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Sample records for nuclear safety research

  1. Revitalizing Nuclear Safety Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    This report covers the general issues involved in nuclear safety research and points out the areas needing detailed consideration. Topics included are: (1) "Principles of Nuclear Safety Research" (examining who should fund, who should conduct, and who should set the agenda for nuclear safety research); (2) "Elements of a Future Agenda for Nuclear…

  2. Prospects for nuclear safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a paper presented by Eric S. Beckjord (Director, Nuclear Regulatory Research/NRC) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 1994. The following topics are briefly reviewed: (1) Reactor vessel research, (2) Probabilistic risk assessment, (3) Direct containment heating, (4) Advanced LWR research, (5) Nuclear energy prospects in the US, and (6) Future nuclear safety research. Subtopics within the last category include economics, waste disposal, and health and safety.

  3. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  4. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  5. Nuclear safety research collaborations between the U.S. and Russian Federation International Nuclear Safety Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D. J.; Braun, J. C.; Klickman, A. E.; Bougaenko, S. E.; Kabonov, L. P.; Kraev, A. G.

    2000-05-05

    The Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM) and the US Department of Energy (USDOE) have formed International Nuclear Safety Centers to collaborate on nuclear safety research. USDOE established the US Center (ISINSC) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in October 1995. MINATOM established the Russian Center (RINSC) at the Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) in Moscow in July 1996. In April 1998 the Russian center became a semi-independent, autonomous organization under MINATOM. The goals of the center are to: Cooperate in the development of technologies associated with nuclear safety in nuclear power engineering; Be international centers for the collection of information important for safety and technical improvements in nuclear power engineering; and Maintain a base for fundamental knowledge needed to design nuclear reactors. The strategic approach is being used to accomplish these goals is for the two centers to work together to use the resources and the talents of the scientists associated with the US Center and the Russian Center to do collaborative research to improve the safety of Russian-designed nuclear reactors. The two centers started conducting joint research and development projects in January 1997. Since that time the following ten joint projects have been initiated: INSC databases--web server and computing center; Coupled codes--Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic; Severe accident management for Soviet-designed reactors; Transient management and advanced control; Survey of relevant nuclear safety research facilities in the Russian Federation; Computer code validation for transient analysis of VVER and RBMK reactors; Advanced structural analysis; Development of a nuclear safety research and development plan for MINATOM; Properties and applications of heavy liquid metal coolants; and Material properties measurement and assessment. Currently, there is activity in eight of these projects. Details on each of these

  6. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  7. Nuclear reactor safety research since three mile island.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, F R

    1982-04-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident has resulted in redirection of reactor safety research priorities. The small release to the environment of radioactive iodine-13 to 17 curies in a total radioactivity release of 2.4 million to 13 million curies-has led to a new emphasis on the physical chemistry of fission product behavior in accidents; the fact that the nuclear core was severely damaged but did not melt down has opened a new accident regime-that of the degraded core; the role of the operators in the progression and severity of the accident has shifted emphasis from equipment reliability to human reliability. As research progresses in these areas, the technical base for regulation and risk analysis will change substantially. PMID:17736229

  8. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64. PMID:22021060

  9. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains the results in summary form.

  10. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1989-08-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1988.

  11. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, October 1--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J; Azarm, A; Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Carew, J; Diamond, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Haber, S B

    1989-07-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through September 30, 1988.

  12. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J W; Boccio, J L; Diamond, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Higgins, J C; Weiss, A J

    1988-12-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through December 31, 1987.

  13. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research: Progress report, July 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J

    1989-02-01

    This progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the Division of Regulatory Applications, Division of Engineering, Division of Safety Issue Resolution, and Division of Systems of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research following the reorganization in July 1988. The previous reports have covered the period October 1, 1976 through June 30, 1988. 71 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Ludwick, J.D.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Smith, R.I.

    1982-03-01

    Safety and Cost Information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of two representative licensed nuclear research and test reactors. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between costs (in 1981 dollars), occupational radiation doses, potential radiation dose to the public, and other safety impacts. The alternatives considered are: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and EMTOMB (entombment). The study results are presented in two volumes. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed data that support the results given in Volume 1, including unit-component data.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  16. Review and Research of the Neutron Source Multiplication Method in Nuclear Critical Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Yongqian; Zhu Qingfu; Tao He

    2005-01-15

    The paper first briefly reviews the neutron source multiplication method and then presents an experimental study that shows that the parameter measured by the neutron source multiplication method actually is a subcritical effective neutron multiplication factor k{sub s} with an external neutron source, not the effective neutron multiplication factor k{sub eff}. The parameters k{sub s} and k{sub eff} have been researched for a nuclear critical safety experiment assembly using a uranium solution. The parameter k{sub s} was measured by the source multiplication method, while the parameter k{sub eff} was measured by the power-raising period method. The relationship between k{sub eff} and k{sub s} is discussed and their effects on nuclear safety are mentioned.

  17. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  18. ORNL Nuclear Safety Research and Development Program Bimonthly Report for July-August 1968

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.

    2001-08-17

    The accomplishments during the months of July and August in the research and development program under way at ORNL as part of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear Safety Program are summarized, Included in this report are work on various chemical reactions, as well as the release, characterization, and transport of fission products in containment systems under various accident conditions and on problems associated with the removal of these fission products from gas streams. Although most of this work is in general support of water-cooled power reactor technology, including LOFT and CSE programs, the work reflects the current safety problems, such as measurements of the prompt fuel element failure phenomena and the efficacy of containment spray and pool-suppression systems for fission-product removal. Several projects are also conducted in support of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Other major projects include fuel-transport safety investigations, a series of discussion papers on various aspects of water-reactor technology, antiseismic design of nuclear facilities, and studies of primary piping and steel, pressure-vessel technology. Experimental work relative to pressure-vessel technology includes investigations of the attachment of nozzles to shells and the implementation of joint AEX-PVFX programs on heavy-section steel technology and nuclear piping, pumps, and valves. Several of the projects are directly related to another major undertaking; namely, the AEC's standards program, which entails development of engineering safeguards and the establishment of codes and standards for government-owned or -sponsored reactor facilities. Another task, CHORD-S, is concerned with the establishment of computer programs for the evaluation of reactor design data, The recent activities of the NSIC and the Nuclear Safety journal in behalf of the nuclear community are also discussed.

  19. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G.; Hatano, Y.; Hara, M.; Oya, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K.; Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  20. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    SciTech Connect

    P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; M. Shimada

    2009-09-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  1. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  2. Nuclear regulation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed. (DLC)

  3. Proceedings of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission twentieth water reactor safety information meeting; Volume 2, Severe accident research, Thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A.J.

    1993-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twentieth Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 21--23, 1992. The papers describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included 10 different papers presented by researchersfrom CEC, China, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Spain and Taiwan. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations.

  5. On the radiation safety studies of space nuclear sources at the Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Koroteev, A.S.; Gafarov, A.A.; Bakhtin, B.I.; Kosov, A.V. )

    1991-01-01

    The main directions and some results of the theoretical and experimental studies, carried out at the Scientific-Research Institute of Thermal Processes on the radiation safety (RS) problem of the space nuclear power sources (SNPS), are stated. The experimental base for SNPS aerodynamic heating and breakup research is described. Some results of studies on the development of RS system for SNPS of Cosmos-954''-type satellites and SNPS Topaz'' are represented. The main directions and results of research on the RS problem of radioisotope SNPS is showen. Some aspects of SNPS possible collisions with space debris in near-earth orbits is examined.

  6. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1983. Volume 3, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, A J

    1984-05-01

    The projects reported are the following: High Temperature Reactor Research, SSC Development, Validation and Application, CRBR Balance of Plant Modeling, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, Development of Plant Analyzer, Code Assessment and Application (Transient and LOCA Analyses), Thermal Reactor Code Development (RAMONA-3B), Calculational Quality Assurance in Support of PTS; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Bolting Failure Analysis, Probability Based Load Combinations for Design of Category I Structures, Mechanical Piping Benchmark Problems, Identification of Age-Related Failure Modes; Analysis of Human Error Data for Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Events, Human Factors in Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards, Emergency Action Levels, and Protective Action Decision Making.

  7. Nuclear explosive safety study process

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear explosives by their design and intended use require collocation of high explosives and fissile material. The design agencies are responsible for designing safety into the nuclear explosive and processes involving the nuclear explosive. The methodology for ensuring safety consists of independent review processes that include the national laboratories, Operations Offices, Headquarters, and responsible Area Offices and operating contractors with expertise in nuclear explosive safety. A NES Study is an evaluation of the adequacy of positive measures to minimize the possibility of an inadvertent or deliberate unauthorized nuclear detonation, high explosive detonation or deflagration, fire, or fissile material dispersal from the pit. The Nuclear Explosive Safety Study Group (NESSG) evaluates nuclear explosive operations against the Nuclear Explosive Safety Standards specified in DOE O 452.2 using systematic evaluation techniques. These Safety Standards must be satisfied for nuclear explosive operations.

  8. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  9. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  10. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case

  11. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  12. Nuclear reactor safety device

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1983-08-15

    A safety device is described for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of a thermal excursion. It comprises a laminated strip helically configured to form a tube, said tube being in operative relation to said control rod. The laminated strip is formed of at least two materials having different thermal coefficients of expansion, and is helically configured such that the material forming the outer lamina of the tube has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material forming the inner lamina of said tube. In the event of a thermal excursion the laminated strip will tend to curl inwardly so that said tube will increase in length, whereby as said tube increases in length it exerts a force on said control rod to axially reposition said control rod with respect to said core.

  13. Helicopter Safety Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Rutkowski, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In response to the President's challenge to reduce civil aviation accidents by a factor of 10 by the year 2022, NASA has embarked on an ambitious safety program in partnership with other government agencies and industry. The helicopter element of the NASA initiative has been guided by a series of accident analyses aimed at identifying the most frequent causes and consequences and initiating research to prevent or mitigate these factors. This talk will summarize the key findings of three of the accident analyses, the major elements of the safety program, and how helicopter safety research relates to the safety program.

  14. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  15. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-07-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from January 1 through March 31, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipeto- pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  16. Reactor Safety Research Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Dotson, CW

    1980-08-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory from October 1 through December 31, 1979, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, lspra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  17. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  18. Safety research of insulating materials of cable for nuclear power generating station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. K.; Choi, J. H.; Kong, Y. K.; Chang, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The polymers PE, EPR, PVC, Neoprene, CSP, CLPE, EP and other similar substances are frequently used as insulation and protective covering for cables used in nuclear power generating stations. In order to test these materials for flame retardation, environmental resistance, and cable specifications, they were given the cable normal test, flame test, chemical tests, and subjected to design analysis and loss of coolant accident tests. Material was collected on spark tests and actual experience standards were established through these contributions and technology was accumulated.

  19. Overview of safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Aircraft safety is reviewed by first establishing a perspective of air transportation accidents as a function of calendar year, geographic area, and phase of flight, and then by describing the threats to safety and NASA research underway in the three representative areas of engine operational problems, meteorological phenomena, and fire. Engine rotor burst protection, aircraft nacelle fire extinguishment, the aircraft-weather interface, severe weather wind shears and turbulence, clear air turbulence, and lightning are among the topics covered. Fire impact management through fire resistant materials technology development is emphasized.

  20. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1983. Volume 3, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R A; Cerbone, R J; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Luckas, Jr, W J; Reich, M; Saha, P; Sastre, C

    1983-06-01

    The projects reported are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Development, Validation and Application, CRBR Balance of Plant Modeling, Thermal-Hydraulic Reactor Safety Experiments, LWR Plant Analyzer Development, LWR Code Assessment and Application; Stress Corrosion Cracking of PWR Steam Generator Tubing, Bolting Failure Analysis, Probability Based Load Combinations for Design of Category I Structures, Mechanical Piping Benchmark Problems, Soil Structure Interaction; Human Error Data for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Related Events, Criteria for Human Engineering Regulatory Guides and Human Factors in Nuclear Power Plant Safeguards.

  1. Safety research programs sponsored by Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Volume 3. No. 2. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R A; Cerbone, R J; Ginsberg, T; Greene, G A; Guppy, J G; Hall, R E; Luckas, Jr, W J; Reich, M; Saha, P; Sastre, C

    1983-09-01

    The projects reported are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC development, Validation and Application, CRBR balance of plant modeling, thermal-hydraulic reactor safety experiments, LWR plant analyzer development, LWR code assessment and application, thermal reactor code development (RAMONA-3B); stress corrosion cracking of PWR steam generator tubing, bolting failure analysis, probability based load combinations for design of category I structures, mechanical piping benchmark problems; human error data for nuclear power plant safety related events, criteria for human engineering regulatory guides and human factors in nuclear power plant safeguards.

  2. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  3. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001... Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under its own statutory authority derived from...

  4. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D`Aquila, D.M.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  5. Evaluation of reliability assurance approaches to operational nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the results of research to evaluate existing and/or recommended safety/reliability assurance activities among nuclear and other high technology industries for potential nuclear industry implementation. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, there has been increased interest in the use of reliability programs (RP) to assure the performance of nuclear safety systems throughout the plant's lifetime. Recently, several Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task forces or safety issue review groups have recommended RPs for assuring the continuing safety of nuclear reactor plants. 18 references.

  6. Nuclear power: levels of safety.

    PubMed

    Lidsky, L M

    1988-02-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the "nuclear establishment" itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired. PMID:3340728

  7. International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) database

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Ley, H.; Turski, R.B.

    1997-08-01

    As an integral part of DOE`s International Nuclear Safety Center (INSC) at Argonne National Laboratory, the INSC Database has been established to provide an interactively accessible information resource for the world`s nuclear facilities and to promote free and open exchange of nuclear safety information among nations. The INSC Database is a comprehensive resource database aimed at a scope and level of detail suitable for safety analysis and risk evaluation for the world`s nuclear power plants and facilities. It also provides an electronic forum for international collaborative safety research for the Department of Energy and its international partners. The database is intended to provide plant design information, material properties, computational tools, and results of safety analysis. Initial emphasis in data gathering is given to Soviet-designed reactors in Russia, the former Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. The implementation is performed under the Oracle database management system, and the World Wide Web is used to serve as the access path for remote users. An interface between the Oracle database and the Web server is established through a custom designed Web-Oracle gateway which is used mainly to perform queries on the stored data in the database tables.

  8. Nuclear Reactor Safety: a current awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, D.C.

    1985-01-15

    Nuclear Reactor Safety announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of fission reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures.

  9. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001 Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE regulates the nuclear safety of its major facilities under...

  10. Safety of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.; Coates, R.

    2008-01-15

    Full text of publication follows: ensuring safety during all stages of facility life cycle is a widely recognised responsibility of the operators, implemented under the supervision of the regulatory body and other competent authorities. As the majority of the facilities worldwide are still in operation or shutdown, there is no substantial experience in decommissioning and evaluation of safety during decommissioning in majority of Member States. The need for cooperation and exchange of experience and good practices on ensuring and evaluating safety of decommissioning was one of the outcomes of the Berlin conference in 2002. On this basis during the last three years IAEA initiated a number of international projects that can assist countries, in particular small countries with limited resources. The main IAEA international projects addressing safety during decommissioning are: (i) DeSa Project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning; (ii) R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P project on Research Reactors Decommissioning Demonstration Project; and (iii) Project on Evaluation and Decommissioning of Former Facilities that used Radioactive Material in Iraq. This paper focuses on the DeSa Project activities on (i) development of a harmonised methodology for safety assessment for decommissioning; (ii) development of a procedure for review of safety assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on application of the graded approach to the performance and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology and procedure to the selected real facilities with different complexities and hazard potentials (a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory). The paper also outlines the DeSa Project outcomes and planned follow-up activities. It also summarises the main objectives and activities of the Iraq Project and introduces the R{sup 2}D{sup 2} Project, which is a subject of a complementary paper.

  11. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions.

  12. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  13. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-08-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  15. Nuclear criticality safety: 5-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; be able to identify examples of computer codes used by the nuclear criticality safety specialist; be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  16. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-05-16

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: {sm_bullet} Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe {sm_bullet} Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts {sm_bullet} Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  17. Redefining Interrelationship between Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having “aggressors” as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests “SSN” which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called “SSST” in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards.

  18. Pantex: safety in nuclear weapons processing.

    PubMed

    Johannesen, R E; Farrell, L M

    2000-11-01

    The Pantex Plant, located in the Texas panhandle near Amarillo, is a major Department of Energy (DOE) participant in maintaining the safety of the nation's nuclear weapons resources and protecting the employees, public, and environment. With more than 168,000 person-years of operations involving nuclear materials, explosives, and hazardous chemicals, Pantex has maintained a notable safety record. This article overviews the nuclear weapon activities at Pantex and describes their safety culture. PMID:11045518

  19. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, January-June 1986: Reactor Safety Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the technology base supporting licensing decisions.

  20. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  1. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  2. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  3. Control of spending on nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Siddall, E.

    1980-07-01

    Nuclear safety is reviewed in relation to safety in the community as a whole. A method is proposed which points to an optimum expenditure on nuclear safety measures as opposed to the present open-ended situation. At this optimum point the cost of saving extra lives in the nuclear field is equal to the cost of saving extra lives in other activities in the community. The method requires that the present level of safety be estimated, and this is done by relating the work of Rasmussen, Farmer and Beattie; and the recent German study to the actual record of accidents. The analysis indicates that present expenditures on reactor safety are far in excess of the optimum. An even more striking conclusion is reached when the possible effect of the wealth-generated by the nuclear industry on the general safety of the community is considered. The application of the theme to the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station is developed.

  4. The history of nuclear weapon safety devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.W.; Greenwood, W.H.

    1998-06-01

    The paper presents the history of safety devices used in nuclear weapons from the early days of separables to the latest advancements in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Although the paper focuses on devices, the principles of Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety implementation will also be presented.

  5. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Design and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    The most important concern in the design, construction and operation of nuclear powerplants is safety. Nuclear power is one of the major contributors to the nation's supply of electricity; therefore, it is important to assure its safe use. Each different type of powerplant has special design features and systems to protect health and safety. One…

  6. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course's primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  7. Nuclear criticality safety: 3-day training course

    SciTech Connect

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. It represents the contributions of many people, particularly Tom McLaughlin, the course`s primary instructor. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) be able to identify examples of safety consciousness required in nuclear criticality safety.

  8. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-12-31

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  9. Activities of the PNC Nuclear Safety Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, W.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Working Group of the Pacific Nuclear Council promotes nuclear safety cooperation among its members. Status of safety research, emergency planning, development of lists of technical experts, severe accident prevention and mitigation have been the topics of discussion in the NSWG. This paper reviews and compares the severe accident prevention and mitigation program activities in some of the areas of the Pacific Basin region based on papers presented at a special session organized by the NSWG at an ANS Topical Meeting as well as papers from other sources.

  10. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  11. Comparison of radiation safety and nuclear explosive safety disciplines

    SciTech Connect

    Winstanley, J. L.

    1998-10-10

    In August 1945, U.S. Navy Captain William Parsons served as the weaponeer aboard the Enola Gay for the mission to Hiroshima (Shelton 1988). In view of the fact that four B-29s had crashed and burned on takeoff from Tinian the night before, Captain Parsons made the decision to arm the gun-type weapon after takeoff for safety reasons (15 kilotons of TNT equivalent). Although he had no control over the success of the takeoff, he could prevent the possibility of a nuclear detonation on Tinian by controlling what we now call the nuclear explosive. As head of the Ordnance Division at Los Alamos and a former gunnery officer, Captain Parsons clearly understood the role of safety in his work. The advent of the pre-assembled implosion weapon where the high explosive and nuclear materials are always in an intimate configuration meant that nuclear explosive safety became a reality at a certain point in development and production not just at the time of delivery by the military. This is the only industry where nuclear materials are intentionally put in contact with high explosives. The agency of the U.S. Government responsible for development and production of U.S. nuclear weapons is the Department of Energy (DOE) (and its predecessor agencies). This paper will be limited to nuclear explosive safety as it is currently practiced within the DOE nuclear weapons

  12. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-10-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry.

  13. Nuclear data needs for application in nuclear criticality safety programs

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Westfall, R.M.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-09-01

    In nuclear criticality safety applications, a number of important uncertainties have to be addressed to establish the required criticality safety margin of a nuclear system. One source of these uncertainties is the basic nuclear data used to calculate the effective multiplication factor of the system. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. Cross-section data are measured, evaluated, and tested prior to their inclusion in nuclear data libraries. Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations are performed to support the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. The neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy ranges, with a relatively minor influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems involving spent fuel elements from reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast neutron spectra and may have their most significant influence from the intermediate energy range. This requires extending the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  14. Nuclear Fission Research at IRMM

    SciTech Connect

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2005-05-24

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) will celebrate its 45th anniversary in 2005. With its 150-MeV Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) and 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator as multi-purpose neutron sources, it served the nuclear physics community for this period.The research in the field of nuclear fission was focused in recent years on both the measurement and calculation of fission cross sections, and the measurement of fission fragment properties.Fission cross sections were determined for 233Pa and 234U; the fission process was studied in the resolved resonance region of 239Pu(n,f) and for 251Cf(nth,f). These measurements derive their interest from accelerator driven systems, the thorium fuel cycle, high temperature reactors, safety issues of current reactors, and basic physics. The measurements are supported by several modeling efforts that aim at improving model codes and nuclear data evaluation.

  15. Some views on nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a speech given by Pierre Y. Tanguy (Electricite de France) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting held in Bethesda, MD in 1994. He describes the EDF nuclear program in broad terms and proceeds to discuss operational safety results with EDF plants. The speaker also outlines actions to enhance safety planned for the future, and he briefly mentions French cooperation with the Chinese on the Daya Bay project.

  16. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  17. Nuclear data for criticality safety - current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Jordan, W.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1995-06-01

    Traditionally, nuclear data evaluations have been performed in support of the analysis and design of thermal and fast reactors. In general, the neutron spectra characteristic of the thermal and fast systems used for data testing are predominantly in the low- and high-energy range with a relatively small influence from the intermediate-energy range. In the area of nuclear criticality safety, nuclear systems arising from applications involving fissionable materials outside reactors can lead to situations very different from those most commonly found in reactor analysis and design. These systems are not limited to thermal or fast and may have significant influence from the intermediate energy range. The extension of the range of applicability of the nuclear data evaluation beyond thermal and fast systems is therefore needed to cover problems found in nuclear criticality safety. Before criticality safety calculations are performed, the bias and uncertainties of the codes and cross sections that are used must be determined. The most common sources of uncertainties, in general, are the calculational methodologies and the uncertainties related to the nuclear data, such as the microscopic cross sections, entering into the calculational procedure. The aim here is to focus on the evaluated nuclear data pertaining to applications in nuclear criticality safety.

  18. Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dix, Terry E.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

  19. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  20. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  1. Nuclear power-plant safety functions

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R. III; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, P.F.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of safety functions is discussed. Ten critical safety functions and the multiple success paths available for accomplishing them are described. Use of the safety function concept in the development of emergency procedures, operator training, and control-room displays provides a systematic approach and a hierarchy of protection that an operator can use to mitigate the consequences of an event. The safety function concept can also be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear plant systems and to the evaluation of past expierience.

  2. Safety questions relevant to nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1991-10-15

    Nuclear propulsion is necessary for successful Mars exploration to enhance crew safety and reduce mission costs. Safety concerns are considered by some to be an implements to the use of nuclear thermal rockets for these missions. Therefore, an assessment was made of the various types of possible accident conditions that might occur and whether design or operational solutions exist. With the previous work on the NERVA nuclear rocket, most of the issues have been addressed in some detail. Thus, a large data base exist to use in an agreement. The assessment includes evaluating both ground, launch, space operations and disposal conditions. The conclusion is that design and operational solutions do exist for the safe use of nuclear thermal rockets and that both the environment and crews be protected against harmful radiation. Further, it is concluded that the use of nuclear thermal propulsion will reduce the radiation and mission risks to the Mars crews.

  3. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  4. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  5. Nuclear weapon safety: How safe is safe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The safety criteria that have been specified for modern nuclear weapons are very demanding. The majority of the weapons in the current stockpile will have to be modified to meet them, unless they are retired. Moreover, for some weapons we still lack necessary data to perform credible safety analyses. Although plutonium dispersal is a much less threatening danger than a sizable nuclear yield, it is nevertheless a potentially serious hazard, particularly if the plutonium is aerosolized in a chemical detonation. The panel recommended the following actions: (1) equip all stockpiled weapons with Enhanced Nuclear Detonation Safety, and build all aircraft-launched bombs and cruise missiles with insensitive high explosive and fire-resistant cores; (2) began an immediate review of the acceptability of retaining missile systems without IHE, fire-resistant cores, or 1.3 class propellant in close proximity to the warheads; (3) continue safety studies and allocate necessary resources to weapons and military laboratories; (4) affirm enhanced safety as the top priority goal of the US nuclear weapons program, and design all future weapons to be as safe as practically achievable, consistent with reasonable military requirements.

  6. Nuclear-safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The policy of the United States for all US nuclear power sources in space is to ensure that the probability of release of radioactive material and the amounts released are such that an undue risk is not presented, considering the benefits of the mission. The objective of this document is to provide safety criteria which a mission/reactor designer can use to help ensure that the design is acceptable from a radiological safety standpoint. These criteria encompass mission design, reactor design, and radiological impact limitation requirements for safety, and the documentation required. They do not address terrestrial operations, occupational safety or system reliability except where the systems are important for radiological safety. Specific safety specifications based on these criteria shall also be generated and made part of contractual requirements.

  7. Automating Nuclear-Safety-Related SQA Procedures with Custom Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Freels, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety-related procedures are rigorous for good reason. Small design mistakes can quickly turn into unwanted failures. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory worked with COMSOL to define a simulation app that automates the software quality assurance (SQA) verification process and provides results in less than 24 hours.

  8. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development and Integration with Safety and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; McClelland-Kerr, John; Van sickle, Matthew; Bissani, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Faced with increasing global energy demands, many developing countries are considering building their first nuclear power plant. As a country embarks upon or expands its nuclear power program, it should consider how it will address the 19 issues laid out in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document Milestones in Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. One of those issues specifically addresses the international nonproliferation treaties and commitments and the implementation of safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons. Given the many legislative, economic, financial, environmental, operational, and other considerations preoccupying their planners, it is often difficult for countries to focus on developing the core strengths needed for effective safeguards implementation. Typically, these countries either have no nuclear experience or it is limited to the operation of research reactors used for radioisotope development and scientific research. As a result, their capacity to apply safeguards and manage fuel operations for a nuclear power program is limited. This paper argues that to address the safeguards issue effectively, a holistic approach must be taken to integrate safeguards with the other IAEA issues including safety and security - sometimes referred to as the '3S' concept. Taking a holistic approach means that a country must consider safeguards within the context of its entire nuclear power program, including operations best practices, safety, and security as well as integration with its larger nonproliferation commitments. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) has been involved in bilateral technical cooperation programs for over 20 years to promote nonproliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. INSEP is currently spearheading efforts to promote the development of

  9. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems. PMID:18049233

  10. Nuclear Safety Design Base for License Application

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-09-29

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111(b) [DIRS 173273] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113(b) and (c) [DIRS 173273] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  11. NUCLEAR SAFETY DESIGN BASES FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-03-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify and document the nuclear safety design requirements that are specific to structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the repository that are important to safety (ITS) during the preclosure period and to support the preclosure safety analysis and the license application for the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The scope of this report includes the assignment of nuclear safety design requirements to SSCs that are ITS and does not include the assignment of design requirements to SSCs or natural or engineered barriers that are important to waste isolation (ITWI). These requirements are used as input for the design of the SSCs that are ITS such that the preclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.111 [DIRS 156605] are met. The natural or engineered barriers that are important to meeting the postclosure performance objectives of 10 CFR 63.113 [DIRS 156605] are identified as ITWI. Although a structure, system, or component (SSC) that is ITS may also be ITWI, this report is only concerned with providing the nuclear safety requirements for SSCs that are ITS to prevent or mitigate event sequences during the repository preclosure period.

  12. Nuclear safety technology and public acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienle, F.

    1985-11-01

    In the years 1976 to 1982 officialdom intensified the safety regulations in German nuclear power plants out of all proportion, without actually bringing about a recognizable plus in safety or indeed a greater acceptance by the public of the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Although the risk to employees of nuclear power plants and to the population living in their vicinity is substantially smaller than the dangers of modern civilization, the general public still regards with concern the consequences of radioactive exposure and the hazards to later generations from long-life radionuclides. The task for the coming years must be to maintain the safety standard now attained, while simultaneously reducing those exaggerated individual requirements in order to establish a balance in safety precautions. Additionally, a proposal put forward by Sir Walter Marshall, Chairman of the CEGB, should be pursued, i.e., to put the presumed risks of nuclear energy into their correct perspective in the public eye using comprehensible comparisons such as the risks from active or passive smoking. This cannot be accomplished by quoting abstract statistics.

  13. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  14. Reactor Safety Research: Semiannual report, July-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting, under USNRC sponsorship, phenomenological research related to the safety of commercial nuclear power reactors. The research includes experiments to simulate the phenomenology of the accident conditions and the development of analytical models, verified by experiment, which can be used to predict reactor and safety systems performance and behavior under abnormal conditions. The objective of this work is to provide NRC requisite data bases and analytical methods to (1) identify and define safety issues, (2) understand the progression of risk-significant accident sequences, and (3) conduct safety assessments. The collective NRC-sponsored effort at Sandia National Laboratories is directed at enhancing the tehcnology base supporting licensing decisions.

  15. The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel's Galileo safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.; Gray, L.B.; Huff, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The safety evaluation report (SER) for Galileo was prepared by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) coordinators in accordance with Presidential directive/National Security Council memorandum 25. The INSRP consists of three coordinators appointed by their respective agencies, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy (DOE), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). These individuals are independent of the program being evaluated and depend on independent experts drawn from the national technical community to serve on the five INSRP subpanels. The Galileo SER is based on input provided by the NASA Galileo Program Office, review and assessment of the final safety analysis report prepared by the Office of Special Applications of the DOE under a memorandum of understanding between NASA and the DOE, as well as other related data and analyses. The SER was prepared for use by the agencies and the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the Present for use in their launch decision-making process. Although more than 20 nuclear-powered space missions have been previously reviewed via the INSRP process, the Galileo review constituted the first review of a nuclear power source associated with launch aboard the Space Transportation System.

  16. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  17. Space nuclear safety from a user's viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter in 1977, each using three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE) for onboard electric power. In 1986 NASA will launch JPL's Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter equipped with two DOE supplied RTGs of an improved design. NASA and JPL are also responsible for obtaining a single RTG of this type from DOE and supplying it to the European Space Agency as part of its participation in the International Solar Polar Mission. As a result of these missions, JPL has been deeply involved in space nuclear safety as a user. This paper will give a brief review of the user contributions by JPL - and NASA in general - to the nuclear safety processes and relate them to the overall nuclear safety program necessary for the launch of an RTG. The two major safety areas requiring user support are the ground operations involving RTGs at the launch site and the failure modes and probabilities associated with launch accidents.

  18. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  19. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  20. Double-clad nuclear fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, William H.; Atcheson, Donald B.; Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan

    1984-01-01

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  1. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 6: Space base nuclear system safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A qualitative identification of the steps required to assure the incorporation of radiological system safety principles and objectives into all phases of a manned space base program are presented. Specific areas of emphasis include: (1) radiological program management, (2) nuclear system safety plan implementation, (3) impact on program, and (4) summary of the key operation and design guidelines and requirements. The plan clearly indicates the necessity of considering and implementing radiological system safety recommendations as early as possible in the development cycle to assure maximum safety and minimize the impact on design and mission plans.

  2. Study Gives Good Odds on Nuclear Reactor Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Cristine

    1974-01-01

    Summarized is data from a recent study on nuclear reactor safety completed by Norman C. Rasmussen and others. Non-nuclear events are about 10,000 times more likely to produce large accidents than nuclear plants. (RH)

  3. Safety management of complex research operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present many varied potential hazards which must be addressed in a disciplined independent safety review and approval process. The research and technology effort at the Lewis Research Center is divided into programmatic areas of aeronautics, space and energy. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described in this paper is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record at the Lewis Research Center.

  4. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  5. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D

    1994-06-01

    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. PMID:8070790

  6. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  7. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  8. New Improved Nuclear Data for Nuclear Criticality and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Leal, Luiz C; Lampoudis, C.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Emiliani, F.; Wynants, R.; Siegler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Geel Electron Linear Accelerator (GELINA) was used to measure neutron total and capture cross sections of {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 63,65}Cu in the energy range from 100 eV to {approx}200 keV using the time-of-flight method. GELINA is the only high-power white neutron source with excellent timing resolution and ideally suited for these experiments. Concerns about the use of existing cross-section data in nuclear criticality calculations using Monte Carlo codes and benchmarks were a prime motivator for the new cross-section measurements. To support the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron cross-section measurements were initiated using GELINA at the EC-JRC-IRMM. Concerns about data deficiencies in some existing cross-section evaluations from libraries such as ENDF/B, JEFF, or JENDL for nuclear criticality calculations were the prime motivator for new cross-section measurements. Over the past years many troubles with existing nuclear data have emerged, such as problems related to proper normalization, neutron sensitivity backgrounds, poorly characterized samples, and use of improper pulse-height weighting functions. These deficiencies may occur in the resolved- and unresolved-resonance region and may lead to erroneous nuclear criticality calculations. An example is the use of the evaluated neutron cross-section data for tungsten in nuclear criticality safety calculations, which exhibit discrepancies in benchmark calculations and show the need for reliable covariance data. We measured the neutron total and capture cross sections of {sup 182,183,184,186}W and {sup 63,65}Cu in the neutron energy range from 100 eV to several hundred keV. This will help to improve the representation of the cross sections since most of the available evaluated data rely only on old measurements. Usually these measurements were done with poor experimental resolution or only over a very limited energy range, which is insufficient for the current application.

  9. HANFORD NUCLEAR CRITICALITY SAFETY PROGRAM DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    TOFFER, H.

    2005-05-02

    The Hanford Database is a useful information retrieval tool for a criticality safety practitioner. The database contains nuclear criticality literature screened for parameter studies. The entries, characterized with a value index, are segregated into 16 major and six minor categories. A majority of the screened entries have abstracts and a limited number are connected to the Office of Scientific and Technology Information (OSTI) database of full-size documents. Simple and complex searches of the data can be accomplished very rapidly and the end-product of the searches could be a full-size document. The paper contains a description of the database, user instructions, and a number of examples.

  10. Information Services at the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Ronald

    This paper describes the operations of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Center. Established soon after an accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, its efforts were initially directed towards a detailed analysis of the accident. Continuing functions include: (1) the analysis of generic nuclear safety issues,…

  11. Biodefense research: can secrecy and safety coexist?

    PubMed

    Kahn, Laura H

    2004-01-01

    Over the next 10 years, the United States will spend 6 billion US dollars to develop countermeasures against biological and chemical weapons. Much of this research on highly virulent pathogens will be done in academic settings around the country. This article explores the challenges in ensuring secrecy to protect national security while accommodating the right of local communities to have access to safety information regarding select agents and laboratory-acquired infections. Secrecy has been defended as being vital for protecting national security. Problems with secrecy can include the misinterpretation of intentions, particularly in laboratories located in nuclear weapons design facilities, and the restricted access to information relevant to public health and safety. While federal select agent legislation requires laboratories to have emergency plans in place with first responders, these plans do not necessarily include public health professionals, who will be responsible for any future public health action, such as quarantine, surveillance, or mass vaccinations, in the unlikely event that a laboratory-acquired infection spreads into a community. Laboratory-acquired infections do occur, even with the best safety mechanisms in place; however, the epidemiology of the incidence and severity of these infections are not known since there is no national surveillance reporting system. Evidence suggests that many of these infections occur in the absence of an actual laboratory accident. The best emergency plans and surveillance systems are only as good as the participation and vigilance of the laboratory workers themselves. Thus, laboratory workers have a responsibility to themselves and others to report all laboratory accidents and spills, regardless how minor. In addition, they should have a lower threshold than normal in seeking medical attention when feeling ill, and their physicians should be aware of what pathogens they work with to reduce the risk of a delay in

  12. Security during safety-related emergencies at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moul, D.A.

    1984-07-01

    Under a commission from the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, NRC, a study was performed by a team of analysts relative to licensing practices and the role of security as they relate to safeguards during safety-related emergencies (SREs). Methodology included a literature search, site visits to representative nuclear reactors and analysis of the regulatory and licensee planning bases. Problems relating to security actions during SREs were examined primarily in the following areas: organization for response, planning, training and qualification, equipment, procedures employed, facilities, and preparation for safeguards against sabotage during an SRE. Recommendations were made as to how improvements could be made in the regulatory approach, and in licensee planning and procedural mechanisms as they relate to the subject matter under examination. The results of the study also had implications for the safety/safeguards interface problem currently under review by the NRC.

  13. Subsystem fragility: Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R. P.; Campbell, R. D.; Hardy, G.; Banon, H.

    1981-10-01

    Seismic fragility levels of safety related equipment are developed for use in a seismic oriented Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) being conducted as part of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The Zion Nuclear Power Plant is being utilized as a reference plant and fragility descriptions are developed for specific and generic safety related equipment groups in Zion. Both equipment fragilities and equipment responses are defined in probabilistic terms to be used as input to the SSMRP event tree/fault tree models of the Zion systems. 65 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Safety program considerations for space nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cropp, L.O.

    1984-08-01

    This report discusses the necessity for in-depth safety program planning for space nuclear reactor systems. The objectives of the safety program and a proposed task structure is presented for meeting those objectives. A proposed working relationship between the design and independent safety groups is suggested. Examples of safety-related design philosophies are given.

  15. Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning reference nuclear research and test reactors: sensitivity of decommissioning radiation exposure and costs to selected parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.

    1983-07-01

    Additional analyses of decommissioning at the reference research and test (R and T) reactors and analyses of five recent reactor decommissionings are made that examine some parameters not covered in the initial study report (NUREG/CR-1756). The parameters examined for decommissioning are: (1) the effect on costs and radiation exposure of plant size and/or type; (2) the effects on costs of increasing disposal charges and of unavailability of waste disposal capacity at licensed waste disposal facilities; and (3) the costs of and the available alternatives for the disposal of nuclear R and T reactor fuel assemblies.

  16. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  17. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1992-08-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments.

  18. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments.

  19. Development Trends in Nuclear Technology and Related Safety Aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Kuczera, B.; Juhn, P.E.; Fukuda, K.

    2002-07-01

    The IAEA Safety Standards Series include, in a hierarchical manner, the categories of Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides, which define the elements necessary to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In the same way as nuclear technology and scientific knowledge advance continuously, also safety requirements may change with these advances. Therefore, in the framework of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) one important aspect among others refers to user requirements on the safety of innovative nuclear installations, which may come into operation within the next fifty years. In this respect, the major objectives of the INPRO sub-task 'User Requirements and Nuclear Energy Development Criteria in the Area of Safety' have been: a. to overview existing national and international requirements in the safety area, b. to define high level user requirements in the area of safety of innovative nuclear technologies, c. to compile and to analyze existing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology enhancement concepts and approaches intended to achieve a high degree of safety, and d. to identify the general areas of safety R and D needs for the establishment of these technologies. During the discussions it became evident that the application of the defence in depth strategy will continue to be the overriding approach for achieving the general safety objective in nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, where the emphasis will be shifted from mitigation of accident consequences more towards prevention of accidents. In this context, four high level user requirements have been formulated for the safety of innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. On this basis safety strategies for innovative reactor designs are highlighted in each of the five levels of defence in depth and specific requirements are discussed for the individual components of the fuel cycle. (authors)

  20. Nuclear Stewardship Research

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. Beausang

    2005-06-10

    The second year of our research program has been marked by significant success and progress. It has also been marked by significant changes both in the personnel and location of the major experimental research program. This report covers the period roughly from August 2004 through May 2005. During this period our research has focused mainly on applying the surrogate reaction technique and the ''ratio'' method to deduce neutron induced fission cross sections on uranium nuclei.

  1. Aging of nuclear power plant safety cables

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Salazar, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an extensive aging program on polymeric materials stripped from unused nuclear reactor safety cables are described. Mechanical damage was monitored after room temperature aging in a Co-60 gamma radiation source at various humidities and radiation dose rates ranging from 1.2 Mrad/h to 2 krad/h. For chloroprene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and silicone materials, the mechanical degradation was found to depend only on the total integrated radiation dose, implying that radiation dose rate effects are small. On the other hand, strong evidence for radiation dose rate effects were found for an ethylene propylene rubber material and a cross-linked polyolefin material. Humidity effects were determined to be insignificant for all the materials studied.

  2. Handbook of road safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Grime, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes the road safety, accident investigation or vehicle and highway design. This book also discusses the nature and cause of road accidents. It discusses the following contents: Forward; Preface; The main features of the accident situation in Great Britain; The interacting roles of road environment, vehicle and road user in accidents; Roads - features which may be related to accidents; Movements of vehicles and road users before accidents; What happens to vehicles during and after accidents; Injuries to road users; The potential for savings in accidents involving injury; General remarks on accident investigation; Appendices References.

  3. How Can We Improve School Safety Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astor, Ron Avi; Guerra, Nancy; Van Acker, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this article consider how education researchers can improve school violence and school safety research by (a) examining gaps in theoretical, conceptual, and basic research on the phenomena of school violence; (b) reviewing key issues in the design and evaluation of evidence-based practices to prevent school violence; and (c)…

  4. Conflicts of interest in vaccine safety research.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Conflicts of interest (COIs) cloud vaccine safety research. Sponsors of research have competing interests that may impede the objective study of vaccine side effects. Vaccine manufacturers, health officials, and medical journals may have financial and bureaucratic reasons for not wanting to acknowledge the risks of vaccines. Conversely, some advocacy groups may have legislative and financial reasons to sponsor research that finds risks in vaccines. Using the vaccine-autism debate as an illustration, this article details the conflicts of interest each of these groups faces, outlines the current state of vaccine safety research, and suggests remedies to address COIs. Minimizing COIs in vaccine safety research could reduce research bias and restore greater trust in the vaccine program. PMID:22375842

  5. EU Funded Research Activities on NPPS Operational Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Manolatos, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2002-07-01

    The 5. framework programme (FP-5), the pluri-annual research programme of the European Union (EU), covers the period 1998-2002. Research on nuclear energy, fusion and fission, is covered by the EURATOM part of the FP-5. An overview of the Euratom's research on Nuclear Reactor Safety, managed by the DG-RTD of the European Commission (EC), is presented. This concerns 70 multi-partner projects of approximately euro 82.5 million total contract value that have been selected and co-financed during the period 1999-2001. They form the three clusters of projects dealing with the 'Operational Safety of Existing Installations'. 'Plant Life Extension and Management' (PLEM), 'Severe Accident Management' (SAM) and 'Evolutionary concepts' (EVOL). Emphasis is given here to the projects of the PLEM cluster. (authors)

  6. Strategic Nuclear Research Collaboration - FY99 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    T. J. Leahy

    1999-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has created the Strategic Nuclear Research Collaboration. The SNRC brings together some of America's finest laboratory and university nuclear researchers in a carefully focused research program intended to produce ''breakthrough'' solutions to the difficult issues of nuclear economics, safety, non-proliferation, and nuclear waste. This integrated program aims to address obstacles that stand in the way of nuclear power development in the US These include fuel cycle concerns related to waste and proliferation, the need for more efficient regulatory practices, and the high cost of constructing and operating nuclear power plants. Funded at an FY99 level of $2.58M, the SNRC is focusing the efforts of scientists and engineers from the INEEL and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to solve complex nuclear energy challenges in a carefully chosen, integrated portfolio of research topics. The result of this collaboration will be research that serves as a catalyst for future direct-funded nuclear research and technology development and which preserves and enhances the INEEL's role as America's leading national laboratory for nuclear power research. In its first year, the SNRC has focused on four research projects each of which address one or more of the four issues facing further nuclear power development (economics, safety, waste disposition and proliferation-resistance). This Annual Report describes technical work and accomplishments during the first year of the SNRC's existence.

  7. Accurate Fission Data for Nuclear Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solders, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.

    2014-05-01

    The Accurate fission data for nuclear safety (AlFONS) project aims at high precision measurements of fission yields, using the renewed IGISOL mass separator facility in combination with a new high current light ion cyclotron at the University of Jyväskylä. The 30 MeV proton beam will be used to create fast and thermal neutron spectra for the study of neutron induced fission yields. Thanks to a series of mass separating elements, culminating with the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, it is possible to achieve a mass resolving power in the order of a few hundred thousands. In this paper we present the experimental setup and the design of a neutron converter target for IGISOL. The goal is to have a flexible design. For studies of exotic nuclei far from stability a high neutron flux (1012 neutrons/s) at energies 1 - 30 MeV is desired while for reactor applications neutron spectra that resembles those of thermal and fast nuclear reactors are preferred. It is also desirable to be able to produce (semi-)monoenergetic neutrons for benchmarking and to study the energy dependence of fission yields. The scientific program is extensive and is planed to start in 2013 with a measurement of isomeric yield ratios of proton induced fission in uranium. This will be followed by studies of independent yields of thermal and fast neutron induced fission of various actinides.

  8. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  9. Nuclear Plant/Hydrogen Plant Safety: Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its agents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, is working on developing the technologies to enable the large scale production of hydrogen using nuclear power. A very important consideration in the design of a co-located and connected nuclear plant/hydrogen plant facility is safety. This study provides an overview of the safety issues associated with a combined plant and discusses approaches for categorizing, quantifying, and addressing the safety risks.

  10. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  11. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

  12. Nuclear criticality safety engineer qualification program utilizing SAT

    SciTech Connect

    Baltimore, C.J.; Dean, J.C.; Henson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    As part of the privatization process of the U.S. uranium enrichment plants, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) have been in transition from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory oversight to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) oversight since July 1993. One of the focus areas of this transition has been training and qualification of plant personnel who perform tasks important to nuclear safety, such as nuclear criticality safety (NCS) engineers.

  13. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  14. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  15. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  16. Gaseous fuel nuclear reactor research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwenk, F. C.; Thom, K.

    1975-01-01

    Gaseous-fuel nuclear reactors are described; their distinguishing feature is the use of fissile fuels in a gaseous or plasma state, thereby breaking the barrier of temperature imposed by solid-fuel elements. This property creates a reactor heat source that may be able to heat the propellant of a rocket engine to 10,000 or 20,000 K. At this temperature level, gas-core reactors would provide the breakthrough in propulsion needed to open the entire solar system to manned and unmanned spacecraft. The possibility of fuel recycling makes possible efficiencies of up to 65% and nuclear safety at reduced cost, as well as high-thrust propulsion capabilities with specific impulse up to 5000 sec.

  17. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  18. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  19. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  20. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  1. 10 CFR 72.124 - Criteria for nuclear criticality safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for nuclear criticality safety. 72.124 Section 72.124 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  2. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  3. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: Executive summary. Part 2: Space shuttle nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear safety integration and operational aspects of transporting nuclear payloads to and from an earth orbiting space base by space shuttle are discussed. The representative payloads considered were: (1) zirconium hydride-Brayton power module, (2) isotope-Brayton power module, and (3) small isotope power systems or heat sources. Areas of investigation also include nuclear safety related integration and packaging as well as operational requirements for the shuttle and payload systems for all phases of the mission.

  4. Developing operational safety requirements for non-nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-11-01

    Little guidance has been provided by the DOE for developing appropriate Operational Safety Requirements (OSR) for non-nuclear facility safety documents. For a period of time, Chapter 2 of DOE/AL Supplemental Order 5481.lB provided format guidance for non-reactor nuclear facility OSRs when this supplemental order applied to both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Thus, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office personnel still want to see non-nuclear facility OSRs in accordance with the supplemental order (i.e., in terms of Safety Limits, Limiting Conditions for Operation, and Administrative Controls). Furthermore, they want to see a clear correlation between the OSRs and the results of a facility safety analysis. This paper demonstrates how OSRs can be rather simply derived from the results of a risk assessment performed using the ``binning`` methodology of SAND95-0320.

  5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report - overview

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P. D.; Dong, R. G.; Bernreuter, D. L.; Bohn, M. P.; Chuang, T. Y.; Cummings, G. E.; Johnson, J. J.; Mensing, R. W.; Wells, J. E.

    1981-03-06

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. 66 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Nuclear safeguards research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. N.

    1981-11-01

    The status of a nuclear safeguard research and development program is presented. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards, training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  7. Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, J R

    1980-01-01

    A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.

  8. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  9. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  10. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  11. Very high temperature measurements: Application to nuclear reactor safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Clemente Jose

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100ºC to 2480ºC), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: -The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (+/-0.001ºC) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (+/-3-5ºC). -The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300ºC) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000ºC).

  12. Internationalizing nuclear safety: The pursuit of collective responsibility

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Forsberg, C.

    1995-11-01

    The future of nuclear energy could depend upon the international infrastructure established to ensure the creation of a strong and uniform safety culture. Deliberations during the 1990s, leading to the recently promulgated International Nuclear Safety Convention, held out the prospect of both bolstering nuclear safety and gaining public recognition of the need to address transboundary safety concerns head-on. Unfortunately, the Convention that emerged from the deliberations constitutes little more than another form of technical assistance. The basis for an alternative, and more substantial, Convention is presented--one that would be based on the establishment and evaluation of performance standards, the creation of a series of political firebreaks, and the encouragement of nuclear power plant designs that minimize the catastrophic offsite consequences of accidents.

  13. Development of Safety Assessment Code for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Taro; Ohshima, Soichiro; Sukegawa, Takenori

    A safety assessment code, DecDose, for decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been developed, based on the experiences of the decommissioning project of Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (currently JAEA). DecDose evaluates the annual exposure dose of the public and workers according to the progress of decommissioning, and also evaluates the public dose at accidental situations including fire and explosion. As for the public, both the internal and the external doses are calculated by considering inhalation, ingestion, direct radiation from radioactive aerosols and radioactive depositions, and skyshine radiation from waste containers. For external dose for workers, the dose rate from contaminated components and structures to be dismantled is calculated. Internal dose for workers is calculated by considering dismantling conditions, e.g. cutting speed, cutting length of the components and exhaust velocity. Estimation models for dose rate and staying time were verified by comparison with the actual external dose of workers which were acquired during JPDR decommissioning project. DecDose code is expected to contribute the safety assessment for decommissioning of nuclear facilities.

  14. Engineers call for US nuclear safety fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Seven Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engineers have called on the commission to force the owners of US nuclear reactors to repair a design flaw that could affect the safe operation of emergency core cooling systems.

  15. The role of research in nuclear regulation: A Korean perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Won-Hyo

    1997-01-01

    Korea has carried out a very ambitious nuclear power program since the 1970`s as part of the nation`s industrialization policy. Ever since, Korea has also maintained a strong commitment to nuclear power development as an integral part of the national energy policy which aims at reducing external vulnerability and ensuring against a global fossil fuel shortage. The introduction of nuclear power into Korea has progressed through three stages: the first was a turn-key package supplied by the manufacturer; the second involved a major contractor who was responsible for project management, and design and construction was contracted out, with Korean industry becoming more involved; the third stage has seen Korean industries involved as main contractors based on experience gained from earlier plants. The success of Korea`s nuclear power program depends in large part on how to insure safety. Safety has the highest priority in nuclear energy development. Public acceptance has been the most critical problem faced by the nuclear industry in Korea. The public demands the highest level of safety all through the design, construction, and operation of nuclear power plants. Korea has learned that a nuclear plant designed with well addressed safety, implementation of a well grounded QA program during construction, and operated with a proven record of safety, are the only ways to earn public support. Competent and efficient regulation with a strong safety culture and openness in all issues is the most desirable image for regulators to strive for. Korea established a ten year R & D program to obtain self-reliance in nuclear technology and international competitiveness by the early 2000`s in 1992. It has actively participated in coordinated research programs in safety issues with bodies including the USNRC, AECB of Canada, IAEA, and OECD/NEA.

  16. Safety Oversight of Decommissioning Activities at DOE Nuclear Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zull, Lawrence M.; Yeniscavich, William

    2008-01-15

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board) is an independent federal agency established by Congress in 1988 to provide nuclear safety oversight of activities at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defense nuclear facilities. The activities under the Board's jurisdiction include the design, construction, startup, operation, and decommissioning of defense nuclear facilities at DOE sites. This paper reviews the Board's safety oversight of decommissioning activities at DOE sites, identifies the safety problems observed, and discusses Board initiatives to improve the safety of decommissioning activities at DOE sites. The decommissioning of former defense nuclear facilities has reduced the risk of radioactive material contamination and exposure to the public and site workers. In general, efforts to perform decommissioning work at DOE defense nuclear sites have been successful, and contractors performing decommissioning work have a good safety record. Decommissioning activities have recently been completed at sites identified for closure, including the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, the Fernald Closure Project, and the Miamisburg Closure Project (the Mound site). The Rocky Flats and Fernald sites, which produced plutonium parts and uranium materials for defense needs (respectively), have been turned into wildlife refuges. The Mound site, which performed R and D activities on nuclear materials, has been converted into an industrial and technology park called the Mound Advanced Technology Center. The DOE Office of Legacy Management is responsible for the long term stewardship of these former EM sites. The Board has reviewed many decommissioning activities, and noted that there are valuable lessons learned that can benefit both DOE and the contractor. As part of its ongoing safety oversight responsibilities, the Board and its staff will continue to review the safety of DOE and contractor decommissioning activities at DOE defense nuclear sites.

  17. Nuclear energy safety challenges in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Fifteen nuclear reactors of the type that exploded at Chernobyl in April 1986 are still operating in Russia, Ukraine, and Lithuania. The West, concerned about safety of operations, wants these reactors shut down, but the host nations refuse. The electricity these reactors supply is nuch too important for their economies, so the argument goes. The report defines policy options and procedures to implement those options for the acceptable resolution of the nuclear power safety issues facing the former Soviet Union.

  18. Austrian contributions to reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdouz, Gert

    1992-03-01

    An overview of Austrian contributions to reactor safety research is given. Starting with licensing for the power plant Zwenkendorf and participation in the safety projects PBF (Power Burst Facility) and LOFT (Loss Of Fluid Test), the work shifted later to participation in the study of international standard problems of the OECD and the IAEA. Since 1988 the center of activity is the calculation of the source term behavior of accident sequences, especially for reactors of Russian types. As an illustration the results of a source term calculation for a TMLB' sequence are presented.

  19. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  20. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  1. Nuclear Safety Design Principles & the Concept of Independence: Insights from Nuclear Weapon Safety for Other High-Consequence Applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, Jeffrey D.

    2014-05-01

    Insights developed within the U.S. nuclear weapon system safety community may benefit system safety design, assessment, and management activities in other high consequence domains. The approach of assured nuclear weapon safety has been developed that uses the Nuclear Safety Design Principles (NSDPs) of incompatibility, isolation, and inoperability to design safety features, organized into subsystems such that each subsystem contributes to safe system responses in independent and predictable ways given a wide range of environmental contexts. The central aim of the approach is to provide a robust technical basis for asserting that a system can meet quantitative safety requirements in the widest context of possible adverse or accident environments, while using the most concise arrangement of safety design features and the fewest number of specific adverse or accident environment assumptions. Rigor in understanding and applying the concept of independence is crucial for the success of the approach. This paper provides a basic description of the assured nuclear weapon safety approach, in a manner that illustrates potential application to other domains. There is also a strong emphasis on describing the process for developing a defensible technical basis for the independence assertions between integrated safety subsystems.

  2. THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR SAFETY REGIME IN BRAZIL

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, C.

    2004-10-06

    A turning point of the world nuclear industry with respect to safety occurred due to the accident at Chernobyl, in 1986. A side from the tragic personal losses and the enormous financial damage, the Chernobyl accident has literally demonstrated that ''a nuclear accident anywhere is an accident everywhere''. The impact was felt immediately by the nuclear industry, with plant cancellations (e.g. Austria), elimination of national programs (e.g. Italy) and general construction delays. However, the reaction of the nuclear industry was equally immediate, which led to the proposal and establishment of a Global Nuclear Safety Regime. This regime is composed of biding international safety conventions, globally accepted safety standard, and a voluntary peer review system. In a previous work, the author has presented in detail the components of this Regime, and briefly discussed its impact in the Brazilian nuclear power organizations, including the Regulatory Body. This work, on the opposite, briefly reviews the Global Nuclear Safety Regime, and concentrates in detail in the discussion of its impact in Brazil, showing how it has produced some changes, and where the peer pressure regime has failed to produce real results.

  3. WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL NUCLEAR SAFETY RELATED R AND D REPORT FOR CY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-10-15

    The Engineering and Technology Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks associated with key waste processing project decisions. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment (TDD). The Office of Waste Processing TDD program prioritizes and approves research and development scopes of work that address nuclear safety related to processing of highly radioactive nuclear wastes. Thirteen of the thirty-five R&D approved work scopes in FY2009 relate directly to nuclear safety, and are presented in this report.

  4. Government: Nuclear Safety in Doubt a Year after Accident.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1980-01-01

    A year after the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI), the signals transmitted to the public are still confused. Industry says that nuclear power is safe and that the aftermath of TMI ushers in a new era of safety. Antinuclear activists say TMI sounded nuclear power's death knell. (Author/RE)

  5. A Web-Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S

    2007-02-22

    A bibliographic criticality safety database of over 13,000 records is available on the Internet as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) website. This database is easy to access via the Internet and gets substantial daily usage. This database and other criticality safety resources are available at ncsp.llnl.gov. The web database has evolved from more than thirty years of effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), beginning with compilations of critical experiment reports and American Nuclear Society Transactions.

  6. Complementary safety assessments of the French nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouget-Abadie, Xavier

    2012-05-01

    EDF has conducted, after the Fukushima event, complementary safety assessments of its nuclear facilities. The aim of this in-depth review was to assess the resilience of each plant to extreme external hazards, situations that could lead to severe accident conditions. These analyses demonstrate a good level of safety for all of EDF's nuclear facilities. Supplementary measures post-Fukushima have been put forward to the ASN with the aim of continuing to improve the level of safety at the plants. Once the ASN position is issued, EDF will develop an action plan over several years, covering both supplementary studies and modifications that have been identified.

  7. A Safer Nuclear Enterprise - Application to Nuclear Explosive Safety (NES)(U)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Tommy J.

    2012-07-05

    Activities and infrastructure that support nuclear weapons are facing significant challenges. Despite an admirable record and firm commitment to make safety a primary criterion in weapons design, production, handling, and deployment - there is growing apprehension about terrorist acquiring weapons or nuclear material. At the NES Workshop in May 2012, Scott Sagan, who is a proponent of the normal accident cycle, presented. Whether a proponent of the normal accident cycle or High Reliability Organizations - we have to be diligent about our safety record. Constant vigilance is necessary to maintain our admirable safety record and commitment to Nuclear Explosive Safety.

  8. Management of nanomaterials safety in research environment.

    PubMed

    Groso, Amela; Petri-Fink, Alke; Magrez, Arnaud; Riediker, Michael; Meyer, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Despite numerous discussions, workshops, reviews and reports about responsible development of nanotechnology, information describing health and environmental risk of engineered nanoparticles or nanomaterials is severely lacking and thus insufficient for completing rigorous risk assessment on their use. However, since preliminary scientific evaluations indicate that there are reasonable suspicions that activities involving nanomaterials might have damaging effects on human health; the precautionary principle must be applied. Public and private institutions as well as industries have the duty to adopt preventive and protective measures proportionate to the risk intensity and the desired level of protection. In this work, we present a practical, 'user-friendly' procedure for a university-wide safety and health management of nanomaterials, developed as a multi-stakeholder effort (government, accident insurance, researchers and experts for occupational safety and health). The process starts using a schematic decision tree that allows classifying the nano laboratory into three hazard classes similar to a control banding approach (from Nano 3--highest hazard to Nano1--lowest hazard). Classifying laboratories into risk classes would require considering actual or potential exposure to the nanomaterial as well as statistical data on health effects of exposure. Due to the fact that these data (as well as exposure limits for each individual material) are not available, risk classes could not be determined. For each hazard level we then provide a list of required risk mitigation measures (technical, organizational and personal). The target 'users' of this safety and health methodology are researchers and safety officers. They can rapidly access the precautionary hazard class of their activities and the corresponding adequate safety and health measures. We succeed in convincing scientist dealing with nano-activities that adequate safety measures and management are promoting

  9. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  10. Nuclear safety for the space exploration initiative. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, T.E.

    1991-11-01

    The results of a study to identify potential hazards arising from nuclear reactor power systems for use on the lunar and Martian surfaces, related safety issues, and resolutions of such issues by system design changes, operating procedures, and other means are presented. All safety aspects of nuclear reactor power systems from prelaunch ground handling to eventual disposal were examined consistent with the level of detail for SP-100 reactor design at the 1988 System Design Review and for launch vehicle and space transport vehicle designs and mission descriptions as defined in the 90-day Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) study. Information from previous aerospace nuclear safety studies was used where appropriate. Safety requirements for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor system were compiled. Mission profiles were defined with emphasis on activities after low earth orbit insertion. Accident scenarios were then qualitatively defined for each mission phase. Safety issues were identified for all mission phases with the aid of simplified event trees. Safety issue resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were compiled. Resolution approaches for those safety issues not covered by the SP-100 program were identified. Additionally, the resolution approaches of the SP-100 program were examined in light of the moon and Mars missions.

  11. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  12. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  13. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 923.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...

  14. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Rene G. Sanchez

    1998-04-01

    This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

  15. Nuclear safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to define safety criteria which must be met to implement US safety policy for space fission reactors. These criteria provide the bases for decisions on the acceptability of specific mission and reactor design proposals. (JDH)

  16. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  17. Nuclear gas core propulsion research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Nils J.; Dugan, Edward T.; Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the nuclear gas core propulsion research program are presented. The objectives of this research are to develop models and experiments, systems, and fuel elements for advanced nuclear thermal propulsion rockets. The fuel elements under investigation are suitable for gas/vapor and multiphase fuel reactors. Topics covered include advanced nuclear propulsion studies, nuclear vapor thermal rocket (NVTR) studies, and ultrahigh temperature nuclear fuels and materials studies.

  18. An example of a United States Nuclear Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    1999-12-10

    Under the likely scenario in which public support for nuclear energy remains low and fossil fuels continue to be abundant and cheap, government supported nuclear research centers must adapt their missions to ensure that they tackle problems of current significance. It will be critical to be multidisciplinary, to generate economic value, and to apply nuclear competencies to current problems. Addressing problems in nuclear safety, D and D, nuclear waste management, nonproliferation, isotope production are a few examples of current needs in the nuclear arena. Argonne's original mission, to develop nuclear reactor technology, was a critical need for the U.S. in 1946. It would be wise to recognize that this mission was a special instance of a more general one--to apply unique human and physical capital to long term, high risk technology development in response to society's needs. International collaboration will enhance the collective chances for success as the world moves into the 21st century.

  19. Gordon Conference on Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    Session topics were: quarks and nuclear physics; anomalons and anti-protons; the independent particle structure of nuclei; relativistic descriptions of nuclear structure and scattering; nuclear structure at high excitation; advances in nuclear astrophysics; properties of nuclear material; the earliest moments of the universe; and pions and spin excitations in nuclei.

  20. The role of research in nuclear regulation: A French perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Livolant, M.

    1997-01-01

    Roughly speaking, the French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute`s role is similar in the French situation to the NRC administration role but with less authority role, which corresponds to another body in France. They define themselves as a technical support of the safety authorities. On the other hand, they have their own research laboratories. Among them, the most famous are the Phebus reactor and the Cabri reactor about which we have heard a lot these two days. They work on safety but also on protection of man and environment, management of accident conditions, security of transport, and safeguards. They have a relationship with utilities and with government authorities. With the utilities they have two types of technical evaluations. They make detailed technical studies of the safety reports presented to the authorities by the utility. On the research side, they participate in common research programs to resolve issues and to increase knowledge and understanding about safety related questions. With the governmental authorities, their role is to give advice on safety reports of existing or being-built installations and on more general policy questions like, for example, the safety principle to apply to the next generation of power plants. The decisions are left to the safety authorities, but they give a lot of advice and detailed studies about questions of safety.

  1. Criticality safety research at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, H.L.

    1997-06-01

    A list of seven research projects in nuclear criticality safety being conducted at the University of Tennessee is given. One of the projects is very briefly described. The study of space-dependent kinetics analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving an array of bottles containing UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} is being conducted for the US DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25 plant. Preliminary results for power versus time are presented, which indicate that space-time effects are significant after approximately 70 seconds. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Web-based nuclear criticality safety bibliographic database

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B L; Huang, S T

    2000-06-21

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has prepared a Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database that is now available via the Internet. This database is a component of the U.S. DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) Web site. This WWW resource was developed as part of the DOE response to the DNFSB Recommendation 97-2, which reflected the need to make criticality safety information available to a wide audience. To the extent possible, the hyperlinks on the Web pages direct the user to original source of the reference material in order to ensure accuracy and access to the latest versions. A master index is in place for simple navigation through the site. A search capability is available to assist in locating the on-line reference materials. Among the features included are: A user-friendly site map for ease of use; A personnel registry; Links to all major laboratories and organizations involved in the many aspects of criticality safety; General help for new criticality safety practitioners, including basic technical references and training modules; A discussion of computational methods; An interactive question and answer forum for the criticality safety community; and Collections of bibliographic references mdvahdation experiments. This paper will focus on the bibliographic database. This database evolved from earlier work done by the DOE's Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) maintained at LLNL during the 1980s. The bibliographic database at the time of the termination of NCIS were composed principally of three parts: (1) A critical experiment bibliography of 1067 citations (reported in UCRL-52769); (2) A compilation of criticality safety papers from Volumes 1 through 41 of the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society (reported in UCRL-53369); and (3) A general criticality bibliography of several thousand citations (unpublished). When the NCIS project was terminated the database was nearly lost but, fortunately, several years later

  3. Guidance for identifying, reporting and tracking nuclear safety noncompliances

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document provides Department of Energy (DOE) contractors, subcontractors and suppliers with guidance in the effective use of DOE`s Price-Anderson nuclear safety Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). Prompt contractor identification, reporting to DOE, and correction of nuclear safety noncompliances provides DOE with a basis to exercise enforcement discretion to mitigate civil penalties, and suspend the issuance of Notices of Violation for certain violations. Use of this reporting methodology is elective by contractors; however, this methodology is intended to reflect DOE`s philosophy on effective identification and reporting of nuclear safety noncompliances. To the extent that these expectations are met for particular noncompliances, DOE intends to appropriately exercise its enforcement discretion in considering whether, and to what extent, to undertake enforcement action.

  4. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  5. Safety management of nuclear waste in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Echavarri, L.E. )

    1991-01-01

    For the past two decades, Spain has been consolidating a nuclear program that in the last 3 years has provided between 35 and 40% of the electricity consumed in that country. This program includes nine operating reactor units, eight of them based on US technology and one from Germany, a total of 7,356 MW(electric). There is also a 480-MW(electric) French gas-cooled reactor whose operation recently ceased and which will be decommissioned in the coming years. Spanish industry has participated significantly in this program, and material produced locally has reached 85% of the total. Once the construction program has been completed and operation is proceeding normally, the capacity factor will be {approximately} 80%. It will be very important to complete the nuclear program with the establishment of conditions for safe management and disposal of the nuclear waste generated during the years in which these reactors are in operation and for subsequent decommissioning. To establish the guidelines for the disposal of nuclear waste, the Spanish government approved in october 1987, with a revision in January 1989, the General Plan of Radioactive Wastes proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Energy and prepared by the national company for radioactive waste management, ENRESA.

  6. Safety Second: the NRC and America's nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Adato, M.; MacKenzie, J.; Pollard, R.; Weiss, E.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975, Congress created the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Its primary responsibility was to be the regulation of the nuclear power industry in order to maintain public health and safety. On March 28, 1979, in the worst commercial nuclear accident in US history, the plant at Three Mile Island began to leak radioactive material. How was Three Mile Island possible. Where was the NRC. This analysis by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) of the NRC's first decade, points specifically to the factors that contributed to the accident at Three Mile Island. The NRC, created as a watchdog of the nuclear power industry, suffers from problems of mindset, says the UCS. The commission's problems are political, not technical; it repeatedly ranks special interests above the interest of public safety. This book critiques the NRC's performance in four specific areas. It charges that the agency has avoided tackling the most pervasive safety issues; has limited public participation in decision making and power plant licensing; has failed to enforce safety standards or conduct adequate regulation investigations; and, finally, has maintained a fraternal relationship with the industry it was created to regulate, serving as its advocate rather than it adversary. The final chapter offers recommendations for agency improvement that must be met if the NRC is to fulfill its responsibility for safety first.

  7. PBMR nuclear design and safety analysis: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, C.

    2006-07-01

    PBMR is a high-temperature helium-cooled graphite-moderated continuous-fuelled pebble bed reactor. The power conversion unit is directly coupled to the reactor and the power turbines are driven through a direct closed-circuit helium cycle. An overview is presented on the nuclear engineering analyses used for the design and safety assessment for the PBMR. Topics addressed are the PBMR design, safety and licensing requirements, nuclear engineering analysis results, software verification and validation, and advances in software development. (authors)

  8. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program.

  9. Human Hallucinogen Research: Guidelines for Safety

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Richards, William A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2010-01-01

    There has recently been a renewal of human research with classical hallucinogens (psychedelics). This paper first briefly discusses the unique history of human hallucinogen research, and then reviews the risks of hallucinogen administration and safeguards for minimizing these risks. Although hallucinogens are relatively safe physiologically and are not considered drugs of dependence, their administration involves unique psychological risks. The most likely risk is overwhelming distress during drug action (“bad trip”), which could lead to potentially dangerous behavior such as leaving the study site. Less common are prolonged psychoses triggered by hallucinogens. Safeguards against these risks include the exclusion of volunteers with personal or family history of psychotic disorders or other severe psychiatric disorders, establishing trust and rapport between session monitors and volunteer before the session, careful volunteer preparation, a safe physical session environment, and interpersonal support from at least two study monitors during the session. Investigators should probe for the relatively rare hallucinogen persisting perception disorder in follow up contact. Persisting adverse reactions are rare when research is conducted along these guidelines. Incautious research may jeopardize participant safety and future research. However, carefully conducted research may inform the treatment of psychiatric disorders, and may lead to advances in basic science. PMID:18593734

  10. Nuclear Data Activities in Support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, R.M.; McKnight, R.D.

    2005-05-24

    The DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) provides the technical infrastructure maintenance for those technologies applied in the evaluation and performance of safe fissionable-material operations in the DOE complex. These technologies include an Analytical Methods element for neutron transport as well as the development of sensitivity/uncertainty methods, the performance of Critical Experiments, evaluation and qualification of experiments as Benchmarks, and a comprehensive Nuclear Data program coordinated by the NCSP Nuclear Data Advisory Group (NDAG).The NDAG gathers and evaluates differential and integral nuclear data, identifies deficiencies, and recommends priorities on meeting DOE criticality safety needs to the NCSP Criticality Safety Support Group (CSSG). Then the NDAG identifies the required resources and unique capabilities for meeting these needs, not only for performing measurements but also for data evaluation with nuclear model codes as well as for data processing for criticality safety applications. The NDAG coordinates effort with the leadership of the National Nuclear Data Center, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The overall objective is to expedite the issuance of new data and methods to the DOE criticality safety user. This paper describes these activities in detail, with examples based upon special studies being performed in support of criticality safety for a variety of DOE operations.

  11. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper.

  12. Safety/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, K.R.; Brown, P.J.; Norderhaug, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions during scheduled emergency preparedness exercises, examining security and operational response procedures, and interviewing plant personnel, the team has identified instances where safety/security conflicts can occur. 2 refs.

  13. Review of Overall Safety Manual for space nuclear systems. An evaluation of a nuclear safety analysis methodology for plutonium-fueled space nuclear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.; Inhaber, H.

    1984-02-01

    As part of its duties in connection with space missions involving nuclear power sources, the Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) of the Office of Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety, and Emergency Preparedness has been assigned the task of reviewing the Overall Safety Manual (OSM) (memo from B.J. Rock to J.R. Maher, December 1, 1982). The OSM, dated July 1981 and in four volumes, was prepared by NUS Corporation, Rockville, Maryland, for the US Department of Energy. The OSM provides many of the technical models and much of the data which are used by (1) space launch contractors in safety analysis reports and (2) the broader Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) safety evaluation reports. If fhs interaction between the OSM, contractors, and INSRP is to work effectively, the OSM must be accurate, comprehensive, understandable, and usable.

  14. Institutional Radiation Safety Committee--Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1982-09-13

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is amending its regulations regarding hospitals licensed to use radioactive byproduct material for human applications. Currently, such a license requires that the hospital have a Medical Isotopes Committee to review clinical aspects of the use of radioactive materials within the hospital. The amendment requires instead a Radiation Safety Committee with a simplified membership that will focus on the radiation safety of workers and the general public. The rule change acknowledges the Food and Drug Administration's role in regulating the safety and effectiveness of radioactive drugs with respect to the patient. The membership of the new Radiation Safety Committee will include the hospital management and the nursing staff in decisions affecting radiation safety at the hospital and will be easier for smaller hospitals to recruit. PMID:10259789

  15. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  16. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  17. Major safety provisions in nuclear-powered ships

    SciTech Connect

    Khlopkin, N.S.; Belyaev, V.M.; Dubrovin, A.M.; Mel'nikov, E.M.; Pologikh, B.G.; Samoilov, O.B.

    1984-12-01

    Considerable experience has been accumulated in the Soviet Union on the design, construction and operation of nuclear-powered civilian ships: the icebreakers Lenin, Leonid Brezhnev and Sibir. The nuclear steam plants (NSP) used on these as the main energy source have been found to be highly reliable and safe, and it is desirable to use them in the future not only in icebreakers but also in transport ships for use in ice fields. The Soviet program for building and developing nuclear-powered ships has involved careful attention to safety in ships containing NSP. The experience with the design and operation of nuclear icebreakers in recent years has led to the revision of safety standards for the nuclear ships and correspondingly ship NSP and international guidelines have been developed. If one meets the requirements as set forth in these documents, one has a safe basis for future Soviet nuclear-powered ships. The primary safety provisions for NSP are presented in this paper.

  18. Optimization of a Dry, Mixed Nuclear Fuel Storage Array for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranko, Benjamin T.

    A dry storage array of used nuclear fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory contains a mixture of more than twenty different research and test reactor fuel types in up to 636 fuel storage canisters. New analysis demonstrates that the current arrangement of the different fuel-type canisters does not minimize the system neutron multiplication factor (keff), and that the entire facility storage capacity cannot be utilized without exceeding the subcritical limit (ksafe) for ensuring nuclear criticality safety. This work determines a more optimal arrangement of the stored fuels with a goal to minimize the system keff, but with a minimum of potential fuel canister relocation movements. The solution to this multiple-objective optimization problem will allow for both an improvement in the facility utilization while also offering an enhancement in the safety margin. The solution method applies stochastic approximation and a Tabu search metaheuristic to an empirical model developed from supporting MCNP calculations. The results establish an optimal relocation of between four to sixty canisters, which will allow the current thirty-one empty canisters to be used for storage while reducing the array keff by up to 0.018 +/- 0.003 relative to the current arrangement.

  19. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  20. Strengthening safety compliance in nuclear power operations: a role-based approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2014-07-01

    Safety compliance is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. However, it depends mostly on procedures that do not always involve the safest outcomes. This article introduces an empirical model based on the organizational role theory to analyze the influence of legitimate sources of expectations (procedures formalization and leadership) on workers' compliance behaviors. The sample was composed of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants. Structural equation analysis showed that, in spite of some problematic effects of proceduralization (such as role conflict and role ambiguity), procedure formalization along with an empowering leadership style lead to safety compliance by clarifying a worker's role in safety. Implications of these findings for safety research are outlined, as well as their practical implications. PMID:24495145

  1. Managing safety in a research and development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1995-12-22

    A method for managing safety in a research and development environment is described which involves both the subject matter experts and the researchers in development of safety policy and implementation planning. This method has been used effectively at LLNL to maximize safety benefits while minimizing the costs of the safety program and aggravation to the researcher. A product of this effort is the establishment of an effective safety culture as the line organizations work with the subject matter experts to develop and implement the safety program.

  2. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  3. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  4. Safety analysis of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation container

    SciTech Connect

    Uspuras, E.; Rimkevicius, S.

    2007-07-01

    Ignalina NPP comprises two Units with RBMK-1500 reactors. After the Unit 1 of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was shut down in 2004, approximately 1000 fuel assemblies from Unit were available for further reuse in Unit 2. The fuel-transportation container, vehicle, protection shaft and other necessary equipment were designed in order to implement the process for on-site transportation of Unit 1 fuel for reuse in the Unit 2. The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was developed to demonstrate that the proposed set of equipment performs all functions and assures the required level of safety for both normal operation and accident conditions. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content and main results of SAR, focusing attention on the container used to transport spent fuel assemblies from Unit I on Unit 2. In the SAR, the structural integrity, thermal, radiological and nuclear safety calculations are performed to assess the acceptance of the proposed set of equipment. The safety analysis demonstrated that the proposed nuclear fuel transportation container and other equipment are in compliance with functional, design and regulatory requirements and assure the required safety level. (authors)

  5. The role of research in nuclear regulation: Status and future activities in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Soda, K.

    1997-01-01

    The role of nuclear regulation is grouped into the three categories in the Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, the INSAG-3 document of IAEA published in 1988. First category is to specify and develop standards and regulations for safety, and to issue licenses to operating organization. Second category is to inspect, monitor and review the safety performances of nuclear power plants and operating organizations. In the second category, corrective action may be ordered if it is found necessary after inspection, monitoring and review. The third category is to advocate safety research and disseminate safety information. Nuclear safety research is closely related to nuclear regulation. The licensing procedures of nuclear facilities requires a two step approach in Japan, that is, those who wish to construct and operate a nuclear plant must apply for a government approval for construction and operation. Safety examination is then performed first by the government, and the second examination is carried out by the Nuclear Safety Commission. In this process, research information is supplied to the Advisory Committee on Technical Matters which is under the Ministry of Trade and Industry and to the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety which is under the Science and Technology Agency. Research organizations are asked by those Committees to provide data needed for safety examination and to perform safety analyses for verification of analyses submitted to the Committees by the licensees. in addition in the licensing procedures, examination guides needed for the safety examination are based on experimental data and analyses performed by research organizations by the government request.

  6. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  7. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

  8. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-10-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

  9. Information Scanning and Processing at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Celia; Julian, Carol

    This report is a detailed manual of the information specialist's duties at the Nuclear Safety Information Center. Information specialists scan the literature for documents to be reviewed, procure the documents (books, journal articles, reports, etc.), keep the document location records, and return the documents to the plant library or other…

  10. Safety aspects of nuclear waste disposal in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, E. E.; Edgecombe, D. S.; Compton, P. R.

    1981-01-01

    Safety issues involved in the disposal of nuclear wastes in space as a complement to mined geologic repositories are examined as part of an assessment of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal in space. General safety guidelines for space disposal developed in the areas of radiation exposure and shielding, containment, accident environments, criticality, post-accident recovery, monitoring systems and isolation are presented for a nuclear waste disposal in space mission employing conventional space technology such as the Space Shuttle. The current reference concept under consideration by NASA and DOE is then examined in detail, with attention given to the waste source and mix, the waste form, waste processing and payload fabrication, shipping casks and ground transport vehicles, launch site operations and facilities, Shuttle-derived launch vehicle, orbit transfer vehicle, orbital operations and space destination, and the system safety aspects of the concept are discussed for each component. It is pointed out that future work remains in the development of an improved basis for the safety guidelines and the determination of the possible benefits and costs of the space disposal option for nuclear wastes.

  11. Radiation safety and nuclear medicine policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Berman, C G

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing concern over possible adverse effects from medical applications of ionizing radiation. Hospital personnel must be educated in procedures to minimize exposure to themselves and their patients. Basic radiation safety procedures to protect personnel and patients are discussed. Examples of the nuclear medicine policies and procedures used for lymphatic mapping are provided. PMID:10448699

  12. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project path forward: nuclear safety equivalency to comparable NRC-licensed facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    This document includes the Technical requirements which meet the nuclear safety objectives of the NRC regulations for fuel treatment and storage facilities. These include requirements regarding radiation exposure limits, safety analysis, design and construction. This document also includes administrative requirements which meet the objectives of the major elements of the NRC licensing process. These include formally documented design and safety analysis, independent technical review, and oppportunity for public involvement.

  13. Nuclear Safety and Trends Global River Flood Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    aerts, jeroen; jongman, brenden; ward, Philip; Winsemius, hessel; Kwadijk, Jaap; Wetzelaer, bas

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima accident raised considerable concern around the globe on the overall safety of nuclear power plants against natural hazard induced risks. Since nuclear power-plants are often located near- or in flood zones from rivers, an important question is whether Nuclear facilities will face increased risk from flooding in the future? IN 2011, the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG) was invited to provide a stress test, as to whether nuclear installations can withstand the consequences of Natural hazards, inclduing flooding. This paper contributes to the findings of ENSREG by demonstrating how global flood risk may increase in the future using a global hydrological model at a 1 x 1 km2 resolution. This information is used to assess the vulnerability of existing and planned nuclear facilities as to whether they (1) are located in flood prone areas (2) are susceptible to an increase in potential flood inundation and (3) are vulnerable to other natural hazards such as earthquake and tsunami. Based on this assessment, a priority ranking can made showing the potentially most vulnerable nuclear power plants to natural hazards, and in particular flood risk.

  14. SCALE 6: Comprehensive Nuclear Safety Analysis Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Version 6 of the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, released in February 2009, contains significant new capabilities and data for nuclear safety analysis and marks an important update for this software package, which is used worldwide. This paper highlights the capabilities of the SCALE system, including continuous-energy flux calculations for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections, ENDF/B-VII continuous-energy and multigroup nuclear cross-section data, continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations, Monte Carlo radiation shielding analyses with automated three-dimensional variance reduction techniques, one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations, two- and three-dimensional lattice physics depletion analyses, fast and accurate source terms and decay heat calculations, automated burnup credit analyses with loading curve search, and integrated three-dimensional criticality accident alarm system analyses using coupled Monte Carlo criticality and shielding calculations.

  15. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. S.; Holland, D. F.; Piet, S. J.

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex, with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g., for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions.

  16. Multilevel analysis in road safety research.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Emmanuelle; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Martensen, Heike; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    Hierarchical structures in road safety data are receiving increasing attention in the literature and multilevel (ML) models are proposed for appropriately handling the resulting dependences among the observations. However, so far no empirical synthesis exists of the actual added value of ML modelling techniques as compared to other modelling approaches. This paper summarizes the statistical and conceptual background and motivations for multilevel analyses in road safety research. It then provides a review of several ML analyses applied to aggregate and disaggregate (accident) data. In each case, the relevance of ML modelling techniques is assessed by examining whether ML model formulations (i) allow improving the fit of the model to the data, (ii) allow identifying and explaining random variation at specific levels of the hierarchy considered, and (iii) yield different (more correct) conclusions than single-level model formulations with respect to the significance of the parameter estimates. The evidence reviewed offers different conclusions depending on whether the analysis concerns aggregate data or disaggregate data. In the first case, the application of ML analysis techniques appears straightforward and relevant. The studies based on disaggregate accident data, on the other hand, offer mixed findings: computational problems can be encountered, and ML applications are not systematically necessary. The general recommendation concerning disaggregate accident data is to proceed to a preliminary investigation of the necessity of ML analyses and of the additional information to be expected from their application. PMID:23769622

  17. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  18. NRC safety research in support of regulation. Volume 8, FY 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This report, the ninth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1993. A special emphasis on accomplishments in nuclear power plant aging research reflects recognition that number of plants are entering the final portion of their original 40-year operating licenses and that, in addition to current aging effects, a focus on safety considerations for license renewal becomes timely. The primary purpose of performing regulatory research is to develop and provide the Commission and its staff with sound technical bases for regulatory decisions on the safe operation of licensed nuclear reactors and facilities, to find unknown or unexpected safety problems, and to develop data and related information for the purpose of revising the Commission`s rules, regulatory guides, or other guidance.

  19. Research on patient safety: falls and medications.

    PubMed

    Boddice, Sandra Dawn; Kogan, Polina

    2009-10-01

    Below you will find summaries of published research describing investigations into patient safety issues related to falls and medications. The first summary provides details on the incidence of falls associated with the use of walkers and canes. This is followed by a summary of a fall-prevention intervention study that evaluated the effectiveness of widespread dissemination of evidence-based strategies in a community in Connecticut. The third write up provides information on three classes of medications that are associated with a significant number of emergency room visits. The last summary describes a pharmacist-managed medication reconciliation intervention pilot program. For additional details about the study findings and interventions, we encourage readers to review the original articles. PMID:19820661

  20. Current Development of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion technologies at the Center for Space Nuclear Research

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. O'Brien; Steven K. Cook; Nathan D. Jerred; Steven D. Howe; Ronald Samborsky; Daniel Brasuell

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear power and propulsion has been considered for space applications since the 1950s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors / rocket engines in the Rover/NERVA programs1. The Aerojet Corporation was the prime contractor for the NERVA program. Modern changes in environmental laws present challenges for the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel composition that is significantly different from those of the NERVA project can be engineered; this may be needed to ensure public support and compliance with safety requirements. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing a number of technologies, modeling and testing processes to further the development of safe, practical and affordable nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  1. Threat of nuclear movement. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, G.M.

    1997-04-01

    While weapons of mass destruction (WMD) include biological, chemical and nuclear material, this paper will focus on the nuclear component. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, nuclear material was left throughout the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). As these new states focused on economic and social issues, security and safety of nuclear material became secondary. This change in focus has provided conditions for the illicit movement of nuclear material and expertise. CIS admissions that illegal movement has occurred have been limited; however, material and technical expertise has been found in numerous locations. The United States and Russia have initiated many notable programs, but the potential exists for continual illicit movement. As such, continual emphasis needs to be placed on stemming the movement of nuclear material and expertise.

  2. Periodic Safety Review on Safety Analyses of Kori Nuclear Units 3,4

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Woon Park; Sung Heum Han; Byoung Hwan Bae

    2004-07-01

    In order to maintain the operating plant safety at current safety standards, Periodic Safety Review (PSR) is legislated in 2001 in Korea as a 10-year-basis safety evaluation process. One of the eleven topics addressed in the PSR is safety analysis, in which the compliance of plants' safety analyses with current standards on initiating events and scope, methods and assumptions are evaluated. This paper describes the methods and results of the PSR on safety analysis of the Kori nuclear units 3,4, 3-Loop pressurized water reactors in operation from 1984. The review areas are design-basis, beyond-design basis and severe accidents. Evaluation of design basis accidents (DBA) in the Kori units 3,4 Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) issued a lack of consideration of loss of offsite power (LOOP) in some DBAs. To resolve this, electric power system stability analysis has been performed to show that sufficient time delay of reactor coolant pump trip after LOOP makes the current FSAR DBA analyses still valid with additional assumption of LOOP as an initiating event. Also, to get confidence on defense-in-depth safety, thermal hydraulic analyses are performed for beyond-design basis and severe accidents. A typical high-pressure scenario, total loss of feedwater event, is selected and analyzed by using RELAP5/MOD3 and MAAP4 computer codes for recovered and un-recovered cases, respectively. It is shown that using safety-grade pressurizer relief valves, the two cases meet the criteria that are applied to the new Korean Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNP) in Korea. It is thus concluded that the Kori units 3,4 have good design capabilities to prevent and mitigate broad spectrum of reactor accidents from design basis to severe accidents. (authors)

  3. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  4. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  5. Proceedings of the nuclear criticality technology safety project

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains summaries of the most of the papers presented at the 1994 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 10 and 11 at Williamsburg, Va. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Validation and Application of Calculations; (2) Relevant Experiments for Criticality Safety; (3) Experimental Facilities and Capabilities; (4) Rad-Waste and Weapons Disassembly; (5) Criticality Safety Software and Development; (6) Criticality Safety Studies at Universities; and (7) Training. The minutes and list of participants of the Critical Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup meeting, which was held on May 9 at the same venue, has been included as an appendix. A second appendix contains the names and addresses of all NCTSP meeting participants. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this proceedings.

  6. 76 FR 16758 - DOE Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Response to Recommendation 2010-1 of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Safety Analysis... Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and the Workers was...) Recommendation 2010-1, Safety Analysis Requirements for Defining Adequate Protection for the Public and...

  7. Coordinating Space Nuclear Research Advancement and Education

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Jonathon A. Webb; Brian J. Gross; Aaron E. Craft

    2009-11-01

    The advancement of space exploration using nuclear science and technology has been a goal sought by many individuals over the years. The quest to enable space nuclear applications has experienced many challenges such as funding restrictions; lack of political, corporate, or public support; and limitations in educational opportunities. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) was established at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) with the mission to address the numerous challenges and opportunities relevant to the promotion of space nuclear research and education.1 The CSNR is operated by the Universities Space Research Association and its activities are overseen by a Science Council comprised of various representatives from academic and professional entities with space nuclear experience. Program participants in the CSNR include academic researchers and students, government representatives, and representatives from industrial and corporate entities. Space nuclear educational opportunities have traditionally been limited to various sponsored research projects through government agencies or industrial partners, and dedicated research centers. Centralized research opportunities are vital to the growth and development of space nuclear advancement. Coordinated and focused research plays a key role in developing the future leaders in the space nuclear field. The CSNR strives to synchronize research efforts and provide means to train and educate students with skills to help them excel as leaders.

  8. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Leven B.; Pyatt, David W.; Sholtis, Joseph A.; Winchester, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  9. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  10. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  11. Space and nuclear research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet is presented on the space and nuclear research and technology program consisting of a research and technology base, system studies, system technology programs, entry systems technology, and experimental programs.

  12. Nuclear pumped gas laser research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thom, K.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear pumping of lasers by fission-fragments from nuclear chain reactions is discussed. Application of the newly developed lasers to spacecraft propulsion or onboard power, to lunar bases for industrial processing, and to earth for utilization of power without pollution and hazards is envisioned. Emphasis is placed on the process by which the fission-fragement kinetic energy is converted into laser light.

  13. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  14. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  15. Qualification of Safety-Related Software in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G L

    2000-06-13

    Digital instrumentation and control systems have the potential of offering significant benefits over traditional analog systems in Nuclear Power Plant safety systems, but there are also significant difficulties in qualifying digital systems to the satisfaction of regulators. Digital systems differ in fundamental ways from analog systems. New methods for safety qualification, which take these differences into account, would ease the regulatory cost and promote use of digital systems. This paper offers a possible method for assisting in the analysis of digital system software, as one step in an improved qualification process.

  16. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  17. A comparison of commercial/industry and nuclear weapons safety concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.R.; Summers, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    In this paper the authors identify factors which influence the safety philosophy used in the US commercial/industrial sector and compare them against those factors which influence nuclear weapons safety. Commercial/industrial safety is guided by private and public safety standards. Generally, private safety standards tend to emphasize product reliability issues while public (i.e., government) safety standards tend to emphasize human factors issues. Safety in the nuclear weapons arena is driven by federal requirements and memoranda of understanding (MOUs) between the Departments of Defense and Energy. Safety is achieved through passive design features integrated into the nuclear weapon. Though the common strand between commercial/industrial and nuclear weapons safety is the minimization of risk posed to the general population (i.e., public safety), the authors found that each sector tends to employ a different safety approach to view and resolve high-consequence safety issues.

  18. New Dimensions of Food Safety and Food Quality Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evolving consumer, regulatory, and market influences have resulted in significant changes in research directions in the broad areas of food safety and quality. In the food safety area, more attention is being placed on microbial food safety, and pathogenic microorganisms in particular. More rapid an...

  19. Double-clad nuclear-fuel safety rod

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, W.H.; Atcheson, D.B.

    1981-12-30

    A device for shutting down a nuclear reactor during an undercooling or overpower event, whether or not the reactor's scram system operates properly. This is accomplished by double-clad fuel safety rods positioned at various locations throughout the reactor core, wherein melting of a secondary internal cladding of the rod allows the fuel column therein to shift from the reactor core to place the reactor in a subcritical condition.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation DWPF melter -- Batch 1

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, T.G.

    1993-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Nuclear Waste will be vitrified in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for long term storage and disposal. This is a preliminary safety evaluation for the Melt Cell of the DWPF vitrification process for Batch 1 waste. This evaluation demonstrates that the material in the Melt cell remains subcritical for the contents of Batch 1 which contains uranium with less than 1% by weight U-235.

  1. Safety provisions for the SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Mark I.; Damon, Dennis R.; Hackford, Norman E.; Ha, Chuong T.; Mapes, Robert L.; Miller, David D.; Smith, Michael A.

    The SP-100 Nuclear Assembly Test (NAT) article is charged with the validation of such a fast-spectrum, liquid metal-cooled reactor's integrated reactor, control, and shield performance characteristics in a spacelike environment. The NAT facility is designed for safe assembly, operation, disassembly, and disposal. Attention is presently given to the selection and classification of postulated accidents, safety design criteria, reactor trip parameters, and the structure of accident analyses.

  2. Nuclear-power-safety reporting system: feasibility analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, F.C.; Ims, J.

    1983-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is evaluating the possibility of instituting a data gathering system for identifying and quantifying the factors that contribute to the occurrence of significant safety problems involving humans in nuclear power plants. This report presents the results of a brief (6 months) study of the feasibility of developing a voluntary, nonpunitive Nuclear Power Safety Reporting System (NPSRS). Reports collected by the system would be used to create a data base for documenting, analyzing and assessing the significance of the incidents. Results of The Aerospace Corporation study are presented in two volumes. This document, Volume I, contains a summary of an assessment of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The FAA-sponsored, NASA-managed ASRS was found to be successful, relatively low in cost, generally acceptable to all facets of the aviation community, and the source of much useful data and valuable reports on human factor problems in the nation's airways. Several significant ASRS features were found to be pertinent and applicable for adoption into a NPSRS.

  3. [Recommendations for inspections of the French nuclear safety authority].

    PubMed

    Rousse, C; Chauvet, B

    2015-10-01

    The French nuclear safety authority is responsible for the control of radiation protection in radiotherapy since 2002. Controls are based on the public health and the labour codes and on the procedures defined by the controlled health care facility for its quality and safety management system according to ASN decision No. 2008-DC-0103. Inspectors verify the adequacy of the quality and safety management procedures and their implementation, and select process steps on the basis of feedback from events notified to ASN. Topics of the inspection are communicated to the facility at the launch of a campaign, which enables them to anticipate the inspectors' expectations. In cases where they are not physicians, inspectors are not allowed to access information covered by medical confidentiality. The consulted documents must therefore be expunged of any patient-identifying information. Exchanges before the inspection are intended to facilitate the provision of documents that may be consulted. Finally, exchange slots between inspectors and the local professionals must be organized. Based on improvements achieved by the health care centres and on recommendations from a joint working group of radiotherapy professionals and the nuclear safety authority, changes will be made in the control procedure that will be implemented when developing the inspection program for 2016-2019. PMID:26321685

  4. Just in Time DSA the Hanford Nuclear Safety Basis Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    JACKSON, M.W.

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) is responsible for 30 hazard category 2 and 3 nuclear facilities that are operated by its prime contractors, Fluor Hanford, Incorporated (FHI), Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The publication of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 830, Subpart B, Safely Basis Requirements (the Rule) in January 2001 requires that the Documented Safety Analyses (DSA) for these facilities be reviewed against the requirements of the Rule. Those DSAs that do not meet the requirements must either be upgraded to satisfy the Rule, or an exemption must be obtained. RL and its prime contractors have developed a Nuclear Safety Strategy that provides a comprehensive approach for supporting RL's efforts to meet its long-term objectives for hazard category 2 and 3 facilities while also meeting the requirements of the Rule. This approach will result in a reduction of the total number of safety basis documents that must be developed and maintained to support the remaining mission and closure of the Hanford Site and ensure that the documentation that must be developed will support: Compliance with the Rule; A ''Just-In-Time'' approach to development of Rule-compliant safety bases supported by temporary exemptions; and Consolidation of safety basis documents that support multiple facilities with a common mission (e.g. decontamination, decommissioning and demolition [DD&D], waste management, surveillance and maintenance). This strategy provides a clear path to transition the safety bases for the various Hanford facilities from support of operation and stabilization missions through DD&D to accelerate closure. This ''Just-In-Time'' Strategy can also be tailored for other DOE Sites, creating the potential for large cost savings and schedule reductions throughout the DOE complex.

  5. Technological Transfer from Research Nuclear Reactors to New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Laura; Pavelescu, Margarit

    2010-01-21

    The goal of this paper is the analysis of the technological transfer role in the nuclear field, with particular emphasis on nuclear reactors domain. The presentation is sustained by historical arguments. In this frame, it is very important to start with the achievements of the first nuclear systems, for instant those with natural uranium as fuel and heavy water as moderator, following in time through the history until the New Generation Nuclear Power Reactors.Starting with 1940, the accelerated development of the industry has implied the increase of the global demand for energy. In this respect, the nuclear energy could play an important role, being essentially an unlimited source of energy. However, the nuclear option faces the challenges of increasingly demanding safety requirements, economic competitiveness and public acceptance. Worldwide, a significant amount of experience has been accumulated during development, licensing, construction, and operation of nuclear power reactors. The experience gained is a strong basis for further improvements. Actually, the nuclear programs of many countries are addressing the development of advanced reactors, which are intended to have better economics, higher reliability, improved safety, and proliferation-resistant characteristics in order to overcome the current concerns about nuclear power. Advanced reactors, now under development, may help to meet the demand for energy power of both developed and developing countries as well as for district heating, desalination and for process heat.The paper gives historical examples that illustrate the steps pursued from first research nuclear reactors to present advanced power reactors. Emphasis was laid upon the fact that the progress is due to the great discoveries of the nuclear scientists using the technological transfer.

  6. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  7. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I. Interim definition of terms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.

    1980-12-19

    This report documents interim definitions of terms in the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Intent is to establish a common-based terminology integral to the probabilistic methods that predict more realistically the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake. These definitions are a response to a request by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards at its meeting held November 15-16, 1979.

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study: NEP systems/modeling report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karns, James

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the initial quantitative reliability bounds for nuclear electric propulsion systems in a manned Mars mission required to ensure crew safety and mission success. Finding the reliability bounds involves balancing top-down (mission driven) requirements and bottom-up (technology driven) capabilities. In seeking this balance we hope to accomplish the following: (1) provide design insights into the achievability of the baseline design in terms of reliability requirements, given the existing technology base; (2) suggest alternative design approaches which might enhance reliability and crew safety; and (3) indicate what technology areas require significant research and development to achieve the reliability objectives.

  9. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K.; Rice, J.W.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-09-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  10. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H. ); Sawyer, J.C. Jr. ); Bari, R.A. ); Brown, N.W. ); Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C. (National Aeronautics and Space Administ

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  11. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  12. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Brown, Neil W.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry

    1992-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed.

  13. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; Mcculloch, W.H.; Niederauer, G.F.; Remp, K. NASA, Washington Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY General Electric Co., San Jose, CA NASA, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tn L

    1992-07-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of safety functional requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed. 9 refs.

  14. Worker Safety and Health and Nuclear Safety Quarterly Performance Analysis (January - March 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, C E

    2009-10-07

    The DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to 'implement comprehensive management and independent assessments that are effective in identifying deficiencies and broader problems in safety and security programs, as well as opportunities for continuous improvement within the organization' and to 'regularly perform assessments to evaluate implementation of the contractor's processes for screening and internal reporting.' LLNL has a self-assessment program, described in ES&H Manual Document 4.1, that includes line, management and independent assessments. LLNL also has in place a process to identify and report deficiencies of nuclear, worker safety and health and security requirements. In addition, the DOE Office of Enforcement expects LLNL to evaluate 'issues management databases to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions' (page 14, DOE Enforcement Process Overview, December 2007). LLNL requires that all worker safety and health and nuclear safety noncompliances be tracked as 'deficiencies' in the LLNL Issues Tracking System (ITS). Data from the ITS are analyzed for worker safety and health (WSH) and nuclear safety noncompliances that may meet the threshold for reporting to the DOE Noncompliance Tracking System (NTS). This report meets the expectations defined by the DOE Office of Enforcement to review the assessments conducted by LLNL, analyze the issues and noncompliances found in these assessments, and evaluate the data in the ITS database to identify adverse trends, dominant problem areas, and potential repetitive events or conditions. The report attempts to answer three questions: (1) Is LLNL evaluating its programs and state of compliance? (2) What is LLNL finding? (3) Is LLNL appropriately managing what it finds? The analysis in this report focuses on data from the first quarter of 2008 (January through March). This quarter is analyzed within the context of information identified in previous quarters to

  15. The role of research in nuclear regulation: An NRC perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The role of research in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was broadly defined by the US Congress in the Energy Reorganization Act of 1975. This Act empowered the Commission to do research that it deems necessary for the performance of its licensing and regulatory functions. Congress cited a need for an independent capability that would support the licensing and regulatory process through the development and analysis of technical information related to reactor safety, safeguards and environmental protection. Motivation for establishing such a safety research function within the regulatory agency is the need to address the defects, abnormal occurrences and shutdowns involving light water reactors. Congress further stated that the NRC should limit its research to {open_quotes}confirmatory assessment{close_quotes} and that the Agency {open_quotes}should never be placed in a position to generate, and then have to defend, basic design data of its own.{close_quotes} The author reviews the activities of the research arm as related to regulatory research, performed in the past, today, and projected for the future. NRC`s public health and safety mission demands that its research products be developed independently from its licensees; be credible and of the highest technical quality as established through peer review; and open to the public scrutiny through publication in technical journals as well as NRC documents. A special trust is placed on regulatory research through the products it produces as well as the three dimensions that underlie the processes through which they are produced.

  16. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  17. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; King, M.; Takase, Y.; Oshima, Y.; Nishimura, K.; Sukegawa, A.

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  18. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  19. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  20. PRELIMINARY NUCLEAR CRITICALITY NUCLEAR SAFETY EVLAUATION FOR THE CONTAINER SURVEILLANCE AND STORAGE CAPABILITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, M; Matthew02 Miller, M; Thomas Reilly, T

    2007-04-30

    Washington Safety Management Solutions (WSMS) provides criticality safety services to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) at the Savannah River Site. One activity at SRS is the Container Surveillance and Storage Capability (CSSC) Project, which will perform surveillances on 3013 containers (hereafter referred to as 3013s) to verify that they meet the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) 3013 for plutonium storage. The project will handle quantities of material that are greater than ANS/ANSI-8.1 single parameter mass limits, and thus required a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). The WSMS methodology for conducting an NCSE is outlined in the WSMS methods manual. The WSMS methods manual currently follows the requirements of DOE-O-420.1B, DOE-STD-3007-2007, and the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) SCD-3 manual. DOE-STD-3007-2007 describes how a NCSE should be performed, while DOE-O-420.1B outlines the requirements for a Criticality Safety Program (CSP). The WSRC SCD-3 manual implements DOE requirements and ANS standards. NCSEs do not address the Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) of non-reactor nuclear facilities that may be affected by overt or covert activities of sabotage, espionage, terrorism or other security malevolence. Events which are beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are outside the scope of a double contingency analysis.

  1. Lessons from Fukushima for Improving the Safety of Nuclear Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2012-02-01

    The March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant has revealed serious vulnerabilities in the design, operation and regulation of nuclear power plants. While some aspects of the accident were plant- and site-specific, others have implications that are broadly applicable to the current generation of nuclear plants in operation around the world. Although many of the details of the accident progression and public health consequences are still unclear, there are a number of lessons that can already be drawn. The accident demonstrated the need at nuclear plants for robust, highly reliable backup power sources capable of functioning for many days in the event of a complete loss of primary off-site and on-site electrical power. It highlighted the importance of detailed planning for severe accident management that realistically evaluates the capabilities of personnel to carry out mitigation operations under extremely hazardous conditions. It showed how emergency plans rooted in the assumption that only one reactor at a multi-unit site would be likely to experience a crisis fail miserably in the event of an accident affecting multiple reactor units simultaneously. It revealed that alternate water injection following a severe accident could be needed for weeks or months, generating large volumes of contaminated water that must be contained. And it reinforced the grim lesson of Chernobyl: that a nuclear reactor accident could lead to widespread radioactive contamination with profound implications for public health, the economy and the environment. While many nations have re-examined their policies regarding nuclear power safety in the months following the accident, it remains to be seen to what extent the world will take the lessons of Fukushima seriously and make meaningful changes in time to avert another, and potentially even worse, nuclear catastrophe.

  2. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  3. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

    1994-08-01

    MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

  4. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  5. Produce safety and quality research at ERRC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many reports of disease due to consumption of fruits and vegetables that were contaminated on the surface with enteric pathogens. Therefore, the safety of fresh-cut melons and other produce available in salad-bar operations and supermarkets is a concern. Physical and chemical treatments ...

  6. 77 FR 1748 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Meetings/Hearings, 66 FR 31,719 (June 12, 2001) [hereinafter Meeting Security Guidelines]. All individuals... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, LLC, and UniStar Nuclear... Calvert Cliffs 3 Nuclear Project, L.L.C., and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, L.L.C. (Applicants)...

  7. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  8. Safety evaluation of nuclear polyhedrosis virus replication in pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Döller, G; Gröner, A; Straub, O C

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate the hygienic risk involved in using baculoviruses for insect pest control, safety studies are required. Pigs were chosen as representative test animals of commercial and agricultural importance. The tests were aimed at detecting virus propagation, immune reactions, and signs of acute infection (changes in body temperature and hematology profile, swelling of lymph nodes). Four of five animals inoculated with nuclear polyhedrosis virus showed a slight temperature rise at day 2 postinfection. After day 4 postinfection, no differences between infected animals and controls were observed. In the bioassay, virus activity could be recovered from fecal samples; however, no activity was found in organ extracts. The data did not indicate hygienic risks involved in the application of nuclear polyhedrosis virus, especially that from Mamestra brassicae, in biological pest control. PMID:6344789

  9. Safety evaluation of nuclear polyhedrosis virus replication in pigs.

    PubMed

    Döller, G; Gröner, A; Straub, O C

    1983-04-01

    To evaluate the hygienic risk involved in using baculoviruses for insect pest control, safety studies are required. Pigs were chosen as representative test animals of commercial and agricultural importance. The tests were aimed at detecting virus propagation, immune reactions, and signs of acute infection (changes in body temperature and hematology profile, swelling of lymph nodes). Four of five animals inoculated with nuclear polyhedrosis virus showed a slight temperature rise at day 2 postinfection. After day 4 postinfection, no differences between infected animals and controls were observed. In the bioassay, virus activity could be recovered from fecal samples; however, no activity was found in organ extracts. The data did not indicate hygienic risks involved in the application of nuclear polyhedrosis virus, especially that from Mamestra brassicae, in biological pest control. PMID:6344789

  10. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  11. Senate examines measures to improve nuclear safety following Japan disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    One year after Japan suffered a devastating magnitude 9.0 earthquake and the resulting tsunami and nuclear disaster, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has taken a number of measures to try to ensure that nuclear plants in the United States are safe from natural hazards. At a U.S. Senate hearing on 15 March, NRC chair Gregory Jaczko announced that the commission had issued three key orders and several requests for information on 12 March that plant licensees must follow, and that NRC also plans to take additional actions. However, the commission is not moving quickly enough in some areas, such as ensuring that all plants are safe from seismic hazards, including those in areas with low seismic activity, according to Jaczko's testimony before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW) and the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety. The 12 March orders require licensees to have strategies to maintain or restore core cooling, containment, and spent-fuel pool cooling capabilities "following a beyond-design-basis extreme natural event" and have a reliable indication of the water level in spent-fuel storage pools.

  12. Environmental research to improve food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate in a popular form how the EMFSL experimental environmental research looks and what results are expected. The research leader Dan Shelton explains the history and purpose of the research site creation. The information about the current field research group...

  13. THE RADIATION SAFETY INFORMATION COMPUTATIONAL CENTER: A RESOURCE FOR REACTOR DOSIMETRY SOFTWARE AND NUCLEAR DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

  14. The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center:. a Resource for Reactor Dosimetry Software and Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, B. L.

    2009-08-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) was established in 1963 to collect and disseminate computational nuclear technology in the form of radiation transport, shielding and safety software and corresponding nuclear cross sections. Approximately 1700 nuclear software and data packages are in the RSICC collection, and the majority are applicable to reactor dosimetry.

  15. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. 1.42 Section 1.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.42 Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. (a) The Office of...

  16. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. 1.42 Section 1.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.42 Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. (a) The Office of...

  17. NESST: A nuclear energy safety and security treaty-Separating nuclear energy from nuclear weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Fission and Fusion energy is matched by the need to completely separate civilian energy programmes from the production of nuclear weapons. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT, 1968) muddles these issues together. The case is presented here for making a new Nuclear Energy Security Treaty (NESST) which is rigorous, enforceable without violence, and separate from the political quagmire of nuclear weapons.

  18. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for "engineering thinking in emergency situations." This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations-such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  19. Engineering thinking in emergency situations: A new nuclear safety concept

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Franck; Travadel, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident have focused on preventive measures designed to protect nuclear reactors, and crisis management plans. Although there is still no end in sight to the accident that occurred on March 11, 2011, how engineers have handled the aftermath offers new insight into the capacity of organizations to adapt in situations that far exceed the scope of safety standards based on probabilistic risk assessment and on the comprehensive identification of disaster scenarios. Ongoing crises in which conventional resources are lacking, but societal expectations are high, call for “engineering thinking in emergency situations.” This is a new concept that emphasizes adaptability and resilience within organizations—such as the ability to create temporary new organizational structures; to quickly switch from a normal state to an innovative mode; and to integrate a social dimension into engineering activities. In the future, nuclear safety oversight authorities should assess the ability of plant operators to create and implement effective engineering strategies on the fly, and should require that operators demonstrate the capability for resilience in the aftermath of an accident. PMID:25419015

  20. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Go, D. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  1. Model development experimental programs as part of the NRC reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.W.; Hsu, Y.Y.

    1982-07-01

    Experimental and model development programs have a key impact on the overall success of code calculational capabilities in addition to supporting regulatory and licensing decisions. The reactor safety research effort undertaken by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has as one of several objectives to obtain experimental data for model and code development and code assessment. This article highlights recent research sponsored under the thermal-hydraulic model-development experimental programs at NRC.

  2. 75 FR 12554 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee...

  3. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  4. Proceedings of the 1984 DOE nuclear reactor and facility safety conference. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report is a collection of papers on reactor safety. The report takes the form of proceedings from the 1984 DOE Nuclear Reactor and Facility Safety Conference, Volume II of two. These proceedings cover Safety, Accidents, Training, Task/Job Analysis, Robotics and the Engineering Aspects of Man/Safety interfaces.

  5. An overview of criticality safety research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuvshinov, M.I.; Voinov, A.M.; Yuferev, V.I.

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of experimental and calculational activities conducted at VNIIEF from the late 1940s to now to study the critical conditions of systems as part of a nuclear safety program. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Nuclear Safety Risk Management in Refueling Outage of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meijing Wu; Guozhang Shen

    2006-07-01

    The NPP is used to planning maintenance, in-service inspection, surveillance test, fuel handling and design modification in the refueling outage; the operator response capability will be reduced plus some of the plant systems out of service or loss of power at this time. Based on 8 times refueling outage experiences of the Qinshan NPP, this article provide some good practice and lesson learned for the nuclear safety risk management focus at four safety function areas of Residual Heat Removal Capability, Inventory Control, Power availability and Reactivity control. (authors)

  7. Gaseous core nuclear-driven engines featuring a self-shutoff mechanism to provide nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich, J.; Pettibone, J.; Chow, Tze-Show; Condit, R.; Zimmerman, G.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear driven engines are described that could be run in either pulsed or steady state modes. In the pulsed mode nuclear energy is released by fissioning of uranium or plutonium in a supercritical assembly of fuel and working gas. In a steady state mode a fuel-gas mixture is injected into a magnetic nozzle where it is compressed into a critical state and produces energy. Engine performance is modeled using a code that calculates hydrodynamics, fission energy production, and neutron transport self-consistently. Results are given demonstrating a large negative temperature coefficient that produces self-shutoff or control of energy production. Reduced fission product inventory and the self-shutoff provide inherent nuclear safety. It is expected that nuclear engine reactor units could be scaled up from about 100 MW{sub e}.

  8. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T{sub 20} experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180{degrees} elastic magnetic scattering on {sup 117}Sn and {sup 41}Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e{prime}) measurements were made in November of 1987 on {sup 10}B in order to better determine the p{sub 3/2} wave function from the transition from the J{sup pi} = 3{sup +} ground state to the O{sup +} excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e{prime}p) coincidence measurements on {sup 10}B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p{sub 3/2} wave function by another means.

  9. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  11. Basic Research and Nuclear Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    We will address areas of new research that may be important to meeting current and anticipated future monitoring needs. We will highlight outstanding problems whose solutions would benefit monitoring, and new scientific results and applications that have advanced understanding and/or capability and provide a basis for further efforts. In the area of seismic source physics, field and laboratory experiments, numerical and theoretical work, and analyses of historical data have significantly advanced our understanding, although there is still not consensus regarding the mechanisms of seismic wave generation, especially shear waves, by explosions. Further advances may come from research that focuses on distinguishing between competing mechanisms and from innovative experiments that take advantage of new technology and methods, such as the use of massive numbers of sensors and the use of ambient noise correlations to better evaluate damage. Significant advances in signal and array processing methods have been made, yet more are needed, as magnitude thresholds decrease, since that leads to an exponential increase in the number of events that must be screened despite having fewer recordings and lower signal-to-noise ratios, with signals at predominantly at higher frequencies that are not coherent across regional arrays. This also drives the need for more accurate and higher resolution velocity, attenuation, and full waveform modeling as those feed into location, discrimination, and yield estimation. Better location algorithms and uncertainty estimates have been enabled by both theoretical advances and increased computing capacity. New approaches to separating source, path, and site effects and to the use of ambient noise have improved signal loss prediction, but that remains especially challenging for upper mantle phases, as insufficient sampling prevents straightforward separation of geometric spreading, intrinsic attenuation, and scattering effects. Finite frequency

  12. Nuclear instrumentation, process instrumentation and control, and engineered safety features. Volume nine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume nine covers nuclear instrumentation (detection of nuclear radiation, gas-filled detectors, measuring neutron population, BWR/PWR nuclear instrumentation), process instrumentation and control (what is process instrumentation, pressure detectors and transducers, temperature detectors and transducers, level detectors and transducers, flow detectors and transducers, mechanical position detectors and transducers, what are the major processes controlled, BWR and PWR process instrumentation and control), engineered safety features (why are engineered safety features provided, the design basis accident, engineered safety feature operation, PWR engineered safety feature systems, BWR engineered safety feature systems).

  13. NATO and nuclear proliferation. Research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Necas, P.; Oliveira, L.; Alligood, M.J.; Frake, S.; Viloria-Villega, J.L.

    1996-04-01

    This research project explores the topic of nuclear proliferation in the current, post-Cold War environment. The intention is to provide the military planner with a basic primer on what has been and will continue to be a highly dynamic problem. The methodology for this research is primarily a literature review to illuminate the nuclear proliferation issue. These topics are critically assessed as they relate to NATO. This process will highlight tasks which NATO should consider accomplishing to confront the challenge of nuclear proliferation. Included in Chapter 1 is an examination of the nuclear environment - which states presently possess or are in pursuit of acquiring nuclear weapons, and what are the motives and disincentives of this pursuit. Methods of proliferation will be explored followed by an analysis of the factors which complicate decision-making on nuclear issues. Chapter 2 discusses the effectiveness of current treaties and international organizations in countering proliferation. Chapter 3 investigates current issues confronting NATO. An overview of the alliance`s new proliferation policy is included in Chapter 4. The paper`s fundamental theme is to provide the reader an understanding of the proliferation issue as well as an appreciation for today`s opportunities to confront the problem.

  14. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  15. 76 FR 5354 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). ACTION: Notice of public availability of... show how contracted resources are distributed throughout the agency. The inventory has been developed... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR...

  16. Applications of nuclear data covariances to criticality safety and spent fuel characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Mark L; Ilas, Germina; Marshall, William BJ J; Rearden, Bradley T

    2014-01-01

    Covariance data computational methods and data used for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis within the SCALE nuclear analysis code system are presented. Applications in criticality safety calculations and used nuclear fuel analysis are discussed.

  17. Applications of Nuclear Data Covariances to Criticality Safety and Spent Fuel Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. L.; Ilas, G.; Marshall, W. J.; Rearden, B. T.

    2014-04-01

    Covariance data computational methods and data used for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis within the SCALE nuclear analysis code system are presented. Applications in criticality safety calculations and used nuclear fuel analysis are discussed.

  18. Development of a Reliability Program approach to assuring operational nuclear safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Reliability Program (RP) model based on proven reliability techniques used in other high technology industries is being formulated for potential application in the nuclear power industry. Research findings are discussed. The reliability methods employed under NASA and military direction, commercial airline and related FAA programs were surveyed with several reliability concepts (e.g., quantitative reliability goals, reliability centered maintenance) appearing to be directly transferable. Other tasks in the RP development effort involved the benchmarking and evaluation of the existing nuclear regulations and practices relevant to safety/reliability integration. A review of current risk-dominant issues was also conducted using results from existing probabilistic risk assessment studies. The ongoing RP development tasks have concentrated on defining a RP for the operating phase of a nuclear plant's lifecycle. The RP approach incorporates safety systems risk/reliability analysis and performance monitoring activities with dedicated tasks that integrate these activities with operating, surveillance, and maintenance of the plant. The detection, root-cause evaluation and before-the-fact correction of incipient or actual systems failures as a mechanism for maintaining plant safety is a major objective of the RP.

  19. Spacecraft Fire Safety and Microgravity Combustion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in our daily lives and it plays a special role in the human presence in space. In a spacecraft, the outside environment is hostile and the opportunity to escape is small. Rescue missions are difficult and time consuming. As a result, we should avoid the occurrence of fires in spacecraft as much as possible. If a fire occurs, we need to keep it small and under control. This implies that the materials used on board the spacecraft should be screened carefully, all the machines and devices need to be operated without accident, and fire detectors have to function properly. Once a fire is detected, it can be extinguished quickly and the cabin can be cleaned up to restore operation and sustain life.

  20. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  1. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios. PMID:23020592

  2. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report October - December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S K

    1981-04-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from October 1 through December 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NOE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  3. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April- June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1981-09-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL} from April1 through June 30, 1981, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining the strength of structural graphite, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Experimental data and analytical models are being provided to aid in decision-making regarding pipe-to-pipe impacts following postulated breaks in high-energy fluid system piping. Core thermal models are being developed to provide better digital codes to compute the behavior of full-scale reactor systems under postulated accident conditions. Fuel assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation, severe fuel damage, and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR reactor Super Sara Test Program, lspra, Italy; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory {INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  4. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report January - March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, C. M

    1980-10-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory from January 1 through March 31, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibilty of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibilty of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor steam generator tubes where serviceinduced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include the loss-of-coolant accident simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; the fuel rod deformation and post-accident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; the blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and the experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  5. Reactor Safety Research Programs Quarterly Report April -June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Edler, S. K.

    1980-11-01

    This document summarizes the work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) from April 1 through June 30, 1980, for the Division of Reactor Safety Research within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission {NRC). Evaluations of nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques and instrumentation are reported; areas of investigation include demonstrating the feasibility of determining structural graphite strength, evaluating the feasibility of detecting and analyzing flaw growth in reactor pressure boundary systems, examining NDE reliability and probabilistic fracture mechanics, and assessing the remaining integrity of pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubes where service-induced degradation has been indicated. Test assemblies and analytical support are being provided for experimental programs at other facilities. These programs include loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation tests at the NRU reactor, Chalk River, Canada; fuel rod deformation and postaccident coolability tests for the ESSOR Test Reactor Program, Ispra, Italy; blowdown and reflood tests in the test facility at Cadarache, France; the instrumented fuel assembly irradiation program at Halden, Norway; and experimental programs at the Power Burst Facility, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These programs will provide data for computer modeling of reactor system and fuel performance during various abnormal operating conditions.

  6. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis.

  7. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-13

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  8. Summary of ORNL work on NRC-sponsored HTGR safety research, July 1974-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, S.J.; Cleveland, J.C.; Conklin, J.C.; Delene, J.G.; Harrington, R.M.; Hatta, M.; Hedrick, R.A.; Johnson, L.G.; Sanders, J.P.

    1982-03-01

    A summary is presented of the major accomplishments of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research program on High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety. This report is intended to help the nuclear Regulatory Commission establish goals for future research by comparing the status of the work here (as well as at other laboratories) with the perceived safety needs of the large HTGR. The ORNL program includes extensive work on dynamics-related safety code development, use of codes for studying postulated accident sequences, and use of experimental data for code verification. Cooperative efforts with other programs are also described. Suggestions for near-term and long-term research are presented.

  9. Reactivity Transients in Nuclear Research Reactors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-01-01

    Version 01 AIREMOD-RR is a point kinetics code which can simulate fast transients in nuclear research reactor cores. It can also be used for theoretical reactor dynamics studies. It is used for research reactor kinetic analysis and provides a point neutron kinetic capability. The thermal hydraulic behavior is governed by a one-dimensional heat balance equation. The calculations are restricted to a single equivalent unit cell which consists of fuel, clad and coolant.

  10. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  11. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  12. The role of research in nuclear regulation: Opening remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    More than 20 years ago, the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 created the USNRC and that same act provided for an office of nuclear regulatory research. It`s what is called a statutory office within the NRC. In providing for an NRC research program, our Congress had several things to say about the character of the research that would be performed. First, NRC should perform such research as is necessary for the effective performance of the Commission`s licensing and related regulatory functions. Second, the research may be characterized as confirmatory reassessment related to the safe operation and the protection of commercial reactors and other nuclear materials. Third, the NRC should have an independent capability for developing and analyzing technical information related to reactor safety, safeguards, and environmental protection in support of both the licensing and regulatory processes. Fourth, the research should not go beyond the need for confirmatory assessment, because the NRC should never be place in a position of having generated and then having to defend basic design data of its own. This has been and continues to be the role of research at the NRC. Somewhat different purposes might apply for regulatory agencies in other countries. Several regulatory agencies are represented here on this panel, so some of these difference may be discussed.

  13. Impact of Fuel Failure on Criticality Safety of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Wagner, John C

    2012-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for considerably longer periods than originally intended (e.g., <40 years). Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation of nuclear fuel to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, can result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. This effort is primarily motivated by concerns related to the potential for fuel degradation during ES periods and transportation following ES. The criticality analyses consider representative UNF designs and cask systems and a range of fuel enrichments, burnups, and cooling times. The various failed-fuel configurations considered are designed to bound the anticipated effects of individual rod and general cladding failure, fuel rod deformation, loss of neutron absorber materials, degradation of canister internals, and gross assembly failure. The results quantify the potential impact on criticality safety associated with fuel reconfiguration and may be used to guide future research, design, and regulatory activities. Although it can be concluded that the criticality safety impacts of fuel reconfiguration during transportation subsequent to ES are manageable, the results indicate that certain configurations can result in a large increase in the effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}. Future work to inform decision making relative to which configurations are credible, and therefore need to be considered in a safety evaluation, is recommended.

  14. Technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Tanaka, T.J.; Antonescu, C.E.

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. This research was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). ORNL investigated potential failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies to environmental stressors, including electromagnetic/radio-frequency interference, temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. An experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) was constructed for the tests. SNL performed smoke exposure tests on digital components and circuit boards to determine failure mechanisms and the effect of different packaging techniques on smoke susceptibility. These studies are expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems by addressing the following: (1) adequacy of the present preferred test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging in qualification testing for equipment that is to be located in mild environments; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach to address smoke in a qualification program.

  15. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.V.

    1992-03-01

    This is a brief progress report from the Health and Safety Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Information is presented in the following sections: Assessment Technology including Measurement Applications and Development, Pollutant Assessments, Measurement Systems Research, Dosimetry Applications Research, Metabolism and Dosimetry Research and Nuclear Medicine. Biological and Radiation Physics including Atomic, Molecular, and High Voltage Physics, Physics of Solids and Macromolecules, Liquid and Submicron Physics, Analytic Dosimetry and Surface Physics and Health Effects. Chemical Physics including Molecular Physics, Photophysics and Advanced Monitoring Development. Biomedical and Environmental Information Analysis including Human Genome and Toxicology, Chemical Hazard Evaluation and Communication, Environmental Regulations and Remediation and Information Management Technology. Risk Analysis including Hazardous Waste.

  16. Style, content and format guide for writing safety analysis documents. Volume 1, Safety analysis reports for DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of Volume 1 of this 4-volume style guide is to furnish guidelines on writing and publishing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for DOE nuclear facilities at Sandia National Laboratories. The scope of Volume 1 encompasses not only the general guidelines for writing and publishing, but also the prescribed topics/appendices contents along with examples from typical SARs for DOE nuclear facilities.

  17. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  18. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  19. NRC safety research in support of regulation - FY 1994. Volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report, the tenth in a series of annual reports, was prepared in response to congressional inquiries concerning how nuclear regulatory research is used. It summarizes the accomplishments of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research during FY 1994. The goal of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is to ensure the availability of sound technical bases for timely rulemaking and related decisions in support of NRC regulatory/licensing/inspection activities. RES also has responsibilities related to the resolution of generic safety issues and to the review of licensee submittals regarding individual plant examinations. It is the responsibility of RES to conduct the NRC`s rulemaking process, including the issuance of regulatory guides and rules that govern NRC licensed activities.

  20. Seismic safety margins research program. Project I SONGS 1 AFWS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, T.Y.; Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Bohn, M.P.; Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.

    1981-02-24

    The seismic qualification requirements of auxiliary feedwater systems (AFWS) of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) were developed over a number of years. These are formalized in the publication General Design Criteria (Appendix A to 10CFR50). The full recognition of the system as an engineered safety feature did not occur until publication of the Standard Review Plan (1975). Efforts to determine how to backfit seismic requirements to earlier plants has been undertaken primarily in the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP) for a limited number of operating reactors. Nuclear Reactor Research (RES) and NRR have requested LLNL to perform a probabilistic study on the AFWS of San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) Unit 1 utilizing the tools developed by the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The main objectives of this project are to: identify the weak links of AFWS; compare the failure probabilities of SONGS 1 and Zion 1 AFWS: and compare the seismic responses due to different input spectra and design values.

  1. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This Conference Proceedings is a collection of 6 abstracts and 3 papers presented April 19-20, 2001 in Denver, CO. The conference focus was "Best Practices and Benchmarking in Collegiate and Industry Programs". Topics covered include: satellite-based aviation navigation; weather safety training; human-behavior and aircraft maintenance issues; disaster preparedness; the collegiate aviation emergency response checklist; aviation safety research; and regulatory status of maintenance resource management.

  2. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety: Research needs and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Michelle M.; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Waterson, Patrick E.; Ian Noy, Y.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Leveson, Nancy G.; Carayon, Pascale; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The sociotechnical systems perspective offers intriguing and potentially valuable insights into problems associated with workplace safety. While formal sociotechnical systems thinking originated in the 1950s, its application to the analysis and design of sustainable, safe working environments has not been fully developed. To that end, a Hopkinton Conference was organised to review and summarise the state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. A group of 26 international experts produced collaborative articles for this special issue of Ergonomics, and each focused on examining a key conceptual, methodological and/or theoretical issue associated with sociotechnical systems and safety. In this concluding paper, we describe the major conference themes and recommendations. These are organised into six topic areas: (1) Concepts, definitions and frameworks, (2) defining research methodologies, (3) modelling and simulation, (4) communications and decision-making, (5) sociotechnical attributes of safe and unsafe systems and (6) potential future research directions for sociotechnical systems research. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical complexity, a characteristic of many contemporary work environments, presents potential safety risks that traditional approaches to workplace safety may not adequately address. In this paper, we summarise the investigations of a group of international researchers into questions associated with the application of sociotechnical systems thinking to improve worker safety. PMID:25728246

  3. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P. J.; Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T.; Tapping, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  4. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.58 Safety/security...

  5. 10 CFR 1.42 - Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards. 1.42 Section 1.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION... radioactive materials regulated under the Atomic Energy Act. NMSS ensures safety and security by...

  6. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.73, dated January 1974. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator......

  7. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.58 Safety/security...

  8. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.58 Safety/security...

  9. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  10. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  14. Nuclear safety, legal aspects and policy recommendations for space nuclear power and propulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, Roger X.

    2006-07-01

    This paper represents a chapter of the International Astronautical Academy's Cosmic Study on safety, legal and policy aspects of advanced (specifically nuclear) power and propulsions systems; it is divided into several sections. The first section covers a series of findings and develops a set of recommendations for operations of space reactor systems in a safe, environmentally compliant fashion. The second section develops a generic set of hazard scenarios that might be experienced by a space nuclear system with emphasis on different methods under which such a system could be engaged, such as surface power, in-space nuclear electric or nuclear thermal propulsion. The third section develops these into test and analysis efforts that would likely be conducted. Risk areas with engineering judgment set toward frequency and consequences. The fourth section identifies what probable technology limits might be experienced by nuclear propulsion systems and the exploration limitations these technology restrictions might impose. Where the IAA recommends a change, the IAA leadership should be prepared to work with national and international bodies to implement the desired modifications.

  15. Nuclear Safety. Technical Progress Journal, October--December 1991: Volume 32, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  16. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24.

  17. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  18. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

    SciTech Connect

    Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

    1980-02-01

    As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

  19. Probabilistic reliability analysis, quantitative safety goals, and nuclear licensing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cannell, W

    1987-09-01

    Although unpublicized, the use of quantitative safety goals and probabilistic reliability analysis for licensing nuclear reactors has become a reality in the United Kingdom. This conclusion results from an examination of the process leading to the licensing of the Sizewell B PWR in England. The licensing process for this reactor has substantial implications for nuclear safety standards in Britain, and is examined in the context of the growing trend towards quantitative safety goals in the United States. PMID:3685540

  20. Proceedings of the international meeting on thermal nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    Separate abstracts are included for each of the papers presented concerning current issues in nuclear power plant safety; national programs in nuclear power plant safety; radiological source terms; probabilistic risk assessment methods and techniques; non LOCA and small-break-LOCA transients; safety goals; pressurized thermal shocks; applications of reliability and risk methods to probabilistic risk assessment; human factors and man-machine interface; and data bases and special applications.

  1. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  2. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  3. Continuously improving safety of nuclear installations: An approach to be reinforced after the Fukushima accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repussard, Jacques; Schwarz, Michel

    2012-05-01

    After the Three Mile Island accident in 1979 and the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the Fukushima accident shows that the probability of a core meltdown accident in an LWR (Light Water Reactor) has been largely underestimated. The consequences of such an accident are unacceptable: except in the case of TMI2 (Three Mile Island 2) large areas around the damaged plants are contaminated for decades and populations have to be relocated for long periods. This article presents the French approach which consists in improving continuously the safety of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) on the basis of lessons learned from operating experience and from the progress in R&D (Research and Development). It details the key role played by IRSN (Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire), the French TSO (Technical and scientific Safety Organization), and shows how the Fukushima accident contributes to this approach in improving NPP robustness. It concludes on the necessity to keep on networking TSOs, to share knowledge as well as R&D resources, with the ultimate goal of enhancing and harmonizing nuclear safety worldwide.

  4. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  5. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Pawelko, R.J.; Sharpe, J.P.; Schuetz, S.T.; Petti, D.A.

    2005-07-15

    The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility, a US DOE National User Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), comprises capabilities and infrastructure to support both tritium and non-tritium research activities important to the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Research thrusts include (1) interactions of tritium and deuterium with plasma-facing-component (PFC) materials, (2) fusion safety issues [PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, tritium behavior in fusion systems], and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. This paper updates the status of STAR and the capabilities for ongoing research activities, with an emphasis on the development, testing and integration of the infrastructure to support tritium research activities. Key elements of this infrastructure include a tritium storage and assay system, a tritium cleanup system to process glovebox and experiment tritiated effluent gases, and facility tritium monitoring systems.

  6. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-07-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  7. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  8. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author`s responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A.

  9. Extreme Storm Event Assessments for Nuclear Facilities and Dam Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, J. F.; Nicholson, T. J.; Prasad, R.

    2008-12-01

    Extreme storm events over the last 35 years are being assessed to evaluate flood estimates for safety assessments of dams, nuclear power plants, and other high-hazard structures in the U.S. The current storm rainfall design standard for evaluating the flood potential at dams and non-coastal nuclear power plants is the Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP). PMP methods and estimates are published in the National Weather Service generalized hydrometeorological reports (HMRs). A new Federal Interagency cooperative effort is reviewing hydrometeorologic data from large storms which have occurred in the last 20 to 40 years and were not included in the database used in the development of many of the HMRs. Extreme storm data, such as the January 1996 storm in Pennsylvania, June 2008 Iowa storms, and Hurricanes Andrew (1992), Floyd (1999), Isabel (2003), Katrina (2005), need to be systematically assembled and analyzed for use in these regional extreme storm studies. Storm maximization, transposition, envelopment, and depth-area duration procedures will incorporate recent advances in hydrometeorology, including radar precipitation data and stochastic storm techniques. We describe new cooperative efforts to develop a database of extreme storms and to examine the potential impacts of recent extreme storms on PMP estimates. These efforts will be coordinated with Federal agencies, universities, and the private sector through an Extreme Storm Events Work Group under the Federal Subcommittee on Hydrology. This work group is chartered to coordinate studies and develop databases for reviewing and improving methodologies and data collection techniques used to estimate design precipitation up to and including the PMP. The initial effort focuses on collecting and reviewing extreme storm event data in the Southeastern U.S. that have occurred since Tropical Storm Agnes (1972). Uncertainties and exceedance probability estimates of PMP are being explored. Potential effects of climate

  10. 10 CFR 1.45 - Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. 1.45 Section 1.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.45 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory...

  11. 10 CFR 1.45 - Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. 1.45 Section 1.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.45 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory...

  12. 10 CFR 1.45 - Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. 1.45 Section 1.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.45 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research— (a) Plans, recommends, and implements...

  13. 10 CFR 1.45 - Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. 1.45 Section 1.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.45 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory...

  14. 10 CFR 1.45 - Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. 1.45 Section 1.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.45 Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The Office of Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. Intervention research in occupational safety and health: examples from construction.

    PubMed

    Ringen, K; Stafford, E J

    1996-04-01

    Construction is one of the largest industries in the United States, with 13% of the gross national product and 5-6% of the labor force. It is also one of the most dangerous industries, accounting for 15% of occupational fatalities and 17% of all workers' compensation costs. In 1989, the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, completed an agreement with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to develop a national labor-management initiative to improve occupational safety and health throughout the construction industry. The aim was to remedy a lack of research on construction occupational safety and health. The first years were spent on surveillance to characterize construction safety and health problems, development of awareness about safety and health issues among decisionmakers in the industry, and some limited interventions. A second phase was initiated in 1994, which focuses on intervention activities. Results from this joint program include a growth in annual federal construction safety and health research expenditure from $300,000 in 1989 to $12 million in 1995, a research network that now encompasses more than 30 institutions, a national conference that established an agenda to change construction safety and health, four regional conferences to develop coalitions and implementation strategies, and the development of a feasible goal to reduce fatality and injury rates by 80%. The program may already be having an impact. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, lost-time injury rates for construction for the three most recent years of reporting declined by 20%. PMID:8728131

  16. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  17. Nuclear reactions used for superheavy element research

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A

    2008-02-26

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the 'Island of Stability' exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z > 112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using 48Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets ({sup 233,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 242,244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245,248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  18. Nuclear Reactions Used For Superheavy Element Research

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, Mark A.

    2008-04-17

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the 'Island of Stability' exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z>112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using {sup 48}Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets ({sup 233,238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 242,244}Pu, {sup 243}Am, {sup 245,248}Cm, {sup 249}Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  19. Nuclear Reactions Used For Superheavy Element Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyer, Mark A.

    2008-04-01

    Some of the most fascinating questions about the limits of nuclear stability are confronted in the heaviest nuclei. How many more new elements can be synthesized? What are the nuclear and chemical properties of these exotic nuclei? Does the "Island of Stability" exist and can we ever explore the isotopes inhabiting that nuclear region? This paper will focus on the current experimental research on the synthesis and characterization of superheavy nuclei with Z>112 from the Dubna/Livermore collaboration. Reactions using 48Ca projectiles from the U400 cyclotron and actinide targets (233,238U, 237Np, 242,244Pu, 243Am, 245,248Cm, 249Cf) have been investigated using the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator in Dubna over the last 8 years. In addition, several experiments have been performed to investigate the chemical properties of some of the observed longer-lived isotopes produced in these reactions. Some comments will be made on nuclear reactions used for the production of the heaviest elements. A summary of the current status of the upper end of the chart of nuclides will be presented.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety modeling of an LEU deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Elam, K.R.; Jordan, W.C.; Dahl, T.L.

    1996-11-01

    The construction of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now known as the K-25 Site) began during World War H and eventually consisted of five major process buildings: K-25, K-27, K-29, K-31, and K-33. The plant took natural (0.711% {sup 231}U) uranium as feed and processed it into both low-enriched uranium (LEU) and high-enriched uranium (HEU) with concentrations up to {approximately}93% {sup 231}U. The K-25 and K-27 buildings were shut down in 1964, but the rest of the plant produced LEU until 1985. During operation, inleakage of humid air into process piping and equipment caused reactions with gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that produced nonvolatile uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) deposits. As part of shutdown, most of the uranium was evacuated as volatile UF{sub 6}. The UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} deposits remained. The U.S. Department of Energy has mitiated a program to unprove nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger enriched uranium deposits.

  1. Assessment of the aversion coefficient in nuclear safety in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Eged, Katalin; Kanyár, Béla; Kis, Zoltán; Tatay, Tibor

    2002-06-01

    The key elements of the optimization practice as applied to radiation protection are the monetary value of the averted person-sievert and the aversion coefficient. Determination of the monetary value of the unit averted person-sievert (as alpha(base)-parameter) in Hungary was presented in a previous paper. The estimation of this parameter was carried out by the willingness-to-pay (WTP) method associated with averted occupational exposure (at the NPP Paks/Hungary). The aversion coefficient predicts the importance of dose reduction based on the magnitude of the dose. The assessment of the aversion coefficient occurred also by means of the WTP method in the spring of 2000. Its value has been estimated on the basis of individual preferences concerning the distribution of individual exposure in nuclear safety. The results achieved by the WTP among the radiation specialists from the NPP Paks, Hungary, assessed a value for the aversion coefficient of 1.86 over the whole range of individual exposure levels. This value is a bit greater than the value obtained in France (1.7) and the higher coefficient expresses a higher priority to reduce the highest individual exposures. PMID:12046754

  2. Informatics for patient safety: a nursing research perspective.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    In Crossing the Quality Chasm, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America identified the critical role of information technology in designing a health system that produces care that is "safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable" (Committee on Quality of Health Care in America, 2001, p. 164). A subsequent IOM report contends that improved information systems are essential to a new health care delivery system that "both prevents errors and learns from them when they occur" (Committee on Data Standards for Patient Safety, 2004, p. 1). This review specifically highlights the role of informatics processes and information technology in promoting patient safety and summarizes relevant nursing research. First, the components of an informatics infrastructure for patient safety are described within the context of the national framework for delivering consumer-centric and information-rich health care and using the National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) (Thompson & Brailer, 2004). Second, relevant nursing research is summarized; this includes research studies that contributed to the development of selected infrastructure components as well as studies specifically focused on patient safety. Third, knowledge gaps and opportunities for nursing research are identified for each main topic. The health information technologies deployed as part of the national framework must support nursing practice in a manner that enables prevention of medical errors and promotion of patient safety and contributes to the development of practice-based nursing knowledge as well as best practices for patient safety. The seminal work that has been completed to date is necessary, but not sufficient, to achieve this objective. PMID:17078416

  3. Farm Safety: A Tale of Translational Research and Collaboration.

    PubMed

    McClune, Amy J; Conway, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Children who live or work on farms are at a high risk for injury and death, yet few resources are available to reduce the danger of injury. Research findings establish the need for farm safety in preschool children. However, barriers to interventional research have limited the development of established strategies to help reduce the risk. For this project, Pender's Health Promotion Model served as the theoretical framework to support the prevention aspect of farm safety. Findings from two surveys of primary health care providers practicing in rural areas in Pennsylvania indicated a lack of materials to educate preschool children about farm safety. Using Woods and Magyary's translational model for research, this identified need resulted in a multidisciplinary team collaboration to develop an animated film entitled A Barnyard Story: Adventures in Farm Safety. The eight-minute film is an innovative child-centered intervention that addresses the gap in strategies to reduce farm injuries in preschool children. The development of this film illustrates the product development stage of research translation and is an example of diverse disciplines coming together for an important cause. PMID:27019939

  4. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-07-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  5. (Coordinated research programs in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1990-10-03

    The traveler visited the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, West Germany, to review, organize, and plan collaborative studies. He also met with the editorial board of the journal NucCompact -- European/American Communications in Nuclear Medicine, on which he serves as US editor. He also visited colleagues at the Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) at the University of Liege, Belgium, to coordinate clinical applications of the ultrashort-lived iridium-191m radionuclide obtained from the osmium-190/iridium-191m generator system. The traveler planned and coordinated continuing collaboration with colleagues at the CRC for further applications of this generator system. He also visited the University of Metz, Metz, France, to organize a three-center project for the synthesis and evaluation of various receptor-specific cerebral imaging agents, involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CRC, and the University of Metz.

  6. 78 FR 40743 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory... Cochrans Mill Road, Bldg. 140, Room 101, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 15236 Telephone: (412) 386- 5302, Fax..., Department of Health and Human Services; the Director, CDC; and the Director, NIOSH, on priorities in...

  7. Research Resources for Nuclear Receptor Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Neil J

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear receptor (NR) signaling pathways impact cellular function in a broad variety of tissues in both normal physiology and disease states. The complex tissue-specific biology of these pathways is an enduring impediment to the development of clinical NR small-molecule modulators that combine therapeutically desirable effects in specific target tissues with suppression of off-target effects in other tissues. Supporting the important primary research in this area is a variety of web-based resources that assist researchers in gaining an appreciation of the molecular determinants of the pharmacology of a NR pathway in a given tissue. In this study, selected representative examples of these tools are reviewed, along with discussions on how current and future generations of tools might optimally adapt to the future of NR signaling research. PMID:27216565

  8. Advanced Reactor Safety Research Division. Quarterly progress report, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, A.K.; Cerbone, R.J.; Sastre, C.

    1980-06-01

    The Advanced Reactor Safety Research Programs quarterly progress report describes current activities and technical progress in the programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory sponsored by the USNRC Division of Reactor Safety Research. The projects reported each quarter are the following: HTGR Safety Evaluation, SSC Code Development, LMFBR Safety Experiments, and Fast Reactor Safety Code Validation.

  9. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a Deliberate Operating'' mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a Use Every Time'' (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  10. Implementation of an Enhanced Measurement Control Program for handling nuclear safety samples at WSRC

    SciTech Connect

    Boler-Melton, C.; Holland, M.K.

    1991-12-31

    In the separation and purification of nuclear material, nuclear criticality safety (NCS) is of primary concern. The primary nuclear criticality safety controls utilized by the Savannah River Site (SRS) Separations Facilities involve administrative and process equipment controls. Additional assurance of NCS is obtained by identifying key process hold points where sampling is used to independently verify the effectiveness of production control. Nuclear safety measurements of samples from these key process locations provide a high degree of assurance that processing conditions are within administrative and procedural nuclear safety controls. An enhanced procedure management system aimed at making improvements in the quality, safety, and conduct of operation was implemented for Nuclear Safety Sample (NSS) receipt, analysis, and reporting. All procedures with nuclear safety implications were reviewed for accuracy and adequate detail to perform the analytical measurements safely, efficiently, and with the utmost quality. Laboratory personnel worked in a ``Deliberate Operating`` mode (a systematic process requiring continuous expert oversight during all phases of training, testing, and implementation) to initiate the upgrades. Thus, the effort to revise and review nuclear safety sample procedures involved a team comprised of a supervisor, chemist, and two technicians for each procedure. Each NSS procedure was upgraded to a ``Use Every Time`` (UET) procedure with sign-off steps to ensure compliance with each step for every nuclear safety sample analyzed. The upgrade program met and exceeded both the long and short term customer needs by improving measurement reliability, providing objective evidence of rigid adherence to program principles and requirements, and enhancing the system for independent verification of representative sampling from designated NCS points.

  11. Safety and environmental analyses for space nuclear programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The tools and procedures for analyzing environmental quality and safety are reviewed. The process of preparing an environmental impact statement is outlined and the data sources for a safety analysis are discussed. The environmental safety analysis process is demonstrated, using examples from the Galileo, Ulysses, and Venus-earth-earth-gravity-assist programs.

  12. Abstracts of NASA-ASRDI publications relevant to aerospace safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, G.; Mckenna, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts covering the following areas are presented: (1) oxygen technology; (2) fire safety; (3) accidents/incidents; (4) toxic spills; (5) aircraft safety; (6) structural failures; (7) nuclear systems; (8) fluid flow; and (9) zero gravity combustion.

  13. Knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangang; Li, Dandan; Gao, Yue; Mu, Li; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-09-01

    With the wide research and application of nanomaterials in various fields, the safety of nanomaterials attracts much attention. An increasing number of reports in the literature have shown the adverse effects of nanomaterials, representing the quick development of nanotoxicology. However, many studies in nanotoxicology have not reflected the real nanomaterial safety, and the knowledge gaps between nanotoxicological research and nanomaterial safety remain large. Considering the remarkable influence of biological or environmental matrices (e.g., biological corona) on nanotoxicity, the situation of performing nanotoxicological experiments should be relevant to the environment and humans. Given the possibility of long-term and low-concentration exposure of nanomaterials, the reversibility of and adaptation to nanotoxicity, and the transgenerational effects should not be ignored. Different from common pollutants, the specific analysis methodology for nanotoxicology need development and exploration furthermore. High-throughput assay integrating with omics was highlighted in the present review to globally investigate nanotoxicity. In addition, the biological responses beyond individual levels, special mechanisms and control of nanotoxicity deserve more attention. The progress of nanotoxicology has been reviewed by previous articles. This review focuses on the blind spots in nanotoxicological research and provides insight into what we should do in future work to support the healthy development of nanotechnology and the evaluation of real nanomaterial safety. PMID:27203780

  14. Insight into protein nuclear magnetic resonance research.

    PubMed

    Stoven, V; Lallemand, J Y; Abergel, D; Bouaziz, S; Delsuc, M A; Ekondzi, A; Guittet, E; Laplante, S; Le Goas, R; Malliavin, T

    1990-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is one of the most powerful techniques to investigate the geometry of molecules in solution. It has been widely applied, in recent years, to the study of protein conformation. However, full reconstruction of the 3-D structure of such macro-molecules, still constitutes a real challenge for the spectroscopist. Skills as diverse as biology, spectroscopy, signal processing, or computer sciences, are required. This paper presents various aspects of the research in that domain, and our contribution to it. PMID:2126458

  15. Health and Safety Research Division progress report for the period April 1, 1987--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.V.

    1989-03-01

    The mission of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) is to provide a sound scientific basis for the measurement and assessment of human health impacts of radiological and chemical substances. Our approach to fulfilling this mission is to conduct a broad program of experimental, theoretical, and field research based on a strong foundation of fundamental physical studies that blend into well-established programs in life sciences. Topics include biomedical screening techniques, biological and chemical sensors, risk assessment, health hazards, dosimetry, nuclear medicine, environmental pollution monitoring, electron-molecule interactions, interphase physics, surface physics, data base management, environmental mutagens, carcinogens, and tetratogens.

  16. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    SciTech Connect

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}F-can{close_quotes}); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can ({open_quotes}Z-can{close_quotes}); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle ({open_quotes}CO-4{close_quotes}). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O and UF{sub 4}+oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and H{sub 2}O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant.

  17. Status report of the US Department of Energy`s International Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) implements the US Government`s International Nuclear Safety Program to improve the level of safety at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and Unkraine. The program is conducted consistent with guidance and policies established by the US Department of State (DOS) and the Agency for International Development and in close collaboration with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some of the program elements were initiated in 1990 under a bilateral agreement with the former Soviet Union; however, most activities began after the Lisbon Nuclear Safety Initiative was announced by the DOS in 1992. Within DOE, the program is managed by the International Division of the Office of Nuclear Energy. The overall objective of the International Nuclear Safety Program is to make comprehensive improvements in the physical conditions of the power plants, plant operations, infrastructures, and safety cultures of countries operating Soviet-designed reactors. This status report summarizes the Internatioal Nuclear Safety Program`s activities that have been completed as of September 1994 and discusses those activities currently in progress.

  18. Guidance for Safety Analysis of Other Than Nuclear Facilities/Activities at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Douglas Sidney; Perry, Scott William

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) provided guidance per DOE-ID Orders 420.C, "Safety Basis Review and Approval Process," and 420.D, "Requirements and Guidance for Safety Analysis," for conducting safety analysis for facilities and activities that do not meet either the nuclear facility criteria or the criteria for not requiring additional safety analysis (NRASA). These facilities and activities are thus designated as "other than nuclear" (OTN), and hazard analyses are performed using a graded approach. This graded approach is done in accordance with DOE-ID Order 420.D. DOE-ID guidance is used to format these OTN facilities and activities into 3-chapter documents, rather than the 17-chapter format specified in DOE-STD-3009-94, "Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports."

  19. Manual of functions, assignments, and responsibilities for nuclear safety: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-15

    The FAR Manual is a convenient easy-to-use collection of the functions, assignments, and responsibilities (FARs) of DOE nuclear safety personnel. Current DOE directives, including Orders, Secretary of Energy Notices, and other assorted policy memoranda, are the source of this information and form the basis of the FAR Manual. Today, the majority of FARs for DOE personnel are contained in DOE`s nuclear safety Orders. As these Orders are converted to rules in the Code of Federal Regulations, the FAR Manual will become the sole source for information relating to the functions, assignments, responsibilities of DOE nuclear safety personnel. The FAR Manual identifies DOE directives that relate to nuclear safety and the specific DOE personnel who are responsible for implementing them. The manual includes only FARs that have been extracted from active directives that have been approved in accordance with the procedures contained in DOE Order 1321.1B.

  20. Preparation, review, and approval of implementation plans for nuclear safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This standard describes an acceptable method to prepare, review, and approve implementation plans for DOE Nuclear Safety requirements. DOE requirements are identified in DOE Rules, Orders, Notices, Immediate Action Directives, and Manuals.

  1. Safety engineering: KTA code of practice. Lifting mechanisms in nuclear plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifting mechanisms safety requirements are discussed in accordance with the present state of development of science and engineering for the protection of life, health, and assets against the dangers of nuclear energy and the ill effects of ionizing radiation.

  2. Fall Prevention Research and Practice: A Total Worker Safety Approach

    PubMed Central

    HSIAO, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls (STF) represent a serious hazard to workers and occupants in many industries, homes, and communities. Often, the cause of a STF incident is multifactorial, encompassing human, environmental, and task risk factors. A STF-related disability can greatly diminish the occupational capability and quality of life of individuals in both the workplace and the home. Countering STF hazards and risks both on and off the job and on all aspects of control measures is a “total worker safety” matter, a challenging yet tangible undertaking. As the federal organization responsible for conducting research for the prevention of work-related injuries in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been conducting research on STF controls for some decades. Many NIOSH research outcomes have been utilized for STF prevention in workplaces, with potential for prevention in homes as well. This paper summarizes the concept of total worker safety for STF control, NIOSH priority research goals, major activities, and accomplishments, and some emerging issues on STF. The strategic planning process for the NIOSH research goals and some identified research focuses are applicable to the development and implementation of global STF research goals. PMID:25345424

  3. Safety evaluation report related to the renewal of the facility license for the research reactor at the Dow Chemical Company

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This safety evaluation report for the application filed by the Dow Chemical Company for renewal of facility Operating License R-108 to continue to operate its research reactor at an increased operating power level has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the grounds of the Michigan Division of the Dow Chemical Company in Midland, Michigan. The staff concludes that the Dow Chemical Company can continue to operate its reactor without endangering the health and safety of the public.

  4. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  5. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  6. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  7. Border Safety: Quality Control at the Nuclear Envelope.

    PubMed

    Webster, Brant M; Lusk, C Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The unique biochemical identity of the nuclear envelope confers its capacity to establish a barrier that protects the nuclear compartment and directly contributes to nuclear function. Recent work uncovered quality control mechanisms employing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery and a new arm of endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) to counteract the unfolding, damage, or misassembly of nuclear envelope proteins and ensure the integrity of the nuclear envelope membranes. Moreover, cells have the capacity to recognize and triage defective nuclear pore complexes to prevent their inheritance and preserve the longevity of progeny. These mechanisms serve to highlight the diverse strategies used by cells to maintain nuclear compartmentalization; we suggest they mitigate the progression and severity of diseases associated with nuclear envelope malfunction such as the laminopathies. PMID:26437591

  8. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  9. Management concepts and safety applications for nuclear fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, H.; Scotti, R.S.; Delicate, W.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an overview of effectiveness of management control of safety. It reviews several modern management control theories as well as the general functions of management and relates them to safety issues at the corporate and at the process safety management (PSM) program level. Following these discussions, structured technique for assessing management of the safety function is suggested. Seven modern management control theories are summarized, including business process reengineering, the learning organization, capability maturity, total quality management, quality assurance and control, reliability centered maintenance, and industrial process safety. Each of these theories is examined for-its principal characteristics and implications for safety management. The five general management functions of planning, organizing, directing, monitoring, and integrating, which together provide control over all company operations, are discussed. Under the broad categories of Safety Culture, Leadership and Commitment, and Operating Excellence, key corporate safety elements and their subelements are examined. The three categories under which PSM program-level safety issues are described are Technology, Personnel, and Facilities.

  10. Passive and inherent safety technologies for light-water nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1990-07-01

    Passive/inherent safety implies a technical revolution in our approach to nuclear power safety. This direction is discussed herein for light-water reactors (LWRs) -- the predominant type of power reactor used in the world today. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the approach to the development of passive/inherent safety for LWRs consists of four steps: identify and quantify safety requirements and goals; identify and quantify the technical functional requirements needed for safety; identify, invent, develop, and quantify technical options that meet both of the above requirements; and integrate safety systems into designs of economic and reliable nuclear power plants. Significant progress has been achieved in the first three steps of this program. The last step involves primarily the reactor vendors. These activities, as well as related activities worldwide, are described here. 27 refs., 7 tabs.

  11. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  12. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN FRANCE AND JAPAN ON LOCAL GOVERNMENTS' INVOLVEMENT IN NUCLEAR SAFETY GOVERNANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Shin-Etsu; Shiroyama, Hideaki

    This paper shows a comparative analysis between France and Japan on the way of the local governments' involvement in nuclear safety governance through some interviews. In France, a law came into force that requires related local governments to establish "Commision Locale d'Information" (CLI), which means the local governments officially involve in nuclear regulatory activity. Meanwhile, in Japan, related local governments substantially involve in the operation of nuclear facilities through the "safety agreements" in spite of the lack of legal authority. As a result of comparative analysis, we can point out some institutional input from French cases as follows: to clarify the local governments' roles in the nuclear regulation system, to establish the official channels of communication among nuclear utilities, national regulatory authorities and local governments, and to stipulate explicitly the transparency as a purpose of safety regulation.

  13. Recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes for safety-related I and C systems in nuclear power plants: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for electromagnetic operating envelopes to augment test criteria and test methods addressing electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), and power surges that are applicable to safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to assist in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMI/RFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research has provided recommendations on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design and installation practices, endorsement of EMI/RFI immunity and SWC test criteria and test methods, and determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants. The present research involves development of recommended electromagnetic envelopes that are applicable to nuclear power plant locations where safety-related I and C systems either are or may be installed. These recommended envelopes establish both emissions criteria and the levels of radiated and conducted interference that I and C systems should be able to withstand without upset or malfunction. The EMI/RFI operating envelopes are derived from conditions in comparable military environments and are confirmed by comparison with the nuclear power plant electromagnetic environment based on measured plant emissions profiles. Detailed information on specific power surge conditions in nuclear power plants is not available, so industrial guidance on representative surge characteristics for susceptibility testing is adopted. An engineering assessment of the power surge environment in nuclear power plants leads to the recommendation of operating envelopes based on location categories and exposure levels defined in IEEE Std C62.41-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits.

  14. NASA safety program activities in support of the Space Exploration Initiatives Nuclear Propulsion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The activities of the joint NASA/DOE/DOD Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Panels have been used as the basis for the current development of safety policies and requirements for the Space Exploration Initiatives (SEI) Nuclear Propulsion Technology development program. The Safety Division of the NASA Office of Safety and Mission Quality has initiated efforts to develop policies for the safe use of nuclear propulsion in space through involvement in the joint agency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG), encouraged expansion of the initial policy development into proposed programmatic requirements, and suggested further expansion into the overall risk assessment and risk management process for the NASA Exploration Program. Similar efforts are underway within the Department of Energy to ensure the safe development and testing of nuclear propulsion systems on Earth. This paper describes the NASA safety policy related to requirements for the design of systems that may operate where Earth re-entry is a possibility. The expected plan of action is to support and oversee activities related to the technology development of nuclear propulsion in space, and support the overall safety and risk management program being developed for the NASA Exploration Program.

  15. Nuclear energy with inherent safety: Change of outdated paradigm, criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamov, E. O.; Orlov, V. V.; Rachkov, V. I.; Slessarev, I. S.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern nuclear power technology still has significant sources of risk, and, weak links, such as, a threat of severe accidents with catastrophic unpredictable consequences and damage to the population, proliferation of nuclear weapon-usable materials, risks of long-term storage of toxic radioactive waste, risks of loss of major investments in nuclear facilities and their construction, lack of fuel resources for the ambitious role of nuclear power in the competitive balance of energy. Each of these risks is important and almost independent, though the elimination of some of them does not significantly alter the overall assessment of nuclear power.

  16. 78 FR 47014 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... 22, 2012 (77 FR 50727) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period closed on... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... 1 of RG 1.169, ``Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety...

  17. IMPLEMENTATION OF DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFETY BOARD RECOMMENDATION 2000-2 AT WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, K.; Wu, C.

    2002-02-26

    The Defense Nuclear Safeties Board (DNFSB) issued Recommendation 2000-2 on March 8, 2000, concerning the degrading conditions of vital safety systems, or systems important to nuclear safety, at DOE sites across the nation. The Board recommended that the DOE take action to assess the condition of its nuclear systems to ensure continued operational readiness of vital safety systems that are important for safely accomplishing the DOE's mission. To verify the readiness of vital safety systems, a two-phased approach was established. Phase I consisted of a qualitative assessment to approved criteria of the defined vital safety systems by operating contractor personnel, overseen by Federal field office personnel. Based on Phase I Assessment results, vital safety systems with significant deficiencies would be further assessed in Phase II, a more extensive quantitative assessment, by a contractor and Federal team, using a second set of criteria. In addition, Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 2000-2 concluded that the degradation of confinement ventilation systems was of major concern, and issued a separate set of criteria to perform a Phase II Assessment on confinement ventilation systems.

  18. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  19. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  20. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  1. Nuclear Reactor Safety--The APS Submits its Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Presents the summary section of the American Physical Society (APS) report on the safety features of the light-water reactor, reviews the design, construction, and operation of a reactor and outlines the primary engineered safety features. Summarizes the major recommendations of the study group. (GS)

  2. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here. PMID:24650672

  3. The Development, Content, Design, and Conduct of the 2011 Piloted US DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program Criticality Safety Engineering Training and Education Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    In May 1973 the University of New Mexico conducted the first nationwide criticality safety training and education week-long short course for nuclear criticality safety engineers. Subsequent to that course, the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility (LACEF) developed very successful 'hands-on' subcritical and critical training programs for operators, supervisors, and engineering staff. Since the inception of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCT&SP) in 1983, the DOE has stimulated contractor facilities and laboratories to collaborate in the furthering of nuclear criticality as a discipline. That effort included the education and training of nuclear criticality safety engineers (NCSEs). In 1985 a textbook was written that established a path toward formalizing education and training for NCSEs. Though the NCT&SP went through a brief hiatus from 1990 to 1992, other DOE-supported programs were evolving to the benefit of NCSE training and education. In 1993 the DOE established a Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) and undertook a comprehensive development effort to expand the extant LACEF 'hands-on' course specifically for the education and training of NCSEs. That successful education and training was interrupted in 2006 for the closing of the LACEF and the accompanying movement of materials and critical experiment machines to the Nevada Test Site. Prior to that closing, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was commissioned by the US DOE NCSP to establish an independent hands-on NCSE subcritical education and training course. The course provided an interim transition for the establishment of a reinvigorated and expanded two-week NCSE education and training program in 2011. The 2011 piloted two-week course was coordinated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and jointly conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) classroom education and facility training, the Sandia National

  4. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  5. 77 FR 50727 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1206, ``Configuration Management Plan for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The DG-1206 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.169, dated September 1997. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for......

  6. 78 FR 12042 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Inventory Analysis/FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB... throughout the agency. The inventory has been developed in accordance with guidance issued on December 19... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR...

  7. 77 FR 7139 - Public Availability of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board; FY 2010 Service Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Inventory Analysis/FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB... to show how contracted resources are distributed throughout the agency. DNFSB has posted its FY 2010... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEFENSE NUCLEAR...

  8. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SELECTED HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents a general review of public safety standards as adapted by the nuclear weapons testing program in the United States, and the impact of these changing standards on the nuclear testing program itself. The review notes the importance of improvements in diagnostic i...

  9. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Plants'' on May 1, 2013, (78 FR 25488) for a 60 day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC) is issuing revision 1 to regulatory guide (RG) 1.73, ``Qualification Tests for...

  10. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revised regulatory guide (RG), revision 1 of RG 1.173, ``Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG endorses the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard (Std.) 1074-2006, ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life......

  11. ASME Nuclear Crane Standards for Enhanced Crane Safety and Increased Profit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkhurst, Stephen N.

    2000-01-01

    The ASME NOG-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Overhead and Gantry Cranes', covers top running cranes for nuclear facilities; with the ASME NUM-1 standard, 'Rules for Construction of Cranes, Monorails, and Hoists', covering the single girder, underhung, wall and jib cranes, as well as the monorails and hoists. These two ASME nuclear crane standards provide criteria for designing, inspecting and testing overhead handling equipment with enhanced safety to meet the 'defense-in-depth' approach of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) documents NUREG 0554 and NUREG 0612. In addition to providing designs for enhanced safety, the ASME nuclear crane standards provide a basis for purchasing overhead handling equipment with standard safety features, based upon accepted engineering principles, and including performance and environmental parameters specific to nuclear facilities. The ASME NOG-1 and ASME NUM-1 standards not only provide enhanced safety for handling a critical load, but also increase profit by minimizing the possibility of load drops, by reducing cumbersome operating restrictions, and by providing the foundation for a sound licensing position. The ASME nuclear crane standards can also increase profit by providing the designs and information to help ensure that the right standard equipment is purchased. Additionally, the ASME nuclear crane standards can increase profit by providing designs and information to help address current issues, such as the qualification of nuclear plant cranes for making 'planned engineered lifts' for steam generator replacement and decommissioning.

  12. On the safety of persons accompanying nuclear medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Díaz Barreto, Marlenin; López Bejerano, Gladys M; Varela Corona, Consuelo; Fleitas Estévez, Ileana

    2012-12-01

    The presence of caretakers/comforters during nuclear medicine examinations is relatively common. These caretakers receive higher doses than the general public, who receive only environmental/background exposure. The aim of this research was to know about the doses received by two significant groups of caretakers: comforters of cancer patients (Group I) and mothers of small children (Group II). The patients were scheduled to undergo two different diagnostic studies: Inmuno-Scintigraphy using a monoclonal antibody bound to (99m)Tc (for adults) and Renal Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (for children). The average effective doses were 0.27 and 0.29 mSv for Groups I and II, respectively. Additionally, environmental monitoring was performed in the waiting room for injected patients (Room I) and inside the procedure room (Room II). Equivalent environmental doses of 0.28 and 0.24 mSv for Rooms 1 and II, respectively, were found, which are similar to values reported by other authors. PMID:22517979

  13. 75 FR 70670 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... availability of the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2010-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  14. 76 FR 17808 - Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking and Research... NHTSA Vehicle Safety and Fuel Economy Rulemaking and Research Priority Plan 2011-2013 (Priority Plan) in Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0108. This Priority Plan is an update to the Final Vehicle Safety Rulemaking...

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  16. Aging of turbine drives for safety-related pumps in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.

    1995-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the relationship between time-dependent degradation and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of steam turbine drives for safety-related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized-water reactor plants and in the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling and High-Pressure Coolant Injection systems for boiling-water reactor plants. This research has been conducted by examination of failure data in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, review of Licensee Event Reports, discussion of problems with operating plant personnel, and personal observation. The reported failure data were reviewed to determine the cause of the event and the method of discovery. Based on the research results, attempts have been made to determine the predictability of failures and possible preventive measures that may be implemented. Findings in a recent study of AFW systems indicate that the turbine drive is the single largest contributor to AFW system degradation. However, examination of the data shows that the turbine itself is a reliable piece of equipment with a good service record. Most of the problems documented are the result of problems with the turbine controls and the mechanical overspeed trip mechanism; these apparently stem from three major causes which are discussed in the text. Recent improvements in maintenance practices and procedures, combined with a stabilization of the design, have led to improved performance resulting in a reliable safety-related component. However, these improvements have not been universally implemented.

  17. MYRRHA: A multipurpose nuclear research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, P.; Schyns, M.; Fernandez, Rafaël; De Bruyn, Didier; Van den Eynde, Gert

    2014-12-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is based on the ADS (Accelerator Driven System) concept where a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical reactor are coupled. MYRRHA will demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling these three components at a reasonable power level to allow operation feedback. As a flexible irradiation facility, the MYRRHA research facility will be able to work in both critical as subcritical modes. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for GEN IV and fusion reactors, and radioisotope production for medical and industrial applications. MYRRHA will be cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic and will play an important role in the development of the Pb-alloys technology needed for the LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) GEN IV concept. MYRRHA will also contribute to the study of partitioning and transmutation of high-level waste. Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) can be completed in an efficient way in fast neutron spectrum facilities, so both critical reactors and subcritical ADS are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. However critical reactors heavily loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose reactivity control problems, and thus safety problems. A subcritical ADS operates in a flexible and safe manner, even with a core loading containing a high amount of MA leading to a high transmutation rate. In this paper, the most recent developments in the design of the MYRRHA facility are presented.

  18. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  19. The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC): A Resource for Nuclear Science Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, Bernadette Lugue

    2009-01-01

    The Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC) has been in existence since 1963. RSICC collects, organizes, evaluates and disseminates technical information (software and nuclear data) involving the transport of neutral and charged particle radiation, and shielding and protection from the radiation associated with: nuclear weapons and materials, fission and fusion reactors, outer space, accelerators, medical facilities, and nuclear waste management. RSICC serves over 12,000 scientists and engineers from about 100 countries.

  20. Non-Destructive Techniques in the Tacis and Phare Nuclear Safety Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Bieth, Michel

    2002-07-01

    Decisions regarding the verification of design plant lifetime and potential license renewal periods involve a determination of the component and circuit condition. In Service Inspection of key reactor components becomes a crucial consideration for continued safe plant operation. The determination of the equipment properties by Non Destructive Techniques during periodic intervals is an important aspect of the assessment of fitness-for-service and safe operation of nuclear power plants The Tacis and Phare were established since 1991 by the European Union as support mechanisms through which projects could be identified and addressed satisfactorily. In Nuclear Safety, the countries mainly concerned are Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, and Kazakhstan for the Tacis programme, and Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Lithuania, Romania and Slovenia for the Phare programme. The Tacis and Phare programs concerning the Nuclear Power Plants consist of: - On Site Assistance and Operational Safety, - Design Safety, - Regulatory Authorities, - Waste management, and are focused on reactor safety issues, contributing to the improvement in the safety of East European reactors and providing technology and safety culture transfer. The main parts of these programmes are related to the On-Site Assistance and to the Design Safety of VVER and RBMK Nuclear power plants where Non Destructive Techniques for In Service Inspection of the primary circuit components are addressed. (authors)

  1. Current research results on the technical basis for environmental qualification of safety-related digital I and C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.; Antonescu, C.

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents results to date of an NRC-sponsored confirmatory research program initiated at three national laboratories to address environmental compatibility/qualification concerns associated with the use of microprocessor-based safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The research approach involved evaluating existing military and industrial guidance, identifying the most significant environmental stressors and, for advanced I and C systems in a nuclear power plant, investigating the likely failure modes--both at the integrated circuit and system level--for digital technologies under varying levels of environmental stress (such as smoke exposure and electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference). The insights gained from these studies are being used to recommend appropriate methods for qualifying safety-related digital equipment in nuclear power plants.

  2. Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; McGehee, R.B.; Cottle, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

  3. General aviation crash safety program at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the crash safety program is to support development of the technology to define and demonstrate new structural concepts for improved crash safety and occupant survivability in general aviation aircraft. The program involves three basic areas of research: full-scale crash simulation testing, nonlinear structural analyses necessary to predict failure modes and collapse mechanisms of the vehicle, and evaluation of energy absorption concepts for specific component design. Both analytical and experimental methods are being used to develop expertise in these areas. Analyses include both simplified procedures for estimating energy absorption capabilities and more complex computer programs for analysis of general airframe response. Full-scale tests of typical structures as well as tests on structural components are being used to verify the analyses and to demonstrate improved design concepts.

  4. Evaluating software for safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.; Preckshot, G.G.; Gallagher, J.

    1994-01-11

    In 1991, LLNL was asked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in various aspects of computer technology that apply to computer-based reactor protection systems. This has involved the review of safety aspects of new reactor designs and the provision of technical advice on the use of computer technology in systems important to reactor safety. The latter includes determining and documenting state-of-the-art subjects that require regulatory involvement by the NRC because of their importance in the development and implementation of digital computer safety systems. These subjects include data communications, formal methods, testing, software hazards analysis, verification and validation, computer security, performance, software complexity and others. One topic software reliability and safety is the subject of this paper.

  5. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    PubMed

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat. PMID:23949247

  6. Plant Modernization with Digital Reactor Protection System Safety System Upgrades at US Nuclear Power Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Heckle, Wm. Lloyd; Bolian, Tricia W.

    2006-07-01

    As the current fleet of nuclear power plants in the US reaches 25+ years of operation, obsolescence is driving many utilities to implement upgrades to both their safety and non-safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems. Digital technology is the predominant replacement technology for these upgrades. Within the last 15 years, digital control systems have been deployed in non-safety- related control applications at many utilities. In addition, a few utilities have replaced small safety-related systems utilizing digital technology. These systems have shown digital technology to be robust, reliable and simpler to maintain. Based upon this success, acceptance of digital technology has gained momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies. Today, in an effort to extend the operating lives of their nuclear stations and resolve obsolescence of critical components, utilities are now pursuing digital technology for replacement of their primary safety systems. AREVA is leading this effort in the United States with the first significant digital upgrade of a major safety system. AREVA has previously completed upgrades to safety-related control systems emergency diesel engine controls and governor control systems for a hydro station which serves as the emergency power source for a nuclear station. Currently, AREVA is implementing the replacement of both the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS) on all three units at a US PWR site. (authors)

  7. Legitimating a nuclear critic: John Gofman, radiation safety, and cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Semendeferi, Ioanna

    2008-01-01

    Whether low-level ionizing radiation has an effect on humans has been a polarizing issue for the last fifty years. The epicenter of this controversy has been the validity of the linear non-threshold dose-response model, according to which any amount of radiation, however small, causes damage to human genes and health. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the nuclear scientist and medical researcher John Gofman (1918-2007) played a pivotal role in the debate. Historical accounts have treated Gofman as a radical antinuclear scientist whose unscientific arguments put enormous political pressure on the nuclear power industry and regulatory agencies. Gofman's bitter struggle with the Atomic Energy Commission, which funded his research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, partly accounts for this view. However, my analysis of Gofman's involvement in the low-level radiation debate shows how he also helped shift the focus in radiation safety from the risks of genetic damage or leukemia to somatic or cancer risks. His arguments led to the introduction of the linear non-threshold radiation model as a means of numerically estimating cancer risks. This was a watershed event in radiation-safety science and politics. Gofman's case sheds light on the process by which a scientist could secure legitimation even when his technical arguments threatened the government's interests. I conclude that it also points to an open issue in the history of antinuclear scientists, or of other politically active scientists or technology critics: treating them as critics should not preclude historians from treating them as scientists. PMID:20073123

  8. Twenty-second water reactor safety information meeting. Volume 2: Severe accident research, thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs, high-burnup fuel behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1995-04-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty-Second Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 24-26, 1994. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Russia, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting.

  9. Transient analyses and thermal-hydraulic safety margins for the Greek Research Reactor (GRRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Deen, J.R.; Papastergiou, C.

    1995-02-01

    Various core configurations for the Greek research reactor (GRR1) have been considered in assessing the safety issues of adding a beryllium reflector to the existing water reflected HEU core and the transition from HEU to an all LEU core. The assessment has included both steady-state and transient analyses of safety margins and limits. A small all fresh Be reflected HEU core with a rather large nuclear peaking factor can still be operated safely, and thus adding a Be reflector to the larger depleted HEU core should not pose a problem. The transition mixed core with 50% LEU elements has larger void and Doppler coefficients than the HEU reference core and gives a lower peak clad temperature under transient conditions. The transition cores should give ever increasing margins to plate melting and fission product release as LEU elements are added to the core.

  10. Perceptions of nuclear war. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrow, N.

    1987-05-01

    Mutual deterrence has been the keystone of U.S. nuclear strategic policy with respect to the Soviet Union. But for mutual deterrence to be viable, the perceptions of nuclear weapons and nuclear war must be shared by both nations. There are currently many misconceptions in the West about Soviet views of nuclear war. These misconceptions have been reinforced over the years by Soviet public pronouncements. Through an examination of the mindset of the Soviet people, Soviet doctrinal literature, and Soviet offensive and defensive systems, this paper provides compelling evidence for the way the Soviet Union really perceives nuclear war.

  11. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  12. Nuclear criticality safety staff training and qualifications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, S.P.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    Operations involving significant quantities of fissile material have been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory continuously since 1943. Until the advent of the Laboratory`s Nuclear Criticality Safety Committee (NCSC) in 1957, line management had sole responsibility for controlling criticality risks. From 1957 until 1961, the NCSC was the Laboratory body which promulgated policy guidance as well as some technical guidance for specific operations. In 1961 the Laboratory created the position of Nuclear Criticality Safety Office (in addition to the NCSC). In 1980, Laboratory management moved the Criticality Safety Officer (and one other LACEF staff member who, by that time, was also working nearly full-time on criticality safety issues) into the Health Division office. Later that same year the Criticality Safety Group, H-6 (at that time) was created within H-Division, and staffed by these two individuals. The training and education of these individuals in the art of criticality safety was almost entirely self-regulated, depending heavily on technical interactions between each other, as well as NCSC, LACEF, operations, other facility, and broader criticality safety community personnel. Although the Los Alamos criticality safety group has grown both in size and formality of operations since 1980, the basic philosophy that a criticality specialist must be developed through mentoring and self motivation remains the same. Formally, this philosophy has been captured in an internal policy, document ``Conduct of Business in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group.`` There are no short cuts or substitutes in the development of a criticality safety specialist. A person must have a self-motivated personality, excellent communications skills, a thorough understanding of the principals of neutron physics, a safety-conscious and helpful attitude, a good perspective of real risk, as well as a detailed understanding of process operations and credible upsets.

  13. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants. Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-informed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and.lor confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go farther by focusing on the design of new plants.

  14. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  15. 77 FR 40622 - Mine Safety and Health Research Advisory Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Committee, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (MSHRAC, NIOSH) In accordance with section..., safety culture, occupational health and safety management systems, preventing coal dust explosions, and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  16. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  17. Uncertainties for criticality-safety benchmarks and consequences for nuclear data measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochman, D.; Koning, A. J.; van der Marck, S. C.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a new method to propagate the uncertainties of fundamental nuclear physics models and parameters used in nuclear data evaluation to the design and performance of future nuclear energy systems. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it is for the first time possible to couple these two fields at the extremes of nuclear science without any loss of information in between. With the help of a large database of nuclear reaction measurements, we have determined the uncertainties of theoretical nuclear reaction models such as the optical, compound nucleus, pre-equilibrium and fission models. A similar assessment is done for the parameters that describe the resolved resonance range. We are now able to quantify the required quality of theoretical nuclear reaction models and measurements directly from the reactor design requirements. Examples will be presented for actinides using criticality-safety benchmarks with feedback on experimental requirements.

  18. Safety implications of cultural and cognitive issues in nuclear power plant operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo V R; Dos Santos, Isaac L; Vidal, Mario C R

    2006-03-01

    This research project was designed to investigate cultural and cognitive issues related to the work of nuclear power plant operators during their time on the job in the control room and during simulator training (emergency situations), in order to show how these issues impact on plant safety. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper focuses on the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work. PMID:15993375

  19. Space nuclear safety program, May 1983. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-10-01

    The studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, pertained to the General-Purpose Heat Source (compatibility and safety verification) and to the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater units (overpressure and impact tests).

  20. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  1. The nuclear power industry as an alternative analogy for safety in anaesthesia and a novel approach for the conceptualisation of safety goals.

    PubMed

    Webster, C S

    2005-11-01

    Safety practices in health care have not kept pace with the increasing complexity of medical technology. Although anaesthesia is generally considered to be a leader in the improvement of patient safety, more powerful safety strategies must be found and employed. From an analysis of system characteristics, the nuclear power industry is proposed as an alternative analogy for safety in anaesthesia, and a novel diagrammatic approach is developed for the conceptualisation of safety goals. The nuclear power industry has spent vastly more time and money than has health care on the development of safety, and has progressed through significant safety milestones approximately three times more quickly than has anaesthesia. The greatest scope for the improvement of safety in anaesthesia lies in the appropriate re-design of medical systems and the lowering of the threshold for the reporting of incidents to include accident precursors, thus allowing the identification of dangerous systems before accidents occur. PMID:16229697

  2. Cooperative research on safety fundamentals of lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selman, J. Robert; Al Hallaj, Said; Uchida, Isamu; Hirano, Y.

    A cooperative research program on the thermal characterization and safety of lithium batteries is being carried out at IIT/Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering and Tohoku University. This research includes experimental work for commercial lithium secondary batteries and performance prediction for scaled-up batteries. In this work, we present a set of thermal characterization experiments for lithium secondary battery cells under normal and abuse conditions. These show that the rise in cell temperature depends strongly on cell chemistry as well as discharge rate. Computer simulation of the cycling of scaled-up lithium batteries shows that the cell temperature profile also depends strongly on the surface cooling rate. An effective thermal management system is required to operate these batteries safely. This paper reviews the basic information needed for intrinsically safe design.

  3. Safety Software Guide Perspectives for the Design of New Nuclear Facilities (U)

    SciTech Connect

    VINCENT, Andrew

    2005-07-14

    In June of this year, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued directives DOE O 414.1C and DOE G 414.1-4 to improve quality assurance programs, processes, and procedures among its safety contractors. Specifically, guidance entitled, ''Safety Software Guide for use with 10 CFR 830 Subpart A, Quality Assurance Requirements, and DOE O 414.1C, Quality Assurance, DOE G 414.1-4'', provides information and acceptable methods to comply with safety software quality assurance (SQA) requirements. The guidance provides a roadmap for meeting DOE O 414.1C, ''Quality Assurance'', and the quality assurance program (QAP) requirements of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 830, Subpart A, Quality Assurance, for DOE nuclear facilities and software application activities. [1, 2] The order and guide are part of a comprehensive implementation plan that addresses issues and concerns documented in Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1. [3] Safety SQA requirements for DOE as well as National Nuclear Security Administration contractors are necessary to implement effective quality assurance (QA) processes and achieve safe nuclear facility operations. DOE G 414.1-4 was developed to provide guidance on establishing and implementing effective QA processes tied specifically to nuclear facility safety software applications. The Guide includes software application practices covered by appropriate national and international consensus standards and various processes currently in use at DOE facilities. While the safety software guidance is considered to be of sufficient rigor and depth to ensure acceptable reliability of safety software at all DOE nuclear facilities, new nuclear facilities are well suited to take advantage of the guide to ensure compliant programs and processes are implemented. Attributes such as the facility life-cycle stage and the hazardous nature of each facility operations are considered, along with the category and level of importance of the

  4. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.; Lambert, J.; Hayes, S.; Sackett, J.; Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  5. Summaries of FY 1992 research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the research projects supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics in the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics during FY 1992. This Division is a component of the Office of Energy Research and provides about 85% of the funding for nuclear physics research in the United States. The objectives of the Nuclear Physics Program are two-fold: (1) to understand the interactions and structures of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter and the fundamental forces of nature as manifested in nuclear matter and (2) to foster application of this knowledge to other sciences and technical disciplines. These summaries are intended to provide a convenient guide for those interested in the research supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics. We remind the readers that this compilation is just an overview of the Nuclear Physics Program. What we attempt to portray correctly is the breadth of the program and level of activity in the field of nuclear physics research as well as the new capabilities and directions that continually alter the public face of the nuclear sciences. We hope that the limitations of space, constraints of fon-nat, and rigors of editing have not extinguished the excitement of the science as it was originally portrayed.

  6. 78 FR 70560 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Morgridge Institute for Research PSO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... and primary activity is to conduct activities to improve patient safety and the quality of health care... quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Final Rule (Patient... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations:...

  7. Lessons in Nuclear Safety, Panel on Integration of People and Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, David

    2015-02-24

    Four slides present a historical perspective on the evolution of nuclear safety, a description of systemic misalignment (available resources do not match expectations, demographic cliff developing, promulgation of increased expectations and new requirements proceeds unabated), and needs facing nuclear safety (financial stability, operational stability, and succession planning). The following conclusions are stated under the heading "Nuclear Safety - 'The System'": the current universe of requirements is too large for the resource pool available; the current universe of requirements has too many different sources of interpretation; there are so many indicators that it’s hard to know what is leading (or important); and the net result can come to defy integrated comprehension at the worker level.

  8. Stochastic sampling method with MCNPX for nuclear data uncertainty propagation in criticality safety applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, T.; Vasiliev, A.; Wieselquist, W.; Ferroukhi, H.

    2012-07-01

    In the domain of criticality safety, the efficient propagation of uncertainty in nuclear data to uncertainty in k{sub eff} is an important area of current research. In this paper, a method based on stochastic sampling is presented for uncertainty propagation in MCNPX calculations. To that aim, the nuclear data (i.e. cross sections) are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution and simple random sampling is performed following this presumed probability distribution. A verification of the developed stochastic sampling procedure with MCNPX is then conducted using the {sup 239}Pu Jezebel experiment as well as the PB-2 BWR and TMI-1 PWR pin cell models from the Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) exercises. For the Jezebel case, it is found that the developed stochastic sampling approach predicts similar k{sub eff} uncertainties compared to conventional sensitivity and uncertainty methods. For the UAM models, slightly lower uncertainties are obtained when comparing to existing preliminary results. Further details of these verification studies are discussed and directions for future work are outlined. (authors)

  9. Environmental safety aspects of the new spent nuclear fuel management and storage system at Ignalina NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.; Adomaitis, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) a new Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (ISFSF) will be built in the existing sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of INPP. In addition to the ISFSF, the new spent nuclear fuel management activity will include all necessary spent nuclear fuel retrieval and packaging operations at the Reactor Units, transfer of storage casks to the ISFSF, and other activities appropriate to the chosen design solution and required for the safe removal of the existing spent nuclear fuel from storage pools and insertion into the new ISFSF. The Republic of Lithuania regulations require that the average annual dose to the critical group members of population due to operation of nuclear facility shall not exceed dose constraint. If several nuclear facilities are located in the same SPZ, the same dose constraint shall envelope radiological impacts from all operating and planned nuclear facilities. The paper discusses radiological safety assessment aspects as relevant for the new nuclear activity to be implemented in the SPZ of INPP considering specificity of Lithuanian regulatory requirements. The safety assessment methodology aspects, results and conclusions as concern public exposure are outlined and discussed. (authors)

  10. Criticality Safety and Sensitivity Analyses of PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Maucec, Marko; Glumac, Bogdan

    2005-01-15

    Monte Carlo criticality safety and sensitivity calculations of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel repository facilities for the Slovenian nuclear power plant Krsko are presented. The MCNP4C code was deployed to model and assess the neutron multiplication parameters of pool-based storage and dry transport containers under various loading patterns and moderating conditions. To comply with standard safety requirements, fresh 4.25% enriched nuclear fuel was assumed. The impact of potential optimum moderation due to water steam or foam formation as well as of different interpretations, of neutron multiplication through varying the system boundary conditions was elaborated. The simulations indicate that in the case of compact (all rack locations filled with fresh fuel) single or 'double tiering' loading, the supercriticality can occur under the conditions of enhanced neutron moderation, due to accidentally reduced density of cooling water. Under standard operational conditions the effective multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) of pool-based storage facility remains below the specified safety limit of 0.95. The nuclear safety requirements are fulfilled even when the fuel elements are arranged at a minimal distance, which can be initiated, for example, by an earthquake. The dry container in its recommended loading scheme with 26 fuel elements represents a safe alternative for the repository of fresh fuel. Even in the case of complete water flooding, the k{sub eff} remains below the specified safety level of 0.98. The criticality safety limit may however be exceeded with larger amounts of loaded fuel assemblies (i.e., 32). Additional Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses are scheduled to consider the 'burnup credit' of PWR spent nuclear fuel, based on the ongoing calculation of typical burnup activities.

  11. A new safety channel based on ¹⁷N detection in research reactors.

    PubMed

    Seyfi, Somayye; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Tehran research reactor (TRR) is a representative of pool type research reactors using light water, as coolant and moderator. This reactor is chosen as a prototype to demonstrate and prove the feasibility of (17)N detection as a new redundant channel for reactor power measurement. In TRR, similar to other pool type reactors, neutron detectors are immersed in the pool around the core as the main power measuring devices. In the present article, a different approach, using out of water neutron detector, is employed to measure reactor power. This new method is based on (17)O (n,p) (17)N reaction taking place inside the core and subsequent measurement of delayed neutrons emitted due to (17)N disintegration. Count and measurement of neutrons around outlet water pipe provides a reliable redundant safety channel to measure reactor power. Results compared with other established channels indicate a good agreement and shows a linear interdependency with true thermal power. Safety of reactor operation is improved with installation & use of this new power measuring channel. The new approach may equally serve well as a redundant channel in all other types of reactors having coolant comprised of oxygen in its molecular constituents. Contrary to existing channels, this one is totally out of water and thus is an advantage over current instrumentations. It is proposed to employ the same idea on other reactors (nuclear power plants too) to improve safety criteria. PMID:26123105

  12. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  13. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-12-31

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems.

  14. The uses and benefits of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Speis, T.P.; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC . Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research)

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has proven to be an important tool in the safety assessment of nuclear reactors throughout the world. Decision making with regard to many safety issues has been facilitated by both general insights from and direct application of this technology. Key uses of PRA are discussed and some examples of successful applications are cited. The benefits and limitations of PRA are also discussed as well as the broader outlook for applications of PRA. 9 refs.

  15. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 36 figs.

  16. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, April-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1988-07-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  17. Space nuclear-safety program, November 1982. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-05-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  18. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-03-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  19. Space nuclear-safety program. Progress report, October 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-03-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  20. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-06-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  1. Space Nuclear-Safety Program progress report, February 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-08-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions may change as the work continues.

  2. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  3. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems conducted for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 15 figs.

  4. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, October-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1986-05-01

    This quarterly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  5. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, August 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  6. Space Nuclear Safety Program: Progress report, January-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, R.; George, T.G.

    1988-07-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, which were carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses.

  7. Space nuclear safety program: Progress report, July--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1989-02-01

    This quarterly report describes studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.

    1999-05-10

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.

  9. Nuclear physics for medicine: how nuclear research is improving human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Angela

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an associated Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics, and its trans-disciplinary use and application in collaborative ventures between research groups.

  10. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    SciTech Connect

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  11. The safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

    PubMed

    Okrent, D

    1987-04-17

    In August 1986, after 6 years of effort, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission adopted a Policy Statement on safety goals for nuclear power reactors. The commission's qualitative goals state that individual members of the public should be provided a level of protection from the consequences of nuclear power plant operation such that they bear no significant additional risk to life and health, and societal risks to life and health from nuclear power should be comparable to or less than the risks of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and should not be a significant addition to other societal risks. The commission's safety goal Policy Statement also includes quantitative design objectives. PMID:3563510

  12. The Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility: Status-2004*

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Anderl; G. R. Longhurst; R. J. Pawelko; J. P. Sharpe; S. T. Schuetz; D. A. Petti

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the current status of the development of the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Designated a National User Facility by the US DOE, the primary mission of STAR is to provide laboratory infrastructure to study tritium science and technology issues associated with the development of safe and environmentally friendly fusion energy. Both tritium and non-tritium fusion safety research is pursued along three key thrust areas: (1) plasma-material interactions of plasma-facing component (PFC) materials exposed to energetic tritium and deuterium ions, (2) fusion safety concerns related to PFC material chemical reactivity and dust/debris generation, activation product mobilization, and tritium behavior in fusion systems, and (3) molten salts and fusion liquids for tritium breeder and coolant applications. STAR comprises a multi-room complex with operations segregated to permit both tritium and non-tritium activities in separately ventilated rooms. Tritium inventory in STAR is limited to 15,000 Ci to maintain its classification as a Radiological Facility. Experiments with tritium are typically conducted in glovebox environments. Key components of the tritium infrastructure have been installed and tested. This includes the following subsystems: (1) a tritium Storage and Assay System (SAS) that uses two 50-g depleted uranium beds for tritium storage and PVT/beta-scintillation analyses for tritium accountability measurements, (2) a Tritium Cleanup System (TCS) that uses catalytic oxidation and molecular sieve water absorption to remove tritiated species from glovebox atmosphere gases and gaseous effluents from experiment and process systems, and (3) tritium monitoring instrumentation for room air, glovebox atmosphere and stack effluent tritium concentration measurements. Integration of the tritium infrastructure subsystems with the experimental and

  13. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

  14. Fault tree applications within the safety program of Idaho Nuclear Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vesely, W. E.

    1971-01-01

    Computerized fault tree analyses are used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information about the safety and reliability of an electrical control system that shuts the reactor down when certain safety criteria are exceeded, in the design of a nuclear plant protection system, and in an investigation of a backup emergency system for reactor shutdown. The fault tree yields the modes by which the system failure or accident will occur, the most critical failure or accident causing areas, detailed failure probabilities, and the response of safety or reliability to design modifications and maintenance schemes.

  15. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  16. Panel session on "safety, health and the environment: implications of nuclear power growth".

    PubMed

    Bilbao y León, Sama

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations and the insights offered by panelists John P. Winston, Robert Bernero, and Stephen LaMontagne during the Panel on Safety, Health and the Environment: Implications of Nuclear Power Growth that took place during the NCRP 2009 Annual Meeting. The paper describes the opportunities and the challenges faced in the areas of infrastructure development, radiation control, licensing and regulatory issues, and non-proliferation as a consequence of the forecasted growth in nuclear power capacity worldwide. PMID:21399405

  17. A new concept of nuclear fission reactors safety

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, Y.V.

    1993-12-31

    To develop safe nuclear energy production acceptable to the society it is proposed to use in the future strongly subcritical reactors (k=0.96-0.97) driven by proton or deuteron accelerators. The accelerator with the current of 40mA and particle energy {approximately}0.8 GeV/nucleon will provide 2 GW (th.) reactor power in fast reactor with metallic U-Pu fuel. The design, control and parameters of such a system are discussed.

  18. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine: a practical guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sodd, V.J.

    1981-11-01

    This publication brings together, in concise form, information regarding the many recommendations and requirements for safe operation of a nuclear medicine laboratory. The need for such a compendium was perceived by the staff of the Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. This need arises from several sources. Many individuals enter the field with little training in the handling of radioactive materials; for example, a physician trained in cardiology, oncology, or neurology. The increasing development of portable instrumentation has allowed movement of radiopharmaceuticals from the confines of the nuclear medicine lab to coronary and intensive care facilities where personnel may lack adequate knowledge of safe handling procedures. A health physicist, trained to account for all radioactive material placed under his control, may have difficulty adapting to the accepted practice of releasing a patient who has been administered millicurie quantities of radioactivity, with little or no control over subsequent disposal of excreta. Further differences exist between handling practices for radioactive materials in the scientific laboratory and in the medical facility. This guide tries where possible to clarify some of these issues.

  19. Enhanced-safety underground nuclear power plants based on the use of proven ship-building equipment and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pashin, V.M.; Petrov, E.L.; Khazov, B.S.

    1995-10-01

    Investigations performed in the last few years by the State Science Center of the Russian Federation - Academician A. N. Krylov Central Scientific-Research Institute, together with specialized enterprises of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation, Sudprom, and other agencies of Russia, have shown the promise of marine nuclear power plants for producing underground nuclear power plants with a higher degree of protection from external and internal actions of different intensity. The concept was developed on the basis of an analysis of the energy supply in different regions of Russia and the near-abroad using fossil fuels (lignite, oil, natural gas). The change in the international environment, which makes it possible to convert the military technology, frees the industrial potential and skilled workers in Russia for development of products for the national economy. Stricter international standards and rules for increased safety and protection of nuclear power plants made it necessary to develop a new generation of reactors for ground-based power plants, which under the modern economic conditions cannot be implemented within the time periods acceptable for economics for most of the countries surrounding Russia. In the development of a new generation of ground-based nuclear power plants, the intense improvement of the aviation and space technology must be taken into account. This is connected with the increase in the catastrophes and the threat they present to the safety of unprotected power plants. This article is an abstract of the entire report.

  20. A human reliability analysis of the University of New Mexico's AGN- 201M nuclear research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brumburgh, G.P. ); Heger, A.S. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-10-15

    During 1990--1991, a probabilistic risk assessment was conducted on the University of New Mexico's AGN-201M nuclear research reactor to address the risk and consequence of a maximum hypothetical release accident. The assessment indicated a potential for consequential human error to precipitate Chis scenario. Subsequently, a human reliability analysis was performed to evaluate the significance of human interaction on the reactor's safety systems. This paper presents the results of that investigation.

  1. Researchers vie for role in nuclear-waste cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, A.

    1997-03-21

    In 1995 a Department of Energy grants program that was supposed to entice researchers who designed the nuclear arsenal to help in the cleanup. A report from the National Research Council criticized the program and another 10 year plan will be unveiled by DOE which some researchers say leave little room for science. This article gives an overview of the financial, political, and scientific problems surrounding clean up of DOE nuclear facilities.

  2. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, Tanju; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Bari, R.; Wigeland, Roald; Denman, Matthew R.; Flanagan, George F.

    2012-05-01

    This report proposes potential research priorities for the Department of Energy (DOE) with the intent of improving the licensability of the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). In support of this project, five panels were tasked with identifying potential safety-related gaps in available information, data, and models needed to support the licensing of a SFR. The areas examined were sodium technology, accident sequences and initiators, source term characterization, codes and methods, and fuels and materials. It is the intent of this report to utilize a structured and transparent process that incorporates feedback from all interested stakeholders to suggest future funding priorities for the SFR research and development. While numerous gaps were identified, two cross-cutting gaps related to knowledge preservation were agreed upon by all panels and should be addressed in the near future. The first gap is a need to re-evaluate the current procedures for removing the Applied Technology designation from old documents. The second cross-cutting gap is the need for a robust Knowledge Management and Preservation system in all SFR research areas. Closure of these and the other identified gaps will require both a reprioritization of funding within DOE as well as a re-evaluation of existing bureaucratic procedures within the DOE associated with Applied Technology and Knowledge Management.

  3. Aviation safety and operation problems research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.; Strickle, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft operating problems are described for aviation safety. It is shown that as aircraft technology improves, the knowledge and understanding of operating problems must also improve for economics, reliability and safety.

  4. Application Research of Two Real-Time Fault Diagnostic Methods in the Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chun-Li Xie; Yong-Kuo Liu; Hong Xia

    2006-07-01

    In order to guarantee the safety of nuclear power plants (NPP), we built two real-time fault diagnosis systems adopting VISUAL BAS6.0 programming language, which apply neural network technology and data fusion technology respectively. The fault diagnosis systems interchange data with the simulator timely utilizing communication interface. We insert faults on simulator to test the two systems on line. The advantages and disadvantages are illuminated and contrasted through analyzing the faults diagnostic results off- line, which establish the foundation for the further research and application to the fault diagnosis system of the nuclear power plants. (authors)

  5. Passive cooling safety system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.; Hui, Marvin M.; Berglund, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of partitions surrounding the reactor vessel in spaced apart relation forming intermediate areas for circulating heat transferring fluid which remove and carry away heat from the reactor vessel. The passive cooling system includes a closed primary fluid circuit through the partitions surrounding the reactor vessel and a partially adjoining secondary open fluid circuit for carrying transferred heat out into the atmosphere.

  6. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-04-26

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ``Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,`` was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  7. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chrology, permuted title, and author, Volume 11(1) through Volume 20(6)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1980-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review, covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume II, No. 1 (January-February 1970), through Volume 20, No. 6 (November-December 1979). It is divided into three sections: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts) followed by a permuted-title (KWIC) index and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC), covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 600 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last ten years are listed in this index.

  8. Index to Nuclear Safety: a technical progress review by chronology, permuted title, and author, Volume 18 (1) through Volume 22 (6)

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.B.; Passiakos, M.

    1982-06-01

    This index to Nuclear Safety covers articles published in Nuclear Safety, Volume 18, Number 1 (January-February 1977) through Volume 22, Number 6 (November-December 1981). The index is divided into three section: a chronological list of articles (including abstracts), a permuted-title (KWIC) index, and an author index. Nuclear Safety, a bimonthly technical progress review prepared by the Nuclear Safety Information Center, covers all safety aspects of nuclear power reactors and associated facilities. Over 300 technical articles published in Nuclear Safety in the last 5 years are listed in this index.

  9. Worldwide advanced nuclear power reactors with passive and inherent safety: What, why, how, and who

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The political controversy over nuclear power, the accidents at Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl, international competition, concerns about the carbon dioxide greenhouse effect and technical breakthroughs have resulted in a segment of the nuclear industry examining power reactor concepts with PRIME safety characteristics. PRIME is an acronym for Passive safety, Resilience, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended time after initiation of an accident for external help. The basic ideal of PRIME is to develop power reactors in which operator error, internal sabotage, or external assault do not cause a significant release of radioactivity to the environment. Several PRIME reactor concepts are being considered. In each case, an existing, proven power reactor technology is combined with radical innovations in selected plant components and in the safety philosophy. The Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor is a modified pressurized-water reactor, the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is a modified gas-cooled reactor, and the Advanced CANDU Project is a modified heavy-water reactor. In addition to the reactor concepts, there is parallel work on super containments. The objective is the development of a passive box'' that can contain radioactivity in the event of any type of accident. This report briefly examines: why a segment of the nuclear power community is taking this new direction, how it differs from earlier directions, and what technical options are being considered. A more detailed description of which countries and reactor vendors have undertaken activities follows. 41 refs.

  10. Review of common occupational hazards and safety concerns for nuclear medicine technologists.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Norman E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to address common occupational hazards and safety concerns of nuclear medicine technologists. There are many possible occupational hazards, but this review is intended to concentrate on common hazards and safety concerns. These include radiation safety issues and concerns about the possibility of developing latent diseases, such as eye cataracts or cancer; pregnant workers and radiation safety issues; biohazard concerns associated with patient body fluids; possible low-back pain from moving heavy equipment and performing patient transfers; and possible repetitive trauma disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, from computer work. Suggestions are made regarding how to identify potential hazards and avoid them. After reading this article, nuclear medicine technologists should be able to explain the importance of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, discuss the possible effects of ionizing radiation on the adult and the developing fetus, list several basic principles to avoid injury to the back, list and describe the more common repetitive trauma disorders or injuries and how to avoid them, and list and describe the biohazard safety issues that nuclear medicine technologists face and how to develop policy to minimize exposure risk. PMID:18287195

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  12. 77 FR 30559 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at..., Washington, DC 20555-0001. Richard F. Cole, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear...

  13. 77 FR 30029 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued at..., Washington, DC 20555-0001. Richard F. Cole, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, U.S. Nuclear...

  14. Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel: Biomedical and Environmental Effects Subpanel report for Galileo

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.R. ); Blanton, J.O. ); Bollinger, L.J.; Nelson, R.C. ); Cuddihy, R.G.; Hoover, M.D. . Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Cutshall, N.H. (Oak Ridge Natio

    1989-10-01

    This report of the Biomedical and Environmental Effects Subpanel (BEES) of the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP), for the Galileo space mission addresses the possible radiological consequences of postulated accidents that release radioactivity into the environment. This report presents estimates of the consequences and uncertainties given that the source term is released into the environment. 10 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. 78 FR 33449 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Opportunity for a Hearing,'' see 78 FR 16,876, 16,883 (Mar. 19, 2013), a hearing request was filed on May 20... in August 2007. See 72 FR 49,139. Issued at Rockville, Maryland this 28th day of May 2013. E. Roy... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board...

  16. 77 FR 20853 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972...-filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). The Commission has requested...

  17. 76 FR 56242 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972), and the Commission's regulations, see, e.g., 10 CFR 2.104, 2.105, 2.300, 2... NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Dated: Issued at Rockville, Maryland, this 6th day of... Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and...

  18. 75 FR 53985 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Southern Nuclear Operating Company Establishment of Atomic Safety And Licensing Board Pursuant to delegation by the Commission dated December 29, 1972, published in the Federal Register, 37 FR 28,710 (1972... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule, which the NRC promulgated in August 2007 (72 FR 49,139). Issued...

  19. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Desalination with Innovative Systems; the EURODESAL Project

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandroni, C.; Cinotti, L.; Mini, G.; Nisan, S.

    2002-07-01

    The proposed paper reports the results of a preliminary investigation on safety impact deriving from the coupling of a desalination plant with a 600 MWe Passive Design PWR like the AP600 Nuclear Power Plant. This evaluation was performed in the frame of the EURODESAL Project of the 5. EURATOM Framework Programme. (authors)

  20. Guidelines for Reviewers and the Editor at the Nuclear Safety Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetsel, H. B.

    The main purpose of this report is to help novice reviewers accelerate their apprenticeship at the Nuclear Safety Information Center, a computerized information service sponsored by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Guidelines for reviewers are presented in Part 1; Part 2 contains guidelines for the novice editor. The goal of the reviewers and…