heavy nuclei formed in binary reactions involving beams of weakly bound nuclei and will be of use in future spectroscopic studies.

  15. γ-Particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagatto, V. A. B.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Chamon, L. C.; Cybulska, E. W.; Medina, N. H.; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Silva, C. P.; Gasques, L. R.; Zahn, G. S.; Genezini, F. A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Lubian, J.; Linares, R.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Rossi, E. S.; Nobre, G. P.

    2014-06-01

    The Saci-Perere γ ray spectrometer (located at the Pelletron AcceleratorLaboratory - IFUSP) was employed to implement the γ-particle coincidence technique for the study of nuclear reaction mechanisms. For this, the 18O+110Pd reaction has been studied in the beam energy range of 45-54 MeV. Several corrections to the data due to various effects (energy and angle integrations, beam spot size, γ detector finite size and the vacuum de-alignment) are small and well controlled. The aim of this work was to establish a proper method to analyze the data and identify the reaction mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal the inelastic scattering to the first excited state of 110Pd has been extracted and compared to coupled channel calculations using the São Paulo Potential (PSP), being reasonably well described by it.

  16. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation. PMID:20365620

  17. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  18. Kinetics Of Isomerisation Reaction Of Oriented Polyacetylene Induced By Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mammeri, S.; Belloum, M.; Tabacik, V.

    2008-09-23

    The impact of a laser's photons ({lambda} = 514.5 nm) on the surface of polyacetylene films (PA), composed of macromolecules PAcis and PAtrans produces simultaneously thermal and Raman diffusion [1]. The thermal effect initializes the isomerization of macromolecules PAcis to PAtrans [2]; this reaction is exothermic. Samples are polyacetylene oriented films synthesized horizontally or vertically in cis configuration and are subject to different laser powers during intervals of time which vary between 20 s and 250 s. The power (P ({lambda}), mW) of the laser is equivalent to the temperature T, of isomerization [3]. Isotherms are constructed and are characterized by the laser power applied. We have established theoretical models calculations with the aim of determining the kinetic parameters of the reaction of isomerization: the activation energy (Ea), the frequency factor of Arrhenius (A), and the rate constant (k). We concluded that even in the field of seconds, the isomerization is a complex process different from a reaction of order: 1, 7/10, 2/3, 3/5, 1/2, 2/5 and 1/4. The order 2/3 being the most suitable. The study determined, among others, the rate constants k 2/3 (T)(of the order 2/3 of the isomerization reaction)= 0.003337244, 0.0052149, 0.0209636, 0.043727 s-1 respectively for Laser powers 30, 120, 200 and 300 mW; activation energy 17.7844 kcal/mol and a factor of collision 19.066816 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. These results are found to be close to the experimental results studied.

  19. Shock induced reaction of Ni/Al nanopowder mixture.

    PubMed

    Meng, C M; Wei, J J; Chen, Q Y

    2012-11-01

    Nanopowder Ni/Al mixture (mixed in Al:Ni = 2:1 stoichiometry) was shock compressed by employing single and two-stage light gas gun. The particle size of Al and Ni are 100-200 nm and 50-70 nm respectively, morphologies of Al and Ni are sphere like either. Recovered product was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. According to the XRD spectrum, the mixed powder undergo complete reaction under shock compression, reaction product consist of Ni2Al3, NiAl and corundum structure Al2O3 compound. Grain size of Ni-Al compound is less than 100 nm. With the shock pressure increasing, the ratio of Ni2Al3 decreased obviously. The corundum crystal size is 400-500 nm according to the SEM observation. The results of shock recovery experiments and analysis show that the threshold pressure for reaction of nano size powder Ni/Al mixture is much less than that of micro size powder. PMID:23421276

  20. Use of Helium Production to Screen Glow Discharges for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passell, Thomas O.

    2011-03-01

    My working hypothesis of the conditions required to observe low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) follows: 1) High fluxes of deuterium atoms through interfaces of grains of metals that readily accommodate movement of hydrogen atoms interstitially is the driving variable that produces the widely observed episodes of excess heat above the total of all input energy. 2) This deuterium atom flux has been most often achieved at high electrochemical current densities on highly deuterium-loaded palladium cathodes but is clearly possible in other experimental arrangements in which the metal is interfacing gaseous deuterium, as in an electrical glow discharge. 3) Since the excess heat episodes must be producing the product(s) of some nuclear fusion reaction(s) screening of options may be easier with measurement of those ``ashes'' than the observance of the excess heat. 4) All but a few of the exothermic fusion reactions known among the first 5 elements produce He-4. Hence helium-4 appearance in an experiment may be the most efficient indicator of some fusion reaction without commitment on which reaction is occurring. This set of hypotheses led me to produce a series of sealed tubes of wire electrodes of metals known to absorb hydrogen and operate them for 100 days at the 1 watt power level using deuterium gas pressures of ~ 100 torr powered by 40 Khz AC power supplies. Observation of helium will be by measurement of helium optical emission lines through the glass envelope surrounding the discharge. The results of the first 18 months of this effort will be described.

  1. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    SciTech Connect

    D. Budker, M.P. Ledbetter, S. Appelt, L.S. Bouchard, B. Wojtsekhowski

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast ({approx}100 HZ) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  2. Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, D.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Appelt, S.; Bouchard, L. S.; Wojtsekhowski, B.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments, which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field, fast (˜100 Hz) polarization oscillation (akin to polarization reversal), and operation with large intensity of an electron beam.

  3. Measurements of 10B(p,a)7Be Cross-sections: A Reaction Relevant to Nuclear Fusion Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Barbara; Kafkarkou, Adamos; Ahmed, Mohammad; Weller, Henry; Myers, Luke; Sparker, Mark; Zimmerman, William; Mueller, Jon; Sikora, Mark; Mazumdar, Indral

    2012-10-01

    There is growing interest in aneutronic nuclear fusion reactors. One facility proposes to utilize the 11B(p,a)7Be reaction. The Radiative Capture Group at Triangle University Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) has been engaged in a long-term study of this and related reactions. This poster will present preliminary data and analysis of the 10B(p,a)7Be reaction which is of interest because 10B is a potential reactor contaminant. Differential and total cross-sections will be presented for incident protons of 4.4 and 4.6 MeV. The data is necessary for simulations of an aneutrionic nuclear fusion reactor.

  4. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on natSm up to 50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Csikai, J.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2014-08-01

    Activation cross-sections for deuteron induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(d,xn)155,154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146Eu, natSm(d,x) 153,145Sm and natSm(d,x)151,150,149,145,144,143Pm up to 50 MeV. The cross-sections were measured by the stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The results were compared with results of nuclear reaction codes ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the products were calculated from the excitation functions.

  5. Activation cross-sections of proton induced reactions on natSm up to 65 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Activation cross sections for proton induced reactions on Sm are presented for the first time for natSm(p,xn)154,152m2,152m1,152g,150m,150g,149,148,147,146,145Eu, natSm(p,x)153,145Sm, natSm(p,x)151,150,149,148g,148m,146,144,143Pm and natSm(p,x)141Nd up to 65 MeV. The cross sections were measured via activation method by using a stacked-foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The results were compared with results of the nuclear reaction codes ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS (results taken from TENDL libraries). Integral yields of the activation products were calculated from the excitation functions.

  6. Cellular stress induces Bax-regulated nuclear bubble budding and rupture followed by nuclear protein release.

    PubMed

    Lindenboim, Liora; Sasson, Tiki; Worman, Howard J; Borner, Christoph; Stein, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Cellular stress triggers many pathways including nuclear protein redistribution. We previously discovered that this process is regulated by Bax but the underlying mechanism has not yet been studied. Here we define this mechanism by showing that apoptotic stimuli cause Bax-regulated disturbances in lamin A/C and nuclear envelope (NE)-associated proteins which results in the generation and subsequent rupture of nuclear protein-containing bubbles. The bubbles do not contain DNA and are encapsulated by impaired nuclear pore-depleted NE. Stress-induced generation and rupture of nuclear bubbles ultimately leads to the discharge of nuclear proteins into the cytoplasm. This process precedes morphological changes of apoptosis and occurs independently of caspases. Rescue experiments revealed that this Bax effect is non-canonical, i.e. it requires the BH3 domain and α-helices 5 and 6 but it is not inhibited by Bcl(-)xL. Targeting Bax to the NE by the Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 homology (KASH) domain effectively triggers the generation and rupture of nuclear bubbles. Overall, our findings provide evidence for a novel stress-response, which is regulated by a non-canonical action of Bax on the NE. PMID:25482068

  7. Review of Experimental Data on Alpha-Induced Reactions on Some Nuclei (Mg-24, Si-28, S-32, Ar-36, Ca-40) in Terms of Astrophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaeva, S.A.; McLane, V.; Savin, M.; Taova, S.

    2005-05-24

    The present report gives a detailed analysis of experimental works and a review of alpha-induced reaction cross-section data of five alpha-alpha nuclei, Mg-24, Si-28, S-32, Ar-36 and Ca-40, for incident alpha energy up to 20 MeV. Alpha-induced reactions play an important role in the helium burning stage of stars, novae, and supernovae. These reactions are basic to the CNO and Al-Mg cycles, and also to the production of neutrons producing S and R processes occurring in stars. Thus, the availability of cross-section data for these reactions is a prime need for the study of nuclear interactions taking place in stars.These data have been compiled as part of an international collaboration, funded in part by the Civilian Research and Development Foundation, and are available in the EXFOR databases.

  8. Pathogenic mechanisms underlying adverse reactions induced by intravenous administration of snake antivenoms.

    PubMed

    León, Guillermo; Herrera, María; Segura, Álvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; Gutiérrez, José María

    2013-12-15

    Snake antivenoms are formulations of immunoglobulins, or immunoglobulin fragments, purified from the plasma of animals immunized with snake venoms. Their therapeutic success lies in their ability to mitigate the progress of toxic effects induced by snake venom components, when administered intravenously. However, due to diverse factors, such as deficient manufacturing practices, physicochemical characteristics of formulations, or inherent properties of heterologous immunoglobulins, antivenoms can induce undesirable adverse reactions. Based on the time lapse between antivenom administration and the onset of clinical manifestations, the World Health Organization has classified these adverse reactions as: 1 - Early reactions, if they occur within the first hours after antivenom infusion, or 2 - late reactions, when occurring between 5 and 20 days after treatment. While all late reactions are mediated by IgM or IgG antibodies raised in the patient against antivenom proteins, and the consequent formation of immune complexes, several mechanisms may be responsible for the early reactions, such as pyrogenic reactions, IgE-mediated reactions, or non IgE-mediated reactions. This work reviews the hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the mechanisms involved in these adverse reactions to antivenoms. The understanding of these pathogenic mechanisms is necessary for the development of safer products and for the improvement of snakebite envenomation treatment. PMID:24055551

  9. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-01

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, (α, p) reactions, and other types of measurements (β-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of 7Li+α/7Be+α resonant scatterings are presented.

  10. Fission Time of α-INDUCED Reactions Measured by the Crystal Blocking Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, V. A.; Eremenko, D. O.; Fotina, O. V.; Platonov, S. Yu.; Yuminov, O. A.; Giardina, G.; Fazio, G.; Malaguti, F.; Olivo, P.; Togo, V.

    A large set of experimental observables for the 232Th, 235U(α, xnf) reactions has been analyzed within the dynamic-statistical approach with allowance for the nuclear dissipation phenomenon, the double humped structure of fission barrier, and also the temperature damping of shell effects. The energy dependences of the lifetime effect (experimentally measured by the crystal blocking technique) along the corresponding data on the fission fragment angular anisotropy and also fission probabilities of U and Pu isotopes produced in the reactions were chosen for the analysis. Reliable information on the nuclear viscosity at the low excitation energies (< 30 MeV) was obtained.

  11. Alpha-induced reaction studies using low-energy RI beams at CRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Hu, J.; Kubono, S.; Hayakawa, S.; Hashimoto, T.

    2012-11-12

    CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. Studies on proton and alpha resonance scatterings, ({alpha}, p) reactions, and other types of measurements ({beta}-decay lifetimes etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests on astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Li+{alpha}/{sup 7}Be+{alpha} resonant scatterings are presented.

  12. Kinetics of Reactions of Monomeric Nitrosomethane Induced by Flash Photolysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozubek, H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which the kinetics of dimerization of nitrosamine induced by a flash of light is measured. The experiment can be performed with a commercial ultraviolet-VIS spetrophotometer with easy to make modifications. The experiment demonstrates a flash photolysis system not always available in university chemistry laboratories.…

  13. Project ERIC - The search for environmental reactions induced by comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendillo, Michael; Sigwarth, John B.; Craven, John D.; Frank, Louis A.; Holt, John

    1990-01-01

    A sounding rocket experiment was conducted to release molecules of H2O and CO2 into the daytime ionosphere within the simultaneous fields of view of the Millstone Hill radar and the Dynamics Explorer UV imager. Preliminary results confirm the creation of chemically-induced F-region plasma depletions and reduced UV intensities from the modified region.

  14. Evaluated Nuclear (reaction) Data from the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The ENDF libraries are a collection of documented data evaluations stored in a defined computer-readable format that can be used as the main input to nuclear data processing programs. An evaluation is the process of analyzing experimentally measured cross-section data, combining them with the predictions of nuclear model calculations, and attempting to extract the true value of a cross section. Parameterization and reduction of the data to tabular form produces an evaluated data set. If a written description of the preparation of a unique data set from the data sources is available, the data set is referred to as a documented evaluation. The data sets contained on the ENDF/B library are those chosen by CSEWG from evaluations submitted for review. The choice is made on the basis of requirements for applications, conformance of the evaluation to the formats and procedures, and performance in testing. The data set that represents a particular material may change when (1) new significant experimental results become available, (2) integral tests show that the data give erroneous results, or (3) user's requirements indicate a need for more accurate data and/or better representations of the data for a particular material. New or revised data sets are included in new releases of the ENDF/B library. ENDF/B data sets are revised or replaced only after extensive review and testing. This allows them to be used as standard reference data during the lifetime of the particular ENDF/B version. (This information is copied from the ENDF- 6 Formats Manual, Data Formats and Procedures for the Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII, Document ENDF-102, Report BNL-NCS-44945-05-Rev.) The current version is ENDF/B VII.0, released in 2006. Users can search ENDF via specialized interfaces, browse sub-libraries or download them as zipped files. Data plots can be generated through the Sigma interface. The ENDF web page also provides access to covariance data processing and plots

  15. Measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections for 183, 184W + 238U near the interaction barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmele, G.; Backe, H.; Butler, P. A.; Habs, D.; Metag, V.; Specht, H. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    1983-08-01

    The cross sections for inelastic scattering, nucleon transfer and transfer-induced fission have been measured for 184W + 238U as a function of bombarding energy near the interaction barrier. The inelastic scattering cross section for 183W + 238U has also been measured at one energy. The two- nucleon and one-nucleon transfer cross sections, for neutron stripping at least, are similar in magnitude which suggests a substantial enhancement for the two-nucleon transfers. The probabilities for fission following the transfer reactions show in some cases strong dependence on bombarding energy, which demonstrates that simultaneous Coulomb excitation plays an important part in transfer reactions between very heavy ions.

  16. Nuclear fusion induced by x rays in a crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. B.; Miller, M. B.; Otto, J.; Rakityansky, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    The nuclei that constitute a crystalline lattice oscillate relative to each other with a very low energy that is not sufficient to penetrate through the Coulomb barriers separating them. An additional energy, which is needed to tunnel through the barrier and fuse, can be supplied by external electromagnetic waves (x rays or synchrotron radiation). Exposing the solid compound LiD (lithium deuteride) to x rays for the duration of 111 h, we detect 88 events of nuclear fusion d +6Li→8Be* . Our theoretical estimate agrees with what we observed. One possible application of the phenomenon we found is in measurements of the rates of various nuclear reactions (not necessarily fusion) at extremely low energies inaccessible in accelerator experiments.

  17. [Adverse reaction induced by licorice preparations: clinical analysis of 93 cases].

    PubMed

    Mao, Min; Li, Wei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Jin; Chang, Zhang-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Licorice is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinic. The products,what contain licorice or licorice extract, has early been involved in the field of cosmetics except for the field of pharmaceuticals and food. Consequently, the reporting on adverse reactions induced by licorice preparations are more frequent. Based on the clinical data of licorice preparations adverse reactions, we described the characteristics of the licorice-related adverse reactions, and proposed specific measures to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions, provided a reference for the rational use of licorice preparations. PMID:24494570

  18. Does Observation of Postural Imbalance Induce a Postural Reaction?

    PubMed Central

    Tia, Banty; Saimpont, Arnaud; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition), an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects. PMID:21423622

  19. Reaction-induced rheological weakening enables oceanic plate subduction.

    PubMed

    Hirauchi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Kumi; Kido, Masanori; Muto, Jun; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Earth is the only terrestrial planet in our solar system where an oceanic plate subducts beneath an overriding plate. Although the initiation of plate subduction requires extremely weak boundaries between strong plates, the way in which oceanic mantle rheologically weakens remains unknown. Here we show that shear-enhanced hydration reactions contribute to the generation and maintenance of weak mantle shear zones at mid-lithospheric depths. High-pressure friction experiments on peridotite gouge reveal that in the presence of hydrothermal water, increasing strain and reactions lead to an order-of-magnitude reduction in strength. The rate of deformation is controlled by pressure-solution-accommodated frictional sliding on weak hydrous phyllosilicate (talc), providing a mechanism for the 'cutoff' of the high peak strength at the brittle-plastic transition. Our findings suggest that infiltration of seawater into transform faults with long lengths and low slip rates is an important controlling factor on the initiation of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets. PMID:27562366

  20. Reaction-induced rheological weakening enables oceanic plate subduction

    PubMed Central

    Hirauchi, Ken-ichi; Fukushima, Kumi; Kido, Masanori; Muto, Jun; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Earth is the only terrestrial planet in our solar system where an oceanic plate subducts beneath an overriding plate. Although the initiation of plate subduction requires extremely weak boundaries between strong plates, the way in which oceanic mantle rheologically weakens remains unknown. Here we show that shear-enhanced hydration reactions contribute to the generation and maintenance of weak mantle shear zones at mid-lithospheric depths. High-pressure friction experiments on peridotite gouge reveal that in the presence of hydrothermal water, increasing strain and reactions lead to an order-of-magnitude reduction in strength. The rate of deformation is controlled by pressure-solution-accommodated frictional sliding on weak hydrous phyllosilicate (talc), providing a mechanism for the ‘cutoff' of the high peak strength at the brittle-plastic transition. Our findings suggest that infiltration of seawater into transform faults with long lengths and low slip rates is an important controlling factor on the initiation of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets. PMID:27562366

  1. Advancing the Theory of Nuclear Reactions with Rare Isotopes. From the Laboratory to the Cosmos

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, Filomena

    2015-06-01

    The mission of the Topical Collaboration on the Theory of Reactions for Unstable iSotopes (TORUS) was to develop new methods to advance nuclear reaction theory for unstable isotopes—particularly the (d,p) reaction in which a deuteron, composed of a proton and a neutron, transfers its neutron to an unstable nucleus. After benchmarking the state-of-the-art theories, the TORUS collaboration found that there were no exact methods to study (d,p) reactions involving heavy targets; the difficulty arising from the long-range nature of the well known, yet subtle, Coulomb force. To overcome this challenge, the TORUS collaboration developed a new theory where the complexity of treating the long-range Coulomb interaction is shifted to the calculation of so-called form-factors. An efficient implementation for the computation of these form factors was a major achievement of the TORUS collaboration. All the new machinery developed are essential ingredients to analyse (d,p) reactions involving heavy nuclei relevant for astrophysics, energy production, and stockpile stewardship.

  2. Kinetic studies of the infrared-induced reaction between atomic chlorine and solid parahydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul L.; Kettwich, Sharon C.; Anderson, David T.

    2015-04-01

    We present Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the IR-induced Cl + H2(v = 1) → HCl + H reaction in a parahydrogen (pH2) matrix aimed at distinguishing between two proposed reactions mechanisms; direct-IR and vibron-mediated. The Cl atom reactants are produced via 355 nm in situ photolysis of a Cl2 doped pH2 matrix. After photolysis is complete, a long-pass IR filter in the FTIR beam is removed and we measure the ensuing IR-induced reaction kinetics using rapid scan FTIR spectroscopy. We follow both the decay of the Cl atom reactant and growth of the HCl product using the Cl spin-orbit (SO) + Q1(0) and HCl R1(0) transitions, respectively. We show the IR-induced reaction mechanism depends on the spectral profile of the IR radiation; for IR spectral profiles that have significant IR intensities between 4000 and 5000 cm-1 we observe first-order kinetics that are assigned to a vibron-mediated mechanism and for spectral profiles that have significant IR intensities that include the Cl SO + Q1(0) transition near 5094 cm-1 we observe bi-exponential kinetics that are dominated by the direct-IR mechanism at early reaction times. We can distinguish between the two mechanisms using the observed kinetics. We investigate the reaction kinetics for different FTIR optical setups, for a range of sample conditions, and start and stop the IR-induced reaction to investigate the importance of secondary H atom reactions. We also study the IR-induced reaction in Br/Cl co-doped pH2 samples and show the presence of the Br atom quenches the vibron-mediated reaction kinetics presumably because the Br-atoms serve as efficient vibron traps. This paper indicates that in a highly enriched pH2 matrix the H atoms that are produced by the IR-induced Cl atom reaction likely do not play a significant role in the measured reaction kinetics which implies these secondary H atom reactions are highly selective.

  3. Pion-induced production of the Zc(3900 ) off a nuclear target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yin; He, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Hong Fei; Xie, Ju Jun; Chen, Xu Rong

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the possibility to study the charmoniumlike state Zc(3900 ) through the pion-induced production off a nuclear target. By using a high-energy pion beam, the Zc(3900 ) can be produced off a proton or nucleus though the Primakoff effect. The production amplitude is calculated in an effective Lagrangian approach combined with the vector dominance model. The total cross sections of the p (π-,Zc-(3900 )) and p (π-,Zc-(3900 )→J /ψ π-) reactions are calculated, and their order of magnitude is about 0.1 and 0.01 nb, respectively, with an assumption of branch ratio 10% for the Zc(3900 ) decay in J /ψ π channel. If the proton target is replaced by a nuclear target, the production of the Zc(3900 ) enhances obviously. The predicted total cross sections for the A (π-,Zc-(3900 )) and A (π-,Zc-(3900 )→J /ψ π-) reactions with A =12C or 208Pb are on the order of magnitude of 100 and 10 nb, respectively, which is about one thousand times larger than the cross sections off a proton target. Based on these results, we suggest the experimental study of the Zc(3900 ) by using high-energy pion beams with a nuclear target at facilities such as COMPASS and J-PARC.

  4. The Nuclear Family: Correspondence in Cognitive and Affective Reactions to the Threat of Nuclear War among Older Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between family members' cognitive and affective responses to nuclear war issues, 317 college students and their parents independently completed a multifaceted questionnaire that included items concerning personal reactions, predictions, opinions, and attitudes about nuclear war. (Author/LMO)

  5. Nonsudden limits of heavy-ion induced knockout reactions.

    PubMed

    Flavigny, F; Obertelli, A; Bonaccorso, A; Grinyer, G F; Louchart, C; Nalpas, L; Signoracci, A

    2012-06-22

    We report on the single neutron and proton removal reactions from unstable nuclei with large asymmetry ΔS = S(n)-S(p) at incident energies below 80 MeV/nucleon. Strong nonsudden effects are observed in the case of deeply-bound-nucleon removal. The corresponding parallel momentum distributions exhibit an abrupt cutoff at high momentum that corresponds to an energy threshold occurring when the incident energy per particle is of comparable magnitude to the nucleon separation energy. A large low-momentum tail is related to both dissipative processes and the dynamics of the nucleon removal process. New limits for the applicability of the sudden and eikonal approximations in nucleon knockout are given. PMID:23004591

  6. Hybrid isolation of micro vibrations induced by reaction wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Oen; Park, Geeyong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2016-02-01

    As the technology for precision satellite payloads continues to advance, the requirements for the pointing stability of the satellites are becoming extremely high. In many situations, even small amplitude disturbances generated by the onboard components may cause serious degradation in the performance of high precision payloads. In such situations, vibration isolators can be installed to reduce the vibration transmission. In this work, a hybrid vibration isolator comprising passive and active components is proposed to provide an effective solution to the vibration problems caused by the reaction wheel disturbances. Firstly, mathematical modeling and experimental study of a single axis vibration isolator having high damping and high roll-off rate for the high frequency region and active components that enhance isolation performance for narrow frequency bands are presented. This concept is then extended to multi-axis by forming Stewart platform and the performance is experimentally verified. The tests on a flexible testbed show effective vibration isolation by the proposed vibration isolator.

  7. Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in 48Ca-Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganessian, Y. T.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Lobanov, Y. V.; Abdullin, F. S.; Polyakov, A. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tsyganov, Y. S.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Gikal, B. N.; Mezentsev, A. N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Voinov, A. A.; Buklanov, G. V.; Subotic, K.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Itkis, M. G.; Moody, K. J.; Wild, J. F.; Stoyer, M. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Patin, J. B.; Lougheed, R. W.

    This paper presents results of experiments aimed atproducing long-lived superheavy elements located near the spherical shells at Z≥ 114 and N≥ 172 in the reactions of neutron-rich isotopes 242,244Pu, 243Am, 245,248Cm and 249Cf with 48Ca projectiles. The decay properties of the synthesized nuclei are consistent with the consecutive α-decays originating in the decays of parent nuclides 286,287,288,289114, 287,288115, 290,291,293116 and 294118 produced in the 2n- to 5n-evaporation channels. The present observations can be considered to be experimental evidence of the existence of the ``island of stability'' of superheavy elements.

  8. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Gulino, M.; Tumino, A.; Lamia, L.

    2014-05-09

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  9. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results on resonance reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Tumino, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear astrophysics aims to measure nuclear-reaction cross sections of astrophysical interest to be included into models to study stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. Low energies, < 1 MeV or even < 10 keV, are requested for this is the window where these processes are more effective. Two effects have prevented to achieve a satisfactory knowledge of the relevant nuclear processes, namely, the Coulomb barrier exponentially suppressing the cross section and the presence of atomic electrons. These difficulties have triggered theoretical and experimental investigations to extend our knowledge down to astrophysical energies. For instance, indirect techniques such as the Trojan Horse Method have been devised yielding new cutting-edge results. In particular, I will focus on the application of this indirect method to resonance reactions. Resonances might dramatically enhance the astrophysical S(E)-factor so, when they occur right at astrophysical energies, their measurement is crucial to pin down the astrophysical scenario. Unknown or unpredicted resonances might introduce large systematic errors in nucleosynthesis models. These considerations apply to low-energy resonances and to sub-threshold resonances as well, as they may produce sizable modifications of the S-factor due to, for instance, destructive interference with another resonance.

  10. Microscopic calculations of the characteristics of radiative nuclear reactions for double-magic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achakovskiy, Oleg; Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Tselyaev, Victor; Shitov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections and average radiative widths Γγ of neutron resonances for two double-magic nuclei 132Sn and 208Pb have been calculated using the microscopic photon strength functions (PSF), which were obtained within the microscopic self-consistent version of the extended theory of finite Fermi systems in the time blocking approximation. For the first time, the microscopic PSFs have been obtained within the fully self-consistent approach with exact accounting for the single particle continuum (for 208Pb). The approach includes phonon coupling effects in addition to the standard RPA approach. The known Skyrme force has been used. The calculations of nuclear reaction characteristics have been performed with the EMPIRE 3.1 nuclear reaction code. Here, three nuclear level density (NLD) models have been used: the so-called phenomenological GSM, the EMPIRE specific (or Enhanced GSM) and the microscopical combinatorial HFB NLD models. For both considered characteristics we found a significant disagreement between the results obtained with the GSM and HFB NLD models. For 208Pb, a reasonable agreement has been found with systematic for the Γγ values with HFB NLD and with the experimental data for the HFB NLD average resonance spacing D0, while for these two quantities the differences between the values obtained with GSM and HFB NLD are of several orders of magnitude. The discrepancies between the results with the phenomenological EGLO PSF and microscopic RPA or TBA are much less for the same NLD model.

  11. Nuclear-Reaction-Based Radiation Source For Explosives-And SNM-Detection In Massive Cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandis, Michal; Dangendorf, Volker; Piel, Christian; Vartsky, David; Bromberger, Benjamin; Bar, Doron; Friedman, Eliahu; Mardor, Israel; Mor, Ilan; Tittelmeier, Kai; Goldberg, Mark B.

    2011-06-01

    An automatic, nuclear-reaction-based, few-view transmission radiography method and system concept is presented, that will simultaneously detect small, operationally-relevant quantities of chemical explosives and special nuclear materials (SNM) in objects up to the size of LD-3 aviation containers. Detection of all threat materials is performed via the 11B(d,n+γ) reaction on thick, isotopically-enriched targets; SNM are primarily detected via Dual Discrete-Energy Radiography (DDER), using 15.11 MeV and 4.43 MeV 12C γ-rays, whereas explosives are primarily detected via Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), employing the broad-energy neutron spectra produced in a thick 11B-target. To achieve a reasonable throughput of ˜20 containers per hour, ns-pulsed deuteron beam of the order of 0.5 mA intensity at energies of 5-7 MeV is required. As a first step towards optimizing parameters and sensitivities of an operational system, the 0° spectra and yields of both γ-rays and neutrons in this reaction have been measured up to Ed = 6.65 MeV.

  12. Low and medium energy deuteron-induced reactions on {sup 63,65}Cu nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Simeckova, E.; Bem, P.; Honusek, M.; Stefanik, M.; Fischer, U.; Simakov, S. P.; Forrest, R. A.; Koning, A. J.; Sublet, J.-C.; Avrigeanu, M.; Roman, F. L.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2011-07-15

    The activation cross sections of (d,p), (d,2n), (d,3n), and (d,2p) reactions on {sup 63,65}Cu were measured in the energy range from 4 to 20 MeV using the stacked-foil technique. Then, following the available elastic-scattering data analysis that provided the optical potential for reaction cross-section calculations, an increased effort was devoted to the breakup mechanism, direct reaction stripping, and pre-equilibrium and compound-nucleus cross-section calculations, corrected for the breakup and stripping decrease of the total reaction cross section. The overall agreement between the measured and calculated deuteron activation cross sections proves the correctness of the nuclear mechanism account, next to the simultaneous analysis of the elastic-scattering and reaction data.

  13. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: A tool toward 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Bondì, M.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial- and final-state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ → 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  14. Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Guiseppe, V.; Kidd, M.; Rundberg, B.; Tybo, J.

    2013-04-01

    We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of 195Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

  15. Neutron-induced reactions in the hohlraum to study reaction in flight neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Boswell, M. S.; Elliott, S. R.; Tybo, J.; Guiseppe, V.; Rundberg, B.; Kidd, M.

    2013-04-19

    We are currently developing the physics necessary to measure the Reaction In Flight (RIF) neutron flux from a NIF capsule. A measurement of the RIF neutron flux from a NIF capsule could be used to deduce the stopping power in the cold fuel of the NIF capsule. A foil irradiated at the Omega laser at LLE was counted at the LANL low-background counting facility at WIPP. The estimated production rate of {sup 195}Au was just below our experimental sensitivity. We have made several improvements to our counting facility in recent months. These improvements are designed to increase our sensitivity, and include installing two new low-background detectors, and taking steps to reduce noise in the signals.

  16. Strong screening effects on resonant nuclear reaction 23Mg (p, γ) 24Al in the surface of magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Jing

    2016-05-01

    Based on the theory of relativistic superstrong magnetic fields (SMFs), by using the method of Thomas-Fermi-Dirac approximations, we investigate the problem of strong electron screening (SES) in SMFs and the influence of SES on the nuclear reaction of 23Mg (p, γ)24Al. Our calculations show that the nuclear reaction will be markedly effected by the SES in SMFs in the surface of magnetars. Our calculated screening rates can increase two orders of magnitude due to SES in SMFs.

  17. Determination of the ^6He Nuclear Radius from the Total Reaction Cross Section of ^6He + ^9Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, K. C. C.; Appannababu, S.; Lichtenthäler, R.

    2016-05-01

    A new method to obtain the nuclear radius from low energies total reaction cross section measurements is presented. Elastic scattering angular distributions of ^6He on ^9Be at two energies, namely, E_{cm}= 9.72 and 12.78 MeV, were analysed previously and the total reaction cross sections obtained are used to assess the ^6He nuclear interaction radius. A comparison with the radius of the ^6He obtained at higher energies is presented.

  18. Complexity of lectin-mediated reactions in bacteria-induced histamine release.

    PubMed

    Jensen, C; Stahl Skov, P; Norn, S; Espersen, F; Bøg-Hansen, T C; Lihme, A

    1984-08-01

    We have earlier suggested that bacteria-induced histamine release is caused by different mechanisms, including allergic and non-immunological mechanisms, and that the latter probably depends on lectin-mediated reactions. Two possibilities of lectin-mediated reactions were examined in this study, bacterial surface lectins bind to sugars on the basophil cell membrane leading to histamine release, and the reverse reaction where bacterial aminosugars react with lectins on the basophil cell surface. In the bacterial histamine release caused by the Staph. aureus strain Wood 46 it was possible to demonstrate a reverse reaction, but not a bacterial lectin-mediated reaction. The reaction seems to be complex, as lower concentrations of sugars might potentiate the release of histamine by binding to the target cell or bacteria, while the release is inhibited by higher concentrations. PMID:6208803

  19. Electronically induced surface reactions: Evolution, concepts, and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, Dietrich

    2012-09-07

    This is a personal account of the development of the title subject which is the broader field encompassing surface photochemistry. It describes the early times when the main interest centered on desorption induced by slow electrons, follows its evolution in experiment (use of synchrotron radiation and connections to electron spectroscopies; use of lasers) and mechanisms, and briefly mentions the many different subfields that have evolved. It discusses some practically important aspects and applications and ends with an account of an evolving new subfield, the application to photochemistry on nanoparticles.

  20. Parvovirus Induced Alterations in Nuclear Architecture and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Niskanen, Einari A.; Jylhävä, Juulia; Paloheimo, Outi; Dross, Nicolas; Smolander, Hanna; Langowski, Jörg; Timonen, Jussi; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus of interphase eukaryotic cell is a highly compartmentalized structure containing the three-dimensional network of chromatin and numerous proteinaceous subcompartments. DNA viruses induce profound changes in the intranuclear structures of their host cells. We are applying a combination of confocal imaging including photobleaching microscopy and computational methods to analyze the modifications of nuclear architecture and dynamics in parvovirus infected cells. Upon canine parvovirus infection, expansion of the viral replication compartment is accompanied by chromatin marginalization to the vicinity of the nuclear membrane. Dextran microinjection and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies revealed the homogeneity of this compartment. Markedly, in spite of increase in viral DNA content of the nucleus, a significant increase in the protein mobility was observed in infected compared to non-infected cells. Moreover, analyzis of the dynamics of photoactivable capsid protein demonstrated rapid intranuclear dynamics of viral capsids. Finally, quantitative FRAP and cellular modelling were used to determine the duration of viral genome replication. Altogether, our findings indicate that parvoviruses modify the nuclear structure and dynamics extensively. Intranuclear crowding of viral components leads to enlargement of the interchromosomal domain and to chromatin marginalization via depletion attraction. In conclusion, parvoviruses provide a useful model system for understanding the mechanisms of virus-induced intranuclear modifications. PMID:19536327

  1. Slow slip generated by dehydration reaction coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Teruo; Schubnel, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    Sustained slow slip, which is a distinctive feature of slow slip events (SSEs), is investigated theoretically, assuming a fault embedded within a fluid-saturated 1D thermo-poro-elastic medium. The object of study is specifically SSEs occurring at the down-dip edge of seismogenic zone in hot subduction zones, where mineral dehydrations (antigorite, lawsonite, chlorite, and glaucophane) are expected to occur near locations where deep slow slip events are observed. In the modeling, we introduce dehydration reactions, coupled with slip-induced dilatancy and thermal pressurization, and slip evolution is assumed to interact with fluid pressure change through Coulomb's frictional stress. Our calculations show that sustained slow slip events occur when the dehydration reaction is coupled with slip-induced dilatancy. Specifically, slow slip is favored by a low initial stress drop, an initial temperature of the medium close to that of the dehydration reaction equilibrium temperature, a low permeability, and overall negative volume change associated with the reaction (i.e., void space created by the reaction larger than the space occupied by the fluid released). Importantly, if we do not assume slip-induced dilatancy, slip is accelerated with time soon after the slip onset even if the dehydration reaction is assumed. This suggests that slow slip is sustained for a long time at hot subduction zones because dehydration reaction is coupled with slip-induced dilatancy. Such slip-induced dilatancy may occur at the down-dip edge of seismogenic zone at hot subduction zones because of repetitive occurrence of dehydration reaction there.

  2. Nivolumab-Induced Sarcoid-Like Granulomatous Reaction in a Patient With Advanced Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Danlos, François-Xavier; Pagès, Cécile; Baroudjian, Barouyr; Vercellino, Laetitia; Battistella, Maxime; Mimoun, Maurice; Jebali, Majdi; Bagot, Martine; Tazi, Abdellatif; Lebbé, Céleste

    2016-05-01

    To our knowledge, we report the first case of sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction induced by nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody. A 57-year-old man was treated with nivolumab 3 mg/kg for 2 weeks for a desmoplastic melanoma stage III American Joint Commission on Cancer, with no BRAF, NRAS, and cKit mutations. At 10 months, although melanoma complete response was achieved, he developed sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction in the mediastinal lymph node and skin, which resumed after nivolumab arrest. Melanoma did not relapse after 12 months of follow-up. Considering the recently demonstrated role of activated PD-1/PDL-1 axis in sarcoidosis, granulomatous reaction in the patient seems to be a paradoxical reaction, but similar observations have been reported with ipilimumab, another immune checkpoint inhibitor. Sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction during immunotherapy treatment could be a manifestation of cell-mediated immunity induced by these drugs. Impact of granulomatous reaction induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor on melanoma progression is not known and requires further study. Melanoma patients treated by immunotherapy (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4/anti-PD-1) should be considered for developing sarcoid-like granulomatous reaction that must not be confused with tumor progression. PMID:27157227

  3. Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

  4. New excitation functions for proton induced reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper up to 70 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, E.; Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2016-09-01

    New excitation functions for proton induced nuclear reactions on natural titanium, nickel and copper were measured, using the stacked-foil technique and gamma spectrometry, up to 70 MeV. The experimental cross sections were measured using the Ti-nat(p,x) V-48, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-57 and Cu-nat(p,x) Zn-62,Co-56 monitor reactions recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), depending on the investigated energy range. Data have been extracted for the Ti-nat(p,x) Sc-43,44m,46,47,48, V-48, K-42,43, Ni-nat(p,x) Ni-56,57, Co-55,56,57,58, Mn-52,54, Cu-nat(p,x) Cu-61,64, Ni-57, Co-56,57,58,60, Zn-62,65, Mn-54 reactions. Our results are discussed and compared to the existing ones as well as with the TALYS code version 1.6 calculations using default models. Our experimental data are in overall good agreement with the literature. TALYS is able to reproduce, in most cases, the experimental trend. Our new experimental results allow to expand our knowledge on these excitation functions, to confirm the existing trends and to give additional values on a large energy range. This work is in line with the new Coordinated Research Project (CRP) launched by the IAEA to expand the database of monitor reactions.

  5. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Bromet, E.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health.

  6. Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Aircraft- 2013 ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Douglas P.; McDonald, Robert; Campbell, Robbie; Chase, Adam; Daniel, Jason; Darling, Michael; Green, Clayton; MacGregor, Collin; Sudak, Peter; Sykes, Harrison; Waddington, Michael; Fredericks, William J.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Martin, John G.; Moore, Mark D.; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Felder, James L.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This report serves as the final written documentation for the Aeronautic Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Seedling Fund's Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) Aircraft Phase I project. The findings presented include propulsion system concepts, synergistic missions, and aircraft concepts. LENR is a form of nuclear energy that potentially has over 4,000 times the energy density of chemical energy sources. It is not expected to have any harmful emissions or radiation which makes it extremely appealing. There is a lot of interest in LENR, but there are no proven theories. This report does not explore the feasibility of LENR. Instead, it assumes that a working system is available. A design space exploration shows that LENR can enable long range and high speed missions. Six propulsion concepts, six missions, and four aircraft concepts are presented. This report also includes discussion of several issues and concerns that were uncovered during the study and potential research areas to infuse LENR aircraft into NASA's aeronautics research.

  7. Reactions of psychiatric patients to the Three Mile Island nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Bromet, E; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L

    1982-06-01

    The reaction of patients in the community mental health system to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), Middletown, Pa, were assessed. The sample was composed of 151 patients from the TMI area and 64 patients from a comparison site where a similar nuclear plant is located. Mental health status was determined for the period immediately after the accident, nine to ten months later, and one year later. No significant differences were found between the TMI group and the comparison group. To isolate risk factors within the TMI group, patients who were most distressed were compared with patients with the least distress. The results showed that quality of network support and viewing TMI as dangerous were significantly associated with mental health. PMID:7092506

  8. Facility for neutron induced few body reactions at Bochum University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannach, B.; Bodek, K.; Börker, G.; Kamke, D.; Krug, J.; Lekkas, P.; Lübcke, W.; Stephan, M.

    1987-02-01

    A facility is described which is designed for the measurement of neutron induced three-body breakup. It has been used for the breakup of deuterium and of the nucleus 9Be. Neutrons are produced by a pulsed beam of deuterons from the Bochum 4MV Dynamitron-Tandem accelerator by bombarding a thick tritium-titanium target or a deuterium gas target. The outgoing beam is collimated by a 4π shielding to a solid angle of about 1 msr. In most cases, a liquid scintillator (NE232 or a mixture of NE232/NE213) serves as a target for the neutron beam. Scattered neutrons are detected by NE213-detectors of different sizes. For testing purposes the differential elastic n-d cross section and simultaneously the response of NE232 have been measured at 22.4 and 7.9 MeV.

  9. ANALNRA — charged particle nuclear reaction analysis software for the IBM PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Peter N.

    1993-06-01

    Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) is a powerful ion beam technique which can only be fully harnessed with suitable analysis software. ANALNRA is a NRA analysis package written for situations when the incident and exiting ions are isotopes of hydrogen and helium. This includes (p, α), (d, p), (d, α), ( 3He, p) and ( 3He, α) reactions that are used for analysis of many light elements including C, O, F and Al. The package optimises a suitably parameterized distribution of up to five isotopes using nonlinear least squares fitting. The package is written for the IBM PC in Turbo C and uses EGA and VGA graphical interfaces to overlay initial guess and final fits to the raw spectral data.

  10. Nuclear reaction measurements on tissue-equivalent materials and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations for hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Romano, F.; D'Urso, D.; Licciardello, T.; Agodi, C.; Candiano, G.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Musumarra, A.; Pandola, L.; Scuderi, V.

    2014-12-01

    When a carbon beam interacts with human tissues, many secondary fragments are produced into the tumor region and the surrounding healthy tissues. Therefore, in hadrontherapy precise dose calculations require Monte Carlo tools equipped with complex nuclear reaction models. To get realistic predictions, however, simulation codes must be validated against experimental results; the wider the dataset is, the more the models are finely tuned. Since no fragmentation data for tissue-equivalent materials at Fermi energies are available in literature, we measured secondary fragments produced by the interaction of a 55.6 MeV u-1 12C beam with thick muscle and cortical bone targets. Three reaction models used by the Geant4 Monte Carlo code, the Binary Light Ions Cascade, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Liege Intranuclear Cascade, have been benchmarked against the collected data. In this work we present the experimental results and we discuss the predictive power of the above mentioned models.

  11. COMMENTS ON "A NEW LOOK AT LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION RESEARCH"

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, K.

    2009-12-30

    Cold fusion researchers have accumulated a large body of anomalous results over the last 20 years that they claim proves a new, mysterious nuclear reaction is active in systems they study. Krivit and Marwan give a brief and wholly positive view of this body of research. Unfortunately, cold fusion researchers routinely ignore conventional explanations of their observations, and claim much greater than real accuracy and precision for their techniques. This paper attempts to equally briefly address those aspects of the field with the intent of providing a balanced view of the field, and to establish some criteria for subsequent publications in this arena.

  12. Quantum mechanical tunneling of composite particle systems: Linkage to sub-barrier nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Shotter, A. C.; Shotter, M. D.

    2011-05-15

    A variety of physical phenomena have at their foundation the quantum tunneling of particles through potential barriers. Many of these phenomena can be associated with the tunneling of single inert particles. The tunneling of composite systems is more complex than for single particles due to the coupling of the tunneling coordinate with the internal degrees of freedom of the tunneling system. Reported here are the results of a study for the tunneling of a two-component projectile incident on a potential energy system which differs for the two components. A specific linkage is made to sub-Coulomb nuclear reactions.

  13. Nuclear Reactions X-Sections By Evaporation Model, Gamma-Cascades

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-06-27

    Calculation of energy-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions with emission of particles and gamma rays and fission. The models employed are the evaporation model with inclusion of pre-equilibrium decay and gamma ray cascade model. Angular momentum and parity conservation are accounted for. Major improvement to the 1976 STAPRE program (NEA 0461) relates to level density approach, implemwnted in subroutine ZSTDE. Generalized superfluid model is incorporated, Boltzman-gas modelling of intrinsic state density and semi-empirical modelling ofmore » a few quasiparticle effects in total level density in equilibrium and saddle deformations of actinide nuclei.« less

  14. Recent Advances in Nuclear Reaction Theories for Weakly Bound Nuclei: Reexamining the Problem of Inclusive Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, Antonio M.; Lei, Jin

    2016-05-01

    The problem of the calculation of inclusive breakup cross sections in nuclear reactions is reexamined. For that purpose, the theory proposed by Ichimura et al. (Phys Rev C 32:431, 1985) is revisited, both in its prior and post representations. We briefly outline the connection of this theory with that proposed by Udagawa and Tamura (Phys Rev C 24:1348, 1981) and apply both theories to the inclusive breakup of ^6Li on ^{209}Bi at near-barrier energies, comparing also with available data. The relative importance of elastic versus non-elastic breakup, as a function of the incident energy and of the projectile separation energy, is also investigated.

  15. Nuclear glutathione S-transferase pi prevents apoptosis by reducing the oxidative stress-induced formation of exocyclic DNA products.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kensaku; Goto, Shinji; Okunaga, Tomohiro; Ihara, Yoshito; Tsuji, Kentaro; Kawai, Yoshichika; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Kondo, Takahito

    2004-12-01

    We previously found that nuclear glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) accumulates in cancer cells resistant to anticancer drugs, suggesting that it has a role in the acquisition of resistance to anticancer drugs. In the present study, the effect of oxidative stress on the nuclear translocation of GSTpi and its role in the protection of DNA from damage were investigated. In human colonic cancer HCT8 cells, the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced increase in nuclear condensation, the population of sub-G(1) peak, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells were observed in cells pretreated with edible mushroom lectin, an inhibitor of the nuclear transport of GSTpi. The DNA damage and the formation of lipid peroxide were dependent on the dose of H(2)O(2) and the incubation time. Immunological analysis showed that H(2)O(2) induced the nuclear accumulation of GSTpi but not of glutathione peroxidase. Formation of the 7-(2-oxo-hepyl)-substituted 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct by the reaction of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) with 2'-deoxyguanosine was inhibited by GSTpi in the presence of glutathione. The conjugation product of 4-oxo-2-nonenal, a lipid aldehyde of 13-HPODE, with GSH in the presence of GSTpi, was identified by LS/MS. These results suggested that nuclear GSTpi prevents H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by scavenging the formation of lipid-peroxide-modified DNA. PMID:15528046

  16. A sensitivity study of s-process: the impact of uncertainties from nuclear reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinyoles, N.; Serenelli, A.

    2016-01-01

    The slow neutron capture process (s-process) is responsible for the production of about half the elements beyond the Fe-peak. The production sites and the conditions under which the different components of s-process occur are relatively well established. A detailed quantitative understanding of s-process nucleosynthesis may yield light in physical processes, e.g. convection and mixing, taking place in the production sites. For this, it is important that the impact of uncertainties in the nuclear physics is well understood. In this work we perform a study of the sensitivity of s-process nucleosynthesis, with particular emphasis in the main component, on the nuclear reaction rates. Our aims are: to quantify the current uncertainties in the production factors of s-process elements originating from nuclear physics and, to identify key nuclear reactions that require more precise experimental determinations. In this work we studied two different production sites in which s-process occurs with very different neutron exposures: 1) a low-mass extremely metal-poor star during the He-core flash (nn reaching up to values of ∼ 1014cm-3); 2) the TP-AGB phase of a M⊙, Z=0.01 model, the typical site of the main s-process component (nn up to 108 — 109cm-3). In the first case, the main variation in the production of s-process elements comes from the neutron poisons and with relative variations around 30%-50%. In the second, the neutron poison are not as important because of the higher metallicity of the star that actually acts as a seed and therefore, the final error of the abundances are much lower around 10%-25%.

  17. Studies of nuclear reaction at very low energies. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, F.E.

    1992-01-15

    The deuteron radiative capture reactions on {sup 2}H, {sup 6}Li and {sup 10}B have been measured between center of mass energies of 20 and 140 keV. Of note is the observation that the gamma ray-to-charged particle branching ratio for the DD reaction appears independent of energy down to a center of mass energy of 20 keV, consistent with some and contrary to other theoretical models. We have investigated the ratio of the reactions D(d,p)T and D(d,n){sup 3}He down to c.m. energies of 3 keV and the ratio of the reactions 6Li(d,p){sup 7}Li and {sup 6}LI(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He down to a c.m. energy of 19 keV. The DD reaction ratio is independent of energy while the (d,p) branch of the D-{sup 6}Li evinces a significant enhancement at the lowest measured energies. We have continued our investigation of charged particle production from deuterium-metal systems at a modest level of activity. Noteworthy in this investigation is the observation of 3 MeV protons from deuteron beam loaded Ti and LiD targets subjected to extreme thermal disequilibria. Significant facility improvements were realized during the most recent contract period. Specifically the downstream magnetic analysis system proposed to eliminate beam induced contaminants has been installed and thoroughly tested. This improvement should allow the D(a,{gamma}){sup 6}Li reaction to be measured in the coming contract period. A scattering chamber required for the measurement of the {sup 7}Li({sup 3}He,p){sup 9}Be reaction has been designed, fabricated and installed on the accelerator. A CAMAC based charged particle identification system has been assembled also for use in our proposed measurement of the {sup 7}Li({sup 3}He, p){sup 9}Be.

  18. Cross Section Calculations of Deuteron-induced Reactions Using the Extended CCONE Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, S.; Araki, S.; Watanabe, Y.; Iwamoto, O.; Ye, T.; Ogata, K.

    2014-04-01

    We have extended the CCONE code to make it possible to calculate cross sections for deuteron-induced reactions. Elastic breakup and stripping reactions to continuum are calculated using another codes based on the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels theory (CDCC) and the Glauber model, respectively, and the calculated results are inputted to the CCONE code as direct reaction components. Statistical decay from compound nuclei formed by nucleon stripping and deuteron absorption is calculated with the exciton and Hauser-Feshbach models implemented in the original CCONE code. The extended CCONE code is applied to analyses of deuteron-induced reactions on 27Al and 58Ni. CDCC calculations for deuteron elastic scattering show good agreement with the experimental data at incident energies of several tens of MeV. The calculated double-differential (d,xp) cross sections reproduce the measured ones at forward angles for incident energies of 56 and 100 MeV fairly well.

  19. 15N electron nuclear double resonance of the primary donor cation radical P+.865 in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: additional evidence for the dimer model.

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, W; Isaacson, R A; Abresch, E C; Feher, G

    1984-01-01

    Four 15N hyperfine coupling constants, including signs, have been measured by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron nuclear nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) for the bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation, BChla+., in vitro and for the light-induced primary donor radical cation, P+.865, in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. A comparison of the data shows that the hyperfine coupling constants have the same sign in both radicals and are, on the average, smaller by a factor of 2 in P+.865. These results provide additional evidence that P+.865 is a bacteriochlorophyll dimer and are in contradiction with the monomer structure of P+.865 recently proposed by O'Malley and Babcock. The reduction factors of the individual 15N couplings, together with the evidence from proton ENDOR data and molecular orbital calculations, indicate a dimer structure in which only two rings (either I and I or III and III) of the bacteriochlorophyll macrocycles overlap. PMID:6096857

  20. Microbial-induced corrosion in nuclear power plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licina, George J.; Cubicciotti, Daniel

    1989-12-01

    The long construction times associated with nuclear plants and the large number of redundant or standby systems where water is allowed to remain stagnant for long periods of time produce conditions under which microbial-induced corrosion (MIC) can occur. Carbon and low-alloy steels, stainless steels and copper alloys are all susceptible to MIC in raw-water applications. Visual examination is particularly useful in performing preliminary assessments of MIC. If properly diagnosed, MIC can be effectively treated during plant construction, operation and temporary shutdowns.

  1. Induced starburst and nuclear activity: Faith, facts, and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlosman, Isaac

    1990-01-01

    The problem of the origin of starburst and nuclear (nonstellar) activity in galaxies is reviewed. A physical understanding of the mechanism(s) that induce both types of activity requires one to address the following issues: (1) what is the source of fuel that powers starbursts and active galactic nuclei; and (2) how is it channeled towards the central regions of host galaxies? As a possible clue, the author examines the role of non-axisymmetric perturbations of galactic disks and analyzes their potential triggers. Global gravitational instabilities in the gas on scales approx. 100 pc appear to be crucial for fueling the active galactic nuclei.

  2. Detection of special nuclear material from delayed neutron emission induced by a dual-particle monoenergetic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of unique signatures of special nuclear materials is critical for their interdiction in a variety of nuclear security and nonproliferation scenarios. We report on the observation of delayed neutrons from fission of uranium induced in dual-particle active interrogation based on the 11B(d,n γ)12C nuclear reaction. Majority of the fissions are attributed to fast fission induced by the incident quasi-monoenergetic neutrons. A Li-doped glass-polymer composite scintillation neutron detector, which displays excellent neutron/γ discrimination at low energies, was used in the measurements, along with a recoil-based liquid scintillation detector. Time-dependent buildup and decay of delayed neutron emission from 238U were measured between the interrogating beam pulses and after the interrogating beam was turned off, respectively. Characteristic buildup and decay time profiles were compared to the common parametrization into six delayed neutron groups, finding a good agreement between the measurement and nuclear data. This method is promising for detecting fissile and fissionable materials in cargo scanning applications and can be readily integrated with transmission radiography using low-energy nuclear reaction sources.

  3. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ju-hyuk; Oh, Jae Eun; Balonis, Magdalena; Glasser, Fredrik P.; Clark, Simon M.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2011-06-15

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (straetlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies.

  4. Neutron, Proton and Alpha Emission Spectra of Nickel Isotopes for Proton Induced Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tel, E.; Kara, A.

    2012-06-01

    The fusion energy is attractive as an energy source because the fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and so fusion will not contribute to environmental problems, such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. The fusion reaction does not produce radioactive nuclides and it is not self-sustaining, as is a fission reaction when a critical mass of fissionable material is assembled. Since the fusion reaction is easily and quickly quenched the primary sources of heat to drive such an accident are heat from radioactive decay and heat from chemical reactions. Both the magnitude and time dependence of the generation of heat from radioactive decay can be controlled by proper selection and design of materials. Nickel (Ni) is an important structural material in fusion (and also fission) reactor technologies and many other fields. So, the working out the reaction cross sections of the Ni isotopes is very important for selection of the fusion materials. In this study, 58Ni(p,xn), 58Ni(p,xp), 60Ni(p,xp), 60Ni(p,xα) and 62Ni(p,xp) reactions have been investigated using nuclear reaction models. And also the 58Ni(p,xn) reaction has been calculated through a method of offered by Tel et al. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR database.

  5. From low- to high-energy nuclear data evaluations. Issues and perspectives on nuclear reaction models and covariances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamagno, P.; De Saint Jean, C.; Bouland, O.; Noguère, G.; Archier, P.; Privas, E.; Serot, O.

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of neutron cross sections between 0eV and 20MeV is based on several aspects of nuclear physics such as nuclear reaction and structure models and microscopic and integral measurements. Most of the time, the evaluation process is separately done in the resolved resonance range and the continuum. It may give rise to non-physical mismatches of cross sections and large uncertainties at boundaries. It also leads to an absence of cross correlations between high-energy domain and resonance range. In addition, integral experiments are sometimes only used to check central values (evaluation is "working fine" on a dedicated set of benchmarks). Eventual reduction of uncertainties on cross sections is not straightforward: "working fine" could be mathematically turned into reduced uncertainties. This paper will present several ideas that could be used to avoid such effects. They are based on basic physical principles, recent advances in terms of covariance evaluation methodologies, intensive use of Monte Carlo methods and High Performance Computing (HPC) and on some newly introduced models. A clear connection is made between resonance and continuum energy ranges.

  6. Determination of the helium diffusion coefficient in nuclear waste storage ceramics by a nuclear reaction analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, Dominique; Trocellier, Patrick; Serruys, Yves

    2002-06-01

    Host matrices for actinide immobilisation will undergo the formation of large helium quantities due to alpha decay. Helium diffusion rate has to be known in order to predict the long-term behaviour of the material, and particularly, the influence of helium accumulation on mechanical properties. A nuclear reaction analysis method, namely the 3He(d, p) 4He reaction, has been used to analyse the evolution of 3He profiles after ion implantations at 1 and 3 MeV in two materials, monoclinic ZrO 2 (as a test material) and Ca 9Nd(PO 4) 5(SiO 4)F 1.5(OH) 0.5 britholite (envisaged for Am and Pu long-term storage). Two data processing methods are used: the classical excitation curve (proton yields versus deuteron energy) and second, the proton energy spectrum for a given deuteron energy. The characteristics of the 3He profiles (depth, width) obtained by both methods are compared to SRIM estimations. Their evolution during subsequent annealings allows an estimation of the helium diffusion rate in the britholite: D ( cm2/ s)=(2.5±1.5)×10 -4exp(-(1.07±0.03 eV)/ kT) in the temperature range 200-400 °C, in agreement with previous results on similar materials. Moreover, the shape of the proton energy spectra suggests channeling effects in britholite.

  7. Study for Nuclear Structures of 22-35Na Isotopes via Measurements of Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn., Kochi Univ. of Tech.) Reaction cross sections (σR) for 22-35Na isotopes have been measured at around 240 MeV/nucleon. The σR for 22-35Na were measured for the first time. Enhancement in cross sections is clearly observed from the systematics for stable nuclei, for isotopes with large mass numbers. These enhancement can be mainly ascribed to the nuclear deformation. We will discuss the nuclear structure (neutron skin, nuclear shell structure) for neutron-excess Na isotopes. T. Ohtsubo, M. Nagashima, T. Ogura, Y. Shimbara (Grad. Sch. of Sc., Niigata Univ.), M.Takechi, H. Geissel, M. Winkler (GSI), D. Nishimura, T. Sumikama (Dept. of Phys., Tokyo Univ. of Sc.), M. Fukuda, M. Mihara, H. Uenishi (Dept. of Phys., Osaka Univ.), T. Kuboki, T. Suzuki, T. Yamaguchi, H. Furuki, C. S. Lee, K. Sato (Dept. of Phys., Saitama Univ.), A. Ozawa, H. Ohnishi, T. Moriguchi, S. Fukuda, Y. Ishibashi, D. Nagae, R. Nishikiori, T. Niwa (Inst. of Phys., Univ. of Tsukuba), N. Aoi (RCNP), Rui-Jiu Chen, N. Inabe, D. Kameda, T. Kubo, M. Lantz, T. Ohnishi, K. Okumura, H. Sakurai, H. Suzuki, H. Takeda, S. Takeuchi, K. Tanaka, Y. Yanagisawa (RIKEN), De-Qing Fang, Yu-Gang Ma (SINAP), T. Izumikawa (RI Ctr., Niigata Univ.), and S. Momota (Fac. of Engn

  8. Radiation-induced reactions of COH 2 gas mixtures over various solid catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, S.; Arai, H.; Hatada, M.

    Studies have been carried out of radiation-induced reactions of COH 2 gas mixtures in the presence of various solid catalysts in order to find possibilities of synthesizing organic raw materials from COH 2 by radiation for the future. The solid catalysts studied include Fischer-Tropsch catalyst (FeCu supported by diatomaceous earth), titania(TiO 2), and silica gel. Analysis of the reaction products over Fischer-Tropsch catalyst or semiconductors such as TiO 2 and ZnOCr 2O 3 reveals that these solid catalysts do not sensitize the radiation chemical reaction of COH 2 but show the secondary effects on the reaction so as to induce the hydrogenation of olefins produced by the catalytic reaction and of aldehydes produced in gas phase by radiation. On the other hand, silica gel and other insulators such as alumina have been found to exhibit high catalytic activity in the formation of hydrocarbons from COH 2 under electron beam irradiation at 300°C. It has been shown experimentally that secondary reactions between H 2 and carbonaceous solid produced from CO make a substantial contribution to the formation of hydrocarbons from COH 2 over silica gel. In an attempt to find the role of silica gel in the reaction to produce hydrocarbons, radiation-induced reactions have been studied of H 2 with the carbonaceous solid that had been produced by irradiation of CO in the absence of solid catalyst, over TiO 2, or over silica gel. The results indicate that silica gel not only enhances the yields of CO 2 and carbonaceous solid from CO but also promotes hydrogenation reactions of the carbonaceous solid under electron beam irradiation.

  9. Thin-target excitation functions, cross-sections and optimised thick-target yields for natMo(p,xn)(94g ,95m,95g,96(m + g))Tc nuclear reactions induced by protons from threshold up to 44 MeV. No Carrier Added radiochemical separation and quality control.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Mauro; Birattari, Claudio; Groppi, Flavia; Sabbioni, Enrico

    2002-11-01

    This work describes the method adopted in our laboratories, to produce 94gTc, 95gTc, 95mTc and 96gTc radionuclides via proton-cyclotron irradiation on molybdenum targets of natural isotopic composition. A new set of experimental thin-target excitation functions and "effective" cross-sections for direct natMo(p,xn)(A)Tc [with A = 94, 95, 95, 96] nuclear reactions, with incident proton energy in the range from threshold up to 44 MeV is presented. Some definitions of the equations used and nuclear data traceability are reported. Thick-target yield values were calculated and optimised, by numerical fitting and integration of the measured excitation functions. These values allow optimisation of production yield of one radionuclide, minimising at the same time the yield of the others. Radiochemical separation on NCA technetium radionuclides from both molybdenum target and niobium, zirconium and yttrium radioactive by-products is reported. Quality control tests of the radiotracers were developed for the applications envisaged in environmental metallo-biochemical toxicology. PMID:12433035

  10. Integrative analysis of proteomics and metabolomics of anaphylactoid reaction induced by Xuesaitong injection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yubin; Dou, Deqiang; Ran, Xiaoku; Liu, Chunyan; Chen, Jing

    2015-10-16

    Injection with natural compounds is an important method in the application of natural medicine, but its adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occur frequently, particularly the anaphylactoid reaction, which accounts for more than 77% of all reactions and has become a serious threat to public health. Here, the Xuesaitong injection (XSTI) was employed as an example to elucidate its anaphylactoid mechanism and look for potential biomarkers to assay the anaphylactoid reaction of herbal medicine injection by proteomics and metabolomics. These results disclosed that 13 differential proteins and 28 metabolites, which were further approved using the ELISA method and reference standards, respectively, were suggested as potential biomarkers to examine the anaphylactoid mechanism. The up-regulated expression of Gpx1, Sc5b9, C4d and down-regulated expression of F12, Kng1, C2 and C6 revealed that the XSTI-induced anaphylactoid reaction occurs via direct stimulation, complement and the kallikrein-kinin pathway. In addition, substances that induce an anaphylactoid effect include histamine, LTB4, uric acid and other drugs, which have been confirmed to be involved in arginine and proline metabolism, histidine metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism purine metabolism and the TCA cycle. Furthermore, separation experiments have indicated that 10-kDa molecules of XSTI are the main allergenic factor inducing an anaphylactoid reaction. PMID:26372445

  11. Online monitoring of chemical reactions by polarization-induced electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Meher, Anil Kumar; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-09-21

    Polarization-induced electrospray ionization (PI-ESI) is a simple technique for instant generation of gas-phase ions directly from a microliter-sized droplet for mass spectrometric analysis. A sample droplet was placed over a dielectric substrate and in proximity (2-3 mm) to the inlet of a mass spectrometer. Owing to the polarization effect induced by the high electric field provided by the mass spectrometer, the droplet was polarized and the electrospray was generated from the apex of the droplet. The polarization-induced electrospray could last for tens of seconds, which was sufficiently long to monitor fast reactions occurring within few seconds. Thus, we demonstrated the feasibility of using the droplet-based PI-ESI MS for the online monitoring of fast reactions by simply mixing two droplets (5-10 μL) containing reactants on a dielectric substrate placed in front of a mass spectrometer applied with a high voltage (-4500 V). Schiff base reactions and oxidation reactions that can generate intermediates/products within a few seconds were selected as the model reactions. The ionic reaction species generated from intermediates and products can be simultaneously monitored by PI-ESI MS in real time. We also used this approach to selectively detect acetone from a urine sample, in which acetone was derivatized in situ. In addition, the possibility of using this approach for quantitative analysis of acetone from urine samples was examined. PMID:27590551

  12. Irradiation-induced changes in nuclear shape and cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, M.; Sasaki, H.; Kishino, Y.; Tsuboi, T.; Sugishita, T.; Hosokawa, T.

    1982-03-01

    Using human uterine cervical carcinoma cells transplanted in nude mice and mice leukemia L5178Y cells, changes in the cell cycle following irradiation were observed by flow cytometry (FCM), and changes in the cell nuclei during the course of irradiation were measured by FCM. Experiments in vivo as well as in vitro caused accumulation of cells in the G2 to M populations, resulting in the so-called G2 block phenomenon as revealed by FCM analysis of DNA distributions. The radiation-induced changes of nuclear shapes were dependent on abnormal mitoses, which occurred more frequently in the G2 to M phases. Therefore it is suggested that the G2 block phenomenon plays an important role in radiation-induced cell death because the process of cell death by irradiation has been shown to proceed via these abnormal mitoses.

  13. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, N.; Barnes, E.; van Draanen, J.; Stacey, E.; Mitera, G.; Breen, D.; Giotis, A.; Czarnota, G.; Pang, J.; De Angelis, C.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance—and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials. For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase ii and phase iii trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho–McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6). In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus

  14. Prophylaxis and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Salvo, N; Barnes, E; van Draanen, J; Stacey, E; Mitera, G; Breen, D; Giotis, A; Czarnota, G; Pang, J; De Angelis, C

    2010-08-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment for cancer patients. One of the most common side effects of radiation is acute skin reaction (radiation dermatitis) that ranges from a mild rash to severe ulceration. Approximately 85% of patients treated with radiation therapy will experience a moderate-to-severe skin reaction. Acute radiation-induced skin reactions often lead to itching and pain, delays in treatment, and diminished aesthetic appearance-and subsequently to a decrease in quality of life. Surveys have demonstrated that a wide variety of topical, oral, and intravenous agents are used to prevent or to treat radiation-induced skin reactions. We conducted a literature review to identify trials that investigated products for the prophylaxis and management of acute radiation dermatitis. Thirty-nine studies met the pre-defined criteria, with thirty-three being categorized as prophylactic trials and six as management trials.For objective evaluation of skin reactions, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria and the U.S. National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria were the most commonly used tools (65% of the studies). Topical corticosteroid agents were found to significantly reduce the severity of skin reactions; however, the trials of corticosteroids evaluated various agents, and no clear indication about a preferred corticosteroid has emerged. Amifostine and oral enzymes were somewhat effective in preventing radiation-induced skin reactions in phase II and phase III trials respectively; further large randomized controlled trials should be undertaken to better investigate those products. Biafine cream (Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Titusville, NJ, U.S.A.) was found not to be superior to standard regimes in the prevention of radiation-induced skin reactions (n = 6).In conclusion, the evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent for the prevention and management of acute radiation-induced skin reactions. Future trials should focus on

  15. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  16. Isospin effects on fragmentation in the asymmetric reactions induced by neutron-rich targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2016-05-01

    To understand the isospin effects in terms of fragment's yield in the asymmetric reactions induced by neutron-rich targets, we perform a theoretical study using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Simulations are carried out for reactions of 16O+Br80,84,92 and 16O+Ag108,113,122. We envision that fragments's yield in the asymmetric collisions induced by neutron-rich targets is better candidate to study isospin effects via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross-sections. Also, pronounced effects of symmetry energy and cross-sections can be found at lower and higher beam energies, respectively.

  17. Flux and dose transmission through concrete of neutrons from proton induced reactions on various target elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Moumita; Nandy, Maitreyee; Roy, S. N.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2004-12-01

    Simple empirical expressions for transmission of flux and dose through concrete are presented for neutrons from proton induced reactions. For this purpose the neutron emission from different targets in proton induced reactions in the energy range 25-200 MeV have been considered. The calculated effective dose outside a concrete shield shows overall good agreement with the effective dose estimated from measured neutron flux in the framework of the Moyer model. The calculated effective attenuation length shows a rising trend with incident proton energy and shield thickness.

  18. Large-Amplitude Deformation and Bond Breakage in Shock-Induced Reactions of Explosive Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Jeffrey

    The response of explosive molecules to large-amplitude mechanical deformation plays an important role in shock-induced reactions and the initiation of detonation in explosive materials. In this presentation, the response of a series of explosive molecules (nitromethane, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [TNT], and 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene [TATB]) to a variety of large-amplitude deformations are examined using ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Large-amplitude motions that result in bond breakage are described, and the insights these results provide into both previous experimental observations and previous theoretical predictions of shock-induced reactions are discussed.

  19. Neutron-induced reactions on AlF3 studied using the optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Lv, Cui-Juan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zuo, Jia-Xu

    2015-08-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on 27Al and 19F nuclei are investigated using the optical model implemented in the TALYS 1.4 toolkit. Incident neutron energies in a wide range from 0.1 keV to 30 MeV are calculated. The cross sections for the main channels (n, np), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), and (n, γ) and the total reaction cross section (n, tot) of the reactions are obtained. When the default parameters in TALYS 1.4 are adopted, the calculated results agree with the measured results. Based on the calculated results for the n + 27Al and n + 19F reactions, the results of the n + 27Al19F reactions are predicted. These results are useful both for the design of thorium-based molten salt reactors and for neutron activation analysis techniques.

  20. Shock-induced reaction behavior of Ti-Si and Ti-B powder mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Royal, T.E.; Thadhani, N.N.; Graham, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Mechanistic processes controlling the shock-induced chemical reaction behavior of highly reactive Ti-Si and Ti-B powder-mixtures were investigated. Recovery experiments were performed, using Sandia Bear fixtures, to determine the reaction initiation thresholds for the respective systems, and to produce compacts of unreacted states to characterize the shock-compressed configuration of reactants at conditions below the reaction threshold. X-ray diffraction line broadening and scanning electron microscopy analysis were used to determine the response of individual reactants during shock-compression. It was observed that the deformation and/or fracture response of reactants during shock-compression influences the threshold conditions for, reaction initiation and the overall reaction propensity.