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Sample records for nuclear security culture

  1. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

  2. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers,E.; deBoer,G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K.; Landers, J.

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former "Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security" at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that "good security is 20% equipment and 80% people." Although eliminating the "human factor" is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  3. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Cary E.; de Boer, Gloria; De Castro, Kara; Landers, John; Rogers, Erin

    2010-10-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the “human factor.” Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former “Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security” at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that “good security is 20% equipment and 80% people.”1 Although eliminating the “human factor” is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  4. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  5. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports that despite an Executive Order limiting the authority to make original classification decisions to government officials, DOE has delegated this authority to a number of contractor employees. Although the number of original classification decisions made by these contractors is small, this neither negates nor diminishes the significance of the improper delegation of authority. If misclassification were to occur, particularly at the Top Secret level, U.S. national security interests could potentially be seriously affected and threatened. DOE's argument that the delegation of such authority is a long-standing policy and done on a selective basis does not legitimize the practice and does not relieve DOE of its responsibility to meet the requirements of the Executive Order. DOE needs to independently assess all original classification determinations made by contractors; otherwise, it cannot be sure that U.S. national security interests have been or are being adequately protected.

  6. Nuclear energy and security

    SciTech Connect

    BLEJWAS,THOMAS E.; SANDERS,THOMAS L.; EAGAN,ROBERT J.; BAKER,ARNOLD B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power is an important and, the authors believe, essential component of a secure nuclear future. Although nuclear fuel cycles create materials that have some potential for use in nuclear weapons, with appropriate fuel cycles, nuclear power could reduce rather than increase real proliferation risk worldwide. Future fuel cycles could be designed to avoid plutonium production, generate minimal amounts of plutonium in proliferation-resistant amounts or configurations, and/or transparently and efficiently consume plutonium already created. Furthermore, a strong and viable US nuclear infrastructure, of which nuclear power is a large element, is essential if the US is to maintain a leadership or even participatory role in defining the global nuclear infrastructure and controlling the proliferation of nuclear weapons. By focusing on new fuel cycles and new reactor technologies, it is possible to advantageously burn and reduce nuclear materials that could be used for nuclear weapons rather than increase and/or dispose of these materials. Thus, the authors suggest that planners for a secure nuclear future use technology to design an ideal future. In this future, nuclear power creates large amounts of virtually atmospherically clean energy while significantly lowering the threat of proliferation through the thoughtful use, physical security, and agreed-upon transparency of nuclear materials. The authors must develop options for policy makers that bring them as close as practical to this ideal. Just as Atoms for Peace became the ideal for the first nuclear century, they see a potential nuclear future that contributes significantly to power for peace and prosperity.

  7. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  8. Multi-cultural network security

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.F.

    1996-04-01

    Education and awareness are widely acknowledged to be among the fundamental issues of Internet security, but only in the sense of making Internet users more security conscious. For the Internet to achieve its promise as an information highway, however, a complementary education effort is needed. If adequate Internet security is to be achieved, we must also increase the awareness of the professional security community of the requirements, attitudes, and habits of the many different cultures that participate in the Internet. Discussions of {open_quotes}the Internet{close_quotes} encourage the misapprehension that there is a single, uniform user community instead of a loose alliance of many cultures that differ in many fundamental aspects. This is true even if we limit our consideration to ethical cultures. At this Workshop alone we have representatives of administrative and military cultures, Governmental and commercial cultures, profit-cultures and non-profit cultures, research and operational cultures. Internet cultures are united in their desire to exploit the connectivity, flexibility, and rapidity of communication provided by the net, but differ greatly in their motivations, their attitudes towards authority, their willingness to cooperate within their own communities, their interest in technical arcana, and the patience with which they will put up with - or the enthusiasm with which they will embrace - the growing list of procedures deemed necessary for acceptable security. They even differ in how they define {open_quotes}acceptable security{close_quotes}.

  9. Radioactive source security: the cultural challenges.

    PubMed

    Englefield, Chris

    2015-04-01

    Radioactive source security is an essential part of radiation protection. Sources can be abandoned, lost or stolen. If they are stolen, they could be used to cause deliberate harm and the risks are varied and significant. There is a need for a global security protection system and enhanced capability to achieve this. The establishment of radioactive source security requires 'cultural exchanges'. These exchanges include collaboration between: radiation protection specialists and security specialists; the nuclear industry and users of radioactive sources; training providers and regulators/users. This collaboration will facilitate knowledge and experience exchange for the various stakeholder groups, beyond those already provided. This will promote best practice in both physical and information security and heighten security awareness generally. Only if all groups involved are prepared to open their minds to listen to and learn from, each other will a suitable global level of control be achieved. PMID:25377752

  10. Nuclear Physics for National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Douglass

    2006-10-01

    Being a nuclear physicist and working at a national laboratory provides many opportunities to ply one's skills in support of national security and the benefit of all mankind. Over the last 40 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been pioneering the field of Domestic and International Safeguards through the research and development of instrumentation and systems used to monitor nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. With a projected increase in the use of nuclear energy, effective systems must be designed to reduce the possibility that nuclear materials may be diverted for used in weapons. The recent focus has been the many applications of radiation detection used for safeguarding nuclear material and to support Homeland Security. There is a critical need for trained nuclear scientists who can understand and overcome measurement complexities, combinations of multiple sensor inputs, data reduction, and automated analysis for these applications. This talk will focus on the opportunities and experiences afforded physicists in the support of national security, beyond the weapons program and travel to interesting locales.

  11. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  12. A Cultural Resources Inventory and Historical Evaluation of the Smoky Atmospheric Nuclear Test, Areas 8, 9, and 10, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Robert C.; King, Maureen L.; Beck, Colleen M.; Falvey, Lauren W.; Menocal, Tatianna M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents the results of a National Historic Preservation Act Section 106 cultural resources inventory and historical evaluation of the 1957 Smoky atmospheric test location on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Desert Research Institute (DRI) was tasked to conduct a cultural resources study of the Smoky test area as a result of a proposed undertaking by the Department of Energy Environmental Management. This undertaking involves investigating Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550 for potential contaminants of concern as delineated in a Corrective Action Investigation Plan. CAU 550 is an area that spatially overlaps portions of the Smoky test location. Smoky, T-2c, was a 44 kt atmospheric nuclear test detonated at 5:30 am on August 31, 1957, on top of a 213.4 m (700 ft) 200 ton tower (T-2c) in Area 8 of the NNSS. Smoky was a weapons related test of the Plumbbob series (number 19) and part of the Department of Defense Exercise Desert Rock VII and VIII. The cultural resources effort involved the development of a historic context based on archival documents and engineering records, the inventory of the cultural resources in the Smoky test area and an associated military trench location in Areas 9 and 10, and an evaluation of the National Register eligibility of the cultural resources. The inventory of the Smoky test area resulted in the identification of structures, features, and artifacts related to the physical development of the test location and the post-test remains. The Smoky test area was designated historic district D104 and coincides with a historic archaeological site recorded as 26NY14794 and the military trenches designed for troop observation, site 26NY14795. Sites 26NY14794 and 26NY14795 are spatially discrete with the trenches located 4.3 km (2.7 mi) southeast of the Smoky ground zero. As a result, historic district D104 is discontiguous and in total it covers 151.4 hectares (374 acres). The Smoky test location, recorded as historic

  13. Using the IAEA Safety Culture Model as a Basis for Security Culture

    SciTech Connect

    De Castro, Kara; Thurmond, Paul; de Boer, Gloria; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2008-08-01

    In the last ten years, the practice of nuclear material physical protection control and accounting (MPC&A) in Russia has significantly changed. Under the cooperative US-Russian MPC&A Program, the MPC&A Culture Project team has developed the fundamentals of a pilot program to strengthen MPC&A Culture at nuclear sites. The pilot program is based on the IAEA Safety Culture Principles and Model Characteristics. There has been some debate on how easily these are transferable to Security Culture. While there may be operational differences, culture characteristics remain the same. This paper will compare and contrast the two cultures of Safety and Security, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of each discipline.

  14. Redefining Interrelationship between Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having “aggressors” as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests “SSN” which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called “SSST” in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards.

  15. Cultural perspectives of computer security

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, J.E.C.; Farrar, P.H.

    1994-12-31

    IBM installed thw rold`s first business computer at General Electric Applicance Park in Louisville, Kentucky in 1954. During these forty years the business world has undergone major changes. These changes, by necessity, also change culture, society and individuals lives.

  16. Compressive sensing for nuclear security.

    SciTech Connect

    Gestner, Brian Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Special nuclear material (SNM) detection has applications in nuclear material control, treaty verification, and national security. The neutron and gamma-ray radiation signature of SNMs can be indirectly observed in scintillator materials, which fluoresce when exposed to this radiation. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) coupled to the scintillator material is often used to convert this weak fluorescence to an electrical output signal. The fluorescence produced by a neutron interaction event differs from that of a gamma-ray interaction event, leading to a slightly different pulse in the PMT output signal. The ability to distinguish between these pulse types, i.e., pulse shape discrimination (PSD), has enabled applications such as neutron spectroscopy, neutron scatter cameras, and dual-mode neutron/gamma-ray imagers. In this research, we explore the use of compressive sensing to guide the development of novel mixed-signal hardware for PMT output signal acquisition. Effectively, we explore smart digitizers that extract sufficient information for PSD while requiring a considerably lower sample rate than conventional digitizers. Given that we determine the feasibility of realizing these designs in custom low-power analog integrated circuits, this research enables the incorporation of SNM detection into wireless sensor networks.

  17. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  18. Nuclear Security in Asia: A Global Affair

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M.

    2000-09-01

    My goal with this paper is to stimulate some thinking as to how scientists, concerned with nonproliferation and arms control, can address their efforts to improve the security environment in Asia, an environment that impacts the security of the entire world. The processes that led to the nuclearization of Asia are complex, with each country's nuclear weapons program tightly coupled to internal and regional politics and to national rivalries. Therefore, the first step toward nuclear stability, and ideally proliferation reversal, in Asia is to understand the motivations for and evolution of these programs. The author begins by addressing the evolution of the nuclear weapons programs of India, China, and Pakistan. Next he discusses why India (and then Pakistan) may have felt compelled to clear the ambiguity of their programs with their 1998 nuclear tests. He also explores why the P5 states (U.S., U.K., France, Russia, China) were unable to persuade India and Pakistan to stop or reverse their nuclear weapons programs. I then look at other countries' actions and reactions that may amplify or dampen the response of India, Pakistan, and China to what they perceive as a deterioration of their security environment. Finally he looks at regional activities that may reverse the deteriorating global security that has resulted from a nuclearized South Asia. This situation is something of a paradox because, at the same time the South Asia security environment is deteriorating, Russia and the U.S., the former Cold War adversaries, are finally taking steps to reduce the massive nuclear arsenals that threatened global security for so many years.

  19. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-12

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  20. National Center for Nuclear Security - NCNS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    As the United States embarks on a new era of nuclear arms control, the tools for treaty verification must be accurate and reliable, and must work at stand-off distances. The National Center for Nuclear Security, or NCNS, at the Nevada National Security Site, is poised to become the proving ground for these technologies. The center is a unique test bed for non-proliferation and arms control treaty verification technologies. The NNSS is an ideal location for these kinds of activities because of its multiple environments; its cadre of experienced nuclear personnel, and the artifacts of atmospheric and underground nuclear weapons explosions. The NCNS will provide future treaty negotiators with solid data on verification and inspection regimes and a realistic environment in which future treaty verification specialists can be trained. Work on warhead monitoring at the NCNS will also support future arms reduction treaties.

  1. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E

    2007-09-17

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  2. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-26

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  3. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  4. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  5. Culture-Independent Diagnostics for Health Security.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Norman A; Mukundan, Harshini; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Slezak, Tom R; Chain, Patrick S; Morse, Stephen; Anderson, Kevin; Hodge, David R; Pillai, Segaran

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen considerable development in the diagnostic application of nonculture methods, including nucleic acid amplification-based methods and mass spectrometry, for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. The implications of these new culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) include bypassing the need to culture organisms, thus potentially affecting public health surveillance systems, which continue to use isolates as the basis of their surveillance programs and to assess phenotypic resistance to antimicrobial agents. CIDTs may also affect the way public health practitioners detect and respond to a bioterrorism event. In response to a request from the Department of Homeland Security, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cosponsored a workshop to review the impact of CIDTs on the rapid detection and identification of biothreat agents. Four panel discussions were held that covered nucleic acid amplification-based diagnostics, mass spectrometry, antibody-based diagnostics, and next-generation sequencing. Exploiting the extensive expertise available at this workshop, we identified the key features, benefits, and limitations of the various CIDT methods for providing rapid pathogen identification that are critical to the response and mitigation of a bioterrorism event. After the workshop we conducted a thorough review of the literature, investigating the current state of these 4 culture-independent diagnostic methods. This article combines information from the literature review and the insights obtained at the workshop. PMID:27314653

  6. European security, nuclear weapons and public confidence

    SciTech Connect

    Gutteridge, W.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear arms control in Europe. Topics considered include political aspects, the balance of power, nuclear disarmament in Europe, the implications of new conventional technologies, the neutron bomb, theater nuclear weapons, arms control in Northern Europe, naval confidence-building measures in the Baltic, the strategic balance in the Arctic Ocean, Arctic resources, threats to European stability, developments in South Africa, economic cooperation in Europe, European collaboration in science and technology after Helsinki, European cooperation in the area of electric power, and economic cooperation as a factor for the development of European security and cooperation.

  7. Nuclear Security in the 21^st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Daniel E.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear security has been a priority for the United States, starting in the 1940s with the secret cities of the Manhattan Project. In the 1970s, the United States placed radiation monitoring equipment at nuclear facilities to detect nuclear material diversion. Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, cooperative Russian/U.S. programs were launched in Russia to secure the estimated 600+ metric tons of fissionable materials against diversion (Materials Protection, Control, and Accountability -- MPC&A). Furthermore, separate programs were initiated to detect nuclear materials at the country's borders in the event that these materials had been stolen (Second Line of Defense - SLD). In the 2000s, new programs have been put in place in the United States for radiation detection, and research is being funded for more advanced systems. This talk will briefly touch on the history of nuclear security and then focus on some recent research efforts in radiation detection. Specifically, a new breed of radiation monitors will be examined along with the concept of sensor networks.

  8. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins. PMID:20022419

  9. Review of July 2013 Nuclear Security Insider Threat Exercise November 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, Ann C.; Snow, Catherine L.; Townsend, Jeremy; Shannon, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This document is a review of the Nuclear Security Insider Threat Exercise which was hosted at ORNL in July 2013. Nuclear security culture and the insider threat are best learned through experience. Culture is inherently difficult to teach, and as such is best learned through modeled behaviors and learning exercise. This TTX, NSITE, is a tool that strives to aid students in learning what an effective (and ineffective) nuclear security culture might look like by simulating dynamic events that strengthen or weaken the nuclear security regime. The goals of NSITE are to stimulate complex thought and discussion and assist decision makers and management in determining the most effective policies and procedures for their country or facility.

  10. Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, K.; Alizadeh, H.; Meshkini, A.; Kohsari, M. J.

    In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social, economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery, suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian context.

  11. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment. PMID:11080829

  12. NESST: A nuclear energy safety and security treaty-Separating nuclear energy from nuclear weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Fission and Fusion energy is matched by the need to completely separate civilian energy programmes from the production of nuclear weapons. The Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT, 1968) muddles these issues together. The case is presented here for making a new Nuclear Energy Security Treaty (NESST) which is rigorous, enforceable without violence, and separate from the political quagmire of nuclear weapons.

  13. Supply Security in Future Nuclear Fuel Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Seward, Amy M.; Wood, Thomas W.; Gitau, Ernest T.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2013-11-18

    Previous PNNL work has shown the existing nuclear fuel markets to provide a high degree of supply security, including the ability to respond to supply disruptions that occur for technical and non-technical reasons. It is in the context of new reactor designs – that is, reactors likely to be licensed and market ready over the next several decades – that fuel supply security is most relevant. Whereas the fuel design and fabrication technology for existing reactors are well known, the construction of a new set of reactors could stress the ability of the existing market to provide adequate supply redundancy. This study shows this is unlikely to occur for at least thirty years, as most reactors likely to be built in the next three decades will be evolutions of current designs, with similar fuel designs to existing reactors.

  14. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  15. Cyber security best practices for the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, I.

    2012-07-01

    When deploying software based systems, such as, digital instrumentation and controls for the nuclear industry, it is vital to include cyber security assessment as part of architecture and development process. When integrating and delivering software-intensive systems for the nuclear industry, engineering teams should make use of a secure, requirements driven, software development life cycle, ensuring security compliance and optimum return on investment. Reliability protections, data loss prevention, and privacy enforcement provide a strong case for installing strict cyber security policies. (authors)

  16. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  17. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  18. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  19. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  20. 10 CFR 73.28 - Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security background checks for secure transfer of nuclear materials. 73.28 Section 73.28 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection of Special Nuclear Material in Transit § 73.28...

  1. The role of the health physicist in nuclear security.

    PubMed

    Waller, Edward J; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime far

  2. The Role of the Health Physicist in Nuclear Security

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Edward J.; van Maanen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Health physics is a recognized safety function in the holistic context of the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment against the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation, often generically designated as radiation protection. The role of the health physicist as protector dates back to the Manhattan Project. Nuclear security is the prevention and detection of, and response to, criminal or intentional unauthorized acts involving or directed at nuclear material, other radioactive material, associated facilities, or associated activities. Its importance has become more visible and pronounced in the post 9/11 environment, and it has a shared purpose with health physics in the context of protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment. However, the duties and responsibilities of the health physicist in the nuclear security domain are neither clearly defined nor recognized, while a fundamental understanding of nuclear phenomena in general, nuclear or other radioactive material specifically, and the potential hazards related to them is required for threat assessment, protection, and risk management. Furthermore, given the unique skills and attributes of professional health physicists, it is argued that the role of the health physicist should encompass all aspects of nuclear security, ranging from input in the development to implementation and execution of an efficient and effective nuclear security regime. As such, health physicists should transcend their current typical role as consultants in nuclear security issues and become fully integrated and recognized experts in the nuclear security domain and decision making process. Issues regarding the security clearances of health physics personnel and the possibility of insider threats must be addressed in the same manner as for other trusted individuals; however, the net gain from recognizing and integrating health physics expertise in all levels of a nuclear security regime

  3. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  4. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-08-05

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  5. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  6. Special nuclear material information, security classification guidance. Instruction

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.

    1982-12-03

    The Instruction reissues DoD Instruction 5210.67, July 5, 1979, and provides security classification guidance for information concerning significant quantities of special nuclear material, other than that contained in nuclear weapons and that used in the production of energy in the reactor plant of nuclear-powered ships. Security classification guidance for these data in the latter two applications is contained in Joint DoE/DoD Nuclear Weapons Classification Guide and Joint DoE/DoD Classification Guide for the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program.

  7. Overview of nuclear detection needs for homeland security

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T. E.

    2006-07-01

    The need for advanced and improved nuclear detection systems is paramount to address the challenges facing the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security. The DHS is responsible for developing broad based nuclear detection architecture for discovery of nuclear materials that may be smuggled into or in transit within the U.S. The implementation of this architecture requires the design, development, and deployment of a suite of nuclear detection systems with varying capabilities and operational constraints. This paper provides an overview of the nuclear detection needs for homeland security applications that encompasses both passive and active detection systems that range from hand-held to vehicle deployable systems. (authors)

  8. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  9. Public perspectives on nuclear security. US national security surveys, 1993--1997

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1998-08-01

    This is the third report in a series of studies to examine how US attitudes about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era and to identify trends in public perceptions and preferences relevant to the evolution of US nuclear security policy. It presents findings from three surveys: a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public; a written survey of randomly selected members of American Men and Women of Science; and a written survey of randomly selected state legislators from all fifty US states. Key areas of investigation included nuclear security, cooperation between US and Russian scientists about nuclear issues, vulnerabilities of critical US infrastructures and responsibilities for their protection, and broad areas of US national science policy. While international and US national security were seen to be slowly improving, the primary nuclear threat to the US was perceived to have shifted from Russia to China. Support was found for nuclear arms control measures, including mutual reductions in stockpiles. However, respondents were pessimistic about eliminating nuclear armaments, and nuclear deterrence continued to be highly values. Participants favored decreasing funding f/or developing and testing new nuclear weapons, but supported increased investments in nuclear weapons infrastructure. Strong concerns were expressed about nuclear proliferation and the potential for nuclear terrorism. Support was evident for US scientific cooperation with Russia to strengthen security of Russian nuclear assets. Elite and general public perceptions of external and domestic nuclear weapons risks and external and domestic nuclear weapons benefits were statistically significantly related to nuclear weapons policy options and investment preferences. Demographic variables and individual belief systems were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and to policy and spending preferences.

  10. Security Culture on Campus: Considerations for Urban Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Lizbet

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the social meaning of security practices at urban university settings. The work first demonstrates the way in which physical fortification and surveillance technology have been implemented in urban institutional settings and considers the role these particular practices may play in shaping the socio-cultural identity of the…

  11. Surveys of organizational culture and safety culture in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Walter S.

    2000-07-30

    The results of a survey of organizational culture at a nuclear power plant are summarized and compared with those of a similar survey which has been described in the literature on ''high-reliability organizations''. A general-purpose cultural inventory showed a profile of organizational style similar to that reported in the literature; the factor structure for the styles was also similar to that of the plant previously described. A specialized scale designed to measure ''safety culture'' did not distinguished among groups within the organization that would be expected to differ.

  12. Nuclear safeguards and security: we can do better.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Warner, Jon S.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Martinez, R. K.; Lopez, L. N.; Pacheco, A. N.; Trujillo, S. J.; Herrera, A. M.; Bitzer, E. G. , III

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of practical ways to significantly improve nuclear safeguards and security. These include recognizing and minimizing the insider threat; using adversarial vulnerability assessments to find vulnerabilities and countermeasures; fully appreciating the disparate nature of domestic and international nuclear safeguards; improving tamper detection and tamper-indicating seals; not confusing the inventory and security functions; and recognizing the limitations of GPS tracking, contact memory buttons, and RFID tags. The efficacy of nuclear safeguards depends critically on employing sophisticated security strategies and effective monitoring hardware. The Vulnerability Assessment Team (VAT) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has extensively researched issues associated with nuclear safeguards, especially in the areas of tamper/intrusion detection, transport security, and vulnerability assessments. This paper discusses some of our findings, recommendations, and warnings.

  13. NNSA Program Develops the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Experts

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.; Disney, Maren V.

    2015-09-02

    NNSA is fostering the next generation of nuclear security experts is through its successful NNSA Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP). NGFP offers its Fellows an exceptional career development opportunity through hands-on experience supporting NNSA mission areas across policy and technology disciplines. The one-year assignments give tomorrow’s leaders in global nuclear security and nonproliferation unparalleled exposure through assignments to Program Offices across NNSA.

  14. Safety/security interface assessments at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, K.R.; Brown, P.J.; Norderhaug, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    The findings of the Haynes Task Force Committee (NUREG-0992) are used as the basis for defining safety/security assessment team activities at commercial nuclear power plants in NRC Region V. A safety/security interface assessment outline and the approach used for making the assessments are presented along with the composition of team members. As a result of observing simulated plant emergency conditions during scheduled emergency preparedness exercises, examining security and operational response procedures, and interviewing plant personnel, the team has identified instances where safety/security conflicts can occur. 2 refs.

  15. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  16. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-07-14

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  17. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  18. NNSA Administrator Addresses the Next Generation of Nuclear Security Professionals: Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration addressed the next generation of nuclear security professionals during the opening session of todays 2009 Department of Energy (DOE) Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Annual Conference. Administrator DAgostino discussed NNSAs role in implementing President Obamas nuclear security agenda and encouraged the computing science fellows to consider careers in nuclear security.

  19. Training programs for the systems approach to nuclear security.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Doris E.

    2005-07-01

    In support of the US Government and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Security Programmes, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has advocated and practiced a risk-based, systematic approach to nuclear security. The risk equation has been implemented as the basis for a performance methodology for the design and evaluation of Physical Protection Systems against a Design Basis Threat (DBT) for theft or sabotage of nuclear and/or radiological materials. Since integrated systems must include people as well as technology and the man-machine interface, a critical aspect of the human element is to train all stakeholders in nuclear security on the systems approach. Current training courses have been beneficial but are still limited in scope. SNL has developed two primary international courses and is completing development of three new courses that will be offered and presented in the near term. In the long-term, SNL envisions establishing a comprehensive nuclear security training curriculum that will be developed along with a series of forthcoming IAEA Nuclear Security Series guidance documents.

  20. Mass and Elite Views on Nuclear Security: US National Security Surveys 1993-1999

    SciTech Connect

    HERRON,KERRY G.; JENKINS-SMITH,HANK C.; HUGHES,SCOTT D.

    2000-06-01

    This is the fourth report in an ongoing series of studies examining how US perspectives about nuclear security are evolving in the post-Cold War era. In Volume 1 the authors present findings from a nationwide telephone survey of randomly selected members of the US general public conducted from 13 September to 14 October 1999. Results are compared to findings from previous surveys in this series conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1997, and trends are analyzed. Key areas of investigation reported in Volume 1 include evolving perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits, preferences for related policy and spending issues, and views about three emerging issue areas: deterrent utility of precision guided munitions; response options to attacks in which mass casualty weapons are used; and expectations about national missile defenses. In this volume they relate respondent beliefs about nuclear security to perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits and to policy preferences. They develop causal models to partially explain key preferences, and they employ cluster analysis to group respondents into four policy relevant clusters characterized by similar views and preferences about nuclear security within each cluster. Systematic links are found among respondent demographic characteristics, perceptions of nuclear risks and benefits, policy beliefs, and security policy and spending preferences. In Volume 2 they provide analysis of in-depth interviews with fifty members of the US security policy community.

  1. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Development and Integration with Safety and Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Donald N; Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; McClelland-Kerr, John; Van sickle, Matthew; Bissani, Mo

    2009-01-01

    Faced with increasing global energy demands, many developing countries are considering building their first nuclear power plant. As a country embarks upon or expands its nuclear power program, it should consider how it will address the 19 issues laid out in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) document Milestones in Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. One of those issues specifically addresses the international nonproliferation treaties and commitments and the implementation of safeguards to prevent diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes to nuclear weapons. Given the many legislative, economic, financial, environmental, operational, and other considerations preoccupying their planners, it is often difficult for countries to focus on developing the core strengths needed for effective safeguards implementation. Typically, these countries either have no nuclear experience or it is limited to the operation of research reactors used for radioisotope development and scientific research. As a result, their capacity to apply safeguards and manage fuel operations for a nuclear power program is limited. This paper argues that to address the safeguards issue effectively, a holistic approach must be taken to integrate safeguards with the other IAEA issues including safety and security - sometimes referred to as the '3S' concept. Taking a holistic approach means that a country must consider safeguards within the context of its entire nuclear power program, including operations best practices, safety, and security as well as integration with its larger nonproliferation commitments. The Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) has been involved in bilateral technical cooperation programs for over 20 years to promote nonproliferation and the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. INSEP is currently spearheading efforts to promote the development of

  2. Strengthening Domestic Nuclear Security Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Meehan, Patrick [R-PA-7

    2014-09-18

    12/03/2014 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. The Security of Russia's Nuclear Arsenal: The Human Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1999-10-12

    Assertions by the Russian military that all of their nuclear weapons are secure against theft and that nuclear units within the military are somehow insulated from the problems plaguing the Russian military should not be accepted uncritically. Accordingly, we should not give unwarranted credence to the pronouncements of military figures like Cal.-Gen. Igor Valynkin, Chief of the Defense Ministry's 12th Main Directorate, which oversees the country's nuclear arsenal. He contends that ''Russian nuclear weapons are under reliable supervision'' and that ''talk about the unreliability of our control over nuclear weapons has only one pragmatic goal--to convince international society that the country is incapable of maintaining nuclear safety and to introduce international oversight over those weapons, as it is done, for example, in Iraq.'' While the comparison to Iraq is preposterous, many analysts might agree with Valynkin's sanguine appraisal of the security of Russia's nuclear weapons. In contrast, I argue that the numerous difficulties confronting the military as a whole should cause concern in the West over the security of the Russian nuclear arsenal.

  4. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  5. Inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.D.; Zahn, T.

    1997-07-01

    This paper, augmented by color slides and handouts, will examine the inherent security benefits of underground dry storage of nuclear materials. Specific items to be presented include: the successful implementation of this type of storage configuration at Argonne National Laboratory - West; facility design concepts with security as a primary consideration; physical barriers achieved by container design; detection, assessment, and monitoring capabilities; and {open_quotes}self protection{close_quotes} strategies. This is a report on the security features of such a facility. The technical operational aspects of the facility are beyond the scope of this paper.

  6. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response— (a)...

  7. Nonproliferation, Nuclear Security, and the Insider Threat

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I.; Duggan, Ruth

    2012-07-12

    Insider threat concept is evolving and getting more attention: (1) Domestically, internationally and in foreign countries, (2) At the government, academia, and industry levels, and (3) Public awareness and concerns are also growing. Negligence can be an insider's action. Technology advancements provide more opportunities, new tools for the insider. Our understanding of the insider is shaped by our cultural, social and ethnic perceptions and traditions. They also can limit our recognition of the issues and response actions.

  8. Nuclear Theory for Astrophysics, Stockpile Stewardship, and Homeland Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Anna

    2004-10-01

    A large number of problems key to astrophysics, stockpile stewardship, and homeland defense rely on knowledge of nuclear physics in regimes inaccessible to experiment. In stellar and nuclear explosions unstable nuclei and nuclear isomers are produced in copious quantities and are used to diagnose the explosion. Similarly, analysis of the unstable nuclei from the debris will be key to attribution in the event of a terrorist domestic nuclear attack. In the case of nuclear non-proliferation a number of new schemes are being considered by the IAEA to address the ever greater needs, including neutrino monitoring of the plutonium content of reactors. For all of these problems detailed nuclear theory is required. In this talk I discuss the theoretical physics needs for the type of problems of overlapping interest to astrophysics and national security.

  9. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  10. Management of Global Nuclear Materials for International Security

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T; Choi, J-S

    2003-09-18

    Nuclear materials were first used to end the World War II. They were produced and maintained during the cold war for global security reasons. In the succeeding 50 years since the Atoms for Peace Initiative, nuclear materials were produced and used in global civilian reactors and fuel cycles intended for peaceful purposes. The Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1970 established a framework for appropriate applications of both defense and civilian nuclear activities by nuclear weapons states and non-nuclear weapons states. As global inventories of nuclear materials continue to grow, in a diverse and dynamically changing manner, it is time to evaluate current and future trends and needed actions: what are the current circumstances, what has been done to date, what has worked and what hasn't? The aim is to identify mutually reinforcing programmatic directions, leading to global partnerships that measurably enhance international security. Essential elements are material protection, control and accountability (MPC&A) of separated nuclear materials, interim storage, and geologic repositories for all nuclear materials destined for final disposal. Cooperation among key partners, such as the MPC&A program between the U.S. and Russia for nuclear materials from dismantled weapons, is necessary for interim storage and final disposal of nuclear materials. Such cooperative partnerships can lead to a new nuclear regime where a complete fuel cycle service with fuel leasing and spent fuel take-back can be offered to reactor users. The service can effectively minimize or even eliminate the incentive or rationale for the user-countries to develop their indigenous enrichment and reprocessing technologies. International cooperation, supported by governments of key countries can be best to facilitate the forum for formation of such cooperative partnerships.

  11. Nuclear Safeguards and Security Education at Russian Universities

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2008-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is assisting key Russian universities in developing safeguards and security degree programs to prepare the next generation of specialists who will be responsible for protecting nuclear material from illicit use. These programs include course and laboratory work in nuclear material measurements, vulnerability analysis, exterior and interior sensors, and legal aspects of nuclear nonproliferation. Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) has graduated nine classes of master’s students, most of who are working in government agencies, research organizations, or pursuing their PhD. With DOE support, MEPhI has also established a 5½-year engineering degree program in safeguards and security. This is a hands-on degree that more closely meets the needs of nuclear facilities. The first class graduated in February 2007, marking a major milestone in Russian nonproliferation education. A second engineering degree program has been established at Tomsk Polytechnic University and is designed to reach those students east of the Ural Mountains, where many nuclear facilities are located. The first class will graduate in February 2009. This paper describes current development of these education programs, new initiatives, and sustainability efforts to ensure their continued viability after DOE support ends. The paper also describes general nonproliferation education activities supported by DOE that complement the more technical safeguards and security education programs.

  12. Nuclear Forensics: A Methodology Applicable to Nuclear Security and to Non-Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Wallenius, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Galy, J.; Varga, Z.; Erdmann, N.; Buda, R.; Kratz, J.-V.; Trautmann, N.; Fifield, K.

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear Security aims at the prevention and detection of and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer or other malicious acts involving nuclear material. Nuclear Forensics is a key element of nuclear security. Nuclear Forensics is defined as a methodology that aims at re-establishing the history of nuclear material of unknown origin. It is based on indicators that arise from known relationships between material characteristics and process history. Thus, nuclear forensics analysis includes the characterization of the material and correlation with production history. To this end, we can make use of parameters such as the isotopic composition of the nuclear material and accompanying elements, chemical impurities, macroscopic appearance and microstructure of the material. In the present paper, we discuss the opportunities for attribution of nuclear material offered by nuclear forensics as well as its limitations. Particular attention will be given to the role of nuclear reactions. Such reactions include the radioactive decay of the nuclear material, but also reactions with neutrons. When uranium (of natural composition) is exposed to neutrons, plutonium is formed, as well as 236U. We will illustrate the methodology using the example of a piece of uranium metal that dates back to the German nuclear program in the 1940's. A combination of different analytical techniques and model calculations enables a nuclear forensics interpretation, thus correlating the material characteristics with the production history.

  13. Security during safety-related emergencies at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Moul, D.A.

    1984-07-01

    Under a commission from the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, NRC, a study was performed by a team of analysts relative to licensing practices and the role of security as they relate to safeguards during safety-related emergencies (SREs). Methodology included a literature search, site visits to representative nuclear reactors and analysis of the regulatory and licensee planning bases. Problems relating to security actions during SREs were examined primarily in the following areas: organization for response, planning, training and qualification, equipment, procedures employed, facilities, and preparation for safeguards against sabotage during an SRE. Recommendations were made as to how improvements could be made in the regulatory approach, and in licensee planning and procedural mechanisms as they relate to the subject matter under examination. The results of the study also had implications for the safety/safeguards interface problem currently under review by the NRC.

  14. R&D for Better Nuclear Security: Radiation Detector Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kammeraad, J E

    2009-04-02

    I am going to talk about the need for better materials for radiation detectors. I believe that government investment in this area can enable transformational technology change that could impact domestic nuclear security and also national nuclear security in some very positive and powerful ways. I'm not going to give you a lecture on how radiation detectors work, but I am going to tell you a bit about today's off-the-shelf technology and why it is not sufficient, what we need, and what security benefit you could get from improvements. I think we're at a critical point in time for some very impactful investments. In particular I'm going to focus on the use of gamma-ray radiation detectors at ports of entry. Not long before DHS was formed, Congress decreed that counter measures against the delivery of radiological and nuclear threats would be put in place at US ports of entry, under the authority of US Customs (later Customs and Border Protection in DHS). This included the screening of all cars and trucks passing through a port of entry. Existing off-the-shelf radiation detectors had to be selected for this purpose. Plans were made to make the most of the available technologies, but there are some inherent limitations of these detectors, plus the operational setting can bring out other limitations.

  15. Security Design of Remote Maintenance Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Based on ISO/IEC 15408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Ryosuke; Oi, Tadashi; Endo, Yoshio

    This paper presents a security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants. Based on ISO/IEC 15408, we list assets to be protected, threats to the assets, security objectives against the threats, and security functional requirements that achieve the security objectives. Also, we show relations between the threats and the security objectives, and relations between the security objectives and the security functional requirements. As a result, we concretize a necessary and sufficient security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants that can protect the instrumentation and control system against intrusion, impersonation, tapping, obstruction and destruction.

  16. The Globalization of Higher Education as a Societal and Cultural Security Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samier, Eugenie A.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I propose a theory of the globalization of higher education as societal and cultural security problems for many regions of the world. The first section examines the field of security studies for theoretical frameworks appropriate to critiquing globalized higher education, including critical human, societal and cultural security…

  17. Compact Gamma-Beam Source for Nuclear Security Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    A compact gamma-beam source dedicated to the development of the nuclear security technologies by use of the nuclear resonance fluorescence is described. Besides, such source is a very promising tool for novel technologies of the express cargoes inspection to prevent nuclear terrorism. Gamma-beam with the quanta energies from 0.3MeV to 7.2MeV is generated in the Compton scattering of the "green" laser photons on the electron beam with energies from 90MeV to 430MeV. The characteristic property of the proposed gammabeam source is a narrow spectrum (less than 1%) at high average gamma-yield (of 1013γ/s) due to special operation mode.

  18. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION... safeguards and security interface with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of...

  19. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION... safeguards and security interface with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Department of...

  20. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-04-05

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them.

  1. DOE/DHS INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY PROGRAMS: A MODEL FOR USE IN NUCLEAR FACILITY SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Many critical infrastructure sectors have been investigating cyber security issues for several years especially with the help of two primary government programs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National SCADA Test Bed and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Control Systems Security Program have both implemented activities aimed at securing the industrial control systems that operate the North American electric grid along with several other critical infrastructure sectors (ICS). These programs have spent the last seven years working with industry including asset owners, educational institutions, standards and regulating bodies, and control system vendors. The programs common mission is to provide outreach, identification of cyber vulnerabilities to ICS and mitigation strategies to enhance security postures. The success of these programs indicates that a similar approach can be successfully translated into other sectors including nuclear operations, safeguards, and security. The industry regulating bodies have included cyber security requirements and in some cases, have incorporated sets of standards with penalties for non-compliance such as the North American Electric Reliability Corporation Critical Infrastructure Protection standards. These DOE and DHS programs that address security improvements by both suppliers and end users provide an excellent model for nuclear facility personnel concerned with safeguards and security cyber vulnerabilities and countermeasures. It is not a stretch to imagine complete surreptitious collapse of protection against the removal of nuclear material or even initiation of a criticality event as witnessed at Three Mile Island or Chernobyl in a nuclear ICS inadequately protected against the cyber threat.

  2. Magnetic imaging: a new tool for UK national nuclear security.

    PubMed

    Darrer, Brendan J; Watson, Joe C; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications. PMID:25608957

  3. Magnetic Imaging: a New Tool for UK National Nuclear Security

    PubMed Central

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joe C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications. PMID:25608957

  4. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  5. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  6. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  7. 10 CFR 1.46 - Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. 1.46 Section 1.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters Program Offices § 1.46 Office of Nuclear Security and Incident Response. The Office of...

  8. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  9. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  10. 33 CFR 165.106 - Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear... Guard District § 165.106 Security Zone: Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, Seabrook, New Hampshire. (a... property boundary of Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant identified as follows: beginning at position 42°53′58″...

  11. Reevaluating nuclear safety and security in a post 9/11 era.

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, Paul M.; Brown, Lisa M.

    2005-07-01

    This report has the following topics: (1) Changing perspectives on nuclear safety and security; (2) Evolving needs in a post-9/11 era; (3) Nuclear Weapons--An attractive terrorist target; (4) The case for increased safety; (5) Evolution of current nuclear weapons safety and security; (6) Integrated surety; (7) The role of safety and security in enabling responsiveness; (8) Advances in surety technologies; and (9) Reevaluating safety.

  12. Applications of nuclear techniques relevant for civil security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkovi, Vlado

    2006-05-01

    The list of materials which are subject to inspection with the aim of reducing the acts of terrorism includes explosives, narcotics, chemical weapons, hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials. To this we should add also illicit trafficking with human beings. The risk of nuclear terrorism carried out by sub-national groups is considered not only in construction and/or use of nuclear device, but also in possible radioactive contamination of large urban areas. Modern personnel, parcel, vehicle and cargo inspection systems are non-invasive imaging techniques based on the use of nuclear analytical techniques. The inspection systems use penetrating radiations: hard x-rays (300 keV or more) or gamma-rays from radioactive sources (137Cs and 60Co with energies from 600 to 1300 keV) that produce a high resolution radiograph of the load. Unfortunately, this information is ''non-specific'' in that it gives no information on the nature of objects that do not match the travel documents and are not recognized by a visual analysis of the radiographic picture. Moreover, there are regions of the container where x and gamma-ray systems are ''blind'' due to the high average atomic number of the objects irradiated that appear as black spots in the radiographic image. Contrary to that is the use of neutrons; as results of the bombardment, nuclear reactions occur and a variety of nuclear particles, gamma and x-ray radiation is emitted, specific for each element in the bombarded material. The problem of material (explosive, drugs, chemicals, etc.) identification can be reduced to the problem of measuring elemental concentrations. Neutron scanning technology offers capabilities far beyond those of conventional inspection systems. The unique automatic, material specific detection of terrorist threats can significantly increase the security at ports, border-crossing stations, airports, and even within the domestic transportation infrastructure of potential urban targets as well as

  13. Interactive Simulation of Nuclear Materials Safeguards and Security

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-03-14

    THIEF is an interactive computer simulation or computer game of the safeguards and security (S&S) systems of a nuclear facility. The user is placed in the role of a non-violent insider attempting to remove special nuclear material from the facility. All portions of the S&S system that are relevant to the non-violent insider threat are included. The computer operates the S&S systems and attempts to detect the loss of the nuclear material. Both the physicalmore » protection system and the materials control and accounting system are modeled. The description of the facility and its S&S systems are defined by the user with the aid of an input module. All aspects of the facility description are provided by the user. The program has a custom graphical user interface to facilitate its use by people with limited computer experience. The custom interface also allows it to run on relatively small computer systems.« less

  14. Cultural Diversity, Relocation, and the Security of International Students at an Internationalised University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Nyland, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The notion of "security" is an elusive concept that attracts varying interpretations. In this article, the authors adopt a definition that views security as a broadly applicable term that encompasses physical, social, and economic dimensions that relate to human rights, cultural difference, and relocation. The approach embraces the complexities of…

  15. The Secure-Base Phenomenon across Cultures: Children's Behavior, Mothers' Preferences, and Experts' Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the universality of children's use of their mothers as a secure base. Found that, on average, children in all seven of the countries and contexts studied were characterized as using their mothers as a secure base, but that they differed across cultures in the degree to which their behavior conformed to the definition of a securely…

  16. Development of Secure and Sustainable Nuclear Infrastructure in Emerging Nuclear Nations Such as Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Kovacic, Donald N

    2008-01-01

    Infrastructure Preparedness and Vietnam Jacqueline L. Shipwash and Donald N. Kovacic (shipwashjl@ornl.gov, 865-241-9129, and kovacicdn@ornl.gov, 865-576-1459) Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 The global expansion of nuclear energy will require international cooperation to ensure that nuclear materials, facilities, and sensitive technologies are not diverted to non-peaceful uses. Developing countries will require assistance to ensure the effective regulation, management, and operation of their nuclear programs to achieve best practices in nuclear nonproliferation. A developing nation has many hurdles to pass before it can give assurances to the international community that it is capable of implementing a sustainable nuclear energy program. In August of this year, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam signed an arrangement for Information Exchange and Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This event signals an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnam in the area of nuclear nonproliferation. This paper will address how DOE is supporting the development of secure and sustainable infrastructures in emerging nuclear nations such as Vietnam.

  17. Summary Comments: Nuclear Physics and Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    The Nuclear Physics and Gamma-ray Sources for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation (NPNSNP) meeting held in Tokai-mura, Japan from January 28th to 30th, 2014 revealed both the rapid evolution and growth of monoenergetic, laser-Compton, gamma-ray source technology and the emergence of numerous important applications enabled by this technology. More than 500M of large-scale source and development activities were represented at the meeting, including all of the major projects in the United States, Europe and Japan. The meeting was both highly stimulating intellectually and provided an excellent venue for the exploration of new collaborations between groups...

  18. International Internships in Nuclear Safeguards and Security: Challenges and Successes

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolai I.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Sokova, Elena K.; Ford, David G.

    2010-04-20

    All students in the Russian safeguards and security degree programs at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI and Tomsk Polytechnic University, sponsored by the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Education Project, take part in a domestic internship at a Russian enterprise or facility. In addition, a select few students are placed in an international internship. These internships provide students with a better view of how MPC&A and nonproliferation in general are addressed outside of Russia. The possibility of an international internship is a significant incentive for students to enroll in the safeguards and security degree programs. The U.S. members of the MPC&A Education Project team interview students who have been nominated by their professors. These students must have initiative and reasonable English skills. The project team and professors then select students to be tentatively placed in various international internships during the summer or fall of their final year of study. Final arrangements are then made with the host organizations. This paper describes the benefits of the joint United States/Russia cooperation for next-generation workforce development, some of the international internships that have been carried out, the benefits of these international internships, and lessons learned in implementing them.

  19. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  20. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  1. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... requirements for nuclear power reactors. (a) Each operating nuclear power reactor licensee with a...

  2. Counterintelligence and operations security-support program for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, L.

    1983-01-25

    The Directive establishes the counterintelligence (CI) and operations security (OPSEC) support program for the Defense Nuclear Agency which includes activities designed to protect classified and operationally sensitive unclassified information and material. Included are CI investigations, counterespionage and countersabotage operations, OPSEC analyses, technical surveillance countermeasures services, CI security education, and CI security assistance.

  3. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.58 Safety/security...

  4. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.58 Safety/security...

  5. 10 CFR 73.58 - Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety/security interface requirements for nuclear power reactors. 73.58 Section 73.58 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.58 Safety/security...

  6. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  8. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that describe: (1)…

  9. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  10. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  12. Key Factors in the Success of an Organization's Information Security Culture: A Quantitative Study and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This research study reviewed relative literature on information security and information security culture within organizations to determine what factors potentially assist an organization in implementing, integrating, and maintaining a successful organizational information security culture. Based on this review of literature, five key factors were…

  13. Food Security in Older Australians from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Bird, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experiences and barriers to food security of community-dwelling older people. Design: Quantitative questionnaire and 5 focus group discussions using purposive sampling. Setting: Shire of Melton, Victoria, Australia. Participants: Thirty-seven people (13 male and 24 female), between 58 and 85 years of age, from…

  14. Applications Using High Flux LCS gamma-ray Beams: Nuclear Security and Contributions to Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear nonproliferation and security are an important issue for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. Many countries now collaborate together for preventing serious accidents from nuclear terrorism. Detection of hidden long-lived radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides in a non-destructive manner is useful for nuclear safeguards and management of nuclear wastes as well as nuclear security. After introducing the present situation concerning the nuclear nonproliferation and security in Japan, we plan to show the present activities of JAEA to detect the hidden nuclear materials by means of the nuclear resonance fluorescence with energy-tunable, monochromatic gamma-rays generated by Laser Compton Scattering (LCS) with an electron beam. The energy recovery linac (ERL) machine is now under development with the KEK-JAEA collaboration for realizing the new generation of gamma-ray sources. The detection technologies of nuclear materials are currently developed using the existing electron beam facilities at Duke University and at NewSubaru. These developments in Japan will contribute to the nuclear security program in Japan and to the assay of melted nuclear fuels in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants.

  15. National Nuclear Security Administration Knowledge Base Core Table Schema Document

    SciTech Connect

    CARR,DORTHE B.

    2002-09-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is creating a Knowledge Base to store technical information to support the United States nuclear explosion monitoring mission. This document defines the core database tables that are used in the Knowledge Base. The purpose of this document is to present the ORACLE database tables in the NNSA Knowledge Base that on modifications to the CSS3.0 Database Schema developed in 1990. (Anderson et al., 1990). These modifications include additional columns to the affiliation table, an increase in the internal ORACLE format from 8 integers to 9 integers for thirteen IDs, and new primary and unique key definitions for six tables. It is intended to be used as a reference by researchers inside and outside of NNSA/DOE as they compile information to submit to the NNSA Knowledge Base. These ''core'' tables are separated into two groups. The Primary tables are dynamic and consist of information that can be used in automatic and interactive processing (e.g. arrivals, locations). The Lookup tables change infrequently and are used for auxiliary information used by the processing. In general, the information stored in the core tables consists of: arrivals; events, origins, associations of arrivals; magnitude information; station information (networks, site descriptions, instrument responses); pointers to waveform data; and comments pertaining to the information. This document is divided into four sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines the sixteen tables that make up the core tables of the NNSA Knowledge Base database. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. In addition, the primary, unique and foreign keys are defined. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams. The last section, defines the columns or attributes of the various tables. Information that is

  16. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-08-22

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the inaugural Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from June 11 – 22, 2012. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. The first week of the summer school focused on the foundational knowledge required by technology practitioners; the second week focused on contemporary applications. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security.

  17. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... surface to bottom, within a 2,000 yard radius of Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant centered at position...

  19. Biba San Dymphna: Cultural Security and Mental Health on Guam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartland, Diane M.

    Nearly 20 years ago a culturally relevant program was created on the island of Guam. Inspired by the Gheel, the Belgium colony's humanized treatment of the mentally ill, the program is based on the island's Spanish heritage and makes use of Roman Catholic ritual in communal assembly and in commemorating developmental attainments. Beginning as a…

  20. Program Management at the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security: A Review of Program Management Documents and Underlying Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, Michael S.

    2010-05-01

    The scope of this paper is to review the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Defense Nuclear Security (DNS) program management documents and to examine the underlying processes. The purpose is to identify recommendations for improvement and to influence the rewrite of the DNS Program Management Plan (PMP) and the documentation supporting it. As a part of this process, over 40 documents required by DNS or its stakeholders were reviewed. In addition, approximately 12 other documents produced outside of DNS and its stakeholders were reviewed in an effort to identify best practices. The complete list of documents reviewed is provided as an attachment to this paper.

  1. Public views on multiple dimensions of security : nuclear waepons, terrorism, energy, and the environment : 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze and compare findings from identical national surveys of the US general public on nuclear security and terrorism administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2007. Key areas of investigation include assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation, including the specific cases of North Korea and Iran; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism. Also we report findings from an Internet survey conducted in mid 2007 that investigates public views of US energy security, to include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alternative sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include expected implications of global climate change, and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options.

  2. 78 FR 77606 - Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... SECY-07- 0148, to strengthen security requirements at ISFSIs. On December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66589), the... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 72 and 73 RIN 3150-AI78 Security Requirements for Facilities Storing Spent Nuclear... known as the technical basis] document for a proposed rulemaking that would revise the...

  3. National Security in the Nuclear Age: Public Library Proposal and Booklist. May 1987 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dane, Ernest B.

    To increase public understanding of national security issues, this document proposes that a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on national security in the nuclear age be included in all U.S. public libraries. The proposal suggests that the books be grouped together on an identified shelf. Selection criteria for the…

  4. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A.; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were…

  5. Maternal Sensitivity and Child Secure Base Use in Early Childhood: Studies in Different Cultural Contexts.

    PubMed

    Posada, German; Trumbell, Jill; Noblega, Magaly; Plata, Sandra; Peña, Paola; Carbonell, Olga A; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal sensitivity and child security are related during early childhood and whether such an association is found in different cultural and social contexts. Mother-child dyads (N = 237) from four different countries (Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States) were observed in naturalistic settings when children were between 36 and 72 months of age. Maternal and child behavior during interactions at home and in the playground were described using Q methodology. Findings reveal that across cultures, concurrent maternal sensitivity and more specific behavioral domains of maternal care (e.g., contributions to harmonious interactions and secure base support) are important for children's attachment security during early childhood. Implications for the study of attachment relationships beyond infancy and in diverse contexts are highlighted. PMID:26525825

  6. Sixth Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: The role of a strong regulator in safe and secure nuclear energy.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    The history of nuclear regulation is briefly reviewed to underscore the early recognition that independence of the regulator was essential in achieving and maintaining public credibility. The current licensing process is reviewed along with the status of applications. Challenges faced by both the NRC and the industry are reviewed, such as new construction techniques involving modular construction, digital controls replacing analog circuitry, globalization of the entire supply chain, and increased security requirements. The vital area of safety culture is discussed in some detail, and its importance is emphasized. PMID:21399404

  7. Abolition of nuclear weapons: Implications for U.S. security interests

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, T.S.

    1998-12-01

    This thesis analyzes the arguments concerning the abolition of nuclear weapons, specifically the feasibility and desirability of nuclear disarmament. Past attempts at nuclear disarmament and relevant international treaties and legal opinions also are discussed. The nuclear disarmament movement has grown considerably since the end of the Cold War. As the idea of abolishing nuclear weapons gains influence, it may have an increasing impact upon national security policy. Abolitionists argue that nuclear disarmament is both desirable and feasible. This thesis concludes that nuclear disarmament is not feasible and that abolitionist arguments for the desirability of nuclear disarmament are flawed. States will continue to maintain nuclear arsenals for the foreseeable future. It would be unwise and dangerous for the United States to pursue a policy of nuclear disarmament in the near term.

  8. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1155 - Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach, California. 165.1155 Section 165.1155 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Coast Guard District § 165.1155 Security Zone; Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Avila Beach... Captain of the Port, Los Angeles-Long Beach, or his or her designated representative. (2) Persons...

  11. Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Sensors to Cultural Heritage

    PubMed Central

    Proietti, Noemi; Capitani, Donatella; Di Tullio, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported. PMID:24755519

  12. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Jenno, Diana M.

    2014-09-30

    Executive Summary The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the 3rd Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from 16 – 27 June 2014. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security. In fact, we are beginning to see previous students both enroll in graduate programs (former undergraduates) and complete internships at agencies like the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  13. Peace and security in Northeast Asia: The nuclear issue and the Korean Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Kihl, Y.W.; Hayes, P.; Scalapino, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Korean security was the focus of world-wide attention and concern in 1993--95 with North Korea's 'suspected' nuclear weapons program. Dubbed by some as the first post-Cold War nuclear crisis, it was triggered by the United Nations Security Council's move to impose economic sanctions on North Korea. Although the immediate crisis was defused diplomatically, the nuclear time bomb continues to tick on the Korean peninsula, and the issues remain under close international surveillance. This important book examines North Korea's nuclear controversy from a variety of perspectives, including nuclear reactor technology and technology transfer, economic sanctions and incentives, strategic calculus and confidence-building measures, the major powers, and environmental challenges that a nuclear-free zone in Korea will present.

  14. Defining nuclear security in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E

    2009-01-01

    A conference devoted to Reducing the Risks from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials presupposes that such risks exist. Few would disagree, but what are they? While debate on the nature and severity of risks associated with nuclear energy will always remain, it is easy to define a set of risks that are almost universally acknowledged. These include: (1) Nuclear warfare between states; (2) Continued proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade nuclear materials to states and non-state actors; (3) Terrorists or non-state actor acquisition or use nuclear weapons or nuclear materials; (4) Terrorists or non-state actors attack on a nuclear facility; and (5) Loss or diversion of nuclear weapons or materials by a state to unauthorized uses. These are listed in no particular order of likelihood or potential consequence. They are also very broadly stated, each one could be broken down into a more detailed set of discrete risks or threats. The fact that there is a strong consensus on the existence of these risks is evidence that we remain in an era of nuclear insecurity. This becomes even clearer when we note that most major trends influencing the probability of these risks continue to run in a negative direction.

  15. Renovated Korean nuclear safety and security system: A review and suggestions to successful settlement

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, W. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Go, D. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Questions of whether past nuclear regulatory body of Korea is not a proper system to monitor and check the country's nuclear energy policy and utilization have been raised. Moreover, a feeling of insecurity regarding nuclear safety after the nuclear accident in Japan has spread across the public. This has stimulated a renovation of the nuclear safety regime in Korea. The Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) was launched on October 26, 2011 as a regulatory body directly under the President in charge of strengthening independence and nuclear safety. This was a meaningful event as the NSSC it is a much more independent regulatory system for Korea. However, the NSSC itself does not guarantee an enhanced public acceptance of the nuclear policy and stable use nuclear energy. This study introduces the new NSSC system and its details in terms of organization structure, appropriateness of specialty, budget stability, and management system. (authors)

  16. The Soviet Far East military buildup: Nuclear dilemmas and Asian security

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, R.H.; Kosaka, M.

    1986-01-01

    The growing nuclearization of the Soviet military presence in the Far East has been of increasing concern to the United States and its Asian-Pacific allies. This volume brings together the diverse perspectives of multinational groups of defense and foreign policy experts associated with the Security Conference on Asia and the Pacific. Topics considered include the problems of coalition defense; strategic issues for the Soviet Union; motives and prospects; thinking about the nuclear balance; Soviet military deployments: Implications for China's security; the Soviet military buildup in Japan; theater nuclear weapons and Japan's defense policy; the Soviet military buildup in the Far East and South Korea; ANZAC perspectives on Soviet power in the Pacific; prospects for a new Korean War; Indochina, 1982-1985; links between Asian and European security; The European theater nuclear force; and European and Japanese Experiences.

  17. Understanding the Value of a Computer Emergency Response Capability for Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, Peter Donald; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo

    2015-06-01

    The international nuclear community has a great understanding of the physical security needs relating to the prevention, detection, and response of malicious acts associated with nuclear facilities and radioactive material. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC_225_Rev 5) outlines specific guidelines and recommendations for implementing and maintaining an organization’s nuclear security posture. An important element for inclusion into supporting revision 5 is the establishment of a “Cyber Emergency Response Team (CERT)” focused on the international communities cybersecurity needs to maintain a comprehensive nuclear security posture. Cybersecurity and the importance of nuclear cybersecurity require that there be a specific focus on developing an International Nuclear CERT (NS-CERT). States establishing contingency plans should have an understanding of the cyber threat landscape and the potential impacts to systems in place to protect and mitigate malicious activities. This paper will outline the necessary components, discuss the relationships needed within the international community, and outline a process by which the NS-CERT identifies, collects, processes, and reports critical information in order to establish situational awareness (SA) and support decision-making

  18. Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-07-16

    NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

  19. Administrator Highlights U.S.-Georgian Nuclear Security Cooperation in Tbilisi

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    NNSA Administrator Thomas D'Agostino highlighted the strong U.S.-Georgian cooperation on nuclear security issues during a day-long visit to the Republic of Georgia in mid-June. He briefed the media at availability at the Tbilisi airport. In April 2009, President Obama outlined an ambitious agenda to secure vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years, calling the danger of a terrorist acquiring nuclear weapons "the most immediate and extreme threat to global security." In this year's State of the Union, he called the threat of nuclear weapons, "the greatest danger to the American people." In order to meet that challenge, the President's FY2011 Budget Request includes close to $2.7 billion for the National Nuclear Security Administration's Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation program -- an increase of 25.7 percent over FY2010. Included in that request is NNSA's Second Line of Defense (SLD) program, which works around the world to strengthen the capability of foreign governments to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime shipping system.

  20. Nuclear Materials Management U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Jesse Schrieber

    2008-07-01

    In light of the changing Defense Complex mission, the high cost to storing and protecting nuclear materials, and in consideration of scarcity of resources, it is imperative that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owned nuclear materials are managed effectively. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Action Plan outlines the strategy for continuing to meet America’s nuclear security goals, meeting the overall mission challenges of DOE and NNSA as well as giving focus to local missions. The mission of the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Materials Management (NMM) Program is to ensure that nuclear material inventories are accurately assessed and reported, future material needs are adequately planned, and that existing Nevada Test Site (NTS) inventories are efficiently utilized, staged, or dispositioned. The NNSA/NSO understands that the NTS has unique characteristics to serve and benefit the nation with innovative solutions to the complex problems involving Special Nuclear Materials, hazardous materials, and multi-agency, integrated operations. The NNSA/NSO is defining infrastructure requirements for known future missions, developing footprint consolidation strategic action plans, and continuing in the path of facility modernization and improvements. The NNSA/NSO is striving for the NTS to be acknowledged as an ideal location towards mission expansion and growth. The NTS has the capability of providing isolated, large scale construction and development locations for nuclear power or alternate energy source facilities, expanded nuclear material storage sites, and for new development in “green” technology.

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Human Performance and Nuclear Safety Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Joe; Larry G. Blackwood

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis, which was conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was to test whether an empirical connection exists between human performance and nuclear power plant safety culture. This was accomplished through analyzing the relationship between a measure of human performance and a plant’s Safety Conscious Work Environment (SCWE). SCWE is an important component of safety culture the NRC has developed, but it is not synonymous with it. SCWE is an environment in which employees are encouraged to raise safety concerns both to their own management and to the NRC without fear of harassment, intimidation, retaliation, or discrimination. Because the relationship between human performance and allegations is intuitively reciprocal and both relationship directions need exploration, two series of analyses were performed. First, human performance data could be indicative of safety culture, so regression analyses were performed using human performance data to predict SCWE. It also is likely that safety culture contributes to human performance issues at a plant, so a second set of regressions were performed using allegations to predict HFIS results.

  2. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  3. Russian Military and Security Forces: A Postulated Reaction to a Nuclear Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D

    2005-04-29

    In this paper, we will examine how Russia's military and security forces might react to the detonation of a 10-kiloton nuclear weapon placed next to the walls surrounding the Kremlin. At the time of this 'big bang,' Putin is situated outside Moscow and survives the explosion. No one claims responsibility for the detonation. No other information is known. Numerous variables will determine how events ultimately unfold and how the military and security forces will respond. Prior to examining these variables in greater detail, it is imperative to elucidate first what we mean by Russia's military and security forces.

  4. Design and implementation of a nuclear weapons management system submodule: Shipboard security force system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Settlemyer, S.R.

    1991-09-01

    The Nuclear Weapons Management System combines the strengths of an expert system with the flexibility of a database management system to assist the Weapons Officer, Security Officer, and the Personnel Reliability Program Officer in the performance of administrative duties associated with the nuclear weapons programs in the United States Navy. This thesis examines the need for, and ultimately the design of, a system that will assist the Security Officer in administrative duties associated with the Shipboard Self Defense Force. This system, designed and coded utilizing dBASE IV, can be implemented as a stand alone system. Furthermore, it interfaces with the expert system submodule that handles the PRP screening process.

  5. A Role for Industry in Promoting Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2009-11-01

    Industry has a unique opportunity and critical role to play in strengthening governmental efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear, radiological, and dual-use materials and technologies that could be used in a nuclear or radiological weapon. Governmental regulations and policies are in effect at both the national and international levels to inhibit access to such materials and technologies by illegitimate end-users. However, the discovery of an illegal nuclear network, spearheaded by Pakistani scientist A Q Khan, increased international concern about what more could be done to prevent proliferation. Industry is well-poised and has a strong incentive to take a more proactive role to complement existing governmental efforts. Companies can be a tremendous help in ensuring that illicit diversions do not occur by increasing their oversight over the supply chain.

  6. Do needs for security and certainty predict cultural and economic conservatism? A cross-national analysis.

    PubMed

    Malka, Ariel; Soto, Christopher J; Inzlicht, Michael; Lelkes, Yphtach

    2014-06-01

    We examine whether individual differences in needs for security and certainty predict conservative (vs. liberal) position on both cultural and economic political issues and whether these effects are conditional on nation-level characteristics and individual-level political engagement. Analyses with cross-national data from 51 nations reveal that valuing conformity, security, and tradition over self-direction and stimulation (a) predicts ideological self-placement on the political right, but only among people high in political engagement and within relatively developed nations, ideologically constrained nations, and non-Eastern European nations, (b) reliably predicts right-wing cultural attitudes and does so more strongly within developed and ideologically constrained nations, and (c) on average predicts left-wing economic attitudes but does so more weakly among people high in political engagement, within ideologically constrained nations, and within non-Eastern European nations. These findings challenge the prevailing view that needs for security and certainty organically yield a broad right-wing ideology and that exposure to political discourse better equips people to select the broad ideology that is most need satisfying. Rather, these findings suggest that needs for security and certainty generally yield culturally conservative but economically left-wing preferences and that exposure to political discourse generally weakens the latter relation. We consider implications for the interactive influence of personality characteristics and social context on political attitudes and discuss the importance of assessing multiple attitude domains, assessing political engagement, and considering national characteristics when studying the psychological origins of political attitudes. PMID:24841103

  7. International and national security applications of cryogenic detectors - mostly nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    As with science, so with security - in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma ray, neutron, and alpha particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invi sible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  8. Nuclear Site Security in the Event of Terrorist Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, M.L.; Sims, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper, presented as a poster, identifies why ballistic protection should now be considered at nuclear sites to counter terrorist threats. A proven and flexible form of multi purpose protection is described in detail with identification of trial results that show its suitability for this role. (authors)

  9. Potential National Security Applications of Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Glen A.; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Caggiano, Joseph A.

    2009-06-09

    The objective of this report is to document the initial investigation into the possible research issues related to the development of NRF-based national security applications. The report discusses several potential applications ranging from measuring uranium enrichment in UF6 canisters to characterization of gas samples. While these applications are varied, there are only a few research issues that need to be addressed to understand the limitation of NRF in solving these problems. These research issues range from source and detector development to measuring small samples. The next effort is to determine how best to answer the research issues, followed by a prioritization of those questions to ensure that the most important are addressed. These issues will be addressed through either analytical calculations, computer simulations, analysis of previous data or collection of new measurements. It will also be beneficial to conduct a thorough examination of a couple of the more promising applications in order to develop concrete examples of how NRF may be applied in specific situations. The goals are to develop an understanding of whether the application of NRF is limited by technology or physics in addressing national security applications, to gain a motivation to explore those possible applications, and to develop a research roadmap so that those possibilities may be made reality.

  10. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  11. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  12. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  13. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.505 Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant,...

  14. Global Security Rule Sets An Analysis of the Current Global Security Environment and Rule Sets Governing Nuclear Weapons Release

    SciTech Connect

    Mollahan, K; Nattrass, L

    2004-09-30

    America is in a unique position in its history. In maintaining its position as the world's only superpower, the US consistently finds itself taking on the role of a global cop, chief exporter of hard and soft power, and primary impetus for globalization. A view of the current global situation shows an America that can benefit greatly from the effects of globalization and soft power. Similarly, America's power can be reduced significantly if globalization and its soft power are not handled properly. At the same time, America has slowly come to realize that its next major adversary is not a near peer competitor but terrorism and disconnected nations that seek nuclear capabilities. In dealing with this new threat, America needs to come to terms with its own nuclear arsenal and build a security rule set that will establish for the world explicitly what actions will cause the US to consider nuclear weapons release. This rule set; however, needs to be established with sensitivity to the US's international interests in globalization and soft power. The US must find a way to establish its doctrine governing nuclear weapons release without threatening other peaceful nations in the process.

  15. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... (76 FR 37842). Based upon the environmental assessment, the Commission has determined that issuance of... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1...

  16. National Security in the Nuclear Age. A Proposed Booklist and Public Education Ideas for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dane, Ernest B.

    A bibliography on national security in the nuclear age is divided into three sections. The first section describes a proposal calling for the compilation of a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on this issue to be included in all U.S. public libraries. Also discussed are selection criteria for the book list, project…

  17. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  18. Virtual real-time inspection of nuclear material via VRML and secure web pages

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.; Jortner, J.; Damico, J.; Friesen, J.; Schwegel, J.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` Straight Line project is working to provide the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of nuclear material. One of Straight Line`s efforts is to create a system to securely disseminate this data on the Internet`s World-Wide-Web. To make the user interface more intuitive, Sandia has generated a three dimensional VRML (virtual reality modeling language) interface for a secure web page. This paper will discuss the implementation of the Straight Line secure 3-D web page. A discussion of the ``pros and cons`` of a 3-D web page is also presented. The public VRML demonstration described in this paper can be found on the Internet at the following address: http://www.ca.sandia.gov/NMM/. A Netscape browser, version 3 is strongly recommended.

  19. Secured electrical supply at least cost: Coal, gas, nuclear, hydro

    SciTech Connect

    Gavor, J.; Stary, O.; Vasicek, J.

    1995-12-01

    Electric power sector in East Central European countries finds in a difficult period. In the situation of demand stagnation, enormous investments must be realized in a very short time. Today`s decisions in the development strategy will influence the long term future of the industry. The optimal structure of the sources is one of the most important problem to be solved. Paper describes the current structure of the sources in electric power sector in the Czech Republic. The importance of coal, oil and gas, nuclear and hydro in electric power generation is compared. Taking into account the different position in the load coverage, economy of individual sources is evaluated and basic results of discounted cash flow calculations are presented. Information on specific investment programs and projects are included and further trends are estimated.

  20. National and International Security Applications of Cryogenic Detectors—Mostly Nuclear Safeguards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Michael W.

    2009-12-01

    As with science, so with security—in both arenas, the extraordinary sensitivity of cryogenic sensors enables high-confidence detection and high-precision measurement even of the faintest signals. Science applications are more mature, but several national and international security applications have been identified where cryogenic detectors have high potential payoff. International safeguards and nuclear forensics are areas needing new technology and methods to boost speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy. Successfully applied, improved nuclear materials analysis will help constrain nuclear materials diversion pathways and contribute to treaty verification. Cryogenic microcalorimeter detectors for X-ray, gamma-ray, neutron, and alpha-particle spectrometry are under development with these aims in mind. In each case the unsurpassed energy resolution of microcalorimeters reveals previously invisible spectral features of nuclear materials. Preliminary results of quantitative analysis indicate substantial improvements are still possible, but significant work will be required to fully understand the ultimate performance limits.

  1. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  2. REVIEW OF THE POTENTIAL OF NUCLEAR HYDROGEN FOR ADDRESSING ENERGY SECURITY AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    SciTech Connect

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-06-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to exert a major positive impact on energy security and climate change by coupling it to the transportation sector, primarily through hydrogen production. In the short term, this coupling will provide carbon-free hydrogen for upgrading increasingly lower quality petroleum resources such as oil sands, offsetting carbon emissions associated with steam methane reforming. In the intermediate term, nuclear hydrogen will be needed for large-scale production of infrastructure-compatible synthetic liquid fuels. In the long term, there is great potential for the use of hydrogen as a direct vehicle fuel, most likely in the form of light-duty pluggable hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This paper presents a review of the potential benefits of large-scale nuclear hydrogen production for energy security (i.e. displacing imported petroleum) and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Lifecycle benefits of nuclear energy in this context are presented, with reference to recent major publications on this topic. The status of US and international nuclear hydrogen research programs are discussed. Industry progress toward consumer-grade hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are also be examined.

  3. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  4. 33 CFR 165.505 - Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Chesapeake Bay, Calvert County, Maryland. 165.505 Section 165.505 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED...

  5. Integration of the advanced transparency framework to advanced nuclear systems : enhancing Safety, Operations, Security and Safeguards (SOSS).

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, Carmen Margarita; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Cleary, Virginia D.

    2008-08-01

    The advent of the nuclear renaissance gives rise to a concern for the effective design of nuclear fuel cycle systems that are safe, secure, nonproliferating and cost-effective. We propose to integrate the monitoring of the four major factors of nuclear facilities by focusing on the interactions between Safeguards, Operations, Security, and Safety (SOSS). We proposed to develop a framework that monitors process information continuously and can demonstrate the ability to enhance safety, operations, security, and safeguards by measuring and reducing relevant SOSS risks, thus ensuring the safe and legitimate use of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. A real-time comparison between expected and observed operations provides the foundation for the calculation of SOSS risk. The automation of new nuclear facilities requiring minimal manual operation provides an opportunity to utilize the abundance of process information for monitoring SOSS risk. A framework that monitors process information continuously can lead to greater transparency of nuclear fuel cycle activities and can demonstrate the ability to enhance the safety, operations, security and safeguards associated with the functioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facility. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a risk algorithm for safeguards and is in the process of demonstrating the ability to monitor operational signals in real-time though a cooperative research project with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The risk algorithms for safety, operations and security are under development. The next stage of this work will be to integrate the four algorithms into a single framework.

  6. Sustainability of a Nuclear Security Educational Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Hazel, Michael J.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2012-06-07

    Educational programs for training of specialists in the area of material protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) for Russian nuclear facilities have been implemented at the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University over the last eight years. The initial stage of creating the program, which can be deemed as successfully functioning, has been completed. The next stage entails further improvement of the program in order to create conditions for its sustainability and steady improvement. The educational program sustainability plan contains a number of steps, including the following: - Analysis of the status, standards and prospects for development of nuclear security educational programs in the world; - Analysis of the current educational program, level of its functionality and the demand for the program as well as its capability to react adequately to external influences; - Analysis of the factors influencing program development at its current stage and in the future; - Assessment of needs and development of proposals for the program’s sustainability; - Assessment of needs and development of proposals for improving quality and increasing the demand for the program by potential employers; - Assessment of needs and development of proposals for expansion of the program’s content and the scope of its application; - Development of short-term and long-term plans for functioning and development. Strategic prospects for development are associated with the transition from MPC&A to a broader range of tasks covered by the specialization in the area of nuclear security.

  7. Global Survey of the Concepts and Understanding of the Interfaces Between Nuclear Safety, Security, and Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacic, Don N.; Stewart, Scott; Erickson, Alexa R.; Ford, Kerrie D.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2015-07-15

    There is increasing global discourse on how the elements of nuclear safety, security, and safeguards can be most effectively implemented in nuclear power programs. While each element is separate and unique, they must nevertheless all be addressed in a country’s laws and implemented via regulations and in facility operations. This topic is of particular interest to countries that are currently developing the infrastructure to support nuclear power programs. These countries want to better understand what is required by these elements and how they can manage the interfaces between them and take advantages of any synergies that may exist. They need practical examples and guidance in this area in order to develop better organizational strategies and technical capacities. This could simplify their legal, regulatory, and management structures and avoid inefficient approaches and costly mistakes that may not be apparent to them at this early stage of development. From the perspective of IAEA International Safeguards, supporting Member States in exploring such interfaces and synergies provides a benefit to them because it acknowledges that domestic safeguards in a country do not exist in a vacuum. Instead, it relies on a strong State System of Accounting and Control that is in turn dependent on a capable and independent regulatory body as well as a competent operator and technical staff. These organizations must account for and control nuclear material, communicate effectively, and manage and transmit complete and correct information to the IAEA in a timely manner. This, while in most cases also being responsible for the safety and security of their facilities. Seeking efficiencies in this process benefits international safeguards and nonproliferation. This paper will present the results of a global survey of current and anticipated approaches and practices by countries and organizations with current or future nuclear power programs on how they are implementing, or

  8. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements on ^237Np for Security and Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, C. T.; Joshi, T.; Yee, Ryan; Norman, E. B.; Kulp, W. D.; Warren, G. A.; Korbly, S.; Klimenko, A.; Wilson, C.; Copping, R.; Shuh, D. K.

    2009-10-01

    The smuggling of nuclear material and the diversion of fissile material for covert weapon programs both present grave risks to world security. Methods are needed to detect nuclear material smuggled in cargo, and for proper material accountability in civilian fuel re-processing facilities. Nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) is a technique that can address both needs. It is a non-destructive active interrogation method that provides isotope-specific information. It works by using a γ-ray beam to resonantly excite levels in a nucleus and observing the γ-rays emitted whose energy and intensity are characteristic of that isotope. ^237Np presents significant safeguard challenges; it is fissile yet currently has fewer safeguard restrictions. NRF measurements on ^237Np will expand the nuclear database and will permit designing interrogation and assay systems. Measurements were made using the bremsstrahlung beam at the HVRL at MIT on a 7 g target of ^237Np with two incident electron energies of 2.8 and 3.1 MeV. Results will be presented with discussion of the relevant nuclear structure necessary to predict levels in other actinides.

  9. Global partnering related to nuclear materials safeguards and security - A pragmatic approach to international safeguards work

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    This paper documents issues Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. has addressed in the performance of international work to safeguards and security work. It begins with a description of the package we put together for a sample proposal for the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, for which we were ranked number one for technical approach and cost, and concludes with a discussion of approaches that we have taken to performing this work, including issues related to performing the work as part of a team. The primary focus is on communication, workforce, equipment, and coordination issues. Finally, the paper documents the rules that we use to assure the work is performed safely and successfully. (author)

  10. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  11. 'Real relationships': sociable interaction, material culture and imprisonment in a secure psychiatric unit.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Fiona R

    2010-12-01

    Research into the character of social relationships in psychiatric inpatient facilities has focused on face-to-face interaction between individuals and within groups in the communal areas of wards. Using theories developed in material culture and media studies, this article argues that patients' relationships to goods, namely, photographs, cards and gifts from family or friends, televisions and radios, are important mediators and constituents of sociability. In an ethnographic study of a medium-secure psychiatric unit, I show how these goods are put to use in private space in ways that reflect and mitigate the constraints of incarceration and stigmatization. The data were derived from 3 months of participant observation on a male and a female ward at a unit in the south of England, including a series of anthropological interviews with 19 patients. This article highlights two important findings. First, potentially isolating activities are perceived by patients as sociable, in that watching television and looking at photographs in their room helps to counter feelings of loneliness and isolation. Second, potentially sociable activities, exchanging goods or watching the communal television, are often practiced in such a way as to maintain distance between patients in acknowledgment of the constrained and volatile nature of these relationships. This suggests that patients aspire to retain a sense of the artificiality of their situation, preferring to confine their notion of 'real' relationships to those that exist outside the institution. PMID:20811936

  12. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2011-03-01

    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  13. Sliding Mode Approaches for Robust Control, State Estimation, Secure Communication, and Fault Diagnosis in Nuclear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablay, Gunyaz

    Using traditional control methods for controller design, parameter estimation and fault diagnosis may lead to poor results with nuclear systems in practice because of approximations and uncertainties in the system models used, possibly resulting in unexpected plant unavailability. This experience has led to an interest in development of robust control, estimation and fault diagnosis methods. One particularly robust approach is the sliding mode control methodology. Sliding mode approaches have been of great interest and importance in industry and engineering in the recent decades due to their potential for producing economic, safe and reliable designs. In order to utilize these advantages, sliding mode approaches are implemented for robust control, state estimation, secure communication and fault diagnosis in nuclear plant systems. In addition, a sliding mode output observer is developed for fault diagnosis in dynamical systems. To validate the effectiveness of the methodologies, several nuclear plant system models are considered for applications, including point reactor kinetics, xenon concentration dynamics, an uncertain pressurizer model, a U-tube steam generator model and a coupled nonlinear nuclear reactor model.

  14. Creating a Culture of Security in the University of Maryland Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Charles B.; Goetsch, Lori A.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of security needs in libraries focuses on a collaborative effort between the University of Maryland libraries and the Association of Research Libraries to scrutinize and revamp security practice and policy at the College Park campus. Highlights the active role of the library staff in fostering and maintaining a spirit of security.…

  15. Graduate Research Assistant Program for Professional Development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Nuclear Security Technology Division (GNSTD)

    SciTech Connect

    Eipeldauer, Mary D; Shelander Jr, Bruce R

    2012-01-01

    The southeast is a highly suitable environment for establishing a series of nuclear safety, security and safeguards 'professional development' courses. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides expertise in the research component of these subjects while the Y-12 Nuclear Security Complex handles safeguards/security and safety applications. Several universities (i.e., University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK), North Carolina State University, University of Michigan, and Georgia Technology Institute) in the region, which offer nuclear engineering and public policy administration programs, and the Howard Baker Center for Public Policy make this an ideal environment for learning. More recently, the Institute for Nuclear Security (INS) was established between ORNL, Y-12, UTK and Oak Ridge Associate Universities (ORAU), with a focus on five principal areas. These areas include policy, law, and diplomacy; education and training; science and technology; operational and intelligence capability building; and real-world missions and applications. This is a new approach that includes professional development within the graduate research assistant program addressing global needs in nuclear security, safety and safeguards.

  16. Security during the Construction of New Nuclear Power Plants: Technical Basis for Access Authorization and Fitness-For-Duty Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Branch, Kristi M.; Baker, Kathryn A.

    2009-09-01

    A technical letter report to the NRC summarizing the findings of a benchmarking study, literature review, and workshop with experts on current industry standards and expert judgments about needs for security during the construction phase of critical infrastructure facilities in the post-September 11 U.S. context, with a special focus on the construction phase of nuclear power plants and personnel security measures.

  17. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  18. Game theory and decision support system for use in security reviews of nuclear material tracking and accountancy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goutal, P.; Werkoff, F.; Le Manchec, K.; Preston, N.; Roche, F.

    1995-12-31

    Tracking and accountancy arrangements help guarantee the security of nuclear materials. Verifications consisting of comparisons between physical identifications or measurements on one hand and material accountancy on the other hand are carried out, in order to detect any unexpected absence of nuclear material. This paper studies two different aspects of the problem of the efficiency of these verifications. First, a decision support system for use in security reviews of nuclear material accountancy systems is presented. Its purpose is firstly to represent a facility and the associated verifications, tracking and accountancy operations and secondly, to calculate the detection delay in the case of an absence of nuclear material. Next, in order to minimize the detection delay for a limited, fixed number of physical identifications, a two-person, zero-sum game with incomplete information is described. The first results obtained from this analysis indicate shorter detection times than those given by games with complete information.

  19. National Nuclear Security Administration Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report in Brief: October 2007 - May 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Sandusky, Jessica A.

    2009-05-01

    This abbreviated Annual Report covers program activities of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) from October 2007 through May 2008--the timeframe between the last Annual Report (which covered activities through September 2007) and the next report (which will begin with June 2008 activities). In that timeframe, the NGFP continued building a solid foundation as the program began reaping the benefits of recently implemented changes. This report is organized by Fellowship class and the pertinent program activities for each, including: October 2007 Recruiting events and final applications (Class of 2008) Winter 2007 Selection and hiring (Class of 2008) Spring 2008 Career development roundtables (Class of 2007) Orientation planning (Class of 2008) Recruitment planning and university outreach (Class of 2009) May 2008 Closing ceremony (Class of 2007)

  20. Review of DNA(Defense Nuclear Agency) Remote Security Station (RSS) Project. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Workhoven, R.M.

    1988-08-01

    This report reviews the progress made during FY87 on the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) sponsored Remote Security Station (RSS). During this time frame, Sandia National Laboratories was tasked to develop a Phase 1 proof-of-principle system consisting of readily available hardware. The primary emphasis was placed upon development of software and sensor fusion techniques and, as a result, the Phase 1 hardware is not suitable for field deployment. The RSS consists of a portable (non-mobile) sensor platform and an intelligent controller. The paper includes descriptions of the sensor platform and control console hardware, as well as the software that runs the intelligent controller. The sensor fusion techniques originally considered are discussed, and the methods used in the current system are explained in detail. Phase 2 development of the RSS is scheduled for FY88, and a discussion of the planned improvements is included.

  1. Improving the nuclear data base for non-proliferation and homeland security

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, Robert C; Bitteker, Leo J; Couture, Aaron J; Devlin, Matthew J; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Gavron, Avigdor; Hill, Tony S; Laptev, Alexander B; Nelson, Ronald O; O'donnell, John M; Taddeucci, Terry N; Tovesson, Fredrik K; Ulmann, John L; Wender, Stephen A

    2009-01-01

    Many of the technical advances in non-proliferation and homeland security require calculations of transport of neutrons and gamma-rays through materials. The nuclear data base on which these calculations are made must be of high quality in order for the calculated responses to be credible. At the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, three spallation neutron sources are being used to provide high-quality cross section and structure data with reactions induced by neutrons. Neutron transmission, neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections, neutron emission in fission, and gamma-ray production by neutrons are principal areas of research. Furthermore, these sources are also being used to validate calculations of the characterization and response of new detectors and detection techniques. Current research activities are summarized here.

  2. Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University

    SciTech Connect

    Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

    2009-10-06

    Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5½ year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center “Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation,” which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of master’s students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APED’s current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a master’s degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the

  3. Is the Secure Base Phenomenon Evident Here, There, and Anywhere? A Cross-Cultural Study of Child Behavior and Experts' Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posada, German; Lu, Ting; Trumbell, Jill; Kaloustian, Garene; Trudel, Marcel; Plata, Sandra J.; Peña, Paola P.; Perez, Jennifer; Tereno, Susana; Dugravier, Romain; Coppola, Gabrielle; Constantini, Alessandro; Cassibba, Rosalinda; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Nóblega, Magaly; Haya, Ines M.; Pedraglio, Claudia; Verissimo, Manuela; Santos, Antonio J.; Monteiro, Ligia; Lay, Keng-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary rationale offered by Bowlby implies that secure base relationships are common in child-caregiver dyads and thus, child secure behavior observable across diverse social contexts and cultures. This study offers a test of the universality hypothesis. Trained observers in nine countries used the Attachment Q-set to describe the…

  4. Characterization and improvement of the nuclear safety culture through self-assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Levin, H.A.; McGehee, R.B.; Cottle, W.T.

    1996-12-31

    Organizational culture has a powerful influence on overall corporate performance. The ability to sustain superior results in ensuring the public`s health and safety is predicated on an organization`s deeply embedded values and behavioral norms and how these affect the ability to change and seek continuous improvement. The nuclear industry is developing increased recognition of the relationship of culture to nuclear safety performance as a critical element of corporate strategy. This paper describes a self-assessment methodology designed to characterize and improve the nuclear safety culture, including processes for addressing employee concerns. This methodology has been successfully applied on more than 30 occasions in the last several years, resulting in measurable improvements in safety performance and quality and employee motivation, productivity, and morale. Benefits and lessons learned are also presented.

  5. Nuclear security and radiological preparedness for the olympic games, athens 2004: lessons learned for organizing major public events.

    PubMed

    Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Dimitriou, Panayiotis; Hourdakis, Constantine J; Maltezos, Antonios; Matikas, Theodore; Potiriadis, Constantinos; Camarinopoulos, Leonidas

    2006-10-01

    In light of the exceptional circumstances that arose from hosting the Olympic Games in Athens in 2004 and from recent terrorist events internationally, Greece attributes the highest priority to security issues. According to its statutory role, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission is responsible for emergency preparedness and response in case of nuclear and radiological events, and advises the Government on the measures and interventions necessary to protect the public. In this context, the Commission participated in the Nuclear, Radiological, Biological, and Chemical Threat National Emergency Plan, specially developed for the Olympic Games, and coordinated by the Olympic Games Security Division. The objective of this paper is to share the experience gained during the organization of the Olympic Games and to present the nuclear security program implemented prior to, during, and beyond the Games, in order to prevent, detect, assess, and respond to the threat of nuclear terrorism. This program adopted a multi-area coverage of nuclear security, including physical protection of nuclear and radiological facilities, prevention of smuggling of radioactive materials through borders, prevention of dispersion of these materials into the Olympic venues, enhancement of emergency preparedness and response to radiological events, upgrading of the technical infrastructure, establishment of new procedures for assessing the threat and responding to radiological incidents, and training personnel belonging to several organizations involved in the National Emergency Response Plan. Finally, the close cooperation of Greek Authorities with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy, under the coordination of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission, is also discussed. PMID:16966875

  6. Security-by-design handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Scharmer, Carol; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Tanuma, Koji; Ochiai, Kazuya; Iida, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This document is a draft SecuritybyDesign (SeBD) handbook produced to support the Work Plan of the Nuclear Security Summit to share best practices for nuclear security in new facility design. The Work Plan calls on States to %E2%80%9Cencourage nuclear operators and architect/engineering firms to take into account and incorporate, where appropriate, effective measures of physical protection and security culture into the planning, construction, and operation of civilian nuclear facilities and provide technical assistance, upon request, to other States in doing so.%E2%80%9D The materials for this document were generated primarily as part of a bilateral project to produce a SeBD handbook as a collaboration between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which represented the US Department Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under a Project Action Sheet PASPP04. Input was also derived based on tours of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) Rokkasho Mixed Oxide Fuel fabrication facilities and associated project lessonslearned. For the purposes of the handbook, SeBD will be described as the systemlevel incorporation of the physical protection system (PPS) into a new nuclear power plant or nuclear facility resulting in a PPS design that minimizes the risk of malicious acts leading to nuclear material theft; nuclear material sabotage; and facility sabotage as much as possible through features inherent in (or intrinsic to) the design of the facility. A fourelement strategy is presented to achieve a robust, durable, and responsive security system.

  7. MAINTAINING HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY CAPABILITIES FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrick, S.; Cordaro, J.; Reeves, G.; Mcintosh, J.; Mauldin, C.; Tietze, K.; Varble, D.

    2011-06-06

    The Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has a specialized need for analyzing low mass gas species at very high resolutions. The currently preferred analytical method is electromagnetic sector mass spectrometry. This method allows the NNSA Nuclear Security Enterprise (NSE) to resolve species of similar masses down to acceptable minimum detection limits (MDLs). Some examples of these similar masses are helium-4/deuterium and carbon monoxide/nitrogen. Through the 1980s and 1990s, there were two vendors who supplied and supported these instruments. However, with declining procurements and down turns in the economy, the supply of instruments, service and spare parts from these vendors has become less available, and in some cases, nonexistent. The largest NSE user of this capability is the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) Group in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) investigated the areas of instrument support that were needed to extend the life cycle of these aging instruments. Their conclusions, as to the focus areas of electromagnetic sector mass spectrometers to address, in order of priority, were electronics, software and hardware. Over the past 3-5 years, the R&DE Group has designed state of the art electronics and software that will allow high resolution legacy mass spectrometers, critical to the NNSA mission, to be operated for the foreseeable future. The funding support for this effort has been from several sources, including the SRS Defense Programs, NNSA Readiness Campaign, Pantex Plant and Sandia National Laboratory. To date, electronics systems have been upgraded on one development system at SRNL, two production systems at Pantex and one production system at Sandia National Laboratory. An NSE working group meets periodically to review strategies going forward. The R&DE Group has also applied their work to the electronics for a

  8. SAFEGUARDS CULTURE: WHAT IS IT AND DOES IT MATTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. With the support of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) the authors have attempted a rigorous analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, with the goal of determining its value to the international safeguards community, and to provide recommendations as to whether the concept deserves further development. As part of this analysis, the authors explore the distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance. The authors also discuss synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture.

  9. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu. PMID:21106134

  10. Maximum Security. The Culture of Violence in Inner-City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, John

    In an ethnographic reflection on 10 years experience working in the high schools of inner-city New York, issues of school safety, discipline, and violence are explored. The central proposition is that the mentality that relies on paramilitary security measures and technological devices, such as metal detectors, to achieve safe schools is only an…

  11. Understanding Information Security Culture in an Organization: An Interpretive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bess, Donald Arlo

    2012-01-01

    Information systems are considered to be a critical and strategic part of most organizations today. Because of this it has become increasingly important to ensure that there is an effective information security program in place protecting those information systems. It has been well established by researchers that the success of an information…

  12. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich; Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  13. The use of passive, secure cells for processing of highly active nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Ch.; Cavanah, P.; Richardson, J.

    2007-07-01

    Passive, secure cells (PSCs) have been used for over 50 years at the Sellafield nuclear site in the UK for radioactive processing plants. PSCs are designed and constructed with the expectation that there will be no need to enter them throughout the life of the plant. EnergySolutions has full and exclusive rights in North America to use the intellectual property and know-how generated at the Sellafield site and this includes all the design and operational data for PSCs. These data are thus available for use in the new build of nuclear plant currently being envisaged under the GNEP initiative. There are three types of PSC. Type 1 PSCs contain plant items with no maintainable moving parts, and pipework is all welded and radiographed to nuclear standards. Type 2 PSCs contain plant items with slowly rotating or intermittently moveable parts, but all maintainable items such as motors and gearboxes are located outside the cell, with sealed through-cell-wall drives. Type 3 PSCs are a newer design, dating from the 1980's, in which all maintainable in-cell items are designed as removable modules. The housings for the equipment are permanently welded into the in-cell pipework, and the modules can be withdrawn from these housings, through removable hatches in the PSC roof, into shielded steel 'flasks'. The flasks are moved to a maintenance cell where the modules are repaired or prepared for disposal. The process is reversed to re-install the modules back into service in the PSC. All three types of PSC have been shown to have operability, maintainability, reliability, space utilization, contamination control and worker radiation dose uptake advantages over canyon-based plants. The increased capital cost of PSCs over canyons is offset by decreased operating costs. Although PSCs have lower flexibility for process change than do canyons, this can be mitigated by the provision of spare cells and pipework at the design stage. Entry to PSCs is possible but has been required only

  14. 76 FR 4978 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: National Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... assessment with a standardized language assessment tool; (2) Cultural Understanding: Participants will... recognized language assessment tool, subject to ECA approval, to assist with participant placement into the... respond to key participant monitoring questions throughout the period of the cooperative agreement....

  15. State Regulatory Authority (SRA) Coordination of Safety, Security, and Safeguards of Nuclear Facilities: A Framework for Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Martikka, Elina; Hack, Tapani; Wiander, Timo

    2013-05-30

    This paper will explore the development of a framework for conducting an assessment of safety-security-safeguards integration within a State. The goal is to examine State regulatory structures to identify conflicts and gaps that hinder management of the three disciplines at nuclear facilities. Such an analysis could be performed by a State Regulatory Authority (SRA) to provide a self-assessment or as part of technical cooperation with either a newcomer State, or to a State with a fully developed SRA.

  16. Transformative World Language Learning: An Approach for Environmental and Cultural Sustainability and Economic and Political Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulah, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author responds to the Modern Language Association's report, "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" (2007) by arguing for an explicit and interdisciplinary transformative world language learning approach toward environmental and cultural sustainability and economic and political…

  17. Visualization of the nucleus and nuclear envelope in situ by SEM in tissue culture cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, T D; Rutherford, S A; Murray, S; Gardiner, F; Kiseleva, E; Goldberg, M W; Drummond, S P

    2007-01-01

    Our previous work characterizing the biogenesis and structural integrity of the nuclear envelope and nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) has been based on amphibian material but has recently progressed into the analysis of tissue-culture cells. This protocol describes methods for the high resolution visualization, by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), of the nucleus and associated structures in tissue culture cells. Imaging by fluorescence light microscopy shows general nuclear and NPC information at a resolution of approximately 200 nm, in contrast to the 3-5 nm resolution provided by FESEM or transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which generates detail at the macromolecular level. The protocols described here are applicable to all tissue culture cell lines tested to date (HeLa, A6, DLD, XTC and NIH 3T3). The processed cells can be stored long term under vacuum. The protocol can be completed in 5 d, including 3 d for cell growth, 1 d for processing and 1 d for imaging. PMID:17546013

  18. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos. PMID:25549216

  19. In vitro development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in different culture media

    PubMed Central

    No, Jin-Gu; Choi, Mi-Kyung; Yeom, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Kyo; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Yoo, Jae Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Hong-Tea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of three different culture media on the development of canine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Canine cloned embryos were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid (mSOF), porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3), or G1/G2 sequential media. Our results showed that the G1/G2 media yielded significantly higher morula and blastocyst development in canine SCNT embryos (26.1% and 7.8%, respectively) compared to PZM-3 (8.5% and 0%) or mSOF (2.3% and 0%) media. In conclusion, this study suggests that blastocysts can be produced more efficiently using G1/G2 media to culture canine SCNT embryos. PMID:25549216

  20. Results in Developing an Engineering Degree Program in Safeguards and Security of Nuclear Materials at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.; Geraskin, Nikolay I.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.; Duncan, Cristen L.

    2007-07-01

    The world’s first master’s degree program in nuclear safeguards and security, established at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), has now graduated nine classes of students. Most of the graduates have gone on to work at government agencies, research organizations, or obtain their PhD. In order to meet the demand for safeguards and security specialists at nuclear facilities, MEPhI established a 5½ year engineering degree program that provides more hands-on training desired by facilities. In February 2004, the first students began their studies in the new discipline Nuclear Material Safeguards and Nonproliferation. This class, as well as other subsequent classes, included students who started the program in their third year of studies, as the first 2½ years consists of general engineering curriculum. Fourteen students made up the first graduating class, receiving their engineering degrees in February 2007. The topics addressed in this paper include specific features of the program caused by peculiarities of Russian education legislation and government quality control of academic education. This paper summarizes the main joint actions undertaken by MEPhI and the US National Laboratories in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop the engineering degree program. Also discussed are the program’s specific training requirements, student internships, and job placement. The paper concludes with recommendations from a recent international seminar on nonproliferation education and training.

  1. Nuclear Energy Experiments to the Center for Global Security and Cooperation.

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, Douglas M.

    2015-06-01

    This is to serve as verification that the Center 6200 experimental pieces supplied to the Technology Training and Demonstration Area within the Center of Global Security and Cooperation are indeed unclassified unlimited released for viewing.

  2. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Agency's Use of Geographic Information Systems for Nuclear Emergency Response Support

    SciTech Connect

    A. L. Guber

    2001-06-01

    The U.S, Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Agency's (NNSA) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) provides Geographic Information System (GIS) support during nuclear emergency response activities. As directed by the NNSA, the RSL GIS staff maintains databases and equipment for rapid field deployment during an emergency response. When on location, GIS operators provide information products to on-site emergency managers as well as to emergency managers at the DOE Headquarters (HQ) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) in Washington, D.C. Data products are derived from multiple information sources in the field including radiological prediction models, field measurements taken on the ground and from the air, and pertinent information researched on the Internet. The GIS functions as a central data hub where it supplies the information to response elements in the field, as well as to headquarters officials at HQ during emergency response activities.

  3. Japan`s nuclear weapons options and U.S. security interests

    SciTech Connect

    Sharman, C.H.

    1998-06-01

    Japan is a virtual nuclear weapons power. It has the scientific and technical ability to produce hundreds or even thousands of nuclear weapons, but has chosen not to do so for political reasons. This thesis examines the historical development of Japan`s nuclear energy and aerospace programs since the mid-1950s and considers the possibility that at various points in its history, Japan used these programs as a cover to insure that its nuclear weapons options remained open. This thesis analyzes internal and external factors that may have influenced Japan`s nuclear policies. External factors include regional threats, international pressures to join the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and distrust of US commitments to provide for Japan`s defense. Internal factors include Japan`s historical tradition of a strong military state and Japan`s unique nuclear allergy. While both external and internal factors have influenced the path of Japans nuclear energy and aerospace programs, internal factors will drive Japan to maintain its plutonium-based energy program and will allow Japan to remain a virtual nuclear power well into the twenty-first century.

  4. 76 FR 51358 - National Nuclear Security Administration Amended Record of Decision: Disposition of Surplus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... through a U.S. person or recipients in the United States. This would further nuclear nonproliferation..., 1996, Record of Decision (the 1996 ROD) (61 FR 40619) for the Disposition of Surplus Highly Enriched... U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to process HEU. As described in the 1996 ROD (61 FR...

  5. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  6. Chair Report Consultancy Meeting on Nuclear Security Assessment Methodologies (NUSAM) Transport Case Study Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of the consultancy assignment was to (i) apply the NUSAM assessment methods to hypothetical transport security table top exercise (TTX) analyses and (ii) document its results to working materials of NUSAM case study on transport. A number of working group observations, using the results of TTX methodologies, are noted in the report.

  7. Stakeholder Transportation Scorecard: Reviewing Nevada's Recommendations for Enhancing the Safety and Security of Nuclear Waste Shipments - 13518

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, Fred C.; Ballard, James D.; Halstead, Robert J.

    2013-07-01

    As a primary stakeholder in the Yucca Mountain program, the state of Nevada has spent three decades examining and considering national policy regarding spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation. During this time, Nevada has identified 10 issues it believes are critical to ensuring the safety and security of any spent nuclear fuel transportation program, and achieving public acceptance. These recommendations are: 1) Ship the oldest fuel first; 2) Ship mostly by rail; 3) Use dual-purpose (transportable storage) casks; 4) Use dedicated trains for rail shipments; 5) Implement a full-scale cask testing program; 6) Utilize a National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process for the selection of a new rail spur to the proposed repository site; 7) Implement the Western Interstate Energy Board (WIEB) 'straw man' process for route selection; 8) Implement Section 180C assistance to affected States, Tribes and localities through rulemaking; 9) Adopt safety and security regulatory enhancements proposed states; and 10) Address stakeholder concerns about terrorism and sabotage. This paper describes Nevada's proposals in detail and examines their current status. The paper describes the various forums and methods by which Nevada has presented its arguments and sought to influence national policy. As of 2012, most of Nevada's recommendations have been adopted in one form or another, although not yet implemented. If implemented in a future nuclear waste program, the State of Nevada believes these recommendations would form the basis for a successful national transportation plan for shipments to a geologic repository and/or centralized interim storage facility. (authors)

  8. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  9. Nuclear microscopy of single whole cultured cells: Preparation and analysis of human Chang liver cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong, P. S. P.; Watt, F.; Paramanantham, R.; Bay, B. H.; Sit, K. H.

    1997-07-01

    Nuclear microscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of elemental concentrations in single cells. Six methods involving the use of various fixing agents, rinsing agents and drying methods were tried in the preparation of cultured human Chang liver cells for nuclear microscopy and the suitability of each method was evaluated by monitoring the {K}/{Na} ratios and shapes of individual cells. The {K}/{Na} ratio is a commonly used criteria for the ionic integrity of cells; {K}/{Na} ratios well above 1 indicates minimal perturbation of the intracellular ionic composition. Non-stimulated human Chang liver cells in a resting state are usually polygonal in shape and flattened in firm anchorage to the substrate, while dividing or stimulated cells appear rounded. Therefore the shapes of the cells can be used as an indicator of whether the cells are in a resting or stimulated state. It is not desirable for cells to be in a stimulated state since then the effects of other external stimuli cannot be observed independently. Of the six methods tested, chemical fixation, as expected, was considered non-ideal for the preparation of human cultured Chang liver cells. Ice-cold 150 mM sucrose was found to be the most suitable rinsing solution for the preparation of cultured human Chang liver cells. Both freeze-drying and air-drying were used as drying methods and cells processed by either method were found to have {K}/{Na} ratios well above 1. Hence both drying methods were found to be suitable although membrane blotting followed by air-drying was preferred as excess rinsing solution can be very quickly removed during the blotting process. The {K}/{Na} ratios of cells on the same target holder but from different regions were found to be dependent on the local cell density. Cells which are locally dense-packed were found to have a much higher {K}/{Na} ratio than cells in a less dense region.

  10. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2009-09-01

    The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub

  11. Perspectives on Changing Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Durbin, Karyn R.; Van Duzer, Andrew

    2005-12-01

    The importance of culture in the nuclear field has become widely recognized. In the wake of the 9-11 attacks in the United States, and terrorist attacks worldwide, the international community has become interested in strengthening nuclear security culture for much of the same reasons that it became interested in strengthening the nuclear safety culture in the 1980’s. The accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl led to a realization that nuclear operations in one country can directly affect other countries. The accidents also led to the realization that technology alone cannot guarantee safety and that the human element has a key role to play in the safety operation of nuclear power plans.

  12. SCINTILLA: A European project for the development of scintillation detectors and new technologies for nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alemberti, A.; Battaglieri, M.; Botta, E.; Devita, R.; Fanchini, E.; Firpo, G.

    2014-06-01

    Europe monitors transits using radiation detectors to prevent illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The SCINTILLA project aims to develop a toolbox of innovative technologies designed to address different usage cases. This article will review the scope, approach, results of the first benchmark campaign and future plans of the SCINTILLA project.

  13. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic

  14. New Non-Intrusive Inspection Technologies for Nuclear Security and Nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledoux, Robert J.

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive monitoring of the supply chain for nuclear materials has historically been hampered by non-intrusive inspection systems that have such large false alarm rates that they are impractical in the flow of commerce. Passport Systems, Inc. (Passport) has developed an active interrogation system which detects fissionable material, high Z material, and other contraband in land, sea and air cargo. Passport's design utilizes several detection modalities including high resolution imaging, passive radiation detection, effective-Z (EZ-3D™) anomaly detection, Prompt Neutrons from Photofission (PNPF), and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) isotopic identification. These technologies combine to: detect fissionable, high-Z, radioactive and contraband materials, differentiate fissionable materials from high-Z shielding materials, and isotopically identify actinides, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), and other contraband (e.g. explosives, drugs, nerve agents). Passport's system generates a 3-D image of the scanned object which contains information such as effective-Z and density, as well as a 2-D image and isotopic and fissionable information for regions of interest.

  15. Securing special nuclear material: Recent advances in neutron detection and their role in nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, R. C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear nonproliferation objectives, such as safeguarding material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional missions. Large multinational programs targeting interdiction and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. In parallel with these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development has been directed toward the creation of next-generation assets. Neutron-detection technology plays a prominent role because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique fission signatures neutrons possess. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of H3e, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nuclear nonproliferation.

  16. VISA-2 - a general, vulnerability-oriented method for evaluating the performance of integrated safeguards/security systems at nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.; Owel, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the VISA (Vulnerability of Integrated Safeguards Analysis) method, developed in 1976-77 for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and which has been adapted more recently to a broader range of uses. The performance of VISA systems is evaluated in terms of how they perform as an integrated safeguards/security system. The resulting method has been designated VISA-2. 7 refs.

  17. Analysis of trace neptunium in the vicinity of underground nuclear tests at the Nevada National Security Site.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Kersting, A B

    2014-11-01

    A high sensitivity analytical method for (237)Np analysis was developed and applied to groundwater samples from the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) using short-lived (239)Np as a yield tracer and HR magnetic sector ICP-MS. The (237)Np concentrations in the vicinity of the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire, and Chancellor underground nuclear test locations range from <4 × 10(-4) to 2.6 mBq/L (6 × 10(-17)-4.2 × 10(-13) mol/L). All measured (237)Np concentrations are well below the drinking water maximum contaminant level for alpha emitters identified by the U.S. EPA (560 mBq/L). Nevertheless, (237)Np remains an important indicator for radionuclide transport rates at the NNSS. Retardation factor ratios were used to compare the mobility of (237)Np to that of other radionuclides. The results suggest that (237)Np is less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides ((14)C, (36)Cl, (99)Tc and (129)I) as expected. Surprisingly, (237)Np and plutonium ((239,240)Pu) retardation factors are very similar. It is possible that Np(IV) exists under mildly reducing groundwater conditions and exhibits a retardation behavior that is comparable to Pu(IV). Independent of the underlying process, (237)Np is migrating downgradient from NNSS underground nuclear tests at very low but measureable concentrations. PMID:25078472

  18. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  19. Safety implications of cultural and cognitive issues in nuclear power plant operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo V R; Dos Santos, Isaac L; Vidal, Mario C R

    2006-03-01

    This research project was designed to investigate cultural and cognitive issues related to the work of nuclear power plant operators during their time on the job in the control room and during simulator training (emergency situations), in order to show how these issues impact on plant safety. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper focuses on the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work. PMID:15993375

  20. NCRP Program Area Committee 3: Nuclear and Radiological Security and Safety.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Tammy P; Buddemeier, Brooke

    2016-02-01

    Program Area Committee (PAC) 3 provides guidance and recommendations for response to nuclear and radiological incidents of both an accidental and deliberate nature. Leadership of PAC 3 was transitioned in March 2015, and the newly composed PAC has been working to delineate and then prioritize the landscape of possible activities for PAC 3. The major activity of PAC 3 during the past year was the establishment of Scientific Committee 3-1 to begin producing a report on Guidance for Emergency Responder Dosimetry. PMID:26717158

  1. SNM-DAT: Simulation of a heterogeneous network for nuclear border security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemzek, R.; Kenyon, G.; Koehler, A.; Lee, D. M.; Priedhorsky, W.; Raby, E. Y.

    2007-08-01

    We approach the problem of detecting Special Nuclear Material (SNM) smuggling across open borders by modeling a heterogeneous sensor network using an agent-based simulation. Our simulation SNM Data Analysis Tool (SNM-DAT) combines fixed seismic, metal, and radiation detectors with a mobile gamma spectrometer. Decision making within the simulation determines threat levels by combined signatures. The spectrometer is a limited-availability asset, and is only deployed for substantial threats. "Crossers" can be benign or carrying shielded SNM. Signatures and sensors are physics based, allowing us to model realistic sensor networks. The heterogeneous network provides great gains in detection efficiency compared to a radiation-only system. We can improve the simulation through better sensor and terrain models, additional signatures, and crossers that mimic actual trans-border traffic. We expect further gains in our ability to design sensor networks as we learn the emergent properties of heterogeneous detection, and potential adversary responses.

  2. A practical strategy for reducing the future security risk of United States spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Chodak, P. III; Buksa, J.J.

    1997-06-01

    Depletion calculations show that advanced oxide (AOX) fuels can be used in existing light water reactors (LWRs) to achieve and maintain virtually any desired level of US (US) reactor-grade plutonium (R-Pu) inventory. AOX fuels are composed of a neutronically inert matrix loaded with R-Pu and erbium. A 1/2 core load of 100% nonfertile, 7w% R-Pu AOX and 3.9 w% UO{sub 2} has a net total plutonium ({sup TOT}Pu) destruction rate of 310 kg/yr. The 20% residual {sup TOT}Pu in discharged AOX contains > 55% {sup 242}Pu making it unattractive for nuclear explosive use. A three-phase fuel-cycle development program sequentially loading 60 LWRs with 100% mixed oxide, 50% AOX with a nonfertile component displacing only some of the {sup 238}U, and 50% AOX, which is 100% nonfertile, could reduce the US plutonium inventory to near zero by 2050.

  3. Organizational Culture, 3S, and Safeguards by Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.

    2012-01-31

    While Safety and Security Culture are well socialized among nuclear facility designers, the concept of safeguards culture is less well defined. One area where safeguards culture may play a helpful role is in the area of Safeguards by Design. This paper will include a theoretical discussion of organizational culture, leading with safety culture and security culture that are well known, and positing that there may be room to think about safeguards culture along with the others. It will also examine the utility of the 3S concept and how this concept has been used in training for newcomer states. These will lead into a discussion of how the addition of safeguards to the mix of safety by design and security by design can be valuable, particularly as it is socialized to newcomer states.

  4. High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2010-10-01

    A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized TRU waste inventories, long-term activities, and radiotoxicities. The reactor systems and fuel cycle components that make up the NES were selected for their ability to perform in tandem to produce clean, safe, and dependable energy in an environmentally conscious manner. The diversity in performance and spectral characteristics were used to enhance TRU waste elimination while efficiently utilizing uranium resources and providing an abundant energy source. A computational modeling approach was developed for integrating the individual models of the NES. A general approach was utilized allowing for the Integrated System Model (ISM) to be modified in order to provide simulation for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the ISM is capable of performing system evaluations under many different design parameter options. Additionally, the predictive capabilities of the ISM and its computational time efficiency allow for system sensitivity/uncertainty analysis and the implementation of optimization techniques.

  5. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-01

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  6. Recent developments in atomic/nuclear methodologies used for the study of cultural heritage objects

    SciTech Connect

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2013-05-06

    Archaeometry is an area established in the international community since the 60s, with extensive use of atomic-nuclear methods in the characterization of art, archaeological and cultural heritage objects in general. In Brazil, however, until the early '90s, employing methods of physics, only the area of archaeological dating was implemented. It was only after this period that Brazilian groups became involved in the characterization of archaeological and art objects with these methodologies. The Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics, State University of Londrina (LFNA/UEL) introduced, pioneered in 1994, Archaeometry and related issues among its priority lines of research, after a member of LFNA has been involved in 1992 with the possibilities of tomography in archaeometry, as well as the analysis of ancient bronzes by EDXRF. Since then, LFNA has been working with PXRF and Portable Raman in several museums in Brazil, in field studies of cave paintings and in the laboratory with material sent by archaeologists, as well as carrying out collaborative work with new groups that followed in this area. From 2003/2004 LAMFI/DFN/IFUSP and LIN/COPPE/UFRJ began to engage in the area, respectively with methodologies using ion beams and PXRF, then over time incorporating other techniques, followed later by other groups. Due to the growing number of laboratories and institutions/archaeologists/conservators interested in these applications, in may 2012 was created a network of available laboratories, based at http://www.dfn.if.usp.br/lapac. It will be presented a panel of recent developments and applications of these methodologies by national groups, as well as a sampling of what has been done by leading groups abroad.

  7. A potential alternative/complement to the traditional thermal neutron based counting in Nuclear Safeguards and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernikova, Dina; Naeem, Syed F.; Axell, Kåre; Trnjanin, Nermin; Nordlund, Anders

    2016-02-01

    A new concept for thermal neutron based correlation and multiplicity measurements is proposed in this paper. The main idea of the concept consists of using 2.223 MeV gammas (or 1.201 MeV, DE) originating in the 1 H (n , γ) 2 D-reaction instead of using traditional thermal neutron counting. Results of investigations presented in this paper indicate that gammas from thermal neutron capture reactions preserve the information about the correlation characteristics of thermal (fast) neutrons in the same time scale. Therefore, instead of thermal neutron detectors (or as a complement) one may use traditional and inexpensive gamma detectors, such as NaI, BGO, CdZnTe or any other gamma detector. In this work we used D8×8 cm2 NaI scintillator to test the concept. Thus, the new approach helps to address the problem of replacement of 3He-counters and problems related to the specific measurements of spent nuclear fuel directly in the spent fuel pool. It has a particular importance for Nuclear Safeguards and Security. Overall, this work represents the proof of concept study and reports on the experimental and numerical evidence that thermal neutron capture gammas may be used in the context of correlation and multiplicity measurements. Investigations were performed using a 252Cf-correlated neutron source and an 241Am-Be-random neutron source. The related idea of the Gamma Differential Die-Away approach is investigated numerically in this paper as well, and will be tested experimentally in future work.

  8. Risk Based Security Management at Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ek, David R.

    2015-09-01

    This presentation provides a background of what led to the international emphasis on nuclear security and describes how nuclear security is effectively implemented so as to preserve the societal benefits of nuclear and radioactive materials.

  9. Security at the Expense of Liberty: A Test of Predictions Deriving from the Culture of Control Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Justin T.; Mears, Daniel P.; Stewart, Eric A.; Gertz, Marc

    2013-01-01

    In "The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society," David Garland linked contemporary crime control policies and welfare reforms to a cultural formation that he termed the "crime complex of late modernity." According to Garland, once established, the crime complex exerts a contemporaneous effect on public views about both…

  10. "Our Bruised Arms Hung Up as Monuments": Nuclear Iconography in Post-Cold War Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that communication scholars have traditionally examined nuclear discourse at the expense of nuclear images. Develops a nuclear-critical iconology, one sensitive to the role of images in creating and disrupting popular consent to the production of nuclear weapons. Examines three aesthetics in post-Cold War iconography for their significance…

  11. Secure base representations in middle childhood across two Western cultures: Associations with parental attachment representations and maternal reports of behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Waters, Theodore E A; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S

    2015-08-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that 1 way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. This work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in the middle childhood period. We present 2 studies and provide 3 critical pieces of evidence regarding the presence of a script-like representation of the attachment relationship in middle childhood. We present evidence that a middle childhood attachment script assessment tapped a stable underlying script using samples drawn from 2 western cultures, the United States (Study 1) and Belgium (Study 2). We also found evidence suggestive of the intergenerational transmission of secure base script knowledge (Study 1) and relations between secure base script knowledge and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood (Study 2). The results from this investigation represent an important downward extension of the secure base script construct. PMID:26147774

  12. Secure Base Representations in Middle Childhood Across Two Western Cultures: Associations with Parental Attachment Representations and Maternal Reports of Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Theodore E. A.; Bosmans, Guy; Vandevivere, Eva; Dujardin, Adinda; Waters, Harriet S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work examining the content and organization of attachment representations suggests that one way in which we represent the attachment relationship is in the form of a cognitive script. That said, this work has largely focused on early childhood or adolescence/adulthood, leaving a large gap in our understanding of script-like attachment representations in the middle childhood period. We present two studies and provide three critical pieces of evidence regarding the presence of a script-like representation of the attachment relationship in middle childhood. We present evidence that a middle childhood attachment script assessment tapped a stable underlying script using samples drawn from two western cultures, the United States (Study 1) and Belgium (Study 2). We also found evidence suggestive of the intergenerational transmission of secure base script knowledge (Study 1) and relations between secure base script knowledge and symptoms of psychopathology in middle childhood (Study 2). The results from this investigation represent an important downward extension of the secure base script construct. PMID:26147774

  13. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  14. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-06-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

  15. Biosorption of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus under culture conditions: adsorption and bioaccumulation processes and models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Kang, Wu; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Guo, Yuting; Huang, Ting; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2014-06-01

    Algae biosorption is an ideal wastewater treatment method when coupled with algae growth and biosorption. The adsorption and bioaccumulation of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus were investigated in this research. One hundred mL of cultured S. spinosus cells with a dry weight of 1.0 mg in simulated nuclear wastewater were used to analyze the effects on S. spinosus cell growth as well as the adsorption and bioaccumulation characters under conditions of 25 ± 1 °C with approximately 3,000 lux illumination. The results showed that S. spinosus had a highly selective biosorption capacity for strontium, with a maximum bioremoval ratio of 76%. The adsorbed strontium ion on cell walls was approximately 90% of the total adsorbed amount; the bioaccumulation in the cytoplasm varied by approximately 10%. The adsorption quantity could be described with an equilibrium isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model suggested that adsorption was the rate-limiting step of the biosorption process. A new bioaccumulation model with three parameters was proposed and could give a good fit with the experiment data. The results suggested that S. spinosus may be a potential biosorbent for the treatment of nuclear wastewater in culture conditions. PMID:24919131

  16. Biosorption of Strontium from Simulated Nuclear Wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus under Culture Conditions: Adsorption and Bioaccumulation Processes and Models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxue; Dong, Faqin; Kang, Wu; Sun, Shiyong; Wei, Hongfu; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Xiaoqin; Guo, Yuting; Huang, Ting; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Algae biosorption is an ideal wastewater treatment method when coupled with algae growth and biosorption. The adsorption and bioaccumulation of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus were investigated in this research. One hundred mL of cultured S. spinosus cells with a dry weight of 1.0 mg in simulated nuclear wastewater were used to analyze the effects on S. spinosus cell growth as well as the adsorption and bioaccumulation characters under conditions of 25 ± 1 °C with approximately 3,000 lux illumination. The results showed that S. spinosus had a highly selective biosorption capacity for strontium, with a maximum bioremoval ratio of 76%. The adsorbed strontium ion on cell walls was approximately 90% of the total adsorbed amount; the bioaccumulation in the cytoplasm varied by approximately10%. The adsorption quantity could be described with an equilibrium isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model suggested that adsorption was the rate-limiting step of the biosorption process. A new bioaccumulation model with three parameters was proposed and could give a good fit with the experiment data. The results suggested that S. spinosus may be a potential biosorbent for the treatment of nuclear wastewater in culture conditions. PMID:24919131

  17. 75 FR 57081 - Revised Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...On November 6, 2009, the NRC published a draft policy statement,'' Safety Culture Policy Statement,'' in the Federal Register (FRN) (74 FR 57525; NRC ADAMS Accession Number ML093030375).\\1\\ The Statement of Policy (SOP) contained in the FRN focuses on the interface of nuclear safety and security in a positive safety culture, and highlights the Commission's expectation that all licensees and......

  18. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    evelo, stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  19. Hydrothermal Alteration of Glass from Underground Nuclear Tests: Formation and Transport of Pu-clay Colloids at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Joseph, C.; Begg, J.; Boggs, M.; Dai, Z.; Kersting, A. B.

    2015-05-27

    The testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), has led to the deposition of substantial quantities of plutonium into the environment. Approximately 2.8 metric tons (3.1×104 TBq) of Pu were deposited in the NNSS subsurface as a result of underground nuclear testing. While 3H is the most abundant anthropogenic radionuclide deposited in the NNSS subsurface (4.7×106 TBq), plutonium is the most abundant from a molar standpoint. The only radioactive elements in greater molar abundance are the naturally occurring K, Th, and U isotopes. 239Pu and 240Pu represent the majority of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes. The extreme temperatures associated with underground nuclear tests and the refractory nature of Pu results in most of the Pu (98%) being sequestered in melted rock, referred to as nuclear melt glass (Iaea, 1998). As a result, Pu release to groundwater is controlled, in large part, by the leaching (or dissolution) of nuclear melt glass over time. The factors affecting glass dissolution rates have been studied extensively. The dissolution of Pu-containing borosilicate nuclear waste glasses at 90ºC has been shown to lead to the formation of dioctahedral smectite colloids. Colloid-facilitated transport of Pu at the NNSS has been observed. Recent groundwater samples collected from a number of contaminated wells have yielded a wide range of Pu concentrations from 0.00022 to 2.0 Bq/L. While Pu concentrations tend to fall below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for drinking water (0.56 Bq/L), we do not yet understand what factors limit the Pu concentration or its transport behavior. To quantify the upper limit of Pu concentrations produced as a result of melt glass dissolution and determine the nature of colloids and Pu associations, we performed a 3 year nuclear melt glass dissolution experiment

  20. Identification of nuclear target proteins for S-nitrosylation in pathogen-treated Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Mounira; Shekariesfahlan, Azam; Ageeva, Alexandra; Mengel, Alexander; von Toerne, Christine; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a significant signalling molecule involved in the regulation of many different physiological processes in plants. One of the most imperative regulatory modes of action of NO is protein S-nitrosylation--the covalent attachment of an NO group to the sulfur atom of cysteine residues. In this study, we focus on S-nitrosylation of Arabidopsis nuclear proteins after pathogen infection. After treatment of Arabidopsis suspension cell cultures with pathogens, nuclear proteins were extracted and treated with the S-nitrosylating agent S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). A biotin switch assay was performed and biotin-labelled proteins were purified by neutravidin affinity chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry. A total of 135 proteins were identified, whereas nuclear localization has been described for 122 proteins of them. 117 of these proteins contain at least one cysteine residue. Most of the S-nitrosylated candidates were involved in protein and RNA metabolism, stress response, and cell organization and division. Interestingly, two plant-specific histone deacetylases were identified suggesting that nitric oxide regulated epigenetic processes in plants. In sum, this work provides a new collection of targets for protein S-nitrosylation in Arabidopsis and gives insight into the regulatory function of NO in the nucleus during plant defense response. Moreover, our data extend the knowledge on the regulatory function of NO in events located in the nucleus. PMID:26259180

  1. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  2. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  3. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  4. 10 CFR 95.33 - Security education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security education. 95.33 Section 95.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.33 Security education. All cleared employees must...

  5. Efficient oligonucleotide-mediated degradation of nuclear noncoding RNAs in mammalian cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    Ideue, Takashi; Hino, Kimihiro; Kitao, Saori; Yokoi, Takahide; Hirose, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Recent large-scale transcriptome analyses have revealed that large numbers of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed from mammalian genomes. They include small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), and longer ncRNAs, many of which are localized to the nucleus, but which have remained functionally elusive. Since ncRNAs are only known to exist in mammalian species, established experimental systems, including the Xenopus oocyte system and yeast genetics, are not available for functional analysis. RNA interference (RNAi), commonly used for analysis of protein-coding genes, is effective in eliminating cytoplasmic mRNAs, but not nuclear RNAs. To circumvent this problem, we have refined the system for knockdown of nuclear ncRNAs with chemically modified chimeric antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) that were efficiently introduced into the nucleus by nucleofection. Under optimized conditions, our system appeared to degrade at least 20 different nuclear ncRNA species in multiple mammalian cell lines with high efficiency and specificity. We also confirmed that our method had greatly improved knockdown efficiency compared with that of the previously reported method in which ASOs are introduced with transfection reagents. Furthermore, we have confirmed the expected phenotypic alterations following knockdown of HBII295 snoRNA and U7 snRNA, which resulted in a loss of site-specific methylation of the artificial RNA and the appearance of abnormal polyadenylated histone mRNA species with a concomitant delay of the cell cycle S phase, respectively. In summary, we believe that our system is a powerful tool to explore the biological functions of the large number of nuclear ncRNAs with unknown function. PMID:19535462

  6. Effect of aluminum chloride and zinc sulfate on Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus (ACNPV) replication in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S A; Smith, G C; Vaughn, J L; Dougherty, E M; Tompkins, G J

    1982-11-01

    When IPL-SF-21AE III continuous insect cell line was grown and maintained in IPL-41 insect cell culture medium supplemented with 16 microM of AlCl3 or 0.24 microM of ZnSO4 . 7H2O, or both metallic salts, and then infected with Autographa california nuclear polyhedrosis virus, virus replication was increased significantly. The yield of polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) was enhanced up to 121%. Synthesis of cell-free nonoccluded virus was increased to 365% when infectivity was assayed by the plaque method. Newly applied electron microscopic quantitation and stereological techniques also revealed a significant increase in virus particles (VP) and in amount and size of PIB as well as number of VP per PIB. PMID:6759370

  7. A simple and accurate protocol for absolute polar metabolite quantification in cell cultures using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Goldoni, Luca; Beringhelli, Tiziana; Rocchia, Walter; Realini, Natalia; Piomelli, Daniele

    2016-05-15

    Absolute analyte quantification by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is rarely pursued in metabolomics, even though this would allow researchers to compare results obtained using different techniques. Here we report on a new protocol that permits, after pH-controlled serum protein removal, the sensitive quantification (limit of detection [LOD] = 5-25 μM) of hydrophilic nutrients and metabolites in the extracellular medium of cells in cultures. The method does not require the use of databases and uses PULCON (pulse length-based concentration determination) quantitative NMR to obtain results that are significantly more accurate and reproducible than those obtained by CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) sequence or post-processing filtering approaches. Three practical applications of the method highlight its flexibility under different cell culture conditions. We identified and quantified (i) metabolic differences between genetically engineered human cell lines, (ii) alterations in cellular metabolism induced by differentiation of mouse myoblasts into myotubes, and (iii) metabolic changes caused by activation of neurotransmitter receptors in mouse myoblasts. Thus, the new protocol offers an easily implementable, efficient, and versatile tool for the investigation of cellular metabolism and signal transduction. PMID:26898303

  8. Endogenous lectins from cultured cells: nuclear localization of carbohydrate-binding protein 35 in proliferating 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Moutsatsos, I K; Wade, M; Schindler, M; Wang, J L

    1987-01-01

    Proliferating 3T3 mouse fibroblasts contain higher levels of the lectin carbohydrate-binding protein 35 (CBP35) than do quiescent cultures of the same cells. An immunofluorescence study was carried out with a rabbit antiserum directed against CBP35 to map the cellular fluorescence distribution in a large population of cells under different growth conditions. This cytometric analysis showed that the lectin is predominantly localized in the nucleus of the proliferating cells. In quiescent 3T3 cultures, the majority of the cells lost their nuclear staining and underwent a general decrease in the overall fluorescence intensity. Stimulation of serum-starved quiescent 3T3 cells by the addition of serum resulted in an increase in the level of CBP35. The percentage of cells showing distinct punctate intranuclear staining reached a maximum at about the same time as the onset of the first S-phase of the cell cycle. All of these results suggest that CBP35 may be a protein whose presence in the nucleus, in discrete punctate distribution, is coordinated with the proliferation state of the cell. Images PMID:3306680

  9. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R; Dos Santos, Claudia T; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A M; Souza, Felipe O; Soares, Christiane P; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J S; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a "crown." This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  10. Zooplankton community structure of the sea surface microlayer near nuclear power plants and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Zhao-Ding; Pan, Ming-Xiang; Jiao, Nian-Zhi

    2002-06-01

    The authors' surveys in May June 1999 (two cruises) at six sampling stations near nuclear power plants (NPP) and marine fish culture zones in Daya Bay, Guangdong, revealed species composition, densities and body-size of the sea surface microlayer (SM) zooplankton (>35 μm). Results showed that protozoans and copepod nauplii were the predominant components, accounting for 65.40% to 95.56% of total zooplankton in abundance. The size-frequency distributions showed that the frequency of micro-zooplankton (0.02 0.2 mm) reached 0.8235. The SM zooplankton community structure revealed in the present study was quite different from that revealed by investigations in the 1980s in Daya Bay. Difference of sampling method has important influence on the obtained zooplankton community structure. SM zooplankton consisted of micro- and mesozooplankton (0.2 2.0 mm), with micro-zooplankton being predominant. Some possible cause-effect relations between the zooplankton community structure and mariculture, nuclear power plants cooling systems and sampling method are discussed.

  11. An Intracellular Arrangement of Histoplasma capsulatum Yeast-Aggregates Generates Nuclear Damage to the Cultured Murine Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pitangui, Nayla de Souza; Sardi, Janaina de Cássia Orlandi; Voltan, Aline R.; dos Santos, Claudia T.; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; da Silva, Rosangela A. M.; Souza, Felipe O.; Soares, Christiane P.; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is responsible for a human systemic mycosis that primarily affects lung tissue. Macrophages are the major effector cells in humans that respond to the fungus, and the development of respiratory disease depends on the ability of Histoplasma yeast cells to survive and replicate within alveolar macrophages. Therefore, the interaction between macrophages and H. capsulatum is a decisive step in the yeast dissemination into host tissues. Although the role played by components of cell-mediated immunity in the host's defense system and the mechanisms used by the pathogen to evade the host immune response are well understood, knowledge regarding the effects induced by H. capsulatum in host cells at the nuclear level is limited. According to the present findings, H. capsulatum yeast cells display a unique architectural arrangement during the intracellular infection of cultured murine alveolar macrophages, characterized as a formation of aggregates that seem to surround the host cell nucleus, resembling a “crown.” This extranuclear organization of yeast-aggregates generates damage on the nucleus of the host cell, producing DNA fragmentation and inducing apoptosis, even though the yeast cells are not located inside the nucleus and do not trigger changes in nuclear proteins. The current study highlights a singular intracellular arrangement of H. capsulatum yeast near to the nucleus of infected murine alveolar macrophages that may contribute to the yeast's persistence under intracellular conditions, since this fungal pathogen may display different strategies to prevent elimination by the host's phagocytic mechanisms. PMID:26793172

  12. Development of a three-dimensional cell culture system based on microfluidics for nuclear magnetic resonance and optical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Vicent; Monge, Rosa; Celda, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    A new microfluidic cell culture device compatible with real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is presented here. The intended application is the long-term monitoring of 3D cell cultures by several techniques. The system has been designed to fit inside commercially available NMR equipment to obtain maximum readout resolution when working with small samples. Moreover, the microfluidic device integrates a fibre-optic-based sensor to monitor parameters such as oxygen, pH, or temperature during NMR monitoring, and it also allows the use of optical microscopy techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy. This manuscript reports the initial trials culturing neurospheres inside the microchamber of this device and the preliminary images and spatially localised spectra obtained by NMR. The images show the presence of a necrotic area in the interior of the neurospheres, as is frequently observed in histological preparations; this phenomenon appears whenever the distance between the cells and fresh nutrients impairs the diffusion of oxygen. Moreover, the spectra acquired in a volume of 8 nl inside the neurosphere show an accumulation of lactate and lipids, which are indicative of anoxic conditions. Additionally, a basis for general temperature control and monitoring and a graphical control software have been developed and are also described. The complete platform will allow biomedical assays of therapeutic agents to be performed in the early phases of therapeutic development. Thus, small quantities of drugs or advanced nanodevices may be studied long-term under simulated living conditions that mimic the flow and distribution of nutrients. PMID:25553182

  13. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Cabble , Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews

    2011-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site

  14. SELECTION KINETICS DURING SERIAL CELL CULTURE PASSAGE OF MIXTURES OF WILD TYPE AUTOGRAPHA CALIFORNICA NUCLEAR POLYHEDROSIS VIRUS AND ITS RECOMBINANT AC360-B-GAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed analysis of the selection process in serial co-infections of cell cultures by wild type Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus, AcNPV/E2, and Ac36O-B-gal, a "genetically engineered" strain, shows that the unaltered strain was clearly dominant even when it bega...

  15. Identification and characterization of a Nuclear Factor Kappa B p65 proteolytic fragment in nuclei of porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatocytes prepared from suckling pigs, and maintained in monolayer culture were used to investigate transcription factor activity at the cellular level. The hepatic response to proinflammatory signals is controlled by the activation of several transcription factors, including, Nuclear Factor-Kapp...

  16. Radioactive Cesium Isotope Ratios as a Tool for determining Dispersal and Re-dispersal Mechanisms Downwind from the Nevada Nuclear Security Site

    SciTech Connect

    Darin C. Snyder; James E. Delmore; Troy J. Tranter; Nick R. Mann; Michael L. Abbott; John E. Olson

    2012-08-01

    Fractionation of the two longer lived radioactive cesium isotopes (135 and 137) produced by above ground nuclear tests have been measured and used to clarify the dispersal mechanisms of cesium deposited in the area between the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS) and Lake Mead in the southwestern United States. Fractionation of these isotopes is due to the 135 decay chain requiring several days to completely decay to Cs and the 137 decay chain less than one hour. Since the Cs precursors are gases, iodine and xenon, the 135Cs plume was deposited farther downwind than the 137Cs plume. Samples were obtained from the Las Vegas arm of Lake Mead, separated into segments, gamma counted to identify layers of activity and analyzed for 135Cs/137Cs ratios. The layers proved to have nearly identical highly fractionated isotope ratios. This information is consistent with a model where the cesium was initially deposited onto the land area draining into Lake Mead and the composite from all the above ground shots subsequently washed onto the Lake by high intensity rain and windstorms producing a layering of Cs activity where each layer is a portion of the composite.

  17. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  18. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  19. Production of myostatin-targeted goat by nuclear transfer from cultured adult somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng-Rong; Zhong, Bu-Shuai; Jia, Ruo-Xin; Wan, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Yan-Li; Fan, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Li-Zhong; You, Ji-Hao; Wang, Zi-Yu; Wang, Feng

    2013-01-15

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. In this study, myostatin-targeted caprine fibroblasts were obtained and subjected to SCNT to determine whether myostatin-knockout goats could be created. Fibroblasts from a 2-mo-old goat were transfected with a myostatin-targeted vector to prepare transgenic donor cells for nuclear transfer. After serum-starvation (for synchronization of the cell cycle), the percentage of transgenic fibroblasts in the G(0)/G(1) phase increased (66.2% vs. 82.9%; P < 0.05) compared with that in the control group, whereas the apoptosis rate and mitochondrial membrane potential were unaffected (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes as recipient cytoplasts for rates of fusion (86.5% vs. 78.4%), pregnancy (21.6% vs. 16.7%), or kidding (2.7% vs. 0%). One female kid from an in vivo-matured oocyte was born, but died a few hours later. Microsatellite analysis and polymerase chain reaction identification confirmed that this kid was genetically identical to the donor cells. Based on Western blot analysis, myostatin of the cloned kid was not expressed compared with that of nontransgenic kids. In conclusion, SCNT using myostatin-targeted 2-mo-old goat fibroblasts as donors has potential as a method for producing myostatin-targeted goats. PMID:23174778

  20. Differential effects of UV irradiation on nuclear retinoid receptor levels in cultured keratinocytes and melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Eva; Rosdahl, Inger; Törmä, Hans; Vahlquist, Anders

    2003-10-01

    A major risk factor for skin cancer is UV irradiation, which not only damages DNA and other photosensitive compounds like vitamin A, but may also perturb cellular signaling, e.g. via the retinoid receptor system believed to be important for cancer protection. We used cultured normal human keratinocytes and melanocytes to examine the effects of UV irradiation on the expression of the predominant retinoid receptors in the human skin (RARalpha, RARgamma and RXRalpha) and the AP-1 protein c-Jun; mRNA levels were studied by real-time PCR and protein levels by Western blot. In keratinocytes, a single dose of UVB (50 mJ/cm2) caused a rapid drop in the expression of all three receptors (mRNA levels minus 35-50% after 4 h; protein levels minus 20-45% after 8 h), which was followed over the next 40 h by a variable response, leading to full normalization for RARalpha only. In contrast, the levels of c-Jun did not change significantly after UV exposure. In melanocytes, UVB caused a similar drop of the retinoid receptor levels as in keratinocytes but this was soon followed by an increased expression leading to a complete normalization of all receptor levels within 1-3 days. The c-Jun levels in melanocytes increased 1 day after UV exposure and remained high (plus 50%) thereafter. In both cell types, a approximately 3-fold increase in apoptosis (measured by DNA fragmentation) was observed 8-48 h after UVB irradiation. In conclusion, a depletion of vitamin A and retinoid receptors by UV irradiation, together with unchanged or even increased c-Jun levels, might seriously interfere with retinoid signaling and thus promote future tumor development, especially in keratinocytes. PMID:14705796

  1. Dominant male sterility in sorghum: effect of nuclear background on inheritance of tissue-culture-induced mutation.

    PubMed

    Elkonin, Lev A

    2005-11-01

    Occurrence of genetic instability and formation of stable mutations are basic genetic processes. This study demonstrates that nuclear background may influence the formation of stable dominant nuclear gene of male sterility (MS) on the basis of unstable mutation, which was induced in tissue culture of the sorghum haploid (cv. Milo-145). The mutants with complete or partial MS segregated in variable ratios in the progenies of diploid regenerants were obtained from different experiments on cultivation of haploid tissues. In the Milo-145 genetic background the mutation demonstrated somatic instability and was gradually eliminated by self-pollination of partially sterile plants. Hybridization of the MS-plants with the sorghum line SK-723, a fertility-restorer of the cytoplasmic MS A1 (milo) type, maintained the induced mutation. By repeated backcrossing of MS-plants with SK-723, the male-sterile versions of this line (SK-723- Ms(tc)) have been created. In BC-generations, fertile, partially and completely sterile plants were observed. The MS-plants from BC-generations are proposed to contain a dominant gene Ms(tc) while fertile plants were ms(tc)/ms(tc) homozygotes. Crossing the original MS-plants with SK-723 was a key factor in stabilization of the Ms(tc) gene. Dominant expression of the Ms(tc) was observed in male-sterile versions of other sorghum lines created by backcrossing to SK-723- Ms(tc). The lines fertility-restorers for this mutation have been revealed. In the crosses of restored F1 hybrids with emasculated plants of the non-restoring line, the Ms(tc) has been transferred through the pollen and manifested in the F1 generation. The possibility of the Ms(tc) originating as a result of interaction of an unstable allele of the Milo-145 with the SK-723 genome is discussed. PMID:16205908

  2. Medical screening reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Brown, C.H. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG were provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as medical screening information that could be used by physicians who are evaluating the parameters of the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The medical recommendations in this NUREG are similar in content to the medical standards contained in 10 CFR Part 1046 which, in part, specifies medical standards for the protective force personnel regulated by the Department of Energy. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 3 refs.

  3. Physical fitness training reference manual for security force personnel at fuel cycle facilities possessing formula quantities of special nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Arzino, P.A.; Caplan, C.S.; Goold, R.E. . Foundation)

    1991-09-01

    The recommendations contained throughout this NUREG are being provided to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a reference manual which can be used by licensee management as they develop a program plan for the safe participation of guards, Tactical Response Team members (TRTs), and all other armed response personnel in physical fitness training and in physical performance standards testing. The information provided in this NUREG will help licensees to determine if guards, TRTs, and other armed response personnel can effectively perform their normal and emergency duties without undue hazard to themselves, to fellow employees, to the plant site, and to the general public. The recommendations in this NUREG are similar in part to those contained within the Department of Energy (DOE) Medical and Fitness Implementation Guide which was published in March 1991. The guidelines contained in this NUREG are not requirements, and compliance is not required. 25 refs.

  4. A methodology to quantify the release of spent nuclear fuel from dry casks during security-related scenarios.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Luna, Robert Earl

    2013-11-01

    Assessing the risk to the public and the environment from a release of radioactive material produced by accidental or purposeful forces/environments is an important aspect of the regulatory process in many facets of the nuclear industry. In particular, the transport and storage of radioactive materials is of particular concern to the public, especially with regard to potential sabotage acts that might be undertaken by terror groups to cause injuries, panic, and/or economic consequences to a nation. For many such postulated attacks, no breach in the robust cask or storage module containment is expected to occur. However, there exists evidence that some hypothetical attack modes can penetrate and cause a release of radioactive material. This report is intended as an unclassified overview of the methodology for release estimation as well as a guide to useful resource data from unclassified sources and relevant analysis methods for the estimation process.

  5. Secure Sensor Platform

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  6. An Indian tribal view of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle: Historical and cultural lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Tano, M.L.; Reuben, J.H.; Powaukee, D.; Lester, A.D.

    1996-03-01

    Indian tribes of the western United States, including the Nez Perce Tribe, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, and the Yakama Indian Nation, have entered into cooperative agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy to oversee the cleanup of the Hanford Reservation, in Washington state. These and other tribes considering involvement in nuclear waste management programs have been subjected to severe criticism from some Indians and non-Indians, accusing them of aiding and abetting the violation of Mother Earth by acquiescing in the contamination of lands by radioactive wastes. We`d like to suggest that this view of the Indian relationship to nature and the environment is too narrow. While the purpose of this article is not to suggest that Indian beliefs support the location of waste management facilities on Indian lands, we will describe aspects of Indian religion and culture that support tribal involvement in radioactive waste management and environmental restoration, and participation in radioactive waste management decision making.

  7. American press coverage of US-Soviet relations, the Soviet Union, nuclear weapons, arms control, and national security: A bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Dorman, W.A.; Manoff, R.K.; Weeks, J.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography covers work that addresses coverage of nuclear and arms control issues, defense, the Soviet Union, and Soviet-American relations by the American news media between 1965 and 1988. Material selected for inclusion either discusses press performance or addresses conditions -- such as classification of information -- that directly impact on media coverage of such issues. Bodies of literature on media coverage of conflict elsewhere in the world lie outside the Center's current mandate (which has shaped the parameters of this bibliography) except insofar as such conflicts are presented by the news media specifically in the context of US-Soviet relations. Much the same is true of such issues as the North-South flow of information and the debate over calls for a New World Information Order. However, the authors have decided to include assessments of American media coverage of the Vietnam War as a case study of a watershed conflict that raised many of the issues discussed throughout this literature in a particularly compelling way.

  8. Approaches to Quantify Potential Contaminant Transport in the Lower Carbonate Aquifer from Underground Nuclear Testing at Yucca Flat, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada - 12434

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Robert W.; Birdie, Tiraz; Wilborn, Bill; Mukhopadhyay, Bimal

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative modeling of the potential for contaminant transport from sources associated with underground nuclear testing at Yucca Flat is an important part of the strategy to develop closure plans for the residual contamination. At Yucca Flat, the most significant groundwater resource that could potentially be impacted is the Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA), a regionally extensive aquifer that supplies a significant portion of the water demand at the Nevada National Security Site, formerly the Nevada Test Site. Developing and testing reasonable models of groundwater flow in this aquifer is an important precursor to performing subsequent contaminant transport modeling used to forecast contaminant boundaries at Yucca Flat that are used to identify potential use restriction and regulatory boundaries. A model of groundwater flow in the LCA at Yucca Flat has been developed. Uncertainty in this model, as well as other transport and source uncertainties, is being evaluated as part of the Underground Testing Area closure process. Several alternative flow models of the LCA in the Yucca Flat/Climax Mine CAU have been developed. These flow models are used in conjunction with contaminant transport models and source term models and models of contaminant transport from underground nuclear tests conducted in the overlying unsaturated and saturated alluvial and volcanic tuff rocks to evaluate possible contaminant migration in the LCA for the next 1,000 years. Assuming the flow and transport models are found adequate by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, the models will undergo a peer review. If the model is approved by NNSA/NSO and NDEP, it will be used to identify use restriction and regulatory boundaries at the start of the Corrective Action Decision Document Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. These initial boundaries may be revised at the time of the Closure Report phase of the Corrective Action Strategy. (authors)

  9. Brain distribution of carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) and its nuclear translocation in cultured cortical neurons following heat stress or oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lauren G; Meeker, Rick B; Poulton, Winona E; Huang, David Y

    2010-09-01

    Carboxy terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) is thought to be a cytoprotective protein with protein quality control roles in neurodegenerative diseases and myocardial ischemia. This study describes the localization of CHIP expression in normal rodent brain and the early CHIP response in primary cultures of cortical neurons following ischemic stress models: heat stress (HS) and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). CHIP was highly expressed throughout the brain, predominantly in neurons. The staining pattern was primarily cytoplasmic, although small amounts were seen in the nucleus. More intense nuclear staining was observed in primary cultured neurons which increased with stress. Nuclear accumulation of CHIP occurred within 5-10 min of HS and decreased to baseline levels or lower by 30-60 min. Decrease in nuclear CHIP at 30-60 min of HS was associated with a sharp increase in delayed cell death. While no changes in cytoplasmic CHIP were observed immediately following OGD, nuclear levels of CHIP increased slightly in response to OGD durations of 30 to 240 min. OGD-induced increases in nuclear CHIP decreased slowly during post-ischemic recovery. Nuclear CHIP decreased earlier in recovery following 120 min of OGD (4 h) than 30 min of OGD (12 h). Significant cell death first appeared between 12 and 24 h after OGD, again suggesting that delayed cell death follows closely behind the disappearance of nuclear CHIP. The ability of CHIP to translocate to and accumulate in the nucleus may be a limiting variable that determines how effectively cells respond to external stressors to facilitate cell survival. Using primary neuronal cell cultures, we were able to demonstrate rapid translocation of CHIP to the nucleus within minutes of heat stress and oxygen-glucose deprivation. An inverse relationship between nuclear CHIP and delayed cell death at 24 h suggests that the decrease in nuclear CHIP following extreme stress is linked to delayed cell death. Our findings of acute

  10. Neutron flux from a 14-MeV neutron generator with tungsten filter for research in NDA methods for nuclear safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    Rennhofer, H.; Pedersen, B.; Crochemore, J.-M.

    2009-12-02

    The Joint Research Centre has taken into operation a new experimental device designed for research in the fields of nuclear safeguards and security applications. The research projects currently undertaken include detection of shielded contraband materials, detection of fissile materials, and mass determination of small fissile materials in shielded containers. The device, called the Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA), incorporates a pulsed 14-MeV (D-T) neutron generator and a large graphite mantle surrounding the sample cavity. By pulsing the neutron generator with a frequency in the range of 10 to 150 Hz, a sample may be interrogated first by fast neutrons and a few hundred micro-seconds later by a pure thermal neutron flux. The permanent detection systems incorporated in PUNITA include {sup 3}He neutrons detectors, HPGe gamma detectors, and lanthanum bromide scintillation detectors.We have studied the effects of placing a tungsten liner around the neutron generator target. The 14-MeV neutrons induce (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) reactions. In addition the mean neutron energy emitted from generator/tungsten assembly is reduced to about 1 MeV. Both of these effects increase the thermal neutron flux in the sample cavity. The paper describes the observed advantages of the tungsten liner with respect to increase in thermal flux, and better shielding capabilities of the nearby gamma and neutron detectors.

  11. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-01

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to

  12. Castles or boarding-houses: a new concept of security.

    PubMed

    Kent, B

    2000-01-01

    Current concepts of security, even if valid in the past, are inappropriate now. We need a new concept of security based on co-operation and interdependence, not military (and especially nuclear) confrontation. The International Court of Justice Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear weapons, international concern on the dangers of the arms trade, the landmines campaign, and statements by retired military leaders, are all signs of hope. But others, including non-governmental organizations, must also learn to co-operate. The Year of the Culture of Peace is an opportunity to make co-operation more effective and, particularly in schools, to make the United Nations better known and better appreciated. PMID:10824519

  13. The Security Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the creation of a comprehensive security strategy for schools, including the importance of tailoring it to a specific school's mission and culture. Describes three classes of tactics (natural, organized, and technical) which can be chosen to implement the strategy. Discusses access control as an example of how strategies and tactics…

  14. Plant Pathogen Culture Collections: It Takes a Village to Preserve These Resources Vital to the Advancement of Agricultural Security and Plant Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogen culture collections are essential resources in our fight against plant disease and for connecting discoveries of the present with established knowledge of the past. However, available infrastructure in support of culture collections is in serious need of improvement, and we continual...

  15. Security sonar for water intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenbuhler, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    The security of the water approaches to nuclear facilities has been largely neglected because of the lack of solutions to the intrusion problem. This paper reviews underwater scanning sonar in general, highlights a number of problems encountered in a threat detection system using sonar and suggests some procedures that can help make such a system workable. Information is drawn from recent experience with several security projects in the governmental and private sectors, one of which was a nuclear facility.

  16. Nuclear actin is partially associated with Cajal bodies in human cells in culture and relocates to the nuclear periphery after infection of cells by adenovirus 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gedge, L.J.E.; Morrison, E.E.; Blair, G.E.; Walker, J.H. . E-mail: J.H.Walker@leeds.ac.uk

    2005-02-15

    Cajal bodies are intra-nuclear structures enriched in proteins involved in transcription and mRNA processing. In this study, immunofluorescence microscopy experiments using a highly specific antibody to actin revealed nuclear actin spots that colocalized in part with p80 coilin-positive Cajal bodies. Actin remained associated with Cajal bodies in cells extracted to reveal the nuclear matrix. Adenovirus infection, which is known to disassemble Cajal bodies, resulted in loss of actin from these structures late in infection. In infected cells, nuclear actin was observed to relocate to structures at the periphery of the nucleus, inside the nuclear envelope. Based on these findings, it is suggested that actin may play an important role in the organization or function of the Cajal body.

  17. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

  18. The remote security station (RSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that, as an outgrowth of research into physical security systems, Sandia is investigating robotic technologies for improving physical security performance and flexibility. Robotic systems have the potential to allow more effective utilization of security personnel, especially in scenarios where they might be exposed to harm. They also can supplement fixed site installations where sensors have failed or where transient assets are present. The Remote Security Station (RSS) program for the defense Nuclear Agency is developing a proof-of-principle robotic system which will be used to evaluate the role, and associated cost, of robotic technologies in exterior physical security systems. The RSS consists of three primary elements: a fixed but quickly moveable tripod with intrusion detection sensors and assessment camera; a mobile robotic platform with a functionally identical security module; and a control console which allows an operator to perform security functions and teleoperate the mobile platform.

  19. 10 CFR 2.905 - Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... information for parties; security clearances. 2.905 Section 2.905 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY... Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.905 Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances. (a) Access to restricted data and national security......

  20. 10 CFR 2.905 - Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... information for parties; security clearances. 2.905 Section 2.905 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY... Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.905 Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances. (a) Access to restricted data and national security......

  1. Osirak and international security

    SciTech Connect

    Fainberg, A.

    1981-10-01

    Mr. Fainberg states that no factual justification can be made for Israel's bombing of an Iraqi reactor under construction on the grounds that Iraq was diverting nuclear materials for weapons. Despite limitations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards inspection procedure, he feels the raid was premature even if Iraq's long-range goal is to develop a nuclear capability and renounce the non-proliferation treaty it signed. The effect of the raid has not enhanced Israel's security, but a precedent has been set that weakens the safeguards structure and threatens world security. Steps need to be taken to strengthen international safeguards and make them more acceptable to developing countries since there is no way to ban nuclear-produced electricity. (DCK)

  2. Effective Management of Information Security and Privacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    No university seems immune to cyber attacks. For many universities, such events have served as wake-up calls to develop a comprehensive information security and privacy strategy. This is no simple task, however. It involves balancing a culture of openness with a need for security and privacy. Security and privacy are not the same, and the…

  3. Idaho National Laboratory/Nuclear Power Industry Strategic Plan for Light Water Reactor Research and Development An Industry-Government Partnership to Address Climate Change and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Power Research

    2007-11-01

    The dual issues of energy security and climate change mitigation are driving a renewed debate over how to best provide safe, secure, reliable and environmentally responsible electricity to our nation. The combination of growing energy demand and aging electricity generation infrastructure suggests major new capacity additions will be required in the years ahead.

  4. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  5. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  6. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  7. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  8. 10 CFR 39.71 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security. 39.71 Section 39.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Security, Records, Notifications § 39.71 Security. (a) A logging supervisor must be physically present at a temporary jobsite...

  9. 5 CFR 5801.102 - Prohibited securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibited securities. 5801.102 Section 5801.102 Administrative Personnel NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION § 5801.102 Prohibited securities. (a) General prohibition. No covered employee, and no...

  10. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya I; Severe, William R; Wallace, Richard K

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope smuggling

  11. Cultural approach to the perception of risk. Analyzing concern about siting of a high-level nuclear waste facility in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Litmanen, T.

    1996-12-31

    The study of local residents` attitudes toward siting a high-level nuclear waste facility in Finland took place in three municipalities (Eurajoki, Kuhmo and Agnekoski), which are being considered possible host communities for the plant. The survey showed that the NIMBY phenomenon is a common reaction in two of the three municipalities, and in the third a polarization of opinions into two opposing camps is evident. The analysis of the data indicates that the opposition consist of people who have less education, less knowledge about the facility, lower incomes, and a lower occupational status. The social base of the proponents is the opposite. The persons most critical towards the possible siting can be found among women, older people, voters of the Greens, retired persons and farmers. People who welcome nuclear waste in their vicinity can be found among men, the middle-aged, voters of the Conservative Party and business owners. The study of the perception of possible negative impacts (health and safety, environmental, economic and social) showed that residents in Kuhmo and Adnekoski were more concerned about possible hazards than the residents of Eurajoki. According to the cultural approach, these findings must be contextualized. Eurajoka, which holds more favorable attitudes than Kuhmo and Agnekoski, hosts a nuclear power plant. In the two other communities the opposition is greater, because the residents are unfamiliar with nuclear technology. The thesis of the paper is that in order to understand different opinions about the facility, one must understand the cultural logic of risk perception. People evaluate the risk as individuals, but also as members of different reference groups and in the context of local, national and international circumstances.

  12. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2014-11-06

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  13. Homeland Security and Defense Applications

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-01-09

    Homeland Security and Defense Applications personnel are the best in the world at detecting and locating dirty bombs, loose nukes, and other radiological sources. The site trains the Nation's emergency responders, who would be among the first to confront a radiological or nuclear emergency. Homeland Security and Defense Applications highly training personnel, characterize the threat environment, produce specialized radiological nuclear detection equipment, train personnel on the equipment and its uses, test and evaluate the equipment, and develop different kinds of high-tech equipment to defeat terrorists. In New York City for example, NNSS scientists assisted in characterizing the radiological nuclear environment after 9/11, and produced specialized radiological nuclear equipment to assist local officials in their Homeland Security efforts.

  14. Secure Transportation of HEU in Romania

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-06

    The National Nuclear Security Administration has announced the final shipments of Russian-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) nuclear fuel from Romania. The material was removed and returned to Russia by air for storage at two secure nuclear facilities, making Romania the first country to remove all HEU since President Obama outlined his commitment to securing all vulnerable nuclear material around the world within four years. This was also the first time NNSA has shipped spent HEU by airplane, a development that will help accelerate efforts to meet the Presidents objective.

  15. 77 FR 47162 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ..., international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more...

  16. 78 FR 41183 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ..., international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information,...

  17. 77 FR 21142 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ..., international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more...

  18. In vitro culture and somatic cell nuclear transfer affect imprinting of SNRPN gene in pre- and post-implantation stages of development in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Joao; Therrien, Jacinthe; Filion, France; Lefebvre, Rejean; Goff, Alan K; Smith, Lawrence C

    2009-01-01

    Background Embryo in vitro manipulations during early development are thought to increase mortality by altering the epigenetic regulation of some imprinted genes. Using a bovine interspecies model with a single nucleotide polymorphism, we assessed the imprinting status of the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN) gene in bovine embryos produced by artificial insemination (AI), in vitro culture (IVF) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and correlated allelic expression with the DNA methylation patterns of a differentially methylated region (DMR) located on the SNRPN promoter. Results In the AI group, SNRPN maternal expression is silenced at day 17 and 40 of development and a third of the alleles analyzed are methylated in the DMR. In the IVF group, maternal transcripts were identified at day 17 but methylation levels were similar to the AI group. However, day-40 fetuses in the IVF group showed significantly less methylation when compared to the AI group and SNRPN expression was mostly paternal in all fetal tissues studied, except in placenta. Finally, the SCNT group presented severe loss of DMR methylation in both day-17 embryos and 40 fetuses and biallelic expression was observed in all stages and tissues analyzed. Conclusion Together these results suggest that artificial reproductive techniques, such as prolonged in vitro culture and SCNT, lead to abnormal reprogramming of imprinting of SNRPN gene by altering methylation levels at this locus. PMID:19200381

  19. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

  1. Nuclear translocation of IQGAP1 protein upon exposure to puromycin aminonucleoside in cultured human podocytes: ERK pathway involvement.

    PubMed

    Rigothier, Claire; Saleem, Moin Ahson; Bourget, Chantal; Mathieson, Peter William; Combe, Christian; Welsh, Gavin Iain

    2016-10-01

    IQGAP1, a protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to slit diaphragm proteins, is involved in podocyte motility and permeability. Its regulation in glomerular disease is not known. We have exposed human podocytes to puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN), an inducer of nephrotic syndrome in rats, and studied the effects on IQGAP1 biology and function. In human podocytes exposed to PAN, a nuclear translocation of IQGAP1 was observed by immunocytolocalization and confirmed by Western blot after selective nuclear/cytoplasmic extraction. In contrast to IQGAP1, IQGAP2 expression remained cytoplasmic. IQGAP1 nuclear translocation was associated with a significant decrease in its interaction with nephrin and podocalyxin. Activation of the ERK pathway was observed in PAN treated podocytes with a preponderant nuclear localization of the phosphorylated form of ERK (P-ERK). The interaction between IQGAP1 and P-ERK increased upon podocyte exposure to PAN. Inhibitors of ERK pathway activation blocked IQGAP1 nuclear translocation (p<0.02). Chromatin interaction protein assays demonstrated an interaction of IQGAP1 with chromatin and with Histone H3, which increased in response to PAN. In summary, PAN induces the ERK dependent translocation of IQGAP1 into the nuclei in human podocytes which leads to the interaction of IQGAP1 with chromatin and Histone H3, and decreased interactions between IQGAP1 and slit-diaphragm proteins. Therefore, IQGAP1 may have a role in podocyte gene regulation in glomerular disease. PMID:27377965

  2. Approximating dose and risk for contaminants in groundwater from the underground nuclear test areas of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Chapman, Jenny; Pohlmann, Karl F.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Environmental Management Program at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity investigates the potential impacts of radionuclides that were introduced into groundwater from the underground nuclear tests conducted near or below the NNSS water table between 1951 and 1992. Groundwater models are being used to simulate contaminant transport and forecast contaminant boundaries that encompass areas where the groundwater has a five percent or greater probability of containing contaminants above the Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Levels (SDWA MCLs) at any time during the next 1,000 years. Transport modeling conducted for the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit (CAU) at the NNSS identified the beta/photon-emitting radionuclides tritium (3H), carbon-14 (14C), chlorine-36 (36Cl), technetium-99 (99Tc), and iodine-129 (129I) as having the greatest influence in defining the farthest extent of the modeled CAU contaminant boundary. These same radionuclides are assumed here as the contaminants of concern (COCs) for all underground nuclear tests at the NNSS because models are not yet complete for the other CAUs.Potential public exposure to the COCs will only occur and be of concern if the COCs migrate into the groundwater beneath public or private lands at levels that exceed either individual SDWA MCLs or dose and risk limits. Groundwater flow directions strongly suggest that any contaminant boundary predicted by contaminant fate and transport modeling to overlap public or private lands is more likely to occur to the west and/or southwest of the NNSS and the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Well-established, rural communities exist in these directions. Estimates of representative activity concentrations at the applicable SDWA MCL were developed for the five COCs. It is assumed that these COC concentrations may collectively occur at some public or private location in the future, but that situation

  3. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  4. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  5. Report on Department of Homeland Security Sponsored Research Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory on Preparation for an Improvised Nuclear Device Event

    SciTech Connect

    A., B

    2008-07-31

    Following the events of September 11th, a litany of imaginable horribles was trotted out before an anxious and concerned public. To date, government agencies and academics are still grappling with how to best respond to such catastrophes, and as Senator Lieberman's quote says above, now is the time to plan and prepare for such events. One of the nation's worst fears is that terrorists might detonate an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an American city. With 9/11 serving as the catalyst, the government and many NGOs have invested money into research and development of response capabilities throughout the country. Yet, there is still much to learn about how to best respond to an IND event. My summer 2008 internship at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory afforded me the opportunity to look in depth at the preparedness process and the research that has been conducted on this issue. While at the laboratory I was tasked to collect, combine, and process research on how cities and the federal government can best prepare for the horrific prospect of an IND event. Specific projects that I was involved with were meeting reports, research reviews, and a full project report. Working directly with Brooke Buddemeier and his support team at the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, I was able to witness first hand, preparation for meetings with response planners to inform them of the challenges that an IND event would pose to the affected communities. In addition, I supported the Homeland Security Institute team (HSI), which was looking at IND preparation and preparing a Congressional report. I participated in meetings at which local responders expressed their concerns and contributed valuable information to the response plan. I specialized in the psycho-social aspects of an IND event and served as a technical advisor to some of the research groups. Alongside attending and supporting these meetings, I worked on an independent research project which collected

  6. Nuclear proliferation: Lessons learned from the Iraqi case. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The nuclear weapons inspection regime implemented in Iraq following the United Nations coalition victory in Desert Storm is the most intrusive in history. Important conclusions about the current non-proliferation regime can therefore be determined from a study of Iraq's progress. This thesis examines Iraq's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The supply side of the equation is also studied, with a concentration upon the contributions of NATO nations. The strategic culture of Iraq is discussed, in an effort to discover why Iraq sought nuclear weapons. Finally, policy prescriptions are advanced. The current non-proliferation regime needs to be improved if the spread of nuclear weapons is to be halted, or even slowed. The most promising way to improve this regime is to involve the U.N. Special Commission and the U.N. Security Council in the management of the problem of nuclear proliferation.... Iraq, Strategic culture, Non-Proliferation treaty, International atomic energy agency, Nuclear weapons, Middle east security, Nuclear suppliers group, United Nations.

  7. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  8. 10 CFR 2.905 - Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... information for parties; security clearances. 2.905 Section 2.905 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES... to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.905 Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances. (a)...

  9. 10 CFR 2.905 - Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... information for parties; security clearances. 2.905 Section 2.905 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES... to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.905 Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances. (a)...

  10. 10 CFR 2.905 - Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... information for parties; security clearances. 2.905 Section 2.905 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES... to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.905 Access to restricted data and national security information for parties; security clearances. (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  12. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  13. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  14. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  15. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.119 Security...

  16. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  17. Security in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jesse

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of school library security, software security, and computer security systems. Describes specific products for each type of security system. A sidebar lists names and addresses of security manufacturers and distributors. (AEF)

  18. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (μGy/day) in the earthworms. PMID:25464049

  19. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement. PMID:27581899

  20. Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Mixed and Pure Cultures of Green Algae and Their Decomposed Residues by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zelibor, J. L.; Romankiw, L.; Hatcher, P. G.; Colwell, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that macromolecular organic matter in aquatic environments, i.e., humic substances, is highly aliphatic. These aliphatic macromolecules, predominantly paraffinic in structure, are prevalent in marine and lacustrine sediments and are believed to originate from algae or bacteria. A comparative study of mixed and pure cultures of green algae and their decomposed residues was performed by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the primary analytical method. Results obtained in this study confirm the presence of components that are chemically refractory and that are defined as alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin. These were detected in heterogeneous, homogeneous, and axenic biomasses composed of several genera of Chlorophyta. Although the chemical composition of algal biomass varied with culture conditions, the chemical structure of the alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin, demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy appeared to be constant for members of the Chlorophyta examined in this study. The alghumin was dominated by carbohydrate-carbon, with minor amounts of amide or carboxyl carbon and paraffinic carbon, the latter surviving strong hydrolysis by 6 N HCI (hydrolyzed alghumin). Bacterial decomposition of heterogeneous algal biomass labeled with 13C was conducted under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine chemical structure and stability of the refractory material. The refractory fraction ranged from 33% in aerobic to 44% in anaerobic cultures. The refractory fraction recovered from either aerobic or anaerobic degradation comprised 40% alghumin, which represented an enrichment by 10% relative to the proportion of alghumin derived from whole cells of algae. The paraffinic component in the hydrolyzed alghumin of whole algal cells was found to be 1.8% and increased to 5.1 and 6.9% after aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation, respectively. It is concluded that members of the Chlorophyta contain a

  1. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Ron; Rawl, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  2. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  3. A European Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liem, Khoen; Hiller, Daniel; Castex, Christoph

    Tackling the complexity and interdependence of today's security environment in the globalized world of the 21st century is an everlasting challenge. Whereas the end of the Cold War presented a caesura of global dimension for the political and economic architecture and a realignment of power distribution and international relations between former adversaries, September 11th of 2001 may be seen as another caesura. Since then, specifically among countries of the Western hemisphere, traditional security paradigms and theories have been critically questioned and the different security cultures and perceptions have resulted in diverse security and defence policies as well as in security research efforts of individual countries. Consensus, it seems, exists on the question of what the threats are that our modern interconnected societies are facing. Whether looking at international terrorism, organized crime, climate change, the illegal trafficking of goods and people or naturally caused catastrophes, these phenomena all have in common that they are in most cases of transnational nature. Formerly existing dividing lines between internal and external security continue to fade, presenting an enormous challenge for those in charge of designing security policy and even more so for the various institutions safeguarding European security. That is why dissent often revolves around the question on how to get hold of these complex problems. Geographic location, cultural background, ethical make-up of society as well as relations with neighbouring countries are all important aspects to be considered when assessing the security culture and policy of individual countries.

  4. European security and France

    SciTech Connect

    deRose, A.

    1985-01-01

    A French authority on security argues for new European initiatives in the face of the ''danger represented by Soviet military power deployed in support of an imperialistic ideology.'' His proposals, including the strengthening of conventional forces without abandoning the option of the first use of nuclear weapons, are meant to give substance to President Mitterrand's declaration in 1983: ''The European nations now need to realize that their defense is also their responsibility....'' A part of the increasingly important debate in France over defense policy in Europe.

  5. Nuclear fear revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  6. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-09

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  7. Adventures in scientific nuclear diplomacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2014-05-01

    A former director of Los Alamos National Laboratory offers a first-person perspective on the important contributions scientists can make toward improving the safety and security of nuclear materials and reducing the global nuclear dangers in an evolving world.

  8. Comparison of two methods for measuring γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence as a marker of DNA damage in cultured human cells: applications for microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.; Andrais, B.; Mirzayans, R.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Fallone, B. G.; Warkentin, B.

    2013-06-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) delivers single fractions of very high doses of synchrotron x-rays using arrays of microbeams. In animal experiments, MRT has achieved higher tumour control and less normal tissue toxicity compared to single-fraction broad beam irradiations of much lower dose. The mechanism behind the normal tissue sparing of MRT has yet to be fully explained. An accurate method for evaluating DNA damage, such as the γ-H2AX immunofluorescence assay, will be important for understanding the role of cellular communication in the radiobiological response of normal and cancerous cell types to MRT. We compare two methods of quantifying γ-H2AX nuclear fluorescence for uniformly irradiated cell cultures: manual counting of γ-H2AX foci by eye, and an automated, MATLAB-based fluorescence intensity measurement. We also demonstrate the automated analysis of cell cultures irradiated with an array of microbeams. In addition to offering a relatively high dynamic range of γ-H2AX signal versus irradiation dose ( > 10 Gy), our automated method provides speed, robustness, and objectivity when examining a series of images. Our in-house analysis facilitates the automated extraction of the spatial distribution of the γ-H2AX intensity with respect to the microbeam array — for example, the intensities in the peak (high dose area) and valley (area between two microbeams) regions. The automated analysis is particularly beneficial when processing a large number of samples, as is needed to systematically study the relationship between the numerous dosimetric and geometric parameters involved with MRT (e.g., microbeam width, microbeam spacing, microbeam array dimensions, peak dose, valley dose, and geometric arrangement of multiple arrays) and the resulting DNA damage.

  9. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  10. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  11. Nuclear Security: Action May Be Needed to Reassess the Security of NRC-Licensed Research Reactors. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives. GAO-08-403

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aloise, Gene

    2008-01-01

    There are 37 research reactors in the United States, mostly located on college campuses. Of these, 33 reactors are licensed and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Four are operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and are located at three national laboratories. Although less powerful than commercial nuclear power reactors,…

  12. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  13. Insider threat to secure facilities: data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-09

    Three data sets drawn from industries that have experienced internal security breaches are analyzed. The industries and the insider security breaches are considered analogous in one or more respects to insider threats potentially confronting managers in the nuclear industry. The three data sets are: bank fraud and embezzlement (BF and E), computer-related crime, and drug theft from drug manufacturers and distributors. A careful analysis by both descriptive and formal statistical techniques permits certain general conclusions on the internal threat to secure industries to be drawn. These conclusions are discussed and related to the potential insider threat in the nuclear industry. 49 tabs.

  14. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

  15. Insider Threat and Information Security Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles-Kemp, Lizzie; Theoharidou, Marianthi

    The notion of insider has multiple facets. An organization needs to identify which ones to respond to. The selection, implementetion and maintenance of information security countermeasures requires a complex combination of organisational policies, functions and processes, which form Information Security Management. This chapter examines the role of current information security management practices in addressing the insider threat. Most approaches focus on frameworks for regulating insider behaviour and do not allow for the various cultural responses to the regulatory and compliance framework. Such responses are not only determined by enforcement of policies and awareness programs, but also by various psychological and organisational factors at an individual or group level. Crime theories offer techniques that focus on such cultural responses and can be used to enhance the information security management design. The chapter examines the applicability of several crime theories and concludes that they can contribute in providing additional controls and redesign of information security management processes better suited to responding to the insider threat.

  16. PCBs alter gene expression of nuclear transcription factors and other heart-specific genes in cultures of primary cardiomyocytes: possible implications for cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Borlak, J; Thum, T

    2002-12-01

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well-known environmental pollutants that bioaccumulate mainly in the fatty tissue of animals and humans. Although contamination occurs primarily via the food chain, waste combustion leads to airborne PCBs. From epidemiological studies, there is substantial evidence that cardiovascular disease is linked to air pollution, but little is known about the underlying molecular events. 2. We investigated the effects of Aroclor 1254, a complex mixture of >80 PCB isomers and congeners, on the expression of nuclear transcription factors (GATA-4, Nkx-2.5, MEF-2c, OCT-1) and of downstream target genes (atrial and brain natriuretic peptide, alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain, alpha-cardiac and alpha-skeletal actin), which play an important role in cardiac biology. 3. We treated cultures of primary cardiomyocytes of adult rats with Aroclor 1254 (10.0 micro M) and found significant induction of the transcription factor genes GATA-4 and MEF-2c and of genes regulated by these factors, i.e. atrial natriuretic peptide, brain-type natriuretic peptide, alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain, and skeletal alpha actin. 4. We have shown PCBs to modulate expression of genes coding for programmes of cellular differentiation and stress (e.g. atrial natriuretic peptide, brain-type natriuretic peptide) and these alterations may be important in the increase of cardiovascular disease in polluted areas. PMID:12593764

  17. New initiatives in materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, G.; Jones, Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    NRC Mission: To license and regulate the Nation's civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, promote the common defense and security, and protect the environment. Scope of Responsibility: NRC's regulatory mission covers three main areas: - Reactors: commercial reactors for generating electric power and non-power reactors used for research, testing, and training; - Materials: uses of nuclear materials in medical, industrial, and academic settings and facilities that produce nuclear fuel; - Waste: transportation, storage, and disposal of nuclear materials and waste, and decommissioning of nuclear facilities from service. A Changing Environment: - National security is dominant concern; - Obtain appropriate balance between safety and Security initiatives and Operational activities; - Multiple layers of systems, infrastructures for various licensees. Effective Communication: Not easy; Sound bites galore; Nuclear 'phobia'; Acceptability of risk; Balance of cost and benefits; Responsibility of the regulator, licensees and radiation protection professionals. Prioritized Licensee Groups: - High priority: Panoramic irradiators; manufacturers/distributors; - Medium priority: medical and research facilities, radiography, well-logging, broad-scope licenses, self-shielded irradiators, open-field irradiators, and other licensees; - Low priority: Portable gauges. Increased Security Measures: Security Zone; Control Access; Monitor, Detect, Assess, and Respond; Transportation Security; Additional control to secure portable and mobile devices; Liaison with Local Law Enforcement Agencies; Background Investigations and Fingerprinting; License Verification; Document Retention; Information Protection; Orders/Legally binding requirements to more than 3000 licensees. Orders Issued: Large Panoramic Irradiators Security Measures (60 Orders issued 6/03, Inspections done); Manufacturing and Distribution Licensees

  18. Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards: An Introduction to Safeguards for Emerging Nuclear States

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Olson, Jarrod; Mathews, Caroline E.; Solodov, Alexander; Zhernosek, Alena; Raffo-Caiado, Ana; Baldwin, George; Horak, Karl; McClelland-Kerr, John; VanSickle, Matthew; Mininni, Margot; Kovacic, Donald

    2009-10-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) hosted a workshop from May 4-22, 2009, on the fundamental elements of international safeguards. Entitled "A Technical Training Workshop on International Safeguards," the workshop introduced post-graduate students from Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand, Morocco, Egypt, Algeria and Tunisia to the fundamental issues and best practices associated with international safeguards and encouraged them to explore potential career paths in safeguards. Workshops like these strengthen the international safeguards regime by promoting the development of a "safeguards culture" among young nuclear professionals within nascent nuclear countries. While this concept of safeguards culture is sometimes hard to define and even harder to measure, this paper will demonstrate that the promotion of safeguards cultures through workshops like these justifies the investment of U.S. taxpayer dollars.

  19. Security in the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, S.F. Jr.; Bruzonsky, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The full range of U.S. security interests in the Middle East is covered in this volume of original contributions from prominent international scholars. Case studies of key countries emphasize the prospects for peaceful political, economic, and cultural change in the region. The Arab-Israeli conflict is examined with particular attention to the ''Palestine problem,'' U.S. policy and diplomacy, and the peace process. Finally, the involvement of the U.S. and the USSR and the policy options open to them are considered. Includes chapters on oil and its role in Middle-East security issues.

  20. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from...

  1. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from unauthorized removal or access licensed materials that...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1801 - Security of stored material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security of stored material. 20.1801 Section 20.1801 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Storage and Control of Licensed Material § 20.1801 Security of stored material. The licensee shall secure from...

  3. Suggestions for better election security.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Warner, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary of Common Security Mistakes: (1) Electronic voting machines that fundamentally lack security thought and features, including an ability to detect tampering or intrusion, or to be reliably locked or sealed; (2) Failure to disassemble, inspect, and thoroughly inspect (not just test) a sufficient number of voting machines before and after elections in order to detect hardware or software tampering; (3) Assuming that tamper - indicating seals will either be blatantly ripped/smashed open, or else there is no tampering. In reality, even amateurs can spoof most seals leaving (at most) subtle evidence; (4) Inadequate seal use protocols and training of seal installers and inspectors. Failure to show examples of blatantly and subtly attacked seals to seal inspectors; (5) Over confidence in use of a voter verified paper record (VVPR), a VVPR is an excellent security countermeasure, but it is not a silver bullet, especially for an election organization with poor overall security; (6) Little or no insider thr at mitigation; and (7) A poor security culture, including denial and no a priori procedures for dealing with security questions or concerns.

  4. Cooperative global security programs modeling & simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Briand, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    The national laboratories global security programs implement sustainable technical solutions for cooperative nonproliferation, arms control, and physical security systems worldwide. To help in the development and execution of these programs, a wide range of analytical tools are used to model, for example, synthetic tactical environments for assessing infrastructure protection initiatives and tactics, systematic approaches for prioritizing nuclear and biological threat reduction opportunities worldwide, and nuclear fuel cycle enrichment and spent fuel management for nuclear power countries. This presentation will describe how these models are used in analyses to support the Obama Administration's agenda and bilateral/multinational treaties, and ultimately, to reduce weapons of mass destruction and terrorism threats through international technical cooperation.

  5. Cyber Security and Resilient Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Anderson

    2009-07-01

    next generation fighter jets or nuclear material safeguards systems in complex nuclear fuel cycle facilities. It is the intent of this paper to describe the cyber security programs that are currently in place, the experiences and successes achieved in industry including outreach and training, and suggestions about how other sectors and organizations can leverage this national expertise to help their monitoring and control systems become more secure.

  6. Wisdom prevails in Kiev: Global security wins

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    The Ukrainian parliament`s overwhelming vote (301-8) approving accession to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which demonstrated a national consensus for a future without nuclear weapons rather than the vain glorious pursuit of nuclear grandeur, has greatly strengthened the nuclear non-proliferation regime and global security. Ukraine`s accession to the NPT, coming directly on the heels of the US-North Korean agreement closing down Pyongyang`s nuclear weapons program, should ensure the indefinite extension of the NPT at the April 1995 conference.

  7. Student Experiential Opportunities in National Security Careers

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This report documents student experiential opportunities in national security careers as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), being performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of how experiential opportunities assist students in the selection of a career and a list of opportunities in the private sector and government. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. Workforce development activities will facilitate the hiring of students to work with professionals in both the private and public sectors, as well as assist in preparing a workforce for careers in national security. The goal of workforce development under the NSPP grant is to assess workforce needs in national security and implement strategies to develop the appropriate workforce.

  8. Enhanced Radioactive Material Source Security.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Joseph G

    2016-02-01

    Requirements for additional security measures for sealed radioactive sources have evolved since they were first implemented after the terrorist events of 11 September 2001. This paper will describe the sequence of those measures, commencing with the early orders issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to the May 2013 adoption of 10 CFR Part 37, Physical Protections of Category 1 and Category 2 Quantities of Radioactive Material. Part 37 requirements will be discussed in detail, as the 37 NRC Agreement States, which regulate approximately 88% of the radioactive material licensees, will be required to enact by 19 March 2016. In addition to the Part 37 requirements, the paper will also highlight some of the other ongoing efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's Global Threat Reduction Initiative and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors. PMID:26717170

  9. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  10. Security improvements for rail movements of SNM

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.R.; Gronager, J.E.; Shemigon, N.N.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise Eleron have teamed to lead a project to enhance the overall security of Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) transportation of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) shipments. The effort is called the Railcar Transportation Security Project and is part of the overall DOE Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program addressing the enhancement of nuclear material control, accounting, and physical protection for Russian SNM. The goal of this MPC and A project is to significantly increase the security of Russian MINATOM highly enriched SNM rail shipments. To accomplish this, the MPC and A Railcar Transportation Security program will provide an enhanced, yet cost effective, railcar transportation security system. The system incorporates a balance between the traditional detection, communications, delay, and response security elements to significantly improve the security of MINATOM SNM shipments. The strategy of this program is to use rapid upgrades to implement mature security technologies as quickly as possible. The rapid upgrades emphasize rapidly deployable delay elements, enhanced radio communications, and intrusion detection and surveillance. Upgraded railcars have begun operation during FY98. Subsequent upgrades will build upon the rapid upgrades and eventually be integrated into a final deployed system configuration. This paper provides an overview of the program, with a summary of performance of the deployed railcars.

  11. Computer security engineering management

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    For best results, computer security should be engineered into a system during its development rather than being appended later on. This paper addresses the implementation of computer security in eight stages through the life cycle of the system; starting with the definition of security policies and ending with continuing support for the security aspects of the system throughout its operational life cycle. Security policy is addressed relative to successive decomposition of security objectives (through policy, standard, and control stages) into system security requirements. This is followed by a discussion of computer security organization and responsibilities. Next the paper directs itself to analysis and management of security-related risks, followed by discussion of design and development of the system itself. Discussion of security test and evaluation preparations, and approval to operate (certification and accreditation), is followed by discussion of computer security training for users is followed by coverage of life cycle support for the security of the system.

  12. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  13. India's military buildup: Is it justified by security needs in the coming decades. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, S.K.

    1990-04-01

    India's military buildup, which has of late, attracted the attention of the world's elites is in keeping with her security implications in the coming decades. Since her independence in 1947, India'a military potential has not been strong enough to deter her adversaries against dragging her into wars on several occasions. India is geographically a big country, surrounded by sea on all sides, and has a vast coastline and remote island territories to defend. India has a large population of varied religions and cultures. As India strives for unity in this diversity and struggles to grow economically stronger, she needs to be insulated from external pressures. Security is a prerequisite for development. Keywords: India, Military force levels, Foreign policy, Pakistan, China, United States, Australia, USSR, Nuclear weapons, Theses. (RWJ)

  14. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.25 Protection of National...

  15. 10 CFR 95.49 - Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security of automatic data processing (ADP) systems. 95.49 Section 95.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Control of Information § 95.49 Security of automatic data processing (ADP)...

  16. 10 CFR 2.907 - Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... security information. 2.907 Section 2.907 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND... National Security Information § 2.907 Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security... be impracticable for it to avoid the introduction of Restricted Data or National Security...

  17. 10 CFR 95.21 - Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Withdrawal of requests for facility security clearance. 95.21 Section 95.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA Physical Security § 95.21 Withdrawal...

  18. 10 CFR 2.911 - Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... security information. 2.911 Section 2.911 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND... National Security Information § 2.911 Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information. A presiding officer shall not receive any Restricted Data or other National Security...

  19. 10 CFR 2.911 - Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... security information. 2.911 Section 2.911 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND... National Security Information § 2.911 Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information. A presiding officer shall not receive any Restricted Data or other National Security...

  20. 10 CFR 2.907 - Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... security information. 2.907 Section 2.907 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND... National Security Information § 2.907 Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security... be impracticable for it to avoid the introduction of Restricted Data or National Security...

  1. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  2. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  3. Leveraging Safety Programs to Improve and Support Security Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Snell, Mark K.; Pratt, R.; Sandoval, S.

    2015-10-01

    There has been a long history of considering Safety, Security, and Safeguards (3S) as three functions of nuclear security design and operations that need to be properly and collectively integrated with operations. This paper specifically considers how safety programmes can be extended directly to benefit security as part of an integrated facility management programme. The discussion will draw on experiences implementing such a programme at Sandia National Laboratories’ Annular Research Reactor Facility. While the paper focuses on nuclear facilities, similar ideas could be used to support security programmes at other types of high-consequence facilities and transportation activities.

  4. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.201 Security of the secured area....

  5. Wild atom: Nuclear terrorism

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear explosives are no longer beyond the reach of terrorists. The wild Atom simulation demonstrated that, because interdiction is difficult, governments must combat illicit possession of nuclear weapons, improve working relationships among domestic agencies, and curb rivalries among national and international counterproliferation and counterterrorism officials. If a nuclear incident occurs, officials must be trained for consequence management; the national security community and the national disaster medical community should be well practiced in working together and with experts in other countries.

  6. Assessing the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ackland, L.; McGuire, S.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include historical aspects, the arms race, nuclear power, flaws in the non-proliferation treaty, North-South issues, East-West confrontation, Soviet decision making with regard to national defense, US and Soviet perspectives on national security, ballistic missile defense (''Star Wars''), political aspects, nuclear winter, stockpiles, US foreign policy, and military strategy.

  7. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  8. Unix Security Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, S. C.

    This document has been written to help Site Managers secure their Unix hosts from being compromised by hackers. I have given brief introductions to the security tools along with downloading, configuring and running information. I have also included a section on my recommendations for installing these security tools starting from an absolute minimum security requirement.

  9. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  10. Building Security into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq

    2000-01-01

    Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus…

  11. A Hierarchical Security Architecture for Cyber-Physical Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Quanyan Zhu; Tamer Basar

    2011-08-01

    Security of control systems is becoming a pivotal concern in critical national infrastructures such as the power grid and nuclear plants. In this paper, we adopt a hierarchical viewpoint to these security issues, addressing security concerns at each level and emphasizing a holistic cross-layer philosophy for developing security solutions. We propose a bottom-up framework that establishes a model from the physical and control levels to the supervisory level, incorporating concerns from network and communication levels. We show that the game-theoretical approach can yield cross-layer security strategy solutions to the cyber-physical systems.

  12. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  13. Evolving perceptions of security - US National Security surveys 1993--1995. Progress report, September 30, 1995--November 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, K.G.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.

    1996-06-01

    This study analyzes findings from a national survey of 2,490 randomly selected members of the US public conducted between September 30 and November 14, 1995. It provides an over time comparison of public perceptions about nuclear weapons risks and benefits and key nuclear policy issues between 1993 and 1995. Other areas of investigation include policy preferences regarding nuclear proliferation, terrorism, US/Russian nuclear cooperation, and personal security. Public perceptions of post-cold war security were found to be evolving in unexpected ways. The perceived threat of nuclear conflict involving the US had not declined, and the threat of nuclear conflict between other countries and fears of nuclear proliferation and terrorism had increased. Perceived risks associated with managing the US nuclear arsenal were also higher. Perceptions of external and domestic benefits from US nuclear weapons were not declining. Support was found for increasing funding for nuclear weapons safety, training, and maintenance, but most respondents favored decreasing funding for developing and testing new nuclear weapons. Strong support was evident for programs and funding to prevent nuclear proliferation and terrorism. Though skeptical that nuclear weapons can be eliminated, most respondents supported reducing the US nuclear arsenal, banning nuclear test explosions, and ending production of fissile materials to make nuclear weapons. Statistically significant relationships were found between perceptions of nuclear weapons risks and benefits and policy and spending preferences. Demographic variables and basic social and political beliefs were systematically related both to risk and benefit perceptions and policy and spending options.

  14. Strategic culture and ballistic missile defense: Russia and the United States. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, M.D.

    1993-06-01

    This thesis examines U.S. and Russian history and current policy debates to advance understanding of: (1) the strategic cultures of these nations, particularly with respect to BMD policies in the recent past; and (2) whether and how their strategic cultures and approaches to BMD are changing and how that may affect future strategic BMD developments and the status of the ABM Treaty. The development of BMD strategies, including policies concerning the ABM Treaty, within the framework of the established American and Russian strategic cultures is studied, with due attention to the Soviet experience and legacy in the Russian case. U.S. strategic culture does not seem to have changed significantly with the end of the Cold War, but U.S. BMD priorities have been redefined to reflect a higher priority attached to regional and theater-level defenses. It is apparent that the Soviet experience did have a significant impact on Russian strategic culture. Faced with major changes in its international status, domestic political-military arrangements, and scope of national security concerns, Russian strategic culture is nonetheless moving beyond the old Soviet culture. Future Russian policies regarding the transfer of BMD technology, sharing early warning data, and participating in a global protective system are heavily dependent on domestic political developments. United States, Russia, USSR, Strategic culture, Ballistic missile defense, National strategy, Nuclear strategy, Strategic defense, ABM Treaty, Arms control, Strategic stability.

  15. Safeguards and security research and development: Program status report, February-July 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.N.; Walton, R.B.

    1982-04-01

    This report, one of a series of biannual progress reports, describes the status of research and development in the Safeguards and Security Program at Los Alamos from February-July 1981. Most work covered here is sponsored by the Office of Safeguards and Security of the Department of Energy; however, project activities that are technically closely related to nuclear safeguards and security also are included where appropriate for conveying information useful to the nuclear community. The report comprises four major subject areas: Security Development and Support; Nuclear Materials Measurement and Engineering; Nuclear Facility Safeguards Support; and International Safeguards, Technology Transfer, and Training. Some technical topics included in the subject areas are computer and informational security, chemical and nondestructive analysis of nuclear materials, process modeling and analysis, nuclear materials accounting systems, evaluation of prototype measurement instrumentation and procedures in nuclear facilities, design and consultation for facilities, technical exchange, training courses, and international safeguards.

  16. Ideas towards sustainable water security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalin, Carole

    2016-04-01

    With growing global demands and a changing climate, ensuring water security - the access to sufficient, quality water resources for health and livelihoods and an acceptable level of water related risk - is increasingly challenging. While a billion people still lack access to water, over-exploitation of this resource increases in many developed and developing parts of the world. While some solutions to water stress have been known for a long time, financial, cultural and political barriers often prevent their implementations. This talk will highlight three crucial areas that need to be addressed to progress towards sustainable water security. The first point is on scale, the second on the agricultural sector and irrigation, and the third on food trade and policy.

  17. A REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON RADIOLOGICAL SECURITY

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Fred A.; Murray, Allan; Dickerson, Sarah; Tynan, Douglas M.; Rawl, Richard R.; Hoo, Mark S.

    2007-07-09

    In 2004, Australia, through the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) created the Regional Security of Radioactive Sources (RSRS) project and partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to form the Southeast Asian Regional Radiological Security Partnership (RRSP). The intent of the RRSP/RSRS partnership is to cooperate with regional neighbors in Southeast Asia to improve the security of their radioactive sources. This Southeast Asian Partnership supports NNSA and IAEA objectives to improve the security of high risk radioactive sources by raising awareness of the need, and developing national programs, to: protect and control such materials; improve the security of such materials and recover and condition the materials no longer in use. To date, agreed upon joint activities have included assistance with the improvement of regulatory infrastructure for the control of radioactive sources, training on the physical protection of radioactive sources, training and assistance with the search, location, identification and securing of orphan radioactive sources and overall assistance with implementing the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. Since the inception of the partnership, ten Southeast Asian nations have participated in a range of activities from receiving general training on the security of radioactive sources to receiving specialized equipment and training to locate orphan or abandoned radioactive sources. By having a shared vision and objectives for radioactive source security in the Southeast Asian region, ANSTO and NNSA have been able to develop a successful partnership which has effectively utilized the technical, financial and political resources of each contributing partner. An example of how this partnership works is the cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency, Indonesia (BAPETEN) to

  18. 76 FR 81005 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include classified discussions..., international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W....

  19. Towards a policy for human security: psychosocial contributions.

    PubMed

    Tullio, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by the correspondence between Einstein and Freud in 1936, this paper focuses on the multidimensional aspect of security, exploring its implications within the psychosocial approach. Reflections are therefore centred on the psychological aspects of conflict, on bio-psychic responses to violent solicitation and on ways in which individual emotions are managed and controlled by the State. Some social and economic mechanisms comprising the present global social scenario are explored: the intermesh between economic/industrial organisations and Security Institutions, and the consumerist economic model and its individual/collective consequences, ultimately environmental destruction. As suggested by Einstein, the creation of a supranational organisation would be an essential step towards an effective and economically sustainable international system. This can be achieved through a process that implies the evolution of cultural parameters and the transformation of national institutions. In this sense, the author suggests a decisive role for civil society organisations such as the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW). PMID:17987980

  20. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders. PMID:17907609

  1. US public perspectives on security :

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, Kerry Gale; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C.; Silva, Carol L.

    2012-02-01

    We report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2011 on public assessments of contemporary and emerging interstate nuclear threats, support for strategic arms control, and preferences for responding to limited nuclear attacks on the United States. Additionally, we analyze public views of the threat of terrorism, including cyber attacks, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and preferences for responding to an act of radiological terrorism against the United States. Also, we report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2011 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public views on energy requirements, preferences for energy sources, energy conservation versus development, energy independence, implications of events at Fukushima, Japan, for US public support of nuclear generation, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and trust in nuclear risk assessments from government and other public sources. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  2. 78 FR 26795 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the National Radiological and Nuclear Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: General The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Domestic Nuclear Detection Office... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Announcement of Requirements and Registration for the National Radiological and Nuclear...

  3. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  4. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  5. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  6. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  7. Information security management system planning for CBRN facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lenaeu, Joseph D.; O'Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lewis, John; Mathers, Gemma; Rodger, Robert; Johnson, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    The focus of this document is to provide guidance for the development of information security management system planning documents at chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) facilities. It describes a risk-based approach for planning information security programs based on the sensitivity of the data developed, processed, communicated, and stored on facility information systems.

  8. 10 CFR 37.55 - Security program review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security program review. 37.55 Section 37.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE... must include the radioactive material security program content and implementation. Each licensee...

  9. 10 CFR 39.31 - Labels, security, and transportation precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels, security, and transportation precautions. 39.31 Section 39.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.31 Labels, security, and transportation precautions. (a) Labels. (1) The licensee may not use a source, source holder,...

  10. Physicist appeals against security revoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-01-01

    An Egyptian-born nuclear physicist filed a fresh legal appeal last month in an effort to learn why his security clearance was revoked by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Abdel Moniem El-Ganayni, 57, who became a US citizen in 1988, lost his clearance in December 2007. Last May, he lost his job at Bettis Laboratory in Pittsburgh, which is run for the DOE by a subsidiary of the Bechtel Corporation. A lawsuit in which El-Ganayni sought a hearing on the reasons for revoking his clearance was dismissed in late November by US District judge Terrence McVerry, prompting the latest appeal.

  11. Department of Homeland Security

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Contact Us Quick Links Site Map A-Z ... Requested Pages TSA Pre✓® Active Shooter Preparedness Hometown Security Countering Violent Extremism Forms Combating Human Trafficking Taking ...

  12. Investigating the degree of "stigma" associated with nuclear energy technologies: A cross-cultural examination of the case of fusion power.

    PubMed

    Horlick-Jones, Tom; Prades, Ana; Espluga, Josep

    2012-07-01

    The extent to which nuclear energy technologies are, in some sense, "stigmatised" by historical environmental and military associations is of particular interest in contemporary debates about sustainable energy policy. Recent claims in the literature suggest that despite such stigmatisation, lay views on such technologies may be shifting towards a "reluctant acceptance," in the light of concerns about issues like anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we report on research into learning and reasoning processes concerned with a largely unknown nuclear energy technology; namely fusion power. We focus on the role of the nuclear label, or "brand," in informing how lay citizens make sense of the nature of this technology. Our findings derive from a comparative analysis of data generated in Spain and Britain, using the same methodology. PMID:23823163

  13. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  14. National Security Technology Incubator Operations Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-04-30

    This report documents the operations plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The operation plan includes detailed descriptions of the structure and organization, policies and procedures, scope, tactics, and logistics involved in sustainable functioning of the NSTI program. Additionally, the operations plan will provide detailed descriptions of continuous quality assurance measures based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Forms that assist in operations of NSTI have been drafted and can be found as an attachment to the document.

  15. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  16. Heritage roundtable: the nuclear freeze

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.V.; Gray, C.; Kalicki, J.; Pfaltzgraff, R.; Scoville, H.

    1982-01-01

    The transcript of a panel of foreign policy experts, chaired by former National Security Adviser Richard Allen, debates the proposed nuclear freeze. They consider whether a freeze is a step in the right direction, acting to slow the arms race and contribute to world security, or whether it would aggravate strategic problems by perpetuating an umbalanced situation. Disagreement among the participants makes clear that no one favors nuclear war, but there are differing perspectives on how to continue preventing such a war.

  17. Nuclear safeguards research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. N.

    1981-11-01

    The status of a nuclear safeguard research and development program is presented. Topics include nondestructive assay technology development and applications, international safeguards, training courses, technology transfer, analytical chemistry methods for fissionable materials safeguards, the Department of Energy Computer Security Technical Center, and operational security.

  18. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  19. Making Schools More Secure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grealy, Joseph I.

    The president of the National Association of School Security Directors, citing many specific incidents of school vandalism and personal assault and battery, states that the safety and security of school personnel and facilities are necessary requirements for effective education. The author's approach to a school security program is to determine…

  20. School Violence: Physical Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial…

  1. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  2. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  3. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  4. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  5. Organizational Culture and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Catherine A.

    2003-01-01

    '..only a fool perseveres in error.' Cicero. Humans will break the most advanced technological devices and override safety and security systems if they are given the latitude. Within the workplace, the operator may be just one of several factors in causing accidents or making risky decisions. Other variables considered for their involvement in the negative and often catastrophic outcomes include the organizational context and culture. Many organizations have constructed and implemented safety programs to be assimilated into their culture to assure employee commitment and understanding of the importance of everyday safety. The purpose of this paper is to examine literature on organizational safety cultures and programs that attempt to combat vulnerability, risk taking behavior and decisions and identify the role of training in attempting to mitigate unsafe acts.

  6. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  7. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  8. Airborne and Ground-Based Optical Characterization of Legacy Underground Nuclear Test Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S.; Craven, J.; Anderson, D.; Dzur, R.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting, locating, and characterizing suspected underground nuclear test sites is a U.S. security priority. Currently, global underground nuclear explosion monitoring relies on seismic and infrasound sensor networks to provide rapid initial detection of potential underground nuclear tests. While seismic and infrasound might be able to generally locate potential underground nuclear tests, additional sensing methods might be required to further pinpoint test site locations. Optical remote sensing is a robust approach for site location and characterization due to the ability it provides to search large areas relatively quickly, resolve surface features in fine detail, and perform these tasks non-intrusively. Optical remote sensing provides both cultural and surface geological information about a site, for example, operational infrastructure, surface fractures. Surface geological information, when combined with known or estimated subsurface geologic information, could provide clues concerning test parameters. We have characterized two legacy nuclear test sites on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), U20ak and U20az using helicopter-, ground- and unmanned aerial system-based RGB imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) systems. The multi-faceted information garnered from these different sensing modalities has allowed us to build a knowledge base of how a nuclear test site might look when sensed remotely, and the standoff distances required to resolve important site characteristics.

  9. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  10. Balancing Security and Learning. School Security Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ways to provide vital safety to schools without inhibiting the learning environment for students. Describes security efforts at Orange County, Florida schools, such as using video cameras, school police officers, and access-control systems. (EV)

  11. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  12. The culture of peace and peace education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Năstase, Adrian

    1983-09-01

    In the present world situation, there is an urgent need for new strategies of peace based on the common fundamental interest of mankind, rejecting the use of force, and aimed at creating a new world order. Recognising the close interrelationship between culture and peace, and the extension of international interdependencies in reducing economic disparities, emphasis must be given to developing positive attitudes to peace in the minds of all men: a qualitative change in thinking has to occur before international security can be ensured without resort to military alliances and nuclear deterrence. The dangers inherent in the arms race require that education for disarmament be an integral part of peace education. Likewise, the connections between peace and other international objectives such as development and human rights, need to be stressed. Peace education should lead not only to a greater awareness of problems but also to a sense of responsibility and an active involvement in efforts towards promoting equal rights, economic and social development, and mutual respect and understanding among nations. The power of informed public opinion, internationally, in influencing governments towards peace and disarmament should not be underestimated; therefore, greater attention in peace education needs to be given to identifying and overcoming the structural, conceptual and cultural obstacles to peace. What is being undertaken in Romania, especially amongst young people, by way of education and action for peace, reflects a coherent policy, comprises a powerful and effective educational whole, and is contributing towards the building up of an international `constituency' of peace and disarmament.

  13. US changes course on nuclear-weapons strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2010-05-01

    US President Barack Obama has signalled a new approach to nuclear-weapons policy that limits their use against other states and documents how the country will ensure the viability of existing stockpiles. The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR), which sets out the US's nuclear strategy over a 10-year period, also calls for a highly skilled workforce to ensure "the long-term safety, security and effectiveness of the nuclear arsenal and to support the full range of nuclear-security work".

  14. VALUE OF COOPERATIVE RELATIONSHIPS FOR SECURITY OF A SAFER WORLD

    SciTech Connect

    Malollari, Dr. Ilirjan; Civici, Dr. Nikolla; Hirsch, Kristin; Randolph, John David

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cooperation of countries for improving security of radioactive and nuclear assets is clearly the key to success in establishing a more safe and secure world. Over the past few years the United States Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiatives (GTRI) program has been actively engaged with many countries of the world to identify, account for, and support enhancements to security and accounting measures for these materials. The Republic of Albania has demonstrated its willingness and desire to work closely with the United States to achieve and implement the GTRI goals for security of their assets. The GTRI program has assisted the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in development on a variety of subject areas related to security of sources and nuclear materials. . Albania, a Member State of the IAEA, received training and information support from the agency. The leadership of the Albanian nuclear program has changed but the commitment of Albania to work closely with GTRI continues. The GTRI/Albania global partnership made significant accomplishments in security and safe storage of Albania s nuclear assets. This paper will describe a brief history of the Albanian program and the achievements resulting from the cooperative program with GTRI, which have resulted in a more secure Albania.

  15. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  16. Data validation and security for reprocessing.

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, Keith Michael; Merkle, Peter Benedict; DurÔan, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

    2008-10-01

    Next generation nuclear fuel cycle facilities will face strict requirements on security and safeguards of nuclear material. These requirements can result in expensive facilities. The purpose of this project was to investigate how to incorporate safeguards and security into one plant monitoring system early in the design process to take better advantage of all plant process data, to improve confidence in the operation of the plant, and to optimize costs. An existing reprocessing plant materials accountancy model was examined for use in evaluating integration of safeguards (both domestic and international) and security. International safeguards require independent, secure, and authenticated measurements for materials accountability--it may be best to design stand-alone systems in addition to domestic safeguards instrumentation to minimize impact on operations. In some cases, joint-use equipment may be appropriate. Existing domestic materials accountancy instrumentation can be used in conjunction with other monitoring equipment for plant security as well as through the use of material assurance indicators, a new metric for material control that is under development. Future efforts will take the results of this work to demonstrate integration on the reprocessing plant model.

  17. Nuclear extrusion precedes discharge of genomic DNA fibers during tunicamycin-induced neutrophil extracellular trap-osis (NETosis)-like cell death in cultured human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomofumi; Saitoh, Noriko; Morotomi-Yano, Keiko; Yano, Ken-Ichi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Hisato

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported that the nucleoside antibiotic tunicamycin (TN), a protein glycosylation inhibitor triggering unfolded protein response (UPR), induced neutrophil extracellular trap-osis (NETosis)-like cellular suicide and, thus, discharged genomic DNA fibers to extracellular spaces in a range of human myeloid cell lines under serum-free conditions. In this study, we further evaluated the effect of TN on human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells using time-lapse microscopy. Our assay revealed a previously unappreciated early event induced by TN-exposure, in which, at 30-60 min after TN addition, the cells extruded their nuclei into the extracellular space, followed by discharge of DNA fibers to form NET-like structures. Intriguingly, neither nuclear extrusion nor DNA discharge was observed when cells were exposed to inducers of UPR, such as brefeldin A, thapsigargin, or dithiothreitol. Our findings revealed novel nuclear dynamics during TN-induced NETosis-like cellular suicide in HL-60 cells and suggested that the toxicological effect of TN on nuclear extrusion and DNA discharge was not a simple UPR. PMID:26888435

  18. Helicopter acoustic alerting system for high-security facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Robert L.; Hansen, Scott; Park, Chris; Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Helicopters present a serious threat to high security facilities such as prisons, nuclear sites, armories, and VIP compounds. They have the ability to instantly bypass conventional security measures focused on ground threats such as fences, check-points, and intrusion sensors. Leveraging the strong acoustic signature inherent in all helicopters, this system would automatically detect, classify, and accurately track helicopters using multi-node acoustic sensor fusion. An alert would be generated once the threat entered a predefined 3-dimension security zone in time for security personnel to repel the assault. In addition the system can precisely identify the landing point on the facility grounds.

  19. EMP Threats to US National Security: Congressional Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huessy, Peter

    2011-04-01

    The US Congress is considering how best to respond to concerns that EMP is a real and present danger to US security. The threats come from a variety of areas: solar storms, non-nuclear EMP from man-made machines and devices; and nuclear EMP from a nuclear device exploded above CONUS or other critical areas important to the United States and its allies. Responses have to date included passage in the House of legislation to protect the electrical grid in the United States from such threats and hearings before the Homeland Security Committee. Additional efforts include examining missile defense responses, protection of the maritime domain, and hardening of US military and related civilian infrastructure. The House of Representatives has also examined what Europe, the European Union and NATO, both government and private industry, have done in these areas. Complicating matters are related issues of cyber-security and overall homeland security priorities.

  20. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  1. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  2. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  3. 10 CFR 95.25 - Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. 95.25 Section 95.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY... Protection of National Security Information and Restricted Data in storage. (a) Secret matter,...

  4. 10 CFR 2.907 - Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security information. 2.907 Section 2.907 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.907 Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information. (a) If, at the time of publication of a...

  5. 10 CFR 2.907 - Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... security information. 2.907 Section 2.907 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.907 Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information. (a) If, at the time of publication of a...

  6. 10 CFR 2.911 - Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... security information. 2.911 Section 2.911 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.911 Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information. A presiding officer shall not receive any Restricted...

  7. 10 CFR 2.903 - Protection of restricted data and national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Security Information § 2.903 Protection of restricted data and national security information. Nothing in... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of restricted data and national security information. 2.903 Section 2.903 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND...

  8. 10 CFR 2.907 - Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... security information. 2.907 Section 2.907 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.907 Notice of intent to introduce restricted data or national security information. (a) If, at the time of publication of a...

  9. 10 CFR 2.911 - Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... security information. 2.911 Section 2.911 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.911 Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information. A presiding officer shall not receive any Restricted...

  10. 10 CFR 2.903 - Protection of restricted data and national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Security Information § 2.903 Protection of restricted data and national security information. Nothing in... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of restricted data and national security information. 2.903 Section 2.903 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND...

  11. 10 CFR 2.911 - Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... security information. 2.911 Section 2.911 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.911 Admissibility of restricted data or other national security information. A presiding officer shall not receive any Restricted...

  12. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  13. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  14. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  15. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  16. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safeguards and Security § 76.111 Physical security, material...

  17. Welcome to Los Alamos National Laboratory: A premier national security science laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Terry

    2012-06-25

    Dr Wallace presents visitors with an overview of LANL's national security science mission: stockpile stewardship, protecting against the nuclear threat, and energy security & emerging threats, which are underpinned by excellence in science/technology/engineering capabilities. He shows visitors a general Lab overview of budget, staff, and facilities before providing a more in-depth look at recent Global Security accomplishments and current programs.

  18. What is Security? A perspective on achieving security

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05

    This presentation provides a perspective on achieving security in an organization. It touches upon security as a mindset, ability to adhere to rules, cultivating awareness of the reason for a security mindset, the quality of a security program, willingness to admit fault or acknowledge failure, peer review in security, science as a model that can be applied to the security profession, the security vision, security partnering, staleness in the security program, security responsibilities, and achievement of success over time despite the impossibility of perfection.

  19. Components of a Course on National Security Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quester, George H.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the components of a course on the formation of national security policy. Includes information on the amount of emphasis and instructional approach to take with each component of the course. Components include the nature of strategy, the role of war in international politics, disarmament and arms control, nuclear weapons and nuclear war,…

  20. PACS image security server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    Medical image security in a PACS environment has become a pressing issue as communications of images increasingly extends over open networks, and hospitals are currently hard-pushed by Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to be HIPPA complaint for ensuring health data security. Other security-related guidelines and technical standards continue bringing to the public attention in healthcare. However, there is not an infrastructure or systematic method to implement and deploy these standards in a PACS. In this paper, we first review DICOM Part15 standard for secure communications of medical images and the HIPAA impacts on PACS security, as well as our previous works on image security. Then we outline a security infrastructure in a HIPAA mandated PACS environment using a dedicated PACS image security server. The server manages its own database of all image security information. It acts as an image Authority for checking and certificating the image origin and integrity upon request by a user, as a secure DICOM gateway to the outside connections and meanwhile also as a PACS operation monitor for HIPAA supporting information.

  1. The straight-line information security architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.

    1995-08-01

    Comprehensive monitoring can provide a wealth of sensor data useful in enhancing the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. However, care must be taken to distribute this type of data on a need to know basis to the various types of users. The following paper describes an exploratory effort on behalf of Sandia National Labs to integrate commercially available systems to securely disseminate (on a need to know basis) both classified and unclassified sensor information to a variety of users on the interact.

  2. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  3. The strategic security officer.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concept of the strategic security officer, and the potential that it brings to the healthcare security operational environment. The author believes that training and development, along with strict hiring practices, can enable a security department to reach a new level of professionalism, proficiency and efficiency. The strategic officer for healthcare security is adapted from the "strategic corporal" concept of US Marine Corps General Charles C. Krulak which focuses on understanding the total force implications of the decisions made by the lowest level leaders within the Corps (Krulak, 1999). This article focuses on the strategic organizational implications of every security officer's decisions in the constantly changing and increasingly volatile operational environment of healthcare security. PMID:24707753

  4. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  5. Post 9-11 Security Issues for Non-Power Reactor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaffuts, P. J.

    2003-02-25

    This paper addresses the legal and practical issues arising out of the design and implementation of a security-enhancement program for non power reactor nuclear facilities. The security enhancements discussed are derived from the commercial nuclear power industry's approach to security. The nuclear power industry's long and successful experience with protecting highly sensitive assets provides a wealth of information and lessons that should be examined by other industries contemplating security improvements, including, but not limited to facilities using or disposing of nuclear materials. This paper describes the nuclear industry's approach to security, the advantages and disadvantages of its constituent elements, and the legal issues that facilities will need to address when adopting some or all of these elements in the absence of statutory or regulatory requirements to do so.

  6. Security Technology Demonstration and Validation Sustainability Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-31

    This report describes the process of creating continuity and sustainability for demonstration and validation (DEMVAL) assets at the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The DEMVAL asset program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). The mission of the NSTI program is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. Part of this support is envisioned to be research and development of companies’ technology initiatives, at the same time providing robust test and evaluation of actual development activities. This program assists companies in developing technologies under the NSTI program through demonstration and validation of technologies applicable to national security created by incubators and other sources. The NSPP also will support the creation of an integrated demonstration and validation environment. Development of the commercial potential for national security technologies is a significant NSTI focus. As part of the process of commercialization, a comprehensive DEMVAL program has been recognized as an essential part of the overall incubator mission. A number of resources have been integrated into the NSTI program to support such a DEMVAL program.

  7. The Remote Security Station (RSS) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Amai, W.A.; Klarer, P.; Frank, D.; Carlson, J.; Byrne, R.

    1992-10-01

    The Remote Security Station (RSS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Defense Nuclear Agency to investigate issues pertaining to robotics and sensor fusion in physical security systems. This final report documents the status of the RSS program at its completion in April 1992. The RSS system consists of the Man Portable Security Station (MaPSS) and the Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS), which are integrated by the Operator's Control Unit (OCU) into a flexible exterior perimeter security system. The RSS system uses optical, infrared, microwave, and acoustic intrusion detection sensors in conjunction with sensor fusion techniques to increase the probability of detection and to decrease the nuisance alarm rate of the system. Major improvements to the system developed during the final year are an autonomous patrol capability, which allows TMSS to execute security patrols with limited operator interaction, and a neural network approach to sensor fusion, which significantly improves the system's ability to filter out nuisance alarms due to adverse weather conditions.

  8. The Remote Security Station (RSS) final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pletta, J.B.; Amai, W.A.; Klarer, P.; Frank, D.; Carlson, J.; Byrne, R.

    1992-10-01

    The Remote Security Station (RSS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Defense Nuclear Agency to investigate issues pertaining to robotics and sensor fusion in physical security systems. This final report documents the status of the RSS program at its completion in April 1992. The RSS system consists of the Man Portable Security Station (MaPSS) and the Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS), which are integrated by the Operator`s Control Unit (OCU) into a flexible exterior perimeter security system. The RSS system uses optical, infrared, microwave, and acoustic intrusion detection sensors in conjunction with sensor fusion techniques to increase the probability of detection and to decrease the nuisance alarm rate of the system. Major improvements to the system developed during the final year are an autonomous patrol capability, which allows TMSS to execute security patrols with limited operator interaction, and a neural network approach to sensor fusion, which significantly improves the system`s ability to filter out nuisance alarms due to adverse weather conditions.

  9. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  10. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  11. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  12. The expression of β-galactosidase during long-term cultured goat skin fibroblasts and the effect of donor cell passage on in vitro development of nuclear transfer embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haijun; Peng, Hui; Liu, Fang; Ma, Qun; Zhang, Wenchang

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of β-galactosidase during long-term cultured goat skin fibroblasts and investigate the effects of donor goat age, sex, and cell passage on senescence and the effects of donor cell passage on in vitro development of nuclear transfer embryos. The results showed that, in the same cell passage, more β-galactosidase-positive cells were detected in cells from older donors than younger donors. Irrespective of the donor age, the number of positive cells was higher in later passages from passages 20 to 50. In the same passage from 20 to 50, the β-galactosidase-positive rate was higher in cells from 5-yr female goat than 5-yr male goat. Using fibroblasts from male goats at various passages as donor cells, reconstructed embryos had similar fusion and cleavage rates, but the blastocyst rate was higher for cells at passages 10 and 20 than passage 30. In conclusion, donor goat age and cell passage had significant effects on the β-galactosidase-positive rate; also, cells from 5-yr female goat had a higher β-galactosidase-positive rate than those from 5-yr male goat, and the donor cell passage affected the developmental potential of nuclear transfer embryos. PMID:26944897

  13. Culture Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Bridget Fitzgerald

    1998-01-01

    One way to break down barriers and promote understanding among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and mainstream students is to establish culture clubs. Culture clubs involve frequent exchange of information about social, academic, and cultural topics in extracurricular settings. They are a critical component of ESL programs. The article explains…

  14. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  15. How to implement security controls for an information security program at CBRN facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lenaeus, Joseph D.; O'Neil, Lori Ross; Leitch, Rosalyn M.; Glantz, Clifford S.; Landine, Guy P.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lewis, John; Mathers, Gemma; Rodger, Robert; Johnson, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    This document was prepared by PNNL within the framework of Project 19 of the European Union Chemical Biological Radiological and Nuclear Risk Mitigation Centres of Excellence Initiative entitled, ''Development of procedures and guidelines to create and improve secure information management systems and data exchange mechanisms for CBRN materials under regulatory control.'' It provides management and workers at CBRN facilities, parent organization managers responsible for those facilities, and regulatory agencies (governmental and nongovernmental) with guidance on the best practices for protecting information security. The security mitigation approaches presented in this document were chosen because they present generally accepted guidance in an easy-to-understand manner, making it easier for facility personnel to grasp key concepts and envision how security controls could be implemented by the facility. This guidance is presented from a risk management perspective.

  16. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  17. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Security of the secured area. 1542.201 Section 1542.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT...

  20. Center for computer security: Computer Security Group conference. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Topics covered include: computer security management; detection and prevention of computer misuse; certification and accreditation; protection of computer security, perspective from a program office; risk analysis; secure accreditation systems; data base security; implementing R and D; key notarization system; DOD computer security center; the Sandia experience; inspector general's report; and backup and contingency planning. (GHT)

  1. Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    We choose nuclear data and nuclear material inspection for energy application, and nondestructive testing of explosive and hidden nuclear materials for security application. Low energy (~100 keV) electrostatic accelerators of deuterium are commercially available for nondestructive testing. For nuclear data measurement, electrostatic ion accelerators and L-band (1.428GHz) and S-band (2.856GHz) electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for the neutron source. Compact or mobile X-band (9.3, 11.424GHz) electron linac neutron sources are under development. A compact proton linac neutron source is used for nondestructive testing, especially water in solids. Several efforts for more neutron intensity using proton and deuteron accelerators are also introduced.

  2. Compact Neutron Sources for Energy and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Hitoshi

    We choose nuclear data and nuclear material inspection for energy application, and nondestructive testing of explosive and hidden nuclear materials for security application. Low energy (˜100keV) electrostatic accelerators of deuterium are commercially available for nondestructive testing. For nuclear data measurement, electrostatic ion accelerators and L-band (1.428GHz) and S-band (2.856GHz) electron linear accelerators (linacs) are used for the neutron source. Compact or mobile X-band (9.3, 11.424GHz) electron linac neutron sources are under development. A compact proton linac neutron source is used for nondestructive testing, especially water in solids. Several efforts for more neutron intensity using proton and deuteron accelerators are also introduced.

  3. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-04-25

    At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

  4. Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    SciTech Connect

    Roald Wigeland; Temitope Taiwo; Michael Todosow; William Halsey; Jess Gehin

    2010-06-01

    A systematic evaluation has been conducted of the potential for advanced nuclear fuel cycle strategies and options to address the issues ascribed to the use of nuclear power. Issues included nuclear waste management, proliferation risk, safety, security, economics and affordability, and sustainability. The two basic strategies, once-through and recycle, and the range of possibilities within each strategy, are considered for all aspects of the fuel cycle including options for nuclear material irradiation, separations if needed, and disposal. Options range from incremental changes to today’s implementation to revolutionary concepts that would require the development of advanced nuclear technologies.

  5. Tissue Culture in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Duray, Paul H.; Hatfill, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    Attempts to simulate normal tissue micro-environments in vitro have been thwarted by the complexity and plasticity of the extracellular matrix, which is important in regulating cytoskeletal and nuclear matrix proteins. Gravity is one of the problems, tending to separate components that should be kept together. For space shuttle experiments, NASA engineers devised a double-walled rotating bioreactor, which is proving to be a useful tissue culture device on earth as well as in space.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  7. National Security Technology Incubator Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-02-28

    This report documents the action plan for developing the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) program for southern New Mexico. The NSTI program is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). This action plan serves as a tool in measuring progress in the development process and delivery of services for the NSTI program. Continuous review and evaluation of the action plan is necessary in the development process of the NSTI. The action plan includes detailed steps in developing the NSTI program based on recommended best practices in incubator development by the National Business Incubation Association (NBIA). Included are tasks required to implement the NSTI, developed within a work breakdown structure. In addition, a timeline is identified for each task.

  8. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  11. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  12. Network Security Is Manageable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    An effective systems librarian must understand security vulnerabilities and be proactive in preventing problems. Specifics of future attacks or security challenges cannot possibly be anticipated, but this paper suggests some simple measures that can be taken to make attacks less likely to occur: program the operating system to get automatic…

  13. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  14. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  15. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  16. School Security, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.; Anderson, Larry, Ed.

    This supplement, a collaboration of "American School & University" and "Access Control & Security Systems Integration" magazines, presents four articles examining equipment and management strategies to ensure school safety. "School Security by the Numbers" (Joe Agron; Larry Anderson) defines the parameters and quantifies the trend in the school…

  17. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  18. School Security Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade electronic security technology has evolved from an exotic possibility into an essential safety consideration. Before resorting to high-tech security solutions, school officials should think carefully about the potential for unintended consequences. Technological fixes may be mismatched to the problems being addressed. They can…

  19. Technology's Role in Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    1999-01-01

    Examines the use of technology to bolster the school security system, tips on selecting a security consultant, and several basic strategies to make buildings and grounds safer. Technological ideas discussed include the use of telephones in classrooms to expedite care in emergency situations, surveillance cameras to reduce crime, and metal…

  20. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  1. CIOs Uncensored: Security Smarts.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gerald R.

    2008-02-25

    This commentary for the CIOs Uncensored section of InformationWeek will discuss PNNL’s “defense in depth” approach to cyber security. It will cover external and internal safeguards, as well as the all-important role of employees in the cyber security equation. For employees are your greatest vulnerability – and your last line of defense.

  2. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  3. Development of a security-by-design handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, David L.; Snell, Mark Kamerer; Iida, Toru; Ochiai, Kazuya; Tanuma, Koji

    2010-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness that efficient and effective nuclear facility design is best achieved when requirements from the 3S disciplines Safety, Safeguards, and Security - are balanced and intrinsic to the facility design. This can be achieved when policy, processes, methods, and technologies are understood and applied in these areas during all phases of the design process. For the purposes of this paper, Security-by-design will be defined as the system level incorporation of the physical protection system (PPS) into a new or retrofitted nuclear power plant (NPP) or nuclear facility (NF) resulting in intrinsic security. Security-by-design can also be viewed as a framework to achieve robust and durable security systems. This paper reports on work performed to date to create a Security-by-Design Handbook, under a bilateral agreement between the United States and Japan, specifically, a review of physical protection principles and best practices, and a decommissioning to better understand where these principles and practices can be applied. This paper describes physical protection principles and best practices to achieve security-by- design that were gathered from International, Japanese, and U.S. sources. Principles are included for achieving security early in the design process where security requirements are typically less costly and easier to incorporate. The paper then describes a generic design process that covers the entire facility lifecycle from scoping and planning of the project to decommissioning and decontamination. Early design process phases, such as conceptual design, offer opportunities to add security features intrinsic to the facility design itself. Later phases, including design engineering and construction, are important for properly integrating security features into a coherent design and for planning for and assuring the proper performance of the security system during the operation and decommissioning of the facility. The paper also

  4. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  5. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  6. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  7. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  8. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC). The Secretary of Homeland Security has determined that the re- establishment of ASAC...

  9. The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.W.; Hassberger, J.A.; Smith, C.; Carelli, M.; Greenspan, E.; Peddicord, K.L.; Stroh, K.; Wade, D.C.; Hill, R.N.

    1999-05-27

    The Secure, Transportable, Autonomous Reactor (STAR) system is a development architecture for implementing a small nuclear power system, specifically aimed at meeting the growing energy needs of much of the developing world. It simultaneously provides very high standards for safety, proliferation resistance, ease and economy of installation, operation, and ultimate disposition. The STAR system accomplishes these objectives through a combination of modular design, factory manufacture, long lifetime without refueling, autonomous control, and high reliability.

  10. The international security yearbook 1983-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Blechman, B.M.; Luttwak, E.N.

    1984-01-01

    A bipartisan study by eight former high-ranking officials including James R. Schlesinger, Edmund Muskie, Maxwell Taylor, and R. James Woolsey, providing an assessment of how global events have affected US defense and foreign policy interests. Topics addressed include the US-Soviet strategic and conventional weapons balance; regional threats to Western security in Latin America, the Persian Gulf, Southern Africa, and the Middle East; and significant scientific developments affecting nuclear proliferation and conventional armaments.

  11. Cyber Security Evaluation of II&C Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development program sponsored by the Department of Energy, which is conducted in close collaboration with industry to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe and economical operation of current nuclear power plants The LWRS Program serves to help the US nuclear industry adopt new technologies and engineering solutions that facilitate the continued safe operation of the plants and extension of the current operating licenses. Within the LWRS Program, the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control (II&C) Systems Technologies Pathway conducts targeted research and development (R&D) to address aging and reliability concerns with the legacy instrumentation and control and related information systems of the U.S. operating light water reactor (LWR) fleet. The II&C Pathway is conducted by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Cyber security is a common concern among nuclear utilities and other nuclear industry stakeholders regarding the digital technologies that are being developed under this program. This concern extends to the point of calling into question whether these types of technologies could ever be deployed in nuclear plants given the possibility that the information in them can be compromised and the technologies themselves can potentially be exploited to serve as attack vectors for adversaries. To this end, a cyber security evaluation has been conducted of these technologies to determine whether they constitute a threat beyond what the nuclear plants already manage within their regulatory-required cyber security programs. Specifically, the evaluation is based on NEI 08-09, which is the industry’s template for cyber security programs and evaluations, accepted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as responsive to the requirements of the nuclear power plant cyber security regulation found in 10 CFR 73.54. The evaluation was conducted by a

  12. The ``Nuclear Renaissance'' and the Spread of Nuclear Weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyman, Edwin S.

    2007-05-01

    As interest grows around the world in nuclear power as an energy source that could help control greenhouse gas emissions, some have proclaimed the arrival of a ``nuclear renaissance.'' But can the increased risks of more nuclear power be managed? The political crisis surrounding Iran's pursuit of uranium enrichment has exposed weaknesses in the nuclear nonproliferation regime. Also, al Qaeda's declared interest in weapons of mass destruction raises the concern that terrorists could acquire nuclear weapons by stealing materials from poorly secured facilities. Growth of nuclear energy would require the construction of many additional uranium enrichment plants. And the generation of more spent nuclear fuel without a credible waste disposal strategy would increase political support for reprocessing, which separates large quantities of weapon-usable plutonium from spent fuel. There is little evidence that the various institutional arrangements and technical schemes proposed to mitigate the security risks of a major nuclear expansion would be effective. This talk will focus on the measures necessary to allow large-scale global growth of nuclear power without resulting in an unacceptably high risk of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism, and will discuss the feasibility of such measures. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.OSS07.E1.2

  13. Effect of starter culture and fermentation temperature on water mobility and distribution in fermented sausages and correlation to microbial safety studied by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Møller, Sandie M; Gunvig, Annemarie; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2010-10-01

    Water mobility and distribution in fermented sausages produced with differences in pH development as a result of the use of three different starter cultures (T-SPX, F-1, or F-SC-111) and two fermentation temperatures (24 degrees C, or 32 degrees C) were studied using low-field proton NMR relaxometry. Changes in the distribution and mobility of water in fermented sausages upon fermentation and drying were detectable by NMR T(2) relaxation, and the progress in the drying process could be followed as a shift towards faster relaxation times. In addition, the distribution of water in the sausages was significantly affected by the pH decline. The sausages were spiked with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli VTEC, and partial least squares regressions revealed that 90% of the variation in reduction of Salmonella and VTEC could be explained by the NMR T(2) relaxation decay. Consequently, the study demonstrated that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for elucidating process parameters and microbial safety in the production of fermented meat products. PMID:20580493

  14. Homeland Security and Contraband Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, R. C.

    Detection of contraband and illicit materials has become increasingly important, especially since the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001. The nature of the detection problem embodies both physics issues and a set of operational constraints that limit the practical application of neutrons. The issue under consideration is detection of materials that are considered serious threats; these may include explosives; radioactive materials, fissile materials, and other materials associated with nuclear weapons, often referred to as special nuclear material (SNM). The overriding constraint is in the physics: systems must be based on clean physics; but unlike physics experiments, detection systems work under the limitation that materials must be identified nonintrusively, without interrupting the normal flow of commerce and with a high probability of detection and a low probability of false alarms. A great deal of work has been reported in the literature on neutron-based techniques for detecting explosives and drugs. The largest impetus by far for detecting explosives comes from aviation industry requirements for inspecting luggage and, to a lesser extent, cargo. The major alternative techniques are either X-ray-based or chemical trace detection methods that look for small traces of explosive residues. The limitations of the X-ray and trace methods in detecting explosives are well known, but currently (2008) it is safe to say that no neutron- or nuclear-based technique is being used routinely for security inspection, despite extensive development of these methods. Smuggling of nuclear materials has become a concern, and neutron techniques are particularly attractive for detecting them. Given the limitations of X-ray techniques and the need for SNM detection, it is now useful to reexamine neutron methodologies, particularly imaging. A significant number of neutron-based techniques have been proposed and are under development for security applications

  15. Study of the characteristics of seismic signals generated by natural and cultural phenomena. [such as earthquakes, sonic booms, and nuclear explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, T. T.; Rasmussen, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic data recorded at the Tonto Forest Seismological Observatory in Arizona and the Uinta Basin Seismological Observatory in Utah were used to compare the frequency of occurrence, severity, and spectral content of ground motions resulting from earthquakes, and other natural and man-made sources with the motions generated by sonic booms. A search of data recorded at the two observatories yielded a classification of over 180,000 earthquake phase arrivals on the basis of frequency of occurrence versus maximum ground velocity. The majority of the large ground velocities were produced by seismic surface waves from moderate to large earthquakes in the western United States, and particularly along the Pacific Coast of the United States and northern Mexico. A visual analysis of raw film seismogram data over a 3-year period indicates that local and regional seismic events, including quarry blasts, are frequent in occurrence, but do not produce ground motions at the observatories comparable to either the large western United States earthquakes or to sonic booms. Seismic data from the Nevada Test Site nuclear blasts were used to derive magnitude-distance-sonic boom overpressure relations.

  16. [Calculation on ecological security baseline based on the ecosystem services value and the food security].

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone. PMID:27228612

  17. Corporate strategic plan for safeguards and security

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) safeguards and security (S and S) is a team effort, consisting of Field, National Laboratories, Program Office, and Headquarters units cooperating to support the Department`s diverse security needs. As an integral part of the nation`s security structure, the DOE S and S Program regularly supports and works in cooperation with other US Government agencies and private industry to improve the national security posture. Thus, inter- and intra-agency partnerships play an invaluable role in the continuing efforts to integrate and implement improved ways of doing business. Their Corporate Strategic Plan provides a road map to guide, track, and provide feedback for the incorporation and implementation of S and S activities within DOE. Part 1 Planning Framework, describes those overarching factors which influence the planning endeavors. Part 2, Strategic Perspective, outlines where the S and S Program has been and how they will move to the future through core competencies, changing cultural thinking, and implementing their strategies. Part 3, Strategic and Operational Integration, details critical focus areas, strategies, and success indicators designed to enhance inter-agency S and S integration and promote cooperation with external agencies. This Plan will be reviewed annually to ensure it remains supportive and fully-engaged with the nation`s and international security environments.

  18. Security and SCADA protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  19. Security of medical multimedia.

    PubMed

    Tzelepi, S; Pangalos, G; Nikolacopoulou, G

    2002-09-01

    The application of information technology to health care has generated growing concern about the privacy and security of medical information. Furthermore, data and communication security requirements in the field of multimedia are higher. In this paper we describe firstly the most important security requirements that must be fulfilled by multimedia medical data, and the security measures used to satisfy these requirements. These security measures are based mainly on modern cryptographic and watermarking mechanisms as well as on security infrastructures. The objective of our work is to complete this picture, exploiting the capabilities of multimedia medical data to define and implement an authorization model for regulating access to the data. In this paper we describe an extended role-based access control model by considering, within the specification of the role-permission relationship phase, the constraints that must be satisfied in order for the holders of the permission to use those permissions. The use of constraints allows role-based access control to be tailored to specifiy very fine-grained and flexible content-, context- and time-based access control policies. Other restrictions, such as role entry restriction also can be captured. Finally, the description of system architecture for a secure DBMS is presented. PMID:12507263

  20. International Energy Agency and global energy-security matters. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Government Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, July 14, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Testimony on the role of the International Energy Agency and the value of the Emergency Preparedness Act of 1980, as well as other initiatives, reviewed the response of world oil markets in terms of global energy security. The testimony focused on the effects of the Iran-Iraq war, current oil glut, Windfall profit Tax, and pricing policies. The eight witnesses presented the views of several federal and international agencies and academic institutes. Additional material submitted for the record follows their testimony. (DCK)