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Sample records for nuclear smuggling deterrence

  1. Preliminary evaluation of a fluorescence and radioisotope nuclear smuggling deterrence tag - final report (IL500E)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.; Delmastro, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials, (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials, and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The system uses three types of materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. This report also summarizes the efforts completed in identifying hardware that will be used for the tagging system. This hardware includes the devices for applying the tagging materials, the commercially available fluorescence detection systems, and gamma ray detection systems assembled from existing, commercially available technologies.

  2. Technical description of candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a nuclear smuggling deterrence tag (IL500E)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, S.D.; Aryaeinejad, R.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes the efforts completed in identifying candidate fluorescence compounds and radioisotopes for a developing tagging system. The tagging system is being developed as a deterrent to nuclear smuggling, by providing a means of: (1) tracing materials and pilferers to the facility of origin for any recovered special nuclear materials; (2) inventory control of long-term stored items containing special nuclear materials; and (3) tracking materials transferred between facilities. The tagging system uses four types of tagging materials to cover a range of applications intended to prevent the pilfering of special nuclear materials. One material, fluorescent compounds which are invisible without ultraviolet or near-infrared detection systems, is marked on controlled items with a tracking pattern that corresponds to a specified item in a specified location in the data control system. The tagging system uses an invisible, fluorescent dusting powder to mark equipment and personnel who inappropriately handle the tagged material. The tagging system also uses unique combinations of radionuclides to identify the facility of origin for any special nuclear material. Currently, 18 long-lived radioisotopes, 38 short-live radioisotopes and 10 fluorescent compounds have been selected as candidate materials for the tagging system.

  3. Nuclear deterrence, morality, and realism

    SciTech Connect

    Finnis, J.; Boyle, J.M. Jr.; Grisez, G.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence deserves rigorous, objective ethical analysis. In providing it, the authors of this book face realities - the Soviet threat, possible nuclear holocaust, strategic imperatives - but they also unmask moral evasions - deterrence cannot be bluff, pure counterforce, the lesser (or greater) evil, or a step towards disarmament. They conclude that the deterrent is unjustifiable and examine the new questions of conscience that this raises for everyone.

  4. The future of nuclear deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Quester, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear deterrence has been in existence for almost four decades. Yet, analysts from the left and the right keep reemphasizing the dangers and problems with deterrence without always remembering its purpose-the prevention of nuclear war or the prevention of all war. In this book. George Quester analyzes the future of nuclear deterrence in light of its past, and discovers that the fundamental tenets of nuclear deterrence remain unchanged. George Quester considers the overwhelming tensions present in a society threatened by the prospect of a nuclear holocaust and a lingering nuclear winter. But he also acknowledges that nuclear deterrence has prevented a great deal of global and local warfare that otherwise would have occurred. He spotlights the basic military problems facing the world today, including the shadow cast on all levels of strategic planning by the threat of nuclear war. Quester warns against charging forth with radical new alternatives, such as the Strategic Defense Initiative and deep-cut disarmament. He argues that initiatives such as these reflect a return to traditional military thinking about waging and winning wars that pose serious possibilities for a breakdown in deterrence policy.

  5. Nuclear deterrence: Does it deter

    SciTech Connect

    Catudal, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author challenges the basic assumptions upon which rest nuclear deterrence policy. Deterrence theory, he argues, has simply been imposed on the post-WW II period with the observation, 'you can't test a negative.' The escalation of military spending by all major powers, and the development and deployment of new destabilizing weapons systems, the author concludes, is a strong indication that deterrence has in fact failed. The larger failure is that of the ineffective use of classical diplomacy as a means of 'influencing and controlling the potential for conflict...with other states.'

  6. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  7. Detector Requirements to Curb Nuclear Smuggling

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A

    2001-11-14

    The problem of stopping nuclear smuggling of terrorist nuclear devices is a complex one, owing to the variety of pathways by which such a device can be transported. To fashion new detection systems that improve the chances of detecting such a device, it is important to know the various requirements and conditions that would be imposed on them by both the types of devices that might be smuggled and by the requirement that it not overly interfere with the transportation of legitimate goods. Requirements vary greatly from low-volume border crossings to high-volume industrial container ports, and the design of systems for them is likely to be quite different. There is also a further need to detect these devices if they are brought into a country via illicit routes, i.e., those which do not pass through customs posts, but travel overland though open space or to a smaller, unguarded airport or seaport. This paper describes some generic uses of detectors, how they need to be integrated into customs or other law enforcement systems, and what the specifications for such detectors might be.

  8. A treaty to ban nuclear smuggling: The next step in nuclear material control?

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, B.M.; Smith, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    Since the demise of the Soviet Union, reports have continued to surface that weapons-usable nuclear material has been smuggled out of former Soviet territory into the hands of proliferant states. So far, few examples of nuclear smuggling have involved serious quantities of weapons-usable material, and much purported smuggling has involved attempted fraud rather than an effort to transfer fissile material. In no instance has an actual transfer to a potential proliferant state been verified.

  9. British nuclear deterrent after the cold war

    SciTech Connect

    Witney, N.K.

    1995-11-01

    The Trident nuclear deterrent program is one of the United Kingdom`s largest-ever military acquisitions. Planned and initiated in the depths of the Cold War, it is now coming to fruition, when the most obvious justification for it--the Soviet threat to Western Europe--has disappeared. The continuation of the program is not in doubt; the money is largely spent or committed, and the main political parties agree on deploying the force. But the rationale needs refurbishment. Britain has traditionally preferred to represent her nuclear capability primarily as a contribution to NATO`s collective deterrence. The second center of decisionmaking concept defined a particular value for that contribution. This rationale seized the moral high ground (by associating Britain`s deterrent with NATO`s strategy to prevent war), guarded the proliferation flank, and underpinned Anglo-American relations.

  10. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    PubMed

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. PMID:22043828

  11. Nuclear deterrence in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Hagerty, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    Did India and Pakistan nearly fight a nuclear war in 1990? In a provocative 1993 article, Seymour M. Hersh claims that they did. During a crisis with India over the rapidly escalating insurgency in Kashmir, Pakistan openly deployed its main armored tank units along the Indian border and, in secret, placed its nuclear-weapons arsenal on alert. As a result, the Bush Administration became convinced that the world was on the edge of a nuclear exchange between Pakistan and India. Universe of cases is admittedly small, but my argument is supported by recent research indicating that preemptive attacks of any kind have been historically rarer than conventionally believed. The nuclear era has seen two instances of preventive attacks against nuclear facilities-the 1981 Israeli bombing of Iraq`s Osirak nuclear facility and the allied coalition`s 1991 air war against Iraq-but both of these actions were taken without fear of nuclear reprisal. In situations where nuclear retaliation has been a possibility, no leader of nuclear weapon state has chosen to launch a preemptive first strike. 97 refs.

  12. Crisis relocation and nuclear deterrence. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, J.L.

    1986-04-07

    The difficulty of providing adequate protection to the civilian population with some kind of civil defense program is magnified by the technology available in the nuclear age. The United States expanded its civil defense program in the 1950's to include a measure of protection in the event of the explosion of nuclear devices. However, the history of the United States civil defense program has been generally characterized by inadequate funding and little interest at all levels of government. Most recently, the civil defense program has been associated and considered a component of nuclear deterrence. Under the direction of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the government will rely on crisis relocation as the primary means of protecting the population in the event of a nuclear attack or detonation. This plan envisions that evacuation of the population from high-risk areas to safer host areas. Does crisis relocation provide the country with a credible component to our nuclear deterrence. Do the leaders and citizens have confidence in the nation's ability to protect the civilian population. Have the leaders been completely forthright in preparing the population for the possibility of a nuclear war. These and related issues are discussed in this essay.

  13. Graph-Based Analysis of Nuclear Smuggling Data

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Diane; Holder, Larry; Thompson, Sandra E.; Whitney, Paul D.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2009-12-01

    Much of the data that is collected and analyzed today is structural, consisting not only of entities but also of relationships between the entities. As a result, analysis applications rely upon automated structural data mining approaches to find patterns and concepts of interest. This ability to analyze structural data has become a particular challenge in many security-related domains. In these domains, focusing on the relationships between entities in the data is critical to detect important underlying patterns. In this study we apply structural data mining techniques to automate analysis of nuclear smuggling data. In particular, we choose to model the data as a graph and use graph-based relational learning to identify patterns and concepts of interest in the data. In this paper, we identify the analysis questions that are of importance to security analysts and describe the knowledge representation and data mining approach that we adopt for this challenge. We analyze the results using the Russian nuclear smuggling event database.

  14. Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.D.

    2000-06-20

    Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended deterrence and cause a crisis in confidence

  15. Nuclear policy impacts at the national laboratories: maintaining the deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, James Bradley

    2010-08-24

    In this presentation, the author will discuss recent nuclear policy impacts, including the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review, and the impacts they have on maintaining the nuclear deterrent. Specifically, he will highlight some of the remaining questions and challenges that remain to the nation and to the national laboratories. (auth)

  16. Can deterrence last. Peace through a nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Garden, T.

    1984-01-01

    With the recent rise of literature which questions the validity of deterrence doctrine- from unilateral disarmers to 'star wars' enthusiasts the author presents a report on deterrence theory, and a case for enhancing it. He states that the essence of deterrence is 'the ability to convince a state, which has it in mind to go to war with you, that no such advantageous profit and loss assessment is possible'. It is the enormous destructive power of nuclear weapons and the near impossibility of defending against them that has made deterrence generally accepted in the West as the only practical strategy in the post-1945 world. Nevertheless, the options placed before the West have become far more complex with the growth of Soviet nuclear forces and a Soviet conventional capability which remains highly formidable. Ever since the West's threat of 'massive retaliation' ceased to be credible, one of the corner-stones of the newer flexible-response doctrine has been the stated willingness to respond to a Soviet conventional attack on Western Europe with nuclear weapons.

  17. Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J

    2009-01-21

    The fallacy of zero nuclear weapons, even as a virtual goal, is discussed. Because the complete abolition of nuclear weapons is not verifiable, nuclear weapons will always play a role in the calculus of assure, dissuade, deter and defeat (ADDD). However, the relative contribution of nuclear weapons to international security has diminished. To reconstitute the Cold War nuclear capability, with respect to both the nuclear weapons capability and their associated delivery systems, is fiscally daunting and not warranted due to competing budgetary pressures and their relative contribution to international security and nonproliferation. A proposed pathway to a sustainable nuclear weapons capability end-state is suggested which provides enough ADDD; a Dyad composed of fewer delivery and weapon systems, with trickle production at the National Laboratories and private sector to maintain capability and guard against technological surprise.

  18. Civil defense: a deterrent to nuclear war. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, G.C.

    1982-04-19

    Nuclear war has been feared by the entire world since the end of World War II. Since the early 1960s, the Soviet Union has been continually improving both its capability to wage nuclear war and, more important, to protect its population. Population protection or civil defense is the principal issue discussed, with emphasis on Soviet accomplishments and fluctuation of US policy. This issue is discussed from the viewpoint of many noted authors. The conclusion reached indicates that there can be deterrence to nuclear war through civil protection. This conclusion is reinforced with the efforts of the Soviets and the gains made by the US over the past three years.

  19. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR SMUGGLING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP TO THWART ILLICIT TRAFFICKING

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Biro, T; Chartier, B; Mayer, K; Niemeyer, S; Thompson, P

    2007-10-25

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an informal association of nuclear forensic practitioners working in partnership with law enforcement, first responder, and nuclear regulatory professionals that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to advance the science of nuclear forensics and to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance. the ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time 30 nations and organizations have participated in 12 annual meetings and two analytical round-robin trials involving plutonium and highly enriched uranium. A third analytical round-robin as well as several table-top exercises are planned for later in 2007-2008. International interest in the ITWG has grown in over the past five years measured by the number of participants at its annual meetings. This growth has spawned the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories as a companion technical affiliate focusing exclusively on the scientific aspects of nuclear forensics and nuclear smuggling incident response.

  20. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-04

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  1. Stockpile Stewardship: How we Ensure the Nuclear Deterrent without Testing

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2015-09-11

    In the 1990s, the U.S. nuclear weapons program shifted emphasis from developing new designs to dismantling thousands of existing weapons and maintaining a much smaller enduring stockpile. The United States ceased underground nuclear testing, and the Department of Energy created the Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent without full-scale testing. This video gives a behind the scenes look at a set of unique capabilities at Lawrence Livermore that are indispensable to the Stockpile Stewardship Program: high performance computing, the Superblock category II nuclear facility, the JASPER a two stage gas gun, the High Explosive Applications Facility (HEAF), the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and the Site 300 contained firing facility.

  2. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  3. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.L.; Haskell, K.J.; Hoggan, J.M.; Norman, D.R.; Yoon, W.Y.

    2003-08-26

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  4. Distributional properties of stochastic shortest paths for smuggled nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Cuellar, Leticia; Pan, Feng; Roach, Fred; Saeger, Kevin J

    2011-01-05

    The shortest path problem on a network with fixed weights is a well studied problem with applications to many diverse areas such as transportation and telecommunications. We are particularly interested in the scenario where a nuclear material smuggler tries to succesfully reach herlhis target by identifying the most likely path to the target. The identification of the path relies on reliabilities (weights) associated with each link and node in a multi-modal transportation network. In order to account for the adversary's uncertainty and to perform sensitivity analysis we introduce random reliabilities. We perform some controlled experiments on the grid and present the distributional properties of the resulting stochastic shortest paths.

  5. Strategic nuclear deterrence: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, S.L.

    1991-03-15

    On 16 July 1945, the first atom bomb was successfully exploded over Trinity, New Mexico, and raised the question: What should we do with it. Once the conclusion to use the weapon had been reached, only one employment decision was necessary: Should it be dropped on a city or on a military target. Limitations on the bomb's power and accuracy negated its use against ships in Tokyo Bay, while Army bases had air raid shelters. On the other hand, a drop on any city would have an impressive effect. The practice of destroying cities was well established by August, 1945, and policy makers saw no moral difference using the atom bomb. So Hiroshima and Nagasaki were struck. Over time, the development and debates over nuclear strategy have become infinitely more complex. This study describes the evolution of United States nuclear deterrence strategy; discusses why the author believes it was successful during the Cold War period; assesses its viability against the post-Cold War threat; and, finally, offers a new paradigm for the utilization of the strategic nuclear balance. Although other factors are considered, the environment for this study encompasses primarily the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union.

  6. Nuclear Deterrence in the 21st Century: The Role of Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Ventura, Jonathan S

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-first century security challenges are multi-polar and asymmetric. A few nations have substantial nuclear arsenals and active nuclear weapons programs that still threaten vital US national security directly or by supporting proliferation. Maintaining a credible US nuclear deterrent and containing further proliferation will continue to be critical to US national security. Overlaid against this security backdrop, the rising worldwide population and its effects on global climate, food, and energy resources are greatly complicating the degree and number of security challenges before policy makers.This new paradigm requires new ways to assure allies that the United States remains a trusted security partner and to deter potential adversaries from aggressive actions that threaten global stability. Every U.S. President since Truman has affirmed the role of nuclear weapons as a supreme deterrent and protector of last resort of U.S. national security interests. Recently, President Bush called for a nuclear deterrent consistent with the 'lowest number of nuclear weapons' that still protects U.S. interests. How can this be achieved? And how can we continue on a path of nuclear reductions while retaining the security benefits of nuclear deterrence? Science and engineering have a key role to play in a potential new paradigm for nuclear deterrence, a concept known as 'capability-based deterrence.'

  7. U.S. second line of defense: preventing nuclear smuggling across Russia's borders

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D. Y.

    1998-11-16

    Preventing the theft of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia is one of the central security concerns facing the US today. The dissolution of the highly centralized USSR and the resulting societal crisis has endangered Russia's ability to protect its more than 200 metric tons of plutonium and 1000 tons of highly enriched uranium (roughly 8 kg Pu or 25 kg HEU is sufficient to make a bomb). Producing this fissile material is the most difficult and expensive part of nuclear weapons production and the US must make every effort to ensure that fissile material (and nuclear-related technologies) does not reach the hands of terrorist groups, rogue states or other potential proliferators. In response to this concern, the US has undertaken a number of initiatives in partnership with Russia and other FSU states to prevent the theft of fissile material. The Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program (MPC&A) was begun in 1993 to prevent the theft of nuclear materials from Russian civilian complexes, that is facilities not under control of the Ministry of Defense, which is largely responsible for possession and oversight of nuclear weapons. The MPC&A program is considered the first line of defense against theft of nuclear material because its goal is to prevent theft of material at production and storage facilities. This year the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a new program called the Second Line of Defense (SLD), the goal of which is to assist Russia in preventing the smuggling of nuclear material and weapons at its borders, either by land, sea or air. The SLD program represents an important phase in the overall effort to ensure the security of nuclear material and weapons in Russia. However, as the US engages Russian customs officials in this important project, Americans should keep in mind that providing equipment--even indigenous equipment--is insufficient by itself; material aid must be accompanied by rigorous inspection and

  8. Analysis of the morality of intention in nuclear deterrence, with special reference to final retaliation. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Quite apart from its apparent political obsolescence, the policy of nuclear deterrence is vulnerable to attack for its seemingly obvious immorality. Nuclear war is blatantly immoral, and nuclear deterrence requires a genuine intention to resort to the nuclear retaliation which would precipitate such a war. Therefore, since it is wrong to intend that which is wrong to do, deterrence is immoral. This thesis seeks to examine the nature of the deterrent intention as a means of verifying the soundness of the above deontological argument. This examination is carried out by first suggesting an acceptable notion of intention in general and then, after analysing the views of deterrent intention by other writers, proceeding to demonstrate the uniqueness of that intention. Having done this, and having explored the possibility that deterrence need not contain a genuine intention to retaliate, the thesis moves on to suggest and defend a moral principle which states that endeavours requiring the formation of an immoral intention may nevertheless be moral. Called the Principle of Double Intention (and based on the Principle of Double Effect), it offers a method for the moral assessment of agents who form immoral intentions within larger contexts. By applying this principle to nuclear deterrence, it is demonstrated that agents who undertake such a policy may be morally justified in doing so, provided certain conditions are met. The thesis closes with a refutation of the objection that an agent cannot rationally form an intention (such as that required in deterrence) which he has no reason to carry out.

  9. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1995-03-01

    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  10. Examination of the role of nuclear deterrence in the 21st century: a systems analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Joseph C; Stevens, Patrice A; Branstetter, Linda; Hoover, Edward; O' Brien, Kevin; Slavin, Adam; Caswell, David

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, an evaluation of US policy regarding deterrence and the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal as a deterrent has been largely absent in the public debate. With President's Obama embrace of a goal of a future world without nuclear weapons, issues of nuclear policy and deterrence have just recently risen to the forefront of policy discussions. The traditional role of US nuclear weapons-to deter the use of nuclear weapons by other states-endures, but is no longer unique nor even predominant. In an increasingly multi-polar world, the US now faces growing risks of nuclear weapons proliferation; the spread of weapons of mass destruction generally to non-state, substate and transnational actors; cyber, space, economic, environmental and resource threats along with the application of numerous other forms of 'soft power' in ways that are inimical to national security and to global stability. What concept of deterrence should the US seek to maintain in the 21st Century? That question remains fluid and central to the current debate. Recently there has been a renewed focusing of attention on the role of US nuclear weapons and a national discussion about what the underlying policy should be. In this environment, both the United States and Russia have committed to drastic reductions in their nuclear arsenals, while still maintaining forces sufficient to ensure unacceptable consequence in response to acts of aggression. Further, the declared nuclear powers have maintained that a limited nuclear arsenal continues to provide insurance against uncertain developments in a changing world. In this environment of US and Russian stockpile reductions, all declared nuclear states have reiterated the central role which nuclear weapons continue to provide for their supreme national security interests. Given this new environment and the challenges of the next several decades, how might the United States structure its policy and forces with regard to nuclear weapons? Many

  11. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  12. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  13. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy. PMID:22163641

  14. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    PubMed

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy. PMID:22163641

  15. Deterrence versus Preemption: Assessing U.S. Nuclear Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Stephen

    2003-03-19

    Since coming into office in 2001, the Bush administration has enacted a series of controversial policies designed to create a more robust and more usable nuclear arsenal. From requiring new nuclear strike capabilities (including against non-nuclear countries), to threatening preemptive attacks, to investing billions of dollars in rebuilding the nuclear weapons production complex, the administration is systematically strengthening the role nuclear weapons play in defending the United States and its interests around the world. This presentation examines those policies and the thinking that underlies them. It questions the effectiveness of the administration's approach and explores some of the unintended consequences vis-a-vis U.S. policy toward North Korea, Iraq, Pakistan, and others. Finally, it takes a detailed look at current efforts to develop a new low-yield earth-penetrating nuclear weapon to destroy hardened underground facilities, assessing the feasibility of such a device and the potential effects of its use.

  16. Method of increasing the deterrent to proliferation of nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rampolla, D.S.

    1982-08-17

    A process is claimed of recycling protactinium-231 to enhance the utilization of radioactively hot uranium-232 in nuclear fuel for the purpose of making both fresh and spent fuel more resistant to proliferation. The uranium-232 may be obtained by the irradiation of protactinium-231 which is normally found in the spent fuel rods of a thorium base nuclear reactor. The production of protactinium-231 and uranium-232 would be made possible by the use of the thorium uranium-233 fuel cycle in power reactors.

  17. Method of increasing the deterrent to proliferation of nuclear fuels

    DOEpatents

    Rampolla, Donald S.

    1982-01-01

    A process of recycling protactinium-231 to enhance the utilization of radioactively hot uranium-232 in nuclear fuel for the purpose of making both fresh and spent fuel more resistant to proliferation. The uranium-232 may be obtained by the irradiation of protactinium-231 which is normally found in the spent fuel rods of a thorium base nuclear reactor. The production of protactinium-231 and uranium-232 would be made possible by the use of the thorium uranium-233 fuel cycle in power reactors.

  18. Democracy and deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbitt, P.

    1988-01-01

    This book offers a different characterization of nuclear deterrence. Those models of nuclear deterrence arose from the strategic possibilities presented by air power while this book rejects the thesis, implicit in both ideologies, that modern nuclear strategy must be a perpetuation of the strategic bombing program that dominated the Second World War. The description of nuclear strategy is connected to the familiar distinction between central and extended deterrence. It is notorious that the debate about nuclear strategy has become detached from the precise political objectives that various strategies are supposed to serve. Any real contribution to analysis must renew this connection and thereby expose the strategic commitments and assumptions made. The author describes nuclear strategy as driven by developments in vulnerability which led to crises in extended deterrence although the relationship of central deterrence remained stable.

  19. DTIC review. Volume 1, Number 1: Nuclear proliferation and deterrence in a changing political world

    SciTech Connect

    Cupp, C.M.; Lee, C.; Foster, H.; Greene, E.; Levine, P.

    1995-08-01

    This collection of selected documents from the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) addresses the formidable issue of protecting the United States and its people from potential nuclear destruction. With the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and, concomitantly, the end of the Cold War, new strategies for nonproliferation and deterrence must be devised and implemented. Potential threats from countries not previously seen as a danger, the escalation of regional conflicts and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction are but a few of the considerations to be addressed. The authors of the following papers propose various plans and tactics to ensure United States national security and maintain world peace.

  20. U. S. /NATO sea-based non-strategic nuclear deterrence: Paradox or pitfall. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, L.S.

    1991-09-01

    The present study examines the evolution of nuclear strategy with particular emphasis on the capacity of U.S./NATO sea-based non-strategic nuclear forces. The current trend in NATO towards a certain denuclearization of the Central European states might well place an increased reliance on the sea-based theater nuclear weapons to counter Soviet theater nuclear forces in the Western Soviet Union. The present work analyzes the policy background of the NATO nuclear strategy from a European perspective in light of recent problems as a necessary precondition to an understanding of the more concrete issues of hardware. Although the U.S. Navy's nuclear-capable Tomahawk land attack cruise missile (TLAM/N) remains a potent and flexible nuclear strike asset, it is best suited for heavily defended high value fixed targets. Emphasis on offensive mobility in a future conflict will make carrier-based aircraft a more decisive platform from which to prosecute and destroy high value mobile targets. However, an analysis of the U.S. Navy's non-strategic nuclear forces reveals substantial deficiencies when compared with those of the Soviet Union. A declining U.S. Navy nuclear stockpile of air-deliverable strike weapons in combination with the lack of a long-range nuclear-capable stealth aircraft weakens the credibility of the aircraft carrier battle group as a nuclear deterrent force.

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory Human and Intellectual Capital for Sustaining Nuclear Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    McAlpine, Bradley

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current human and intellectual capital at Los Alamos National Laboratory, through specific research into the statistics and demographics as well as numerous personal interviews at all levels of personnel. Based on this information, a series of recommendations are provided to assist Los Alamos National Laboratory in ensuring the future of the human and intellectual capital for the nuclear deterrence mission. While the current human and intellectual capital is strong it stands on the precipice and action must be taken to ensure Los Alamos National Laboratory maintains leadership in developing and sustaining national nuclear capabilities. These recommendations may be applicable to other areas of the nuclear enterprise, including the Air Force, after further research and study.

  2. US strategic nuclear forces in the post strategic arms reduction talk world: Is there a future for nuclear deterrence. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Filler, R.J.

    1998-06-01

    Following victory in the Cold War, the Soviet threat that shaped United States` nuclear deterrent strategy for the past 40 years, is gone. That defined, monolithic threat has been replaced by a diverse array of new challenges including proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) among regional powers, rogue states and non-state actors. In the face of this emerging WMD threat, the United States is dismantling its chemical and biological weapons stockpile and remains committed to further reductions in its nuclear arsenal. Can a reduced U.S. nuclear weapons arsenal provide a credible deterrent to the growing threat posed by proliferation of WMD. Finally, in light of the current Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), is it time to reduce our dependence on nuclear weapons and pursue other deterrent options.

  3. Network Science for Deterrence: Sheathing the Sword of the Terrorism/Nuclear Horseman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carley, Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    After 9/11, network analysis became popular as a way to connect and disconnect the dots. It was heralded as the new science with intrinsic value for understanding and breaking up terrorist groups, insurgencies and hostile foreign governments. The limit of the initially forwarded approach was that it focused on only the social network -- who talked to whom. However ,the networks of war, terror or nuclear or cyber, are complex networks composed of people, organizations, resources, and capabilities connected in a geo-temporal web that constrains and enables activities that are ``hidden'' in the web of everyday life. Identifying these networks requires extraction and fusion of information from cyber-mediated realms resulting in a network map of the hostile groups and their relations to the populations in which they are embedded. These data are at best a sample, albeit a very large sample, replete with missing and incomplete data. Geo-temporal considerations in addition to information loss and error called into question the value of traditional network approaches. In this talk, a new approaches and associated technologies that integrate scientific advances in machine learning, network statistics, and the social and organizational science with traditional graph theoretic approaches to social networks are presented. Then, examples, of how these technologies can be used as part of a deterrence strategy are described. Examples related to terrorism and groups such as al-Qaida and Hamas, cyber and nuclear deterrence are described. By taking this meta-network approach, embracing the complexity and simultaneously examining not just one network, but the connections among networks, it is possible to identify emergent leaders, locate changes in activities, and forecast the potential impact of various interventions. Key challenges, such as data-streaming and deception, that need to be addressed scientifically are referenced.

  4. Functions and structure of nuclear deterrence in the post-cold war world. More for less - an arms control strategy for the 1990s. A SIOP for Perestroika. Theater nuclear forces and extended deterrence in a multipolar world. Special series report

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, D.M.; Wooten, R.E.; Sundberg, E.E.; Szafranski, R.; Booker, D.L.

    1992-06-01

    This Publication includes: Essay (1). The Function and Structure of Nuclear Deterrence in the Post-Cold War World. Essay (2). More for Less-An Arms Control Strategy for the 1990s. Essay (3). A SIOP for Perestroika. Essay (4). Theater Nuclear Forces and Extended Deterrence in a Multipolar World.

  5. Deterrence before Hiroshima

    SciTech Connect

    Quester, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between studies of military history and military strategy is ever widening. The enormous destructive power of nuclear weapons has tended to persuade us that the military experience of the first half of this century is not relevant to more ''modern'' military questions. In Deterrence before Hiroshima, first published in 1966, George H. Quester analyzes pre-nuclear age theories of deterrence to equip us with a perspective and data by which current theories can be evaluated. Quester shows that from almost the time of the first military aircraft, air-power was believed to have the capacity for apocalyptic destruction. He points out that the modern terms deterrence, limited war, tacit agreement, and balance of terror, show up often in the literature from 1900-1945, coupled with war scenarios every bit as awesome as a nuclear holocaust.

  6. The logic of deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, A.

    1985-01-01

    In The Logic of Deterrence, Kenny presents a guide to the theory and ethics of the complicated subject of deterrence. Kenny begins by examining the necessary conditions for any war to be just and then applies these principles to the cases of limited and total nuclear war. He then critiques current deterrence policies of both East and West, concluding that they are based on a willingness to kill millions of innocent people and are morally wrong. In the final section of the book, Kenny offers proposals for nuclear disarmament. Charting a course ''between the illusory hopes of the multilateralists who seek disarmament by negotiating and the impractical idealism of those who call for immediate and total unilateral disarmament by the West,'' Kenny proposes a series of phased and partial unilateral steps by the West, coupled with pressure on the East to reciprocate.

  7. A theory of deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A. Jr.

    1991-03-20

    The purpose of this monograph is to start a theory of deterrence which has the capability of quantitatively answering the question of what is required to deter a nation or alliance from certain acts. Despite the existence of voluminous writing on deterrence, from the beginning of the nuclear age and even before, none of it attempts a theoretical discussion of how to calculate what it takes to deter a country from committing some acts which are objectionable to another country. Many theories of deterrence have already been created. They have exclusively been of two separate forms -- those of the social scientists, which deal with political questions, and how the concept of mass destruction psychological deters the initiation of war; and those of the mathematicians, who model the quantities of one country`s arsenal of strategic systems needed to destroy a certain portion of another country`s. Only the latter is quantitative, but they lack an essential element added to answer the question ``How much is enough?`` In order to use the techniques of operations research on the questions of what type and amount of weapons are adequate for deterrence, the definitions of quantities occurring in the calculations need to be made in quantifiable way. Numbers of weapons have been the only quantified parameter in previous deterrence calculations. Yet weapons alone do not deter. The threat of destruction and damage does. How is that threatenable damage to be measured, and as through defensive system construction, counterforce capability improvement, arms control, or other means, it becomes less when is the threshold for deterrence met and crossed? The calculation of this damage, and the implication of that damage to decision-makers capable of making a war initiation decision, is a complicated process, and it is what constitutes a theory of deterrence. 36 refs.

  8. A Poor Man's Nuclear Deterrent: Assessing the Value of Radiological Weapons for State Actors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Nathan

    The threat of weapons of mass destruction is an issue which remains at the forefront on national security. Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons are all considered very dangerous by both state and non-state actors. Radiological weapons exist in that same category yet are not held in the same regard; the reason that is given is that these types of weapons are not the weapons of mass destruction that the other three are. Instead, radiological weapons are better considered weapons of mass disruption. Accordingly, in the academic and policy literature there has been very little perceived value associated with such weapons for use by state actors. However the historical focus on the military efficacy of radiological weapons has obscured the obvious truth that they may pose significant value for state actors. What this research shows is that the explosion of a radiological weapon could disrupt a target area in ways which could cripple the economy of an adversary state and promote widespread fear concerning exposure to radiation. Any such attack would not only necessitate large scale evacuation, but cleanup, decontamination, demolition, territory exclusion, and relocation. Moreover, the effects of such an attack would be unlikely to remain an isolated event as evacuated and displaced citizens spread across the nation carrying both fear and residual radiation. All of these factors would only be compounded by a state actor's ability to not only develop such weapons, but to manufacture them in such a composition that contemporary examples of such weapons grossly underestimate their impact. Accordingly, radiological weapons could hold great value for any state actor wishing to pursue their development and to threaten their use. Moreover, "while RDDs may not be well suited as "military weapons" in the classic sense, the use of RDDs could be powerfully coercive."1 In that sense, state actors could even acquire radiological weapons for their deterrent value. 1James L. Ford

  9. Nuclear Deterrence. Applications of Elementary Probability to International Relations. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Unit 327.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Harvey A.

    This module is designed to apply mathematical models to nuclear deterrent problems, and to aid users in developing enlightened skepticism about the use of linear models in stability analyses and long-term predictions. An attempt is made at avoiding overwhelming complexities through concentration on land-based missile forces. It is noted that after…

  10. Intelligence briefing on smuggling of nuclear material and the role of international crime organizations, and on the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. Hearing before the Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, One Hundred Fourth Congress, First Session, January 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The hearing addresses nuclear smuggling and the role of international crime organizations in the proliferation of cruise and ballistic missiles. The demise of the Soviet Union has weakened the control in Russia over nuclear materials. Statements of government officials are included along with documents submitted for the record.

  11. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  12. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  13. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  14. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  15. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  16. Deterrents to Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, John

    1984-01-01

    Identifies some of the current forces influencing global change; speculates on possible ramifications of these forces for changes in a school system; and suggests what possible deterrents and inhibitors operating in large public education systems are preventing change. (SB)

  17. Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1998-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling, now on the increase, is so widespread and well organised that it poses a serious threat to public health. This threat comes from two principal directions. First, smuggling makes cigarettes available cheaply, thereby increasing consumption. A third of annual global exports go to the contraband market, representing an enormous impact on consumption, and thus causing an increase in the burden of disease, especially in poorer countries. It is also costing government treasuries thousands of millions of dollars in lost tax revenue. Second, the tobacco industry uses smuggling politically, lobbying governments to lower tax, arguing that smuggling is caused by price differences. This paper shows that the claimed correlation between high prices and high levels of smuggling does not exist in western Europe. In fact, countries such as Norway and Sweden, with expensive cigarettes, do not have a large smuggling problem, whereas countries in the south of Europe do. Cigarette smuggling is not caused principally by "market forces". It is mainly caused by fraud, by the illegal evasion of import duty. The cigarettes involved are not the cheap brands from southern European countries, for which there is no international market. It is the well-known international brands such as Marlboro and Winston. We propose much tighter regulation of cigarette trade, including an international transport convention, and a total ban on transit trade-sale by the manufacturers to dealers, who sell on to smugglers. PMID:9706757

  18. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  19. The dynamics of deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Mark; Kilmer, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Because punishment is scarce, costly, and painful, optimal enforcement strategies will minimize the amount of actual punishment required to effectuate deterrence. If potential offenders are sufficiently deterrable, increasing the conditional probability of punishment (given violation) can reduce the amount of punishment actually inflicted, by “tipping” a situation from its high-violation equilibrium to its low-violation equilibrium. Compared to random or “equal opportunity” enforcement, dynamically concentrated sanctions can reduce the punishment level necessary to tip the system, especially if preceded by warnings. Game theory and some simple and robust Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate these results, which, in addition to their potential for reducing crime and incarceration, may have implications for both management and regulation. PMID:19706505

  20. ''Whither Deterrence?'' A Brief Synopsis May, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nach, M; Sloss, L

    2002-05-29

    To most audiences, deterrence has been interconnected with nuclear weapons whose purpose had been to deter a Soviet attack. But, the Soviet Union has been gone for almost a decade. President George W. Bush has stated that Russia is not an enemy of the US and the numbers of nuclear weapons can be dramatically reduced. It is important to note that deterrence has always transcended nuclear weapons. The US' first line of deterrence has been its formidable conventional warfare capability, designed to prevent conflict and win wars if necessary. The role of nuclear weapons has been to deter the,use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction against U.S. interests during the conduct of conventional warfare and to ensure our ability to inflict massive destruction on any who would use nuclear weapons, or other weapons of mass destruction, against us. With regard to the Soviet Union, the threat of the use of nuclear weapons was a critical component of our deterrent to prevent massive Soviet conventional attack against our allies in Europe. However, the events of September 11, 2001 make clear that we have not convinced all who seek to harm us that we will be able to respond in a manner to make them wish they had not even tried. The September 11 attacks, as well as other past conflicts, do not mean that deterrence has failed-it remains effective against the threats for which it was designed. We have known there are other threats for which we did not have a credible deterrent. The challenge is to sustain deterrence against the classic threats as they evolve in technical sophistication while remaining alert to the need to evaluate continuously our ability to deter previously unforeseen challenges. How then should we be looking at deterrence as we consider fifteen or so years in the future, say to about 2015? What will be the role of nuclear weapons and other instruments of mass destruction in the future? What should the US be doing to prepare for the future? In this

  1. Dancing on coke: smuggling cocaine dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Lambert, Willy E; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Risseeuw, Martijn D P; Van hee, Paul; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Recent trends suggest that cocaine smugglers have become more and more inventive to avoid seizures of large amounts of cocaine transported between countries. We report a case of a mail parcel containing a dance pad which was seized at the Customs Department of Brussels Airport, Belgium. After investigation, the inside of the dance pad was found to contain a thick polymer, which tested positive for cocaine. Analysis was performed using a routine colorimetric swipe test, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The polymer was identified as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and contained 18% cocaine, corresponding to a street value of € 20,000. Laboratory experiments showed that cocaine could be easily extracted from the PVA matrix. This case report reveals a new smuggling technique for the transportation of large amounts of cocaine from one country to another. PMID:22040352

  2. Objections to nuclear defence

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, N.; Pole, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include nuclear warfare, nuclear deterrence and the use of the just war doctrine, political aspects, human survival, moral aspects, the nuclear arms race, the ideology of nuclear deterrence, arms control, proliferation, and public opinion.

  3. Fissile material smuggling: German politics, hype and reality

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.

    1994-12-01

    The spy novel nightmare scenarios of nuclear smuggling have become reality, and much of the recent news has focused on Germany. But these events must be put in perspective, and a number of apparent {open_quotes}facts{close_quotes} must be examined more carefully. For example, while authorities in Germany have seized weapons-usable material in various incidents that have captured international attention, none of this material is from nuclear weapons or weapons production facilities. Moreover, despite the fact that the number of criminal cases has risen, the quantity of {open_quotes}loose{close_quotes} weapons-usable material is still not significant. Nor are there any indications so far that powerful criminal organizations or buyers from nuclear-ambitious {open_quotes}rogue{close_quotes} states are involved. Rather, the incidents so far involve individuals or small groups of criminals who found that their {open_quotes}buyers{close_quotes} were, more often than not, German security agents working {open_quotes}sting{close_quotes} operations to trap the smugglers and black marketeers or journalists working on a {open_quotes}big story.{close_quotes}

  4. Turning off the tap: the real solution to cigarette smuggling.

    PubMed

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2003-03-01

    The tobacco industry has argued that tobacco smuggling is caused by market forces, i.e., by the price differences between countries, which create an incentive to smuggle cigarettes from 'cheaper' to 'more expensive' countries, and so urged governments to solve the problem by reducing taxes to remove this differential, which will also, they say, restore revenue. Although such market forces have some effect, smuggling is in fact more prevalent in 'cheaper' countries, and reducing tax is not the solution. Where taxes have been reduced tobacco consumption has risen and revenue has fallen, with disastrous consequences for public health. The key to understanding cigarette smuggling is understanding the role of the tobacco industry. At the heart of cigarette smuggling is large scale fraud: container loads of cigarettes are exported, legally and duty unpaid, to countries where they have no market, and where they disappear into the contraband market. They are often smuggled back into the country of origin, where they are sold at a third to half price. It is therefore profitable because duty has been illegally evaded. The key to controlling cigarette smuggling is not lowering taxes, it is controlling the tobacco manufacturing industry and its exporting practices. PMID:12661834

  5. The Archaeology of Smuggling and the Falmouth King's Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Sam

    2009-06-01

    This article demonstrates the potential of an historical archaeology of smuggling and the value of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of smuggling and its prevention. By exploring the previously unstudied history of the King’s Pipe in Falmouth, a large chimney used for the destruction of tobacco, a rare survivor of many that once existed in England’s port cities, it demonstrates that archaeology could transform our understanding of smuggling and its prevention, and more broadly the history of crime and punishment in eighteenth century England.

  6. Challenge for NATO: improving conventional deterrence. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, W.R.

    1988-03-30

    The present thaw in US-Soviet relations with the INF agreement as a centerpiece poses a significant challenge for NATO. At a time of a reduced-threat perception and a renewed debate on NATO policy, it has become increasingly more apparent that the US should take the lead in developing a sound NATO course for the future. As NATO comes to grips with a new Soviet foreign policy direction and style, it will be necessary to reassess NATO strategy and doctrine. There will be a tendency to reduce defense spending based on a reduced-threat perception. The author feels this is the worst course we could follow, and the sound course is development of a strong conventional defense, which assures parity with the Warsaw Pact. A stronger conventional pillar can be part of a deterrent that compensates for theater nuclear deficiencies and accounts for continued force reductions. A key step to take is the development of a combined NATO doctrine at the operational and tactical levels. Finding the means for the strategy is not an insurmountable problem if NATO countries can develop a consensus to meet spending goals. The INF agreement will help to focus increased attention on the theater and strategic deterrent and it is argued that the US should take the lead in building a consensus for a strong conventional defense and deterrence capability which is coupled to nuclear deterrence.

  7. Bioresorbable polyelectrolytes for smuggling drugs into cells.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Sripriya

    2016-06-01

    There is ample evidence that biodegradable polyelectrolyte nanocapsules are multifunctional vehicles which can smuggle drugs into cells, and release them upon endogenous activation. A large number of endogenous stimuli have already been tested in vitro, and in vivo research is escalating. Thus, the interest in the design of intelligent polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) drug delivery systems is clear. The need of the hour is a systematic translation of PEM-based drug delivery systems from the lab to clinical studies. Reviews on multifarious stimuli that can trigger the release of drugs from such systems already exist. This review summarizes the available literature, with emphasis on the recent progress in PEM-based drug delivery systems that are receptive in the presence of endogenous stimuli, including enzymes, glucose, glutathione, pH, and temperature, and addresses different active and passive drug targeting strategies. Insights into the current knowledge on the diversified endogenous approaches and methodological challenges may bring inspiration to resolve issues that currently bottleneck the successful implementation of polyelectrolytes into the catalog of third-generation drug delivery systems. PMID:25961363

  8. Just war theory in the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.D.; Griesbach, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear deterrence. Topics considered include the morality of war, the normative alternatives to war, national defense in the nuclear age, the environment of nuclear deterrence (empirical factors and moral judgments), morality and nuclear weaponry, the morality of nuclear deterrence and national defense in a changing strategic environment, alternatives to nuclear deterrence, and strengthening broadcasting capabilities into the USSR (e.g., Radio Liberty and Voice of America).

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  10. Strategic forum. Number 70. Regional deterrence strategies for new proliferation threats

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, J.H.

    1996-04-01

    The deterrence of armed aggression against the United States, its vital national interests, or its allies has moved beyond the requirements of conventional force deterrence. The proliferation of nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) weapons requires a new strategy to ensure effective deterrence against their use by regional states that could not win in a conventional conflict with the United States. Because proliferation has expanded to a number of regional actors, a single strategy is unlikely to be sufficient in deterring states with varied motivations, and social, economic, religious, cultural, and political backgrounds. The Unified Commands-principally the Pacific, Central and European Commands- provide a ready-made framework in which general U.S. deterrence strategies can be tailored to each proliferant state While the Unified Commands would shape the individual deterrence strategies, the national command authority (NCA) would retain control of key decisions. Guidelines for NBC regional deterrence should include developing credible counterproliferation postures, profiling potential adversaries, tailoring our military capabilities to specific threats, integrating NBC preparedness into exercises and warplans, and actively pursuing coalitions designed to deter regional proliferators from threatening to use or using NBC weapons.

  11. Differential Deterrence: Studying Heterogeneity and Changes in Perceptual Deterrence among Serious Youthful Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughran, Thomas A.; Piquero, Alex R.; Fagan, Jeffrey; Mulvey, Edward P.

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual deterrence has been an enduring focus of interest in criminology. Although recent research has generated important new insights about how risks, costs, and rewards of offending are perceived and internalized, there remain two specific limitations to advancing theories of deterrence: (a) the lack of panel data to show whether issues of…

  12. Progress in combating cigarette smuggling: controlling the supply chain

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    2008-01-01

    Background: The illicit tobacco trade results in huge losses of revenue to governments, estimated at $US40–50 billion in 2006, and in increased consumption and thus health problems because it makes tobacco available more cheaply. On 20 October 2008 the second meeting of the International Negotiating Body (INB2) on the illicit trade protocol of WHO’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) will discuss measures to tackle the illicit trade in tobacco products. Methods: This paper presents the experience over the last decade of three countries, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom, which shows that tobacco smuggling can be successfully tackled. Conclusion: The evidence strongly suggests that the key to controlling smuggling is controlling the supply chain, and that the supply chain is controlled to a great extent by the tobacco industry. PMID:18784154

  13. Fundamental deterrence and START III

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.D.

    1998-12-31

    The public`s brief respite from the specter of nuclear holocaust abruptly ended in May 1998 when India, 24 years after its only successful nuclear weapon test, detonated five more just sixty miles from its border with Pakistan. Pakistan quickly declared itself a nuclear power and threatened tests of its own. Various capitals issued condemnations and an assortment of largely symbolic political and economic sanctions. India then proclaimed a moratorium on further testing and announced its willingness to accede to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty as a declared nuclear power. Inevitably, India`s tests will prompt Pakistan and China to accelerate their own nuclear programs, to the detriment of regional stability in South Asia.

  14. Little Boy to Star Wars the evolution of American deterrence. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Havey, M.E.

    1986-05-01

    The historical and sociological development of the American deterrent posture in the nuclear age is traced since the its dawn at Alamagordo, New Mexico, 16 July 1945, and the use of the Little Boy over Hiroshima three weeks later. A description of Western man's involvement in and reaction to pre-1945 catastrophic circumstances is followed by a comparative examination of the post-1945 changes in national policy in regard to the use and dangers of total war. Using Bernard Brodie as a theoretical deterrent baseline, the author analyzes the ethical and military shifts in U.S. declaratory (versus actual) nuclear policy, through Paul Nitze's statements of future policy in light of strategic defense. The author concludes that extremely effective--not necessarily perfect--defenses can be based dramatically on the beneficial effects of arms control. But at the same time, such a condition must inevitably result in a de facto reversion of U.S. nuclear policy to that of a small, non-counterforce force de frappe deterrent - similar in effect to that of the present French posture. The implications of this upon U.S.-Soviet force balance, the historical trends of the American Way of War, and the present deterrent mindset of the officer corps is left as a grave concern.

  15. LDRD final report on nonflammable deterrent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Rand, P.B.; Shepodd, T.

    1997-05-01

    Dispensable materials, such as sticky foams and rigid polyurethane foams, have been used as access deterrent systems by DOE security since the 1970`s. While these have been very effective systems, they also have some intrinsic problems such as toxicity, flammability and a limited range of temperature in which they remain functional. Current trends to use less-than-lethal methods to gain advantage in military and civilian conflict scenarios demand that new and better deterrent materials be designed. The most effective sticky foam is a hydrocarbon-based material which is composed of high molecular weight polymers, low molecular weight tackifying agents, fire retardants and foam stabilizing surfactants. In order to expand and fully utilize sticky foam technology, a truly nonflammable analog is required. To this end, this work involves first generation development of silicone-based deterrent systems. Two basic types of silicone systems were evaluated. First, systems based on commercial resins were prepared using a variety of thixotropic materials, plasticizers and formulation strategies. Second, systems were prepared using in situ sol-gel techniques to rapidly promote gelation in blends of functionalized silicone polymers. The resulting materials were evaluated for their foamability using non-CFC foaming agents and found to be suitable for foam formation. The properties of these sticky materials can be tailored by virtue of the formulation flexibility; thus, they represent a new class of nontoxic, nonflammable deterrents with a wide temperature range of use.

  16. Prioritizing like nuclear smugglers

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    An individual or group attempting to smuggle nuclear material out of a country has a choice of what border crossing to use and how to do it. If it is possible to think like a smuggler and determine what preferences one would have, then we could protect those smuggler-preferred border crossings first. Thinking like a smuggler requires that one understand a host of things: who is likely to smuggle and what might they have obtained, where they might have gotten it, and where they would like to deliver or sell it, how they will attempt to pass customs, how they might travel on both sides of the border, and what influences they might have on customs officials. After collecting data on criminology, geography, and much else, it is necessary to paste the data together into scenarios to ensure that self-consistent smuggling plans are created. These lead to counter-smuggling opportunities. Smuggling by amateurs turns out to be of a different class than professional smuggling, and needs to be countered differently. This work also assists in formulating key policy questions useful to guide counter-smuggling efforts. This methodology was developed for DOE/NN-43 for assistance with prioritization within the Second Line of Defense program.

  17. Case studies in international tobacco surveillance: cigarette smuggling in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shafey, O; Cokkinides, V; Cavalcante, T; Teixeira, M; Vianna, C; Thun, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This article is the first in a series of international case studies developed by the American Cancer Society to illustrate use of publicly available surveillance data for regional tobacco control. Design: A descriptive analysis of Brazil and Paraguay cigarette production and trade data from official sources. Methods: Per capita cigarette consumption for Brazil and its neighbour was calculated from 1970 to 1998 using data on production, imports, and exports from NATIONS, the National Tobacco Information Online System. Results: A 63% decrease was observed in the estimate of per capita consumption of cigarettes in Brazil between 1986 and 1998 (from 1913 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 714 cigarettes per person in 1998) and a 16-fold increase in Paraguay was observed during the same period (from 678 cigarettes per person in 1986 to 10 929 cigarettes per person in 1998). Following Brazil's 1999 passage of a 150% cigarette export tax, cigarette exports fell 89% and Brazil's estimated per capita consumption rose to 1990 levels (based on preliminary data). Per capita consumption in Paraguay also fell to 1990 levels. Conclusions: These trends coincide with local evidence that large volumes of cigarettes manufactured in Brazil for export to Paraguay are smuggled back and consumed as tax-free contraband in Brazil. It is hoped that this case study will draw wider public attention to the problems that smuggling presents for tobacco control, help identify other countries confronting similar issues, and stimulate effective interventions. PMID:12198271

  18. Nuclear Forensics: Report of the AAAS/APS Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, Benn

    2008-04-01

    This report was produced by a Working Group of the American Physical Society's Program on Public Affairs in conjunction with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy. The primary purpose of this report is to provide the Congress, U.S. government agencies and other institutions involved in nuclear forensics with a clear unclassified statement of the state of the art of nuclear forensics; an assessment of its potential for preventing and identifying unattributed nuclear attacks; and identification of the policies, resources and human talent to fulfill that potential. In the course of its work, the Working Group observed that nuclear forensics was an essential part of the overall nuclear attribution process, which aims at identifying the origin of unidentified nuclear weapon material and, in the event, an unidentified nuclear explosion. A credible nuclear attribution capability and in particular nuclear forensics capability could deter essential participants in the chain of actors needed to smuggle nuclear weapon material or carry out a nuclear terrorist act and could also encourage states to better secure such materials and weapons. The Working Group also noted that nuclear forensics result would take some time to obtain and that neither internal coordination, nor international arrangements, nor the state of qualified personnel and needed equipment were currently enough to minimize the time needed to reach reliable results in an emergency such as would be caused by a nuclear detonation or the intercept of a weapon-size quantity of material. The Working Group assesses international cooperation to be crucial for forensics to work, since the material would likely come from inadequately documented foreign sources. In addition, international participation, if properly managed, could enhance the credibility of the deterrent effect of attribution. Finally the Working Group notes that the U.S. forensics

  19. Trafficking of nuclear materials from the former Soviet Union news abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S A; Lawson, T M

    1999-08-31

    This report was generated to provide a background for understanding the type and variety of smuggling incidents that have been reported. As discussed in the Site Prioritization report, smuggling cases provide insight into the activities of what has been called ''amateur smuggling'', that is, smugglers who do not belong to a professional smuggling gang. In many instances, the law enforcement officials giving the press release are not familiar with nuclear materials, and give incorrect identification. The other portions of the information, such as number of individuals involved, places, and modes of operation are likely to be more correct.

  20. Factor Structure of Deterrents to Adult Participation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Naveen K.; Shapero, Morris; Sizoo, Steve; Munro, Tom

    2007-01-01

    As institutions of higher learning have seen the aging of American college students, they have been increasingly concerned about helping them overcome what deters their reentry. Adult perception of deterrents is identified in this study. Analysis and the factor structure underlying these deterrents is examined in the Situational, Institutional,…

  1. Arthropod Deterrents from Artemisia pallens (Davana Oil) Components.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathy, Ganga V; Velazquez Nieves, Glory M; Webb, Meiling Z; Chauhan, Kamlesh R

    2015-08-01

    Davanone, a key sesquiterpene component of davana oil, has been synthesized in five convenient steps. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes have been linked to insect deterrent properties. Based on initial screening of davana oil, davanone and its hydroxy precursors have been generated and are being evaluated as arthropod deterrents against disease vectors. PMID:26434107

  2. Developmental, Familial, and Peer Deterrents to Adoption Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Kyle N.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the developmental, familial, and peer deterrents that form barriers to adoption placement, based on interviews with 17 teen mothers in a residential facility. Analyzes responses based on an Eriksonian developmental model, and notes the role of family "cutoffs" and "re-admissions" and peer pressure as deterrents to adoption. Suggests…

  3. Acoustical deterrence of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooke J. Vetter; Cupp, Aaron R.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Gaikowski, Mark P.; Allen F. Mensinger

    2015-01-01

    The invasive Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) dominate large regions of the Mississippi River drainage and continue to expand their range northward threatening the Laurentian Great Lakes. This study found that complex broadband sound (0–10 kHz) is effective in altering the behavior of Silver Carp with implications for deterrent barriers or potential control measures (e.g., herding fish into nets). The phonotaxic response of Silver Carp was investigated using controlled experiments in outdoor concrete ponds (10 × 4.9 × 1.2 m). Pure tones (500–2000 Hz) and complex sound (underwater field recordings of outboard motors) were broadcast using underwater speakers. Silver Carp always reacted to the complex sounds by exhibiting negative phonotaxis to the sound source and by alternating speaker location, Silver Carp could be directed consistently, up to 37 consecutive times, to opposite ends of the large outdoor pond. However, fish habituated quickly to pure tones, reacting to only approximately 5 % of these presentations and never showed more than two consecutive responses. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of sound barriers in preventing Silver Carp movement using pure tones and this research suggests that a complex sound stimulus would be an even more effective deterrent.

  4. “Key to the Future”: British American Tobacco and Cigarette Smuggling in China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Collin, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Background Cigarette smuggling is a major public health issue, stimulating increased tobacco consumption and undermining tobacco control measures. China is the ultimate prize among tobacco's emerging markets, and is also believed to have the world's largest cigarette smuggling problem. Previous work has demonstrated the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in this illicit trade within Asia and the former Soviet Union. Methods and Findings This paper analyses internal documents of BAT available on site from the Guildford Depository and online from the BAT Document Archive. Documents dating from the early 1900s to 2003 were searched and indexed on a specially designed project database to enable the construction of an historical narrative. Document analysis incorporated several validation techniques within a hermeneutic process. This paper describes the huge scale of this illicit trade in China, amounting to billions of (United States) dollars in sales, and the key supply routes by which it has been conducted. It examines BAT's efforts to optimise earnings by restructuring operations, and controlling the supply chain and pricing of smuggled cigarettes. Conclusions Our research shows that smuggling has been strategically critical to BAT's ongoing efforts to penetrate the Chinese market, and to its overall goal to become the leading company within an increasingly global industry. These findings support the need for concerted efforts to strengthen global collaboration to combat cigarette smuggling. PMID:16834455

  5. Improving Road Safety through Deterrence-Based Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Jeremy D; Freeman, James E

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of road safety countermeasures to deter motorists from engaging in illegal behaviours is extremely important when considering the personal and economic impact of road accidents on the community. In many countries, deterrence theory has remained a cornerstone of criminology and criminal justice policy, particularly within the field of road safety, as policy makers and enforcement agencies attempt to increase perceptions regarding the certainty, severity and swiftness of sanctions for those who engage in illegal motoring behaviours. Using the Australian experience (particularly the tremendous amount of research into drink driving), the current paper reviews the principles underpinning deterrence theory, the utilisation of the approach within some contemporary road safety initiatives (e.g., random breath testing) as well as highlighting some methods to enhance a deterrent effect. The paper also provides direction for future deterrence-based research, in particular, considering the powerful impact of non-legal sanctions, punishment avoidance as well as creating culturally embedded behavioural change. PMID:21509205

  6. TRPA1 mediates the noxious effects of natural sesquiterpene deterrents.

    PubMed

    Escalera, Jasmine; von Hehn, Christian A; Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-08-29

    Plants, fungi, and animals generate a diverse array of deterrent natural products that induce avoidance behavior in biological adversaries. The largest known chemical family of deterrents are terpenes characterized by reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated dialdehyde moieties, including the drimane sesquiterpenes and other terpene species. Deterrent sesquiterpenes are potent activators of mammalian peripheral chemosensory neurons, causing pain and neurogenic inflammation. Despite their wide-spread synthesis and medicinal use as desensitizing analgesics, their molecular targets remain unknown. Here we show that isovelleral, a noxious fungal sesquiterpene, excites sensory neurons through activation of TPRA1, an ion channel involved in inflammatory pain signaling. TRPA1 is also activated by polygodial, a drimane sesquiterpene synthesized by plants and animals. TRPA1-deficient mice show greatly reduced nocifensive behavior in response to isovelleral, indicating that TRPA1 is the major receptor for deterrent sesquiterpenes in vivo. Isovelleral and polygodial represent the first fungal and animal small molecule agonists of nociceptive transient receptor potential channels. PMID:18550530

  7. MAD with aliens? Interstellar deterrence and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Janne M.

    2013-05-01

    The possibility that extraterrestrial intelligences (ETIs) could be hostile to humanity has been raised as a reason to avoid even trying to contact ETIs. However, there is a distinct shortage of analytical discussion about the risks of an attack, perhaps because of an implicit premise that we cannot analyze the decision making of an alien civilization. This paper argues that we can draw some inferences from the history of the Cold War and nuclear deterrence in order to show that at least some attack scenarios are likely to be exaggerated. In particular, it would seem to be unlikely that the humanity would be attacked simply because it might, sometime in the future, present a threat to the ETI. Even if communication proves to be difficult, rational decision-makers should avoid unprovoked attacks, because their success would be very difficult to assure. In general, it seems believable that interstellar conflicts between civilizations would remain rare. The findings advise caution for proposed interstellar missions, however, as starfaring capability itself might be seen as a threat. On the other hand, attempting to contact ETIs seems to be a relatively low-risk strategy: paranoid ETIs must also consider the possibility that the messages are a deception designed to lure out hostile civilizations and preemptively destroy them.

  8. China`s new {open_quotes}old thinking{close_quotes}: The concept of limited deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.I.

    1995-12-31

    In the last five to ten years, Chinese military strategists have developed a concept of limited deterrence that is now used to describe what China`s nuclear forces ought to be able to do. Limited deterrence rests on a limited war-fighting capability aimed at communicating China`s ability to inflict costly damage on the adversary at every rung on the escalation ladder and thus denying the adversary victory in a nuclear war. It is this capability, Chinese strategists argue, that will deter such a war in the first place. Limited deterrence therefore requires the development of a greater number of tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons that are accurate enough to hit counterforce targets, are mobile, can be used in the earliest stages of a nuclear crisis, and in a world of THAAD are capable of penetrating ballistic missile defense systems. These forces would thus require effective space-based early warning, and some configuration of BMD capabilities. Given that China does not now have such capabilities, the straight-line prediction would be that over the next decade or so, we should expect to see a discernible effort to shift the forces away from a minimum strike-back assured destruction posture, which China now has, toward limited war-fighting. This may or may not entail a dramatic short-run increase in the absolute numbers of warheads and delivery systems: the pace will depend in part on whether the United States proceeds with TMD deployment. The speed of change in China`s nuclear capabilities will also depend in part on whether the implementation of START II leads to a steep relative increase in the size of the Chinese arsenal and reduces the relative number of counterforce targets. The primary constraints on any such efforts are exogenous, namely, budgetary and arms control constraints. It is an open question whether endogenous constraints-a shift in doctrine toward minimum deterrence-might be encouraged. 120 refs.

  9. Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: the sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Jonathan; Sen, Anindya; Stabile, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A central parameter for evaluating tax policies is the price elasticity of demand for cigarettes. But in many countries this parameter is difficult to estimate reliably due to widespread smuggling, which significantly biases estimates using legal sales data. An excellent example is Canada, where widespread smuggling in the early 1990s, in response to large tax increases, biases upwards the response of legal cigarette sales to price. We surmount this problem through two approaches: excluding the provinces and years where smuggling was greatest; and using household level expenditure data on smoking. These two approaches yield a tightly estimated elasticity in the range of -0.45 to -0.47. We also show that the sensitivity of smoking to price is much larger among lower income Canadians. In the context of recent behavioral models of smoking, whereby higher taxes reduce unwanted smoking among price sensitive populations, this finding suggests that cigarette taxes may not be as regressive as previously suggested. Finally, we show that price increases on cigarettes do not increase, and may actually decrease, consumption of alcohol; as a result, smuggling of cigarettes may have raised consumption of alcohol as well. PMID:12946461

  10. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  11. The value of vengeance and the demand for deterrence.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Özdemir, Yagiz; Fehr, Ernst

    2014-12-01

    Humans will incur costs to punish others who violate social norms. Theories of justice highlight 2 motives for punishment: a forward-looking deterrence of future norm violations and a backward-looking retributive desire to harm. Previous studies of costly punishment have not isolated how much people are willing to pay for retribution alone, because typically punishment both inflicts damage (satisfying the retributive motive) and communicates a norm violation (satisfying the deterrence motive). Here, we isolated retributive motives by examining how much people will invest in punishment when the punished individual will never learn about the punishment. Such "hidden" punishment cannot deter future norm violations but was nevertheless frequently used by both 2nd-party victims and 3rd-party observers of norm violations, indicating that retributive motives drive punishment decisions independently from deterrence goals. While self-reports of deterrence motives correlated with deterrence-related punishment behavior, self-reports of retributive motives did not correlate with retributive punishment behavior. Our findings reveal a preference for pure retribution that can lead to punishment without any social benefits. PMID:25285429

  12. Trends & Controversies: Sociocultural Predictive Analytics and Terrorism Deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.

    2011-08-12

    The use of predictive analytics to model terrorist rhetoric is highly instrumental in developing a strategy to deter terrorism. Traditional (e.g. Cold-War) deterrence methods are ineffective with terrorist groups such as al Qaida. Terrorists typically regard the prospect of death or loss of property as acceptable consequences of their struggle. Deterrence by threat of punishment is therefore fruitless. On the other hand, isolating terrorists from the community that may sympathize with their cause can have a decisive deterring outcome. Without the moral backing of a supportive audience, terrorism cannot be successfully framed as a justifiable political strategy and recruiting is curtailed. Ultimately, terrorism deterrence is more effectively enforced by exerting influence to neutralize the communicative reach of terrorists.

  13. Synopsis of the international workshop on illicit trafficking of nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Niemeyer, S.

    1997-03-01

    In this paper a synopsis is presented of the second ITWG (Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group) meeting that was held in Obninsk, Russia, on December 2-4, 1996, at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering.

  14. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  15. Validation of a BOTDR-based system for the detection of smuggling tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkayam, Itai; Klar, Assaf; Linker, Raphael; Marshall, Alec M.

    2010-04-01

    Cross-border smuggling tunnels enable unmonitored movement of people, drugs and weapons and pose a very serious threat to homeland security. Recently, Klar and Linker (2009) [SPIE paper No. 731603] presented an analytical study of the feasibility of a Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (BOTDR) based system for the detection of small sized smuggling tunnels. The current study extends this work by validating the analytical models against real strain measurements in soil obtained from small scale experiments in a geotechnical centrifuge. The soil strains were obtained using an image analysis method that tracked the displacement of discrete patches of soil through a sequence of digital images of the soil around the tunnel during the centrifuge test. The results of the present study are in agreement with those of a previous study which was based on synthetic signals generated using empirical and analytical models from the literature.

  16. Arthropod deterrents from Artemisia pallens (Davana oil) components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Davanone, a key sesquiterpene component of davana oil, has been synthesized in five convenient steps. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes have been linked to insect deterrent properties. Based on initial screening of davana oil, davanone and its hydroxy precursors have been generated and are being evaluated...

  17. Deterrents to Women's Participation in Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Szu-Fang

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to explore and define key factors that deter women from participating in continuing professional development (CPD) in the workplace. Four dimensions of deterrents that are caused by women's social roles, gender inequality and gender dimensions are discussed: family and time constraints, cost and work constraints, lack of…

  18. Nuclear Weapons and Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides suggestions on how science teachers can, and should, deal with the nuclear weapons debate in a balanced and critical way. Includes a table outlining points for and against deterrence and disarmament. (JN)

  19. Deterrence and strategic defense in the 21st century. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    McManaway, W.F.

    1993-04-15

    The United States' experience with a deterrent security strategy is colored by more than 40 years of confrontation with the Soviet Union. Over the Cold War years, American political leadership wrestled with two foreign policy challenges: the threat of communist expansion and the danger of nuclear weapons. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, communist expansion may be a thing of the past. Nevertheless, nuclear weapons are still with us in large numbers. Of the many challenges facing American statecraft in the 21st century, few are as foreboding as the accelerating proliferation of nuclear weapons and the means for their delivery. Although intelligence professionals cannot confidently predict the 21st century international environment, several trends characterize what we might find. There will still be ideological competitors, in some cases involved in intractable regional conflicts. Furthermore, nuclear and conventional military technologies will increasingly spread, militarizing old regional battles. As new nuclear regimes emerge, their political calculations will be tempered by these longstanding animosities, possibly escalating lower order regional violence to nuclear confrontation. The United States must address the significant issues raised by growing regional nuclear potential adversaries if it expects to influence the international order required to achieve the National Security Strategy's envisioned Age of Democratic Peace.

  20. Random patterns and biometrics for counterfeit deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working on non-counterfeitable seals, tags, and documents for over fifteen years. During that time, several technologies have been developed that can be applied to deter counterfeiting of identification documents such as ID cards, passports, and possibly credit cards. Two technologies are presented in some detail. The first is reflective particle tagging technology that was developed to help verify treaties limiting the numbers of nuclear weapons that participating parties may possess. This approach uses the random locations and orientations of reflective particles applied to the surface of an item to uniquely identify the item. The resulting tags are secure against even the most determined adversaries. The second technology uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals.

  1. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D.

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  2. Are nuclear and nonnuclear war related. Final report, August 1986-August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Tritten, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    This report analyzes relationship of nuclear and non-nuclear warfare during the actual conduct of a war in either the conventional or nuclear stage and the relationship relative to deterrence and strategy.

  3. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2009-08-05

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  4. NNSA Administrator Looks to Future of Nuclear Security at STRATCOM Symposium

    ScienceCinema

    Thomas D'Agostino

    2010-09-01

    Administrator Thomas P. DAgostino of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) discusses the future of the Nuclear Security Enterprise and its strategic deterrence mission in light of President Obamas unprecedented nuclear security agenda.

  5. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  6. Feeding deterrents from Zanthoxylum schinifolium against two stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi Long; Chu, Sha Sha; Jiang, Guo Hua

    2009-11-11

    Screening for insecticidal principles from several Chinese medicinal herbs showed that the fruit pericarp of Zanthoxylum schinifolium possessed significant feeding deterrence against two stored-product insects (Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus zeamais). From the methanol extract, two feeding deterrents were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schinifoline and skimmianine from their spectroscopic data. Schinifoline has feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum and S. zeamais adults with EC(50) values of 47.8 and 85.6 ppm respectively. Skimmianine possess feeding deterrent activity against T. castaneum and S. zeamais adults with EC(50) values of 75.7 and 129.7 ppm respectively. PMID:19886679

  7. Introduction to Special Edition (of the Journal of Nuclear Materials Management) on Reducing the Threat from Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2007-03-01

    Introductory article for special edition of the JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT outlining the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technical Division. In particular the International Nuclear and Radiological Security Standing Committee and its initial focus covering four topical areas--Radiological Threat Reduction, Nuclear Smuggling and Illicit Trafficking, Countering Nuclear Terrorism, and Radioligical Terrorism Consequence Management.

  8. Smuggling as the “key to a combined market”: British American Tobacco in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nakkash, R; Lee, K

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To understand the strategy of British American Tobacco (BAT) and other transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to gain access to the Lebanese market, which has remained relatively closed under monopoly ownership and political instability. Methods: Analysis of internal industry documents, local language secondary sources and industry publications. Results: TTCs have relied on legal and illegal channels to supply the Lebanese market since at least the 1970s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy, transported in substantial quantities via middlemen for sale in Lebanon and neighbouring countries. TTCs took advantage of weak and unstable governance, resulting in uncertainty over the Regie’s legal status, and continued to supply the contraband trade despite appeals by the government to cease undermining its revenues. Since the end of the civil war in the early 1990s, continued uncertainty about the tobacco monopoly amid political instability has encouraged TTCs to seek a legal presence in the country, while continuing to achieve substantial sales through contraband. Conclusion: Evidence of the complicity of TTCs in cigarette smuggling extends to Lebanon and the Middle East where this trade has especially benefited from weak governance and chronic political instability. The regional nature of TTC strategy supports strong international cooperation under the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to tackle the problem. PMID:18818226

  9. Application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for fight against terrorism and smuggling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almaviva, Salvatore; Botti, Sabina; Palucci, Antonio; Puiu, Adriana; Schnürer, Frank; Schweikert, Wenka; Romolo, Francesco Saverio

    2014-04-01

    We report the results of Raman measurements on some common military explosives and explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, in concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint or mixed with similar harmless substances to detect illegal compounds for smuggling activities. Raman spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope and a 785-nm laser in an analysis of <1 min. The spectral features of each illicit substance have been identified and distinguished from those belonging to the substrate fabric or from the interfering compound. Our results show that the application of Raman spectroscopy (RS) with a microscope-based portable apparatus can provide interpretable Raman spectra for a fast, in-situ analysis, directly from explosive particles of some μ, despite the contribution of the substrate, leaving the sample completely unaltered for further, more specific, and propedeutic laboratory analysis. We also show how the RS is suitable for detecting illegal compounds mixed with harmless substances for smuggling purposes or for counterfeiting activities.

  10. Insect Feeding Deterrents in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue †

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, M. C.; Dahlman, D. L.; Siegel, M. R.; Bush, L. P.; Latch, G. C. M.; Potter, D. A.; Varney, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of an endophytic fungus, Acremonium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) deterred aphid feeding by Rhopalosiphum padi and Schizaphis graminum. Both species of aphid were unable to survive when confined to endophyte-infected tall fescue plants. Feeding deterrents and toxic factors to R. padi and Oncopeltus fasciatus, large milkweed bug, were primarily associated with a methanol extract obtained when endophyte-infected tall fescue seed was serially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The concentrations of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were determined to be 30 to 100 times greater in the methanol extract than in the hexane and ethyl acetate extracts. PMID:16346751

  11. ''Whither Deterrence?'' Final Report of the 2001 Futures Project

    SciTech Connect

    Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nacht, M; Sloss, L

    2002-05-01

    This study began in April of 2001 to address the question of what deterrence should look like in the future. This section presents a brief synopsis of the study--a longer, more comprehensive report follows. This study presents four futures as a tool for planners who must think ahead fifteen years or more, rather than a prediction of the future. None of the four futures will emerge in just the way that has been described. Fifteen years from now, some mix of these futures is more likely, or perhaps we will see a trend toward one future, but with the possibility that any of the other three could appear, perhaps quite swiftly.

  12. Potential feeding deterrents found in hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anne C.; Mullins, Donald E.; Jones, Tappey H.; Salom, Scott M.

    2012-07-01

    The nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) has been a significant mortality agent of eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis Carriere) throughout a large portion of its geographic range. During a study investigating adelgid vigor in relation to host health, it was noted that adelgid extracts ranged from a yellow to a deep red color. Analysis by GC-MS identified the presence of the anthraquinone, chrysophanol and its anthrone precursor, chrysarobin in the extract. These compounds are predator deterrents in several other insects, including chrysomelid beetles. It is hypothesized that these compounds serve a similar purpose in the hemlock woolly adelgid.

  13. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a

  14. Abuse-Deterrent Opioid Formulations: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Walter, Carmen; Knothe, Claudia; Lötsch, Jörn

    2016-07-01

    Abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) are technologically sophisticated pharmaceutical formulations that impede manipulation and extraction of opioids and/or provoke unpleasant effects when they are taken in excessive quantity. This is implemented by creating physical barriers, inseparably combining the opioid with an opioid antagonist or adding aversive agents to the formulation. These pharmaceutical changes may potentially alter the pharmacokinetics and consequently the pharmacodynamics of the opioid. In this review, comparative evidence on pharmacokinetic differences between abuse-deterrent and classical formulations of the same opioids is summarized; furthermore, pharmacodynamic differences, with a focus on analgesia and abuse-related symptoms, are addressed. Most of the 12 studies comparing opioid pharmacokinetics have judged the physically intact ADF as being bioequivalent to the corresponding classical formulation. Pharmacokinetic differences have, however, been reported with physically manipulated ADFs and have ranged from moderate deviations from bioequivalence to complete changes in the pharmacokinetic profile (e.g. from a sustained-release formulation to a fast-release formulation). Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed in 14 comparative studies, which reported that intact ADFs usually provided clinically equivalent analgesia and clear advantages with respect to their addiction potential. However, withdrawal symptoms could be induced by the ADFs, although rarely and, in particular, when the ADFs had been physically altered. This evidence suggests that opioid ADFs are a working concept resulting in mostly minor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in comparison with classical formulations; however, they may deviate from this equivalence when physically altered. PMID:26719075

  15. Deterrence Theory and the Role of Shame in Projected Offending of College Students against a Ban on Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Fukushima, Miyuki; Spivak, Andrew L.; Payne, David

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we advance previous research in deterrence theory by examining the perceived deterrent effects of a newly instituted dry policy on a college campus. A survey of 500 full-time undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 26 was conducted 3 months following the ban on alcohol. Hypotheses are derived from deterrence theory…

  16. Reverse deterrence in racial profiling: increased transgressions by nonprofiled whites.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Amy A; Glaser, Jack

    2013-10-01

    A controlled experiment tested the possibility that racial profiling-disproportionate scrutiny of a minority racial group by sanctioned authorities-would have a "reverse deterrent" effect on the illicit behavior of members of a nonprofiled majority group. Research participants given a task involving extremely difficult anagrams were given the opportunity to cheat. White participants randomly assigned to a condition in which two Black confederates were obtrusively singled out for scrutiny by the study administrator cheated more than Whites in a White-profiling condition and a no-profiling control condition, and more than Black participants in all three conditions. Black participants cheated at comparable levels across the three experimental conditions. The effect of the profiling of Blacks was consequently a net increase in cheating. The results indicate that racial profiling may be counterproductive. PMID:23772918

  17. Documentation of a model action plan to deter illicit nuclear trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. K.; Kristo, M. J.; Niemeyer, S.; Dudder, Gordon B.

    2008-05-04

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unathorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  18. Documentation of a Model Action Plan to Deter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D; Kristo, M; Niemeyer, S; Dudder, G

    2006-07-28

    Theft, illegal possession, smuggling, or attempted unauthorized sale of nuclear and radiological materials remains a worldwide problem. The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) has adopted a model action plan to guide investigation of these cases through a systematic approach to nuclear forensics. The model action plan was recently documented and provides recommendations concerning incident response, collection of evidence in conformance with required legal standards, laboratory sampling and distribution of samples, radioactive materials analysis, including categorization and characterization of samples, forensics analysis of conventional evidence, and case development including interpretation of forensic signatures.

  19. The long postwar and the politics of penicillin: early circulation and smuggling in Spain, 1944-1954.

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I explore the early circulation of penicillin. I review the early distribution in Spain of a scarce product, reflect on the available sources about the illegal penicillin trade and discuss some cases of smuggling. I argue the early distribution of penicillin involved time and geography, a particular chronology of post Second World War geopolitics. Penicillin practices and experiences belong to this period, in a dictatorship that tolerated smuggling and illegal trade of other products, some, like penicillin, produced in neighbouring countries. As a commodity that crossed borders, penicillin, transiting between the law and hidden trade, between countries and social domains--between war fronts and from a war front to an urban site to be sold--reveals practices of the early years of prosperity in the 1950s. These transits were permanent tests of a society based on taxes and exchanges, law and bureaucracy, control, discipline and the creation of standards. PMID:26054216

  20. Perceptions of nuclear war. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrow, N.

    1987-05-01

    Mutual deterrence has been the keystone of U.S. nuclear strategic policy with respect to the Soviet Union. But for mutual deterrence to be viable, the perceptions of nuclear weapons and nuclear war must be shared by both nations. There are currently many misconceptions in the West about Soviet views of nuclear war. These misconceptions have been reinforced over the years by Soviet public pronouncements. Through an examination of the mindset of the Soviet people, Soviet doctrinal literature, and Soviet offensive and defensive systems, this paper provides compelling evidence for the way the Soviet Union really perceives nuclear war.

  1. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  2. TRPA1 Mediates the Noxious Effects of Natural Sesquiterpene Deterrents*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Escalera, Jasmine; von Hehn, Christian A.; Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2008-01-01

    Plants, fungi, and animals generate a diverse array of deterrent natural products that induce avoidance behavior in biological adversaries. The largest known chemical family of deterrents are terpenes characterized by reactive α,β-unsaturated dialdehyde moieties, including the drimane sesquiterpenes and other terpene species. Deterrent sesquiterpenes are potent activators of mammalian peripheral chemosensory neurons, causing pain and neurogenic inflammation. Despite their wide-spread synthesis and medicinal use as desensitizing analgesics, their molecular targets remain unknown. Here we show that isovelleral, a noxious fungal sesquiterpene, excites sensory neurons through activation of TPRA1, an ion channel involved in inflammatory pain signaling. TRPA1 is also activated by polygodial, a drimane sesquiterpene synthesized by plants and animals. TRPA1-deficient mice show greatly reduced nocifensive behavior in response to isovelleral, indicating that TRPA1 is the major receptor for deterrent sesquiterpenes in vivo. Isovelleral and polygodial represent the first fungal and animal small molecule agonists of nociceptive transient receptor potential channels. PMID:18550530

  3. Recent advances in abuse-deterrent technologies for the delivery of opioids.

    PubMed

    Maincent, Julien; Zhang, Feng

    2016-08-20

    Over the past decade, the abuse of prescription opioid drugs has become a national health crisis in the United States. Pharmaceutical companies, the Food and Drug Administration, and other government agencies are confronting opioid abuse by developing and commercializing various abuse-deterrent drug delivery technologies. To deter opioid abuse, various strategies including physical barriers, chemical barriers, antagonists, aversive agents, and prodrugs have been investigated. A number of drug products with abuse-deterrent properties have been approved by the FDA over the last six years, while many products and technologies with progressively-improved abuse-deterrence properties are currently being evaluated. This article provides a comprehensive review of the material sciences principles that govern the formulation and processing of a wide range of abuse-deterrent products and technologies. PMID:27291971

  4. Deterrence as a public good: a journey with the free rider

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, G.H. III

    1985-01-01

    Deterrence theory has supplied one of the principal tools for the analysis of international relations in the post-World War II era. It has primarily been used in discussions of dyadic relations between adversaries, making falsification of the concept impossible. This dissertation attempts to apply deterrence theory to the relationship among allied states, and by so doing, render some of the assumptions of deterrence theory falsifiable. More specifically, deterrence is used as an example of a public good, and the manner in which allied states supply that public good is explored. The work demonstrates that NATO members cooperate to supply the public good of deterrence, and the alliance constitutes a framework to ensure that cooperation. The effects of changing coalitions on the willingness of the allies to supply the public good are also investigated. It is shown that in large allied states, coalition changes do not lead to changes in defense expenditures, and the applicability of the rational actor model of foreign-policy behavior thus validated. However, for small allied states, the issue of defense spending is characterized by distributional politics, and domestic political considerations do affect the size of the defense budget. The result is a model which portrays deterrence as establishing a stable set of rules of behavior for the international actors of the Western security system.

  5. Strategy for terminating a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Avoiding a nuclear war, or ending one if avoidance fails, is an important but relatively unexplored aspect of nuclear doctrine. Dr. Abt examines the feasibility of antagonists agreeing to exclude their open cities from nuclear targeting and to replace strategic bombardment with retaliatory invasion to create less of a hair-trigger deterrent. Critical net assessments by US strategists and the effects of such a strategy on the Soviet Union and the US allies are considered, along with problems implementation might pose. The author contends that both deterrence and the potential for limiting damage are strengthened by prewar plans for a nuclear ceasefire and stalemate short of holocaust.

  6. Deterrent Concentration Measurement with FTIR and Subsequent Ballistic Performance in Medium Caliber Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furrow, Keith W.; Ritchie, Steve J.; Morris, Amy

    2000-01-01

    To meet ballistic requirements, medium and small caliber propellants use deterrent coatings to obtain burn rate progressivity. The required amount and distribution of deterrent varies between gun systems, propellant types, and often between lots. Micro Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to measure deterrent gradients in RP36 propellants coated with methyl centralite (MC) at different deterrent levels and different processing conditions. The aromatic C-C bonds at 1496 cm(exp -1) wavenumber were used to monitor the deterrent profiles through the grain. Deterrent gradients measured with FTIR spectroscopy were then used to estimate burn rate gradients in the deterred grains. Burn rates were calculated from literature models and from closed bomb data of RP36 containing uniform deterrent concentration. Finally, the burn rate gradients were input into an IBHFG2 model of a 200 cc-closed bomb. The early flame spreading portion of the closed bomb ballistic cycle (0 to 0.2 P/Pmax) was roughly modeled by dividing the charge up into five propellant decks and igniting them at different times in the ballistic cycle. Pressure traces and vivacity curves from closed bomb shots were compared to predictions. In addition to the burn rate gradient, the closed bomb pressure trace was heavily dependent on ignition and flame spread. These two phenomena were not readily distinguishable from one another in deterred grains. The same RP-36 propellant was shot in a 25 mm M793TP round which was again modeled with IBHVG2. Peak pressure and muzzle velocity were accurately modeled when erosive burning effects were empirically factored into the model.

  7. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered. PMID:16529882

  8. Progress in counterfeit deterrence: the contribution of information exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Ian M.; Kontnik, Lewis T.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we establish the need for communication between organizations involved in the fight against counterfeiting crime. We also examine the paradox in providing information that could serve the criminal as well as those attempting to protect themselves from criminal activity. Counterfeiting is estimated to account for over 5% of world trade. It is a global operation with no respect for international borders. It is increasingly sophisticated and increasingly the province of organized crime, which applies the techniques developed for drug distribution to the production and distribution of counterfeit articles. To fight this crime there is an increasing plethora of authenticating features and technologies available. Many companies do not recognize the problem and the number of anticounterfeit technologies can be confusing for potential users. There is therefore a need for information about them, their comparative characteristics, to be easily available. At present there is inadequate communication between those who develop and produce anti-counterfeiting devices and those who use them, notwithstanding the marketing efforts of the former. Communication which stimulates and encourages the spread of information between those engaged in the fight against counterfeit crime can only help in that fight. But what we term 'the communication paradox' requires circumspection and care in the content and the distribution of such information. The communication paradox is that the better the channels of communication, the easier it is for criminals to get hold of that information. The challenge is to institute communications which are effective but restrictive. More communication of information between those engaged in counterfeit deterrence will enhance individual companies' and organizations' anticounterfeit efforts and thus contribute to an overall improvement in the fight against counterfeit crime.

  9. Safeguards Issues at Nuclear Reactors and Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D

    2012-08-15

    The Agency's safeguards technical objective is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection.

  10. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-03

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons.

  11. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Dennis C.; O’Connor, Alec B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P.; Adams, Edgar H.; Brownstein, John S.; Comer, Sandra D.; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A.; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B.; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A.; Zacny, James P.; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B.; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S.; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L.; Webster, Lynn R.; Weiss, Roger D.; Wolf, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Due to the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs in order to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability; (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation; (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse; and (4) post-marketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  12. Research design considerations for clinical studies of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics: IMMPACT recommendations.

    PubMed

    Turk, Dennis C; O'Connor, Alec B; Dworkin, Robert H; Chaudhry, Amina; Katz, Nathaniel P; Adams, Edgar H; Brownstein, John S; Comer, Sandra D; Dart, Richard; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Denisco, Richard A; Klein, Michael; Leiderman, Deborah B; Lubran, Robert; Rappaport, Bob A; Zacny, James P; Ahdieh, Harry; Burke, Laurie B; Cowan, Penney; Jacobs, Petra; Malamut, Richard; Markman, John; Michna, Edward; Palmer, Pamela; Peirce-Sandner, Sarah; Potter, Jennifer S; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rauschkolb, Christine; Roland, Carl L; Webster, Lynn R; Weiss, Roger D; Wolf, Kerry

    2012-10-01

    Opioids are essential to the management of pain in many patients, but they also are associated with potential risks for abuse, overdose, and diversion. A number of efforts have been devoted to the development of abuse-deterrent formulations of opioids to reduce these risks. This article summarizes a consensus meeting that was organized to propose recommendations for the types of clinical studies that can be used to assess the abuse deterrence of different opioid formulations. Because of the many types of individuals who may be exposed to opioids, an opioid formulation will need to be studied in several populations using various study designs to determine its abuse-deterrent capabilities. It is recommended that the research conducted to evaluate abuse deterrence should include studies assessing: (1) abuse liability, (2) the likelihood that opioid abusers will find methods to circumvent the deterrent properties of the formulation, (3) measures of misuse and abuse in randomized clinical trials involving pain patients with both low risk and high risk of abuse, and (4) postmarketing epidemiological studies. PMID:22770841

  13. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  14. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-03-30

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling.

  15. Focused deterrence and the prevention of violent gun injuries: practice, theoretical principles, and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Weisburd, David L

    2015-03-18

    Focused deterrence strategies are a relatively new addition to a growing portfolio of evidence-based violent gun injury prevention practices available to policy makers and practitioners. These strategies seek to change offender behavior by understanding the underlying violence-producing dynamics and conditions that sustain recurring violent gun injury problems and by implementing a blended strategy of law enforcement, community mobilization, and social service actions. Consistent with documented public health practice, the focused deterrence approach identifies underlying risk factors and causes of recurring violent gun injury problems, develops tailored responses to these underlying conditions, and measures the impact of implemented interventions. This article reviews the practice, theoretical principles, and evaluation evidence on focused deterrence strategies. Although more rigorous randomized studies are needed, the available empirical evidence suggests that these strategies generate noteworthy gun violence reduction impacts and should be part of a broader portfolio of violence prevention strategies available to policy makers and practitioners. PMID:25494051

  16. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior. PMID:27145629

  17. 78 FR 2676 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Abuse-Deterrent Opioids-Evaluation and Labeling; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Abuse-Deterrent Opioids... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Abuse-Deterrent Opioids--Evaluation and...

  18. Continuous exposure to the deterrents cis-jasmone and methyl jasmonate does not alter the behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Barbara; Spangl, Bernhard; Koschier, Elisabeth Helene

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural responses of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a generalist, cell sap-feeding insect species with piercing-sucking mouthparts, after continuous exposure to two deterrent secondary plant compounds are investigated. We compared in choice assays on bean leaf discs, the settling, feeding, and oviposition preferences of F. occidentalis females that had no experience with the two fatty acid derivatives methyl jasmonate and cis-jasmone before testing (naïve thrips) vs. females that had been exposed to the deterrent compounds before testing (experienced thrips). The thrips were exposed to the deterrents at low or high concentrations for varied time periods and subsequently tested on bean leaf discs treated with the respective deterrent at either a low or a high concentration. Frankliniella occidentalis females avoided settling on the deterrent-treated bean leaf discs for an observation period of 6 h, independent of their previous experience. Our results demonstrate that feeding and oviposition deterrence of the jasmonates to the thrips were not altered by continuous exposure of the thrips to the jasmonates. Habituation was not induced, neither by exposure to the low concentration of the deterrents nor by exposure to the high concentration. These results indicate that the risk of habituation to two volatile deterrent compounds after repeated exposure is not evident in F. occidentalis. This makes the two compounds potential candidates to be integrated in pest management strategies. PMID:26726263

  19. Beyond Boston: Applying Theory to Understand and Address Sustainability Issues in Focused Deterrence Initiatives for Violence Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Engel, Robin S.; Lovins, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Focused deterrence initiatives, including the most famous, Boston's Operation Ceasefire, have been associated with significant reductions in violence in several U.S. cities. Despite early successes, some cities have experienced long-term sustainability issues. Recent work in Cincinnati, Ohio, has focused on institutionalizing focused deterrence in…

  20. Changing nature of Chinese nuclear strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Markov, D.R.; Huill, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally, analysts have believed that China was only interested in pursuing a minimalist, counter-value nuclear strategy that aimed at achieving strategic deterrence. This paper examines the possibility that Chinese nuclear strategy is changing in several ways: (1) it is moving to embrace a nuclear warfighting approach that encompasses tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons, and (2) it is moving from a counter-value to a counter-force strategic nuclear posture.

  1. Technical approaches to reducing the threat of nuclear terrorism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priedhorsky, William C.

    2005-04-01

    The threat of a nuclear attack on the United States by terrorists using a smuggled weapon is now considered more likely than an attack by a nuclear-armed ballistic missle. Consequently it is important to understand what can be done to detect and intercept a nuclear weapon being smuggled into the United States. A significant quantity of smuggled nuclear material has been intercepted already, but science and technology have so far contributed little to its interception. The critical special nuclear materials, plutonium and highly enriched uranium, are only weakly radioactive and detection of their radioactivity is limited both by atmospheric attenuation and by competition with natural backgrounds. Although many schemes for long-range detection of radioactivity have been proposed, none so far appears feasible. Detection of nuclear radiation can be improved using new technologies and sensing systems, but it will still be possible only at relatively small distances. Consequently the best approach to containing dangerous nuclear materials is at their sources; containment within lengthy borders and large areas is extremely difficult.

  2. Academic Dishonesty in Online Courses: The Influence of Students' Characteristics, Perception of Connectedness, and Deterrents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Artyce-Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate students' behaviors related to academic dishonesty. Additionally, this study examined students' perceptions of their own connectedness within the online classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of deterrents to cheating. Participants in the study were enrolled in online courses within…

  3. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  4. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  5. Juvenile Transfer and Deterrence: Reexamining the Effectiveness of a "Get-Tough" Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kareem L.; Myers, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Although research has examined the effectiveness of juvenile transfer on recidivism, there has been a lack of research done in assessing how well juvenile waiver to adult court meets the criteria necessary for deterrence to occur (i.e., certainty, severity, and swiftness of punishment). The purpose of this study is to assess how well juvenile…

  6. Structural activity of bovidic acid and related compounds as feeding deterrents against Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    5-(1-hydroxynonyl)-2-tetrahydrofuranpentanoic acid (18-Bovidic acid), a compound recently identified as a mosquito deterrent from the hair of gaur, has been evaluated for its efficacy compared to known synthetic repellents. In the present study we have evaluated analogs of Bovidic acid, related hydr...

  7. An Application of the Social Support Deterioration Deterrence Model to Rescue Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of social support in promoting quality of life in the aftermath of critical incidents involvement. Participants were a sample of 586 Italian rescue workers. Structural equation modelling was used to test the social support deterioration deterrence model. Results showed that the impact of critical incident involvement…

  8. Deterrency and Toxicity of Essential Oils to Argentine and Red Imported Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate deterrency and contact toxicity of six essential oils to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. In choice tests, both Argentine ants and fire ants crossed barriers treated with multiple rates...

  9. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  10. Stimulo-deterrent diversion: A concept and its possible application to onion maggot control.

    PubMed

    Miller, J R; Cowles, R S

    1990-11-01

    Considerable basic information has been gathered on the interaction between the onion fly (Delia antiqua) and its host plant, the onion (Allium cepa). An attempt is underway to manipulate ovipositional behavior of this pest by treating onion seedlings with chemical deterrents while simultaneously providing deeply planted onion culls on which onion flies prefer to lay. This bipolar strategy of behavioral manipulation, termed "stimulo-deterrent diversion" (SDD), has the advantages of: (1) avoiding severe pest deprival and concomitant overriding of deterrents, (2) combining the effects of "push" and "pull" multiplicatively, and (3) providing opportunities for enhanced biological control in sites where the pest becomes concentrated. The suggestion is made that using SDD along with soil insecticide might relax or even reverse selection for physiological resistance ofD. antiqua to insecticides. As tools of molecular biology open new possibilities for manipulating plants and their allelochemicals, applied chemical ecologists should consider arranging situations where the allelochemicals have clear and adaptive messages for the pest. By combining toxins and deterrents at sites where feeding should be prevented, while simultaneously expediting use of alternative plants or plant parts, it might be possible to guide pest evolution toward paths of less conflict with human interest. PMID:24263303

  11. Differential Impact of Deterrence vs. Rehabilitation as Drug Interventions on Recidivism after 36 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Hung-En

    2003-01-01

    Deterrence through pain infliction and rehabilitation through therapy and training are often conceptualized as competing practices in crime control. With the resurgence of the diversion movement and therapeutic justice, increasingly more offenders are exposed to a particular combination of incarceration and treatment. Even for offenders diverted…

  12. Nuclear Strategy and World Order: The United States Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beres, Louis Rene

    The current U.S. nuclear strategy goes beyond the legitimate objective of survivable strategic forces to active preparation for nuclear war. The Reagan administration strategy rejects minimum deterrence and prepares for a nuclear war that might be protracted and controlled. The strategy reflects the understanding that a combination of counterforce…

  13. The role of nuclear weapons in the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This publication presents the proceedings for the workshop, The Role of Nuclear Weapons in the Year 2000, held on October 22--24, 1990. The workshop participants considered the changing nature of deterrence and of our strategic relationship with the Soviet Union, the impact of nuclear proliferation on regional conflicts, and ways that the nuclear forces might be restructured to reflect new political circumstances.

  14. Teaching on Science, Technology and the Nuclear Arms Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeer, Dietrich

    1983-01-01

    Describes a course focusing on science, technology, and the nuclear arms race. Two sample homework exercises and course topics are provided. Topics, with lists of questions that might be addressed, focus on nuclear weapons, alternatives to deterrence, and arms control. Approaches to teaching about the nuclear arms race are also provided. (JN)

  15. The Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) : are we safer?

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, Nancy E.

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) is designed to make world safer by reducing the role of U.S. nuclear weapons and reducing the salience of nuclear weapons. U.S. also seeks to maintain a credible nuclear deterrent and reinforce regional security architectures with missile defenses and other conventional military capabilities. But recent studies suggest that nuclear proliferation is a direct response to the perceived threat of U.S. conventional capabilities not U.S. nuclear stockpile. If this is true, then the intent of the NPR to reduce the role and numbers of nuclear weapons and strengthen conventional military capabilities may actually make the world less safe. First stated objective of NPR is to reduce the role and numbers of U.S. nuclear weapons, reduce the salience of nuclear weapons and move step by step toward eliminating them. Second stated objective is a reaffirmation of U.S. commitment to maintaining a strong deterrent which forms the basis of U.S. assurances to allies and partners. The pathway - made explicit throughout the NPR - for reducing the role and numbers of nuclear weapons while maintaining a credible nuclear deterrent and reinforcing regional security architectures is to give conventional forces and capabilities and missile defenses (e.g. non-nuclear elements) a greater share of the deterrence burden.

  16. Assessing specific deterrence effects of increased speeding penalties using four measures of recidivism.

    PubMed

    Watson, B; Siskind, V; Fleiter, J J; Watson, A; Soole, D

    2015-11-01

    Traffic law enforcement sanctions can impact on road user behaviour through general and specific deterrence mechanisms. The manner in which specific deterrence can influence recidivist behaviour can be conceptualised in different ways. While any reduction in speeding will have road safety benefits, the ways in which a 'reduction' is determined deserves greater methodological attention and has implications for countermeasure evaluation more generally. The primary aim of this research was to assess the specific deterrent impact of penalty increases for speeding offences in Queensland, Australia, in 2003 on two cohorts of drivers detected for speeding prior to and after the penalty changes were investigated. Since the literature is relatively silent on how to assess recidivism in the speeding context, the secondary research aim was to contribute to the literature regarding ways to conceptualise and measure specific deterrence in the speeding context. We propose a novel way of operationalising four measures which reflect different ways in which a specific deterrence effect could be conceptualised: (1) the proportion of offenders who re-offended in the follow up period; (2) the overall frequency of re-offending in the follow up period; (3) the length of delay to re-offence among those who re-offended; and (4) the average number of re-offences during the follow up period among those who re-offended. Consistent with expectations, results suggested an absolute deterrent effect of penalty changes, as evidenced by significant reductions in the proportion of drivers who re-offended and the overall frequency of re-offending, although effect sizes were small. Contrary to expectations, however, there was no evidence of a marginal specific deterrent effect among those who re-offended, with a significant reduction in the length of time to re-offence and no significant change in the average number of offences committed. Additional exploratory analyses investigating potential

  17. International cooperation in combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials by technical means

    SciTech Connect

    Herbillon, J; Koch, L; Mason, G; Niemeyer, S; Nikiforov, N

    1999-04-01

    A consensus has been emerging during the past several years that illicit trafficking of nuclear materials is a problem that needs a more focused international response. One possible component of a program to combat illicit trafficking is nuclear forensics whereby intercepted nuclear materials are analyzed to provide clues for answering attribution questions. In this report we focus on international cooperation that is specifically addressing the development of nuclear forensics. First we will describe the role of the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) in developing nuclear forensics, and then we will present some specific examples of cooperative work by the Institute for Transuranium Elements of the European Commission with various European states. Recognizing the potential importance of a nuclear forensics capability, the P-8 countries in 1995 encouraged technical experts to evaluate the role of nuclear forensics in combating nuclear smuggling and possibly developing mechanisms for international cooperation. As a result, an International Conference on Nuclear Smuggling Forensic Analysis was held in November, 1995, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate technical cooperation on nuclear forensics. The International Conference provided a unique mix of scientists, law enforcement, and intelligence experts from 14 countries and organizations. All participants were invited to make presentations, and the format of the Conference was designed to encourage open discussion and broad participation.

  18. Language and the nuclear arms debate: Nukespeak today

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the political, cultural and ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include language and ideology, the pragmatics of speeches against the peace movement in Britain, the rhetoric of national defense in the US, pro-nuclear arguments, nuclear deterrence, the media's coverage of anti-nuclear demonstrations, news reports, an analysis of the television film The Day After, nuclear disarmament, an analysis of anti-nuclear humor, psychological models, and sociological models.

  19. Search for sanity: The politics of nuclear weapons and disarmament

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, P.; Rosenblum, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the political aspects of nuclear weapons and arms control. Topics considered include nuclear deterrence, military strategy, the military-industrial complex, the nuclear balance, first strike, nuclear errors and accidents, treaty verification, survival, the economic impact of military spending, Western European peace movements, peace movements in Eastern Europe, the cold war, nuclear diplomacy, moral aspects, the defense budget, national security, foreign policy, proliferation, and nuclear disarmament.

  20. Nuclear weapons are legal tools

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, H.H. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Responding to an article by Elliot Meyrowitz stating that nuclear weapons are illegal threats, the author observes that international law does not forbid the possession or use of nuclear weapons, whose existence operates as part of the checks and balances process that maintains deterrence. Because nuclear weapons have never been identified among states as illegal, either by treaties or by customary international law, attempts by opposing states to establish illegality through declarations fall short of an effectively shared strategy. The author concludes that we must use the time that deterrence permits to forcefully promote policies optimizing the claims of people for human dignity rather than focusing on the fruitless search to make nuclear weapons illegal.

  1. Implications of the nuclear winter thesis. Technical report, 1 May 1984-1 June 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Feldbaum, C.B.; Bee, R.J.; Garrett, B.N.; Glasner, B.S.

    1985-06-24

    This report assesses the potential policy implications of new findings concerning the long-term atmospheric, climatic, and biological effects of nuclear war, commonly referred to as nuclear winter. A summary of the prominent study of these effects, The Global Atmospheric Consequences of Nuclear War by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack and Sagan (TTAPS) is provided. Potential policy implications are examined regarding nuclear weapons strategy and deterrence, extended deterrence, targeting, C3I and damage assessment, future RandD and force modernization, strategic defense systems, arms control, civil defense and the strategic implications of U.S. and Soviet perceptions of nuclear winter. Issues and questions for further research are addressed.

  2. Essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria, as a repellent, an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against mosquitoes and biting flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presenting brief reviews of using catnip oil as an alternative control agent against biting insects, as well as their newly found larvicidal activities and oviposition deterrence including effectiveness and longevity....

  3. Overview of nuclear detection needs for homeland security

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T. E.

    2006-07-01

    The need for advanced and improved nuclear detection systems is paramount to address the challenges facing the U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security. The DHS is responsible for developing broad based nuclear detection architecture for discovery of nuclear materials that may be smuggled into or in transit within the U.S. The implementation of this architecture requires the design, development, and deployment of a suite of nuclear detection systems with varying capabilities and operational constraints. This paper provides an overview of the nuclear detection needs for homeland security applications that encompasses both passive and active detection systems that range from hand-held to vehicle deployable systems. (authors)

  4. Feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities of PONNEEM, a newly developed phytopesticidal formulation against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)

    PubMed Central

    Packiam, Soosaimanickam Maria; Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects of PONNEEM on Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods Five oil formulations were prepared at different ratios to assess the feeding deterrent, growth inhibitory and egg hatchability effects on H. armigera. Results Invariably all the newly formulated phytopesticidal oil formulations showed the feeding deterrent and growth inhibitory activities against H. armigera. The maximum feeding deterrent activity of 88.44% was observed at 15 µL/L concentration of PONNEEM followed by formulation A (74.54%). PONNEEM was found to be effective in growth inhibitory activities and egg hatchability at 10 µL/L concentration. It exhibited statistically significant feeding deterrent activity and growth inhibitory activity compared with all the other treatments. Conclusions PONNEEM was found to be effective phytopesticidal formulation to control the larval stage of H. armigera. This is the first report for the feeding deterrent activity of PONNEEM against H. armigera. This newly formulated phytopesticide was patented in India. PMID:25183105

  5. Identification of mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Ali, Abbas; Duke, Stephen O; Khan, Ikhlas

    2011-07-01

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas L., was performed to identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil. J. curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and parts of Africa to repel biting insects, primarily mosquitoes. The seed oil was thoroughly analyzed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection to identify the constituents in the oil. Identified constituents, both free fatty acids and triglycerides, were evaluated for activity in Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) biting deterrent assays. Furthermore, an oil condensation trap was used to demonstrate that free fatty acids or triglycerides are partially volatilized during the combustion process. These compounds were found to be responsible for the biting deterrency of the burned oil. Specifically, oleic, palmitic, linoleic, and stearic acids were all active at 25 nmol/cm2 above that of solvent control in Ae. aegypti biting deterrent assays. Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were all more active than stearic acid in the same bioassay. Evaluation of the triglycerides containing each of these fatty acids revealed that tripalmitin, tristearin, trilinolein, and triolein all demonstrated significant activity above a solvent control at 10 microg/cm2, whereas tripalmitin was the most active. Due to literature reports suggesting larvicidal activity of the oil, J. curcas seed oil and its free fatty acid constituents also were evaluated against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae up to 500 ppm. Oleic acid was the only fatty acid having larvicidal activity against 1-d-old Ae. aegypti larvae, with an LD50 of 47.9 ppm. PMID:21845943

  6. An overview of prodrug technology and its application for developing abuse-deterrent opioids.

    PubMed

    Gudin, Jeffrey A; Nalamachu, Srinivas R

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has classified prescription drug abuse and overdose deaths as an epidemic. Prescription drug overdose is now the leading cause of injury death, with rates that have more than doubled since 1999. This crisis has developed concurrently with the increased prescribing and availability analgesic drugs, especially opioids, resulting from an effort on the part of clinicians to address a critical need for improved pain assessment and treatment. Clinicians have recognized that oftentimes, opioid analgesics are one of the few remaining options for patients who suffer with severe pain. A 2015 fact sheet issued by the Office of National Drug Policy stated: "While we must ensure better access to prescription medications to alleviate suffering, it is also vital that we do all we can to reduce the diversion and abuse of pharmaceuticals." The US Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance that encourages the research and development of abuse-deterrent formulation of opioids which have the potential to curtail abuse. Included among the recommended formulations for development of abuse-deterrent opioids are prodrugs. Prodrugs are chemically modified versions of pharmacological agents that must undergo a biochemical conversion following administration, often by enzymatic cleavage, to free the active drug. Prodrugs may be inherently abuse-deterrent because they are inactive or significantly less active until conversion to the active drug. This requirement for conversion in the GI tract can modify the pharmacokinetic profile and eliminate or reduce the euphoria when abusers change the route of administration. Abusers often attempt to extract the active drug for injection or insufflation. Prodrugs can be designed to be resistant to crushing or dissolving. In this article, we review the concept of prodrugs and introduce and examine the potential of abuse-deterrent opioid prodrugs. PMID:26615852

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  8. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-12-01

    Studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in chronological order, which also reflects their logical order of development, captures the main features of stability analysis; relates first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and addresses questions such as whether uncertainty in damage preference or defense deployment can be destabilizing. It illustrates the problems with alternative metrics, latency and reconstitution, and deep unilateral and proportional force reductions.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  11. Can Nuclear Terrorists be Deterred?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Charles

    2005-04-01

    Conventional thinking since September 11, 2001, posits that nuclear-armed terrorists cannot be deterred. However, not all terrorist groups are alike. For instance, those that are strongly affiliated with a national territory or a constituency that can be held hostage are more likely to be self-deterred against using or even acquiring nuclear weapons. In contrast, international terrorist organizations, such as al Qaeda, or apocalyptic groups, such as Aum Shinrikyo, may welcome retaliatory nuclear strikes because they embrace martyrdom. Such groups may be immune to traditional deterrence, which threatens direct punishment against the group in question or against territory or people the terrorists' value. Although deterring these groups may appear hopeless, nuclear forensic techniques could provide the means to establish deterrence through other means. In particular, as long as the source of the nuclear weapon or fissile material could be identified, the United States could threaten a retaliatory response against a nation that did not provide adequate security for its nuclear weapons or weapons-usable fissile material. This type of deterrent threat could be used to compel the nation with lax security to improve its security to meet rigorous standards.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K.; Andrewes, Samuel W.; Wu, Christopher S.; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J.

    2015-01-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  13. Abuse-deterrent formulations: transitioning the pharmaceutical market to improve public health and safety

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Stacey L.; Barnes, Michael C.; Tarbell, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This article evaluates abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) as a method to reduce prescription drug abuse while ensuring access to vital medications for individuals with legitimate need; assesses the pros and cons of ADFs and the current state of ADF adoption in the market; and develops policy recommendations to transition the market to ADFs. Although abuse-deterrent technology is still in its nascent stages, ADFs have been proven to reduce prescription drug abuse and its consequences, and even an incremental reduction in abuse can have a significant impact on the nation by reducing the costly social, physical, mental, and public health problems resulting from abuse. Federal ADF policy does not reflect the urgency of the prescription drug abuse epidemic and does not go far enough toward changing the status quo. Policies must be implemented to encourage innovation and a market shift toward ADFs by ensuring any generic medication that references a branded ADF demonstrates that it does not have abuse-deterrent properties inferior to the branded ADF product. Policies must also require federal prescription drug benefit plans to cover ADFs to ensure consumers have access to such medications. PMID:25922655

  14. Risk based in vitro performance assessment of extended release abuse deterrent formulations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoming; Gupta, Abhay; Al-Ghabeish, Manar; Calderon, Silvia N; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-03-16

    High strength extended release opioid products, which are indispensable tools in the management of pain, are associated with serious risks of unintentional and potentially fatal overdose, as well as of misuse and abuse that might lead to addiction. The issue of drug abuse becomes increasingly prominent when the dosage forms can be readily manipulated to release a high amount of opioid or to extract the drug in certain products or solvents. One approach to deter opioid drug abuse is by providing novel abuse deterrent formulations (ADF), with properties that may be viewed as barriers to abuse of the product. However, unlike regular extended release formulations, assessment of ADF technologies are challenging, in part due to the great variety of formulation designs available to achieve deterrence of abuse by oral, parenteral, nasal and respiratory routes. With limited prior history or literature information, and lack of compendial standards, evaluation and regulatory approval of these novel drug products become increasingly difficult. The present article describes a risk-based standardized in-vitro approach that can be utilized in general evaluation of abuse deterrent features for all ADF products. PMID:26784976

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Infestation Deterrents Against Lice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyong Sup; Ketzis, Jennifer K; Andrewes, Samuel W; Wu, Christopher S; Honraet, Kris; Staljanssens, Dorien; Rossel, Bart; Marshall Clark, J

    2015-09-01

    The human head louse is a cosmopolitan ectoparasite and frequently infests many people, particularly school-age children. Due to widespread pyrethroid resistance and the lack of efficient resistance management, there has been a considerable interest in the protection of uninfested people and prevention of reinfestation by disrupting lice transfer. In this study, two nonclinical model systems (in vitro and in vivo) were used to determine the efficacy of the infestation deterrents, Elimax lotion and Elimax shampoo, against human head lice or poultry chewing lice, respectively. With in vitro assessments, female head lice exhibited significantly higher avoidance responses to hair tufts treated with either of the test formulations, which led to significantly higher ovipositional avoidance when compared with female lice on control hair tufts. Additionally, both formulations were determined to be competent infestation deterrents in a competitive avoidance test in the presence of a known attractant (head louse feces extract). In in vivo assessments using a previously validated poultry model, Elimax shampoo was determined to be an efficacious deterrent against poultry chewing lice within Menopon spp. and Menacanthus spp. PMID:26336209

  16. Opioid abuse-deterrent strategies: role of clinicians in acute pain management.

    PubMed

    Webster, Lynn R; Brennan, Michael J; Kwong, Louis M; Levandowski, Richard; Gudin, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Opioid abuse is a healthcare and societal problem that burdens individuals, their families and the healthcare professionals who care for them. Restricting access to opioid analgesics is one option to deter abuse, but this may prevent pain patients in need from obtaining effective analgesics. Therefore, strategies that mitigate the risk of opioid abuse while maintaining access are being pursued by several stakeholders including federal agencies, state governments, payors, researchers, the pharmaceutical industry and clinicians. Federal agency efforts have included required licensure and documentation for prescribing opioids, implementation of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, and guidance on assessment and labeling of opioid abuse-deterrent formulations. In addition, state governments and payors have enacted monitoring programs, and pharmaceutical companies continue to develop abuse-deterrent opioid formulations. Strategies for clinicians to mitigate opioid abuse include comprehensive patient assessment and universal precautions (e.g. use of multimodal analgesia and abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, urine toxicology screening, participation in prescription drug monitoring and risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programs). PMID:26631936

  17. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-12-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  18. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  19. Nuclear weapons are illegal threats

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, E.L.

    1985-05-01

    Challenging Harry Almond's position that nuclear deterrence is workable, the author contends that there is no historical basis for believing that anticipation of the horrors of war will be an effective deterrent. He questions the belief that the nuclear balance of terror has maintained the peace for the past 40 years because an arms race is inherently unstable. The argument that the pursuit of national interests takes precedence over any limitation imposed by international law reflects a perception of international law that is comparable to the Third Reich. The bases for a legal evaluation of the status of nuclear weapons under international law come from express and implicit treaty provisions, international custom, general principles of international law, judicial decisions, resolutions at the United Nations, and the opinions of qualified jurists as well as military necessity.

  20. Nuclear Weapons Complex reconfiguration study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Shortly after assuming duties as Secretary of Energy, I reviewed the Nuclear Weapons Complex Modernization Report'' submitted to the Congress in January 1989 as required by the National Defense Authorization Act of 1988 and 1989. My review showed that several of the report's assumptions needed to be re-evaluated. During this eighteen-month review, dramatic world changes forced further reassessments of the future Nuclear Weapons Complex. These changes are reflected in the new report. The new report presents a plan to achieve a reconfigured complex, called Complex-21. Complex-21 would be smaller, less diverse, and less expensive to operated than the Complex of today. Complex-21 would be able to safely and reliability support nuclear deterrent stockpile objectives set forth by the President and funded by the Congress. It would be consistent with realities of the emerging international security environment and flexible enough to accommodate the likely range of deterrent contingencies. In addition, Complex-21 would be constructed and operated to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, and orders. Achieving Complex-21 will require significant resources. This report provides and organized approach toward selecting the most appropriate configuration for Complex-21, satisfying environmental requirements, and minimizing costs. The alternative -- to continue to use piecemeal fixes to run an antiquated complex -- will be more expensive and provide a less reliable Nuclear Weapons Complex. As a consequence, implementation of the Complex-21 plan is considered necessary to ensure continued viability of our nuclear deterrent.

  1. Cult of deterrence: A moral and strategic critique of the anti-ballistic missile treaty. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pringle, C.S.

    1997-12-30

    Ballistic missile defense is the morally and strategically superior alternative to the current system of deterrence, provided that it is responsibly implemented. Analysis of the Just War Criteria and the utilitarian justifications of deterrence present a moral obligation to pursue the alternative strategy of missile defense as a means of defending the United States. However, the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty does not allow earnest pursuit of this alternative, despite recent efforts to exploit its loopholes and broaden its meaning beyond any reasonable limit. Moreover, deterrence can no longer provide the guarantee of security that it did during the Cold War. Offense-Defense Theory shows that revisionist states are not subject to the same calculations of effective deterrence that the Soviet Union was during that period. This strategic analysis underlies the moral evaluations and further supports missile defense. The cult of deterrence is presented as an explanation for the failure to adapt national security policy to the new international structure, as European powers failed to perceive the offense-defense balance prior to World War I. The ABM regime threatens to reproduce those same mistakes with even greater consequences.

  2. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24562451

  3. Will abuse-deterrent formulations of opioid analgesics be successful in achieving their purpose?

    PubMed

    Bannwarth, Bernard

    2012-09-10

    During the last 2 decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of strong opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. This increase has been accompanied by a steep increase in abuse, misuse, and both fatal and non-fatal overdoses involving prescription opioids. The situation is already alarming in the US. Prescription opioid-related harm is a complex, multifactorial issue that requires a multifaceted solution. In this respect, formulations of opioid analgesics designed to resist or deter abuse may be a useful component of a comprehensive opioid risk minimization programme. Such formulations have or are being developed. Abuse-resistant opioids include those that use some kind of physical barrier to prevent tampering with the formulation. Abuse-deterrent opioids are not necessarily resistant to tampering, but contain substances that are designed to make the formulation less attractive to abusers. This article focuses on two products intended to deter abuse that were reviewed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The first (Embeda®) consists of extended-release morphine with sequestered naltrexone, an opioid antagonist that is released if the tablet is compromised by chewing or crushing. Although Embeda® exhibited abuse-deterrent features, its label warns that it can be abused in a manner similar to other opioid agonists. Furthermore, tampering with Embeda® will result in the release of naltrexone, which may precipitate withdrawal in opioid-tolerant individuals. In March 2011, all dosage forms of Embeda® were recalled because the product failed to meet routine stability standards, and its return date to the market is currently unknown. The second product (Acurox®) was intended to be both tamper resistant and abuse deterrent. It consisted of an immediate-release oxycodone tablet with subtherapeutic niacin as an aversive agent and used a gel-forming ingredient designed to inhibit inhalation and prevent extraction of the drug for injection. The new drug

  4. Deterrence of device counterfeiting, cloning, and subversion by substitution using hardware fingerprinting

    DOEpatents

    Hamlet, Jason R; Bauer, Todd M; Pierson, Lyndon G

    2014-09-30

    Deterrence of device subversion by substitution may be achieved by including a cryptographic fingerprint unit within a computing device for authenticating a hardware platform of the computing device. The cryptographic fingerprint unit includes a physically unclonable function ("PUF") circuit disposed in or on the hardware platform. The PUF circuit is used to generate a PUF value. A key generator is coupled to generate a private key and a public key based on the PUF value while a decryptor is coupled to receive an authentication challenge posed to the computing device and encrypted with the public key and coupled to output a response to the authentication challenge decrypted with the private key.

  5. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerquist, Barbara; Winsor, Martha; Mate, Bruce

    2012-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective at deflecting gray whales. A successful deterrent device may serve as a valuable mitigation tool to protect gray whales, and

  6. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The principal results of studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in their order of development. They capture the main features of stability analysis; relate first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and address whether different metrics, uncertain damage preferences, or the deployment of defenses can be destabilizing. The report explores differences between unilateral and proportional force reductions in the region of deep reductions where concern shifts from stability to latency.

  7. Biosynthesis and Regulation of Bioprotective Alkaloids in the Gramineae Endophytic Fungi with Implications for Herbivores Deterrents.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongping; Xie, Longxiang; Zeng, Jie; Xie, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Four kinds of bioprotective alkaloids-peramine, loline, ergot alkaloid, indole-diterpenes, produced by grass-fungal endophyte symbioses, are deterrents or toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Ergot alkaloids have pharmacological properties and widely are used clinically. The regulation of alkaloids biosynthesis is under intensive study to improve the yield for better agricultural and medicinal application. In this paper, we summarize the structure, related genes, regulation, and toxicity of alkaloids. We focus on the biosynthesis and the regulation network of alkaloids. PMID:26349576

  8. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  9. The arms race and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Barash, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Addressing the history, physics, biology, economics, politics, psychology, and ethics of nuclear armaments, the author provides a survey of diverse facets of the nuclear controversy. The study encompasses such key areas as nuclear hardware and technology; the short- and long-term effects of nuclear weapons; strategic doctrine, deterrence and defense policy; the arms race, arms control, and nuclear proliferation; and the economic impact, psychology, and ethics of nuclear armaments. A ''Policy Issues'' section, presenting both the advocate and opponent sides of the debate, is included with each chapter.

  10. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).

    PubMed

    Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

    2012-04-18

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents. PMID:22420541

  11. Oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities of Solanum trilobatum leaf extract against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S.; Jebanesan, A.

    2005-01-01

    The leaf extract of Solanum trilobatum (Solanaceae) was tested under laboratory conditions for oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activities against the adult mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Concentrations of 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075 and 0.1% reduced egg laying by gravid females from 18 to 99% compared to ethanol-treated controls. In skin repellent tests, concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, and 0.02 % provided 70 to 120 minutes protection against mosquito bites, whereas the ethanol control provided only 2.2 minutes of protection. Both oviposition deterrent and skin repellent activity were dose dependent. The results suggest that the leaf extract of S. trilobatum is an effective oviposition deterrent and skin repellent against An. stephensi. PMID:16341247

  12. Taste detection of the non-volatile isothiocyanate moringin results in deterrence to glucosinolate-adapted insect larvae.

    PubMed

    Müller, Caroline; van Loon, Joop; Ruschioni, Sara; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Olsen, Carl Erik; Iori, Renato; Agerbirk, Niels

    2015-10-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs), released from Brassicales plants after hydrolysis of glucosinolates, are known for their negative effects on herbivores but mechanisms have been elusive. The ITCs are initially present in dissolved form at the site of herbivore feeding, but volatile ITCs may subsequently enter the gas phase and all ITCs may react with matrix components. Deterrence to herbivores resulting from topically applied volatile ITCs in artificial feeding assays may hence lead to ambiguous conclusions. In the present study, the non-volatile ITC moringin (4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl ITC) and its glucosinolate precursor glucomoringin were examined for effects on behaviour and taste physiology of specialist insect herbivores of Brassicales. In feeding bioassays, glucomoringin was not deterrent to larvae of Pieris napi (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), which are adapted to glucosinolates. Glucomoringin stimulated feeding of larvae of the related Pieris brassicae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and also elicited electrophysiological activity from a glucosinolate-sensitive gustatory neuron in the lateral maxillary taste sensilla. In contrast, the ITC moringin was deterrent to P. napi and P. brassicae at high levels and to A. rosae at both high and low levels when topically applied to cabbage leaf discs (either 12, 120 or 1200 nmol moringin per leaf disc of 1cm diameter). Survival of A. rosae was also significantly reduced when larvae were kept on leaves treated with moringin for several days. Furthermore, moringin elicited electrophysiological activity in a deterrent-sensitive neuron in the medial maxillary taste sensillum of P. brassicae, providing a sensory mechanism for the deterrence and the first known ITC taste response of an insect. In simulated feeding assays, recovery of moringin was high, in accordance with its non-volatile nature. Our results demonstrate taste-mediated deterrence of a non-volatile, natural ITC to glucosinolate

  13. The logic of nuclear terror

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkowicz, R.

    1987-01-01

    A group of international contributors explores the ways in which technological and political changes have affected the original concepts of nuclear war and deterrence strategies, and how such changes have affected policy and doctrine. The contributors also outline realistic, alternative ways of thinking about strategy in the changing context of new military technologies and international politics, including several thought-provoking discussions of the new Strategic Defense Initiative.

  14. Effects of an electric field on white sharks: in situ testing of an electric deterrent.

    PubMed

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J; Semmens, Jayson M; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nV cm(-1), using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  15. Formulation Optimization of Hot Melt Extruded Abuse Deterrent Pellet Dosage Form Utilizing Design of Experiments (DOE)

    PubMed Central

    Maddineni, Sindhuri; Battu, Sunil Kumar; Morott, Joe; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Repka, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop techniques for an abuse-deterrent (AD) platform utilizing hot melt extrusion (HME) process. Formulation optimization was accomplished by utilizing Box-Behnken design of experiments to determine the effect of the three formulation factors: PolyOx™ WSR301, Benecel™ K15M, and Carbopol 71G; each of which was studied at three levels on TR attributes of the produced melt extruded pellets. A response surface methodology was utilized to identify the optimized formulation. Lidocaine Hydrochloride was used as a model drug, and suitable formulation ingredients were employed as carrier matrices and processing aids. All of the formulations were evaluated for the TR attributes such as particle size post-milling, gelling, percentage of drug extraction in water and alcohol. All of the DOE formulations demonstrated sufficient hardness and elasticity, and could not be reduced into fine particles (<150µm), which is a desirable feature to prevent snorting. In addition, all of the formulations exhibited good gelling tendency in water with minimal extraction of drug in the aqueous medium. Moreover, Benecel™ K15M in combination with PolyOx™ WSR301 could be utilized to produce pellets with TR potential. HME has been demonstrated to be a viable technique with a potential to develop novel abuse-deterrent formulations. PMID:24433429

  16. Structure-activity relationship studies on the mosquito toxicity and biting deterrency of callicarpenal derivatives.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Charles L; Klun, Jerome A; Pridgeon, Julia; Becnel, James; Green, Solomon; Fronczek, Frank R

    2009-04-01

    Callicarpenal (=13,14,15,16-tetranorclerod-3-en-12-al=[(1S,2R,4aR,8aR)-1,2,3,4,4a,7,8,8a-octahydro-1,2,4a,5-tetramethylnaphthalen-1-yl]acetaldehyde; 1) has previously demonstrated significant mosquito bite-deterring activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in addition to repellent activity against host-seeking nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. In the present study, structural modifications were performed on callicarpenal (1) in an effort to understand the functional groups necessary for maintaining and/or increasing its activity and to possibly lead to more effective insect control agents. All modifications in this study targeted the C(12) aldehyde or the C(3) alkene functionalities or combinations thereof. Mosquito biting deterrency appeared to be influenced most by C(3) alkene modification as evidenced by catalytic hydrogenation that resulted in a compound having significantly less effectiveness than 1 at a test amount of 25 nmol/cm2. Oxidation and/or reduction of the C(12) aldehyde did not diminish mosquito biting deterrency, but, at the same time, none of the modifications were more effective than 1 in deterring mosquito biting. Toxicities of synthesized compounds towards Ae. aegypti ranged from an LD50 value of 2.36 to 40.11 microg per mosquito. Similarly, LD95 values ranged from a low of 5.59 to a high of 104.9 microg. PMID:19353538

  17. Contacting is essential for oviposition deterrence of Rhodojaponin-III in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xin; Liu, Jinxiang; Wang, Peidan; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    In Lepidoptera, choosing the right site for egg laying is particularly important, because the small larvae cannot forage for alternate host plants easily. Some secondary compounds of plants have the ability to deter oviposition behaviors of insects. Rhodojaponin-III, a botanical compound, has been reported to have intense deterring-oviposition activity against many insects, which have important implications for agricultural pest management. This study provided evidence for elucidating the perception mechanism underlying Rhodojaponin-III as oviposition deterrent. In this study, the antennas of moths could not elicit notable electroantennogram responses to Rhodojaponin-III, which suggested the Rhodojaponin-III could not exert effects like those volatile compounds. The results of physiological experiments confirmed the Rhodojaponin-III could produce the oviposition deterrence effect against moths without depending on antennas, while the physical contact was essential for perceiving the compound, which suggested that the sensilla on tarsus and ovipositor could be chemoreceptor for Rhodojaponin-III. Therefore, these sensilla were investigated by scanning electron microscopy to explore their potential functions in detecting Rhodojaponin-III. This study highlighted the contacting mechanism in deterring oviposition behaviors of moths by Rhodojaponin-III and provided new insight for development of contact-based pest management. PMID:24782249

  18. Effects of an Electric Field on White Sharks: In Situ Testing of an Electric Deterrent

    PubMed Central

    Huveneers, Charlie; Rogers, Paul J.; Semmens, Jayson M.; Beckmann, Crystal; Kock, Alison A.; Page, Brad; Goldsworthy, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranchs can detect minute electromagnetic fields, <1 nVcm–1, using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Behavioural responses to electric fields have been investigated in various species, sometimes with the aim to develop shark deterrents to improve human safety. The present study tested the effects of the Shark Shield Freedom7™ electric deterrent on (1) the behaviour of 18 white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) near a static bait, and (2) the rates of attacks on a towed seal decoy. In the first experiment, 116 trials using a static bait were performed at the Neptune Islands, South Australia. The proportion of baits taken during static bait trials was not affected by the electric field. The electric field, however, increased the time it took them to consume the bait, the number of interactions per approach, and decreased the proportion of interactions within two metres of the field source. The effect of the electric field was not uniform across all sharks. In the second experiment, 189 tows using a seal decoy were conducted near Seal Island, South Africa. No breaches and only two surface interactions were observed during the tows when the electric field was activated, compared with 16 breaches and 27 surface interactions without the electric field. The present study suggests that the behavioural response of white sharks and the level of risk reduction resulting from the electric field is contextually specific, and depends on the motivational state of sharks. PMID:23658766

  19. Comparison of health promotion and deterrent prompts in increasing use of stairs over escalators.

    PubMed

    Russell, W D; Hutchinson, J

    2000-08-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of two point-of-decision prompts within the same environmental setting. The effects of a health promotion sign were compared with activity change resulting from a deterrent sign. Individuals were observed using the upward stairs or upward escalator at a midwest regional air port during a 5-week period in which intervention signs were compared with no sign conditions on activity choice. During Weeks 1, 3, and 5 behaviors were assessed without any prompts. During Week 2, a health promotion sign was posted at the behavioral choice point which read "Keep your heart healthy, use the stairs." During Week 4, a deterrent sign which read "Please limit escalator use to staff and those unable to use the stairs" was posted at the same behavioral choice point. Younger (<40) women (14.8%) and men (10.8%) used the stairs more frequently, followed by older women (9.3%) and older men (6.9%). A hierarchical log linear analysis showed that stair use increased during both interventions, which was significantly moderated by age. Point-of-decision prompts appear to be effective environmental interventions for promoting increases in physical activity. PMID:11011871

  20. Boundary-crossing in perceptual deterrence: investigating the linkages between sanction severity, sanction certainty, and offending.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bruce; Piquero, Alex R

    2013-07-01

    Severe punishments have historically been the bedrock of criminal deterrence, but criminologists have long documented that such threats are often ineffective. Instead, it has been the certainty of sanctions that has been most emphasized and that has garnered empirical support. In a departure from prior research, the question motivating this study is whether increases in the threatened severity of sanction threats alter the perceived certainty of detection irrespective of any objective changes in detection certainty, and then how such perceptions relate to offending. To the authors' knowledge, scant attention has been paid to examining the possibility of this "boundary-crossing," or the extent to which two core dimensions of deterrence, objective and perceptual certainty, cross, intersect, or interact with one another. Using data from a sample of young adults, the authors find mixed support for "boundary-crossing": Although combinations of objective certainty and severity did not necessarily result in substantive differences in perceptions of certainty and severity, an individual's own perceived certainty and severity related to offending differently depending on the information provided to them about the objective certainty and severity of punishment. PMID:22556383

  1. Bisdesmosidic saponins from Securidaca longepedunculata roots: evaluation of deterrency and toxicity to Coleopteran storage pests.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Philip C; Dayarathna, Thamara K; Belmain, Steven R; Veitch, Nigel C

    2009-10-14

    Powdered dry root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata was mixed with maize and cowpea and effectively reduced the numbers of Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus emerging from these commodities, respectively, more than 9 months after treatment. This effect was reciprocated in grain treated with a methanol extract of the root bark, indicating that compounds were present that were oviposition deterrents or directly toxic to the adults or larvae. Two new bisdesmosidic saponins, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside A) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-(alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[4-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-(E)-cinnamoyl-beta-D-fucopyranosyl)])-medicagenic acid (securidacaside B), were isolated from the methanol extract of the roots of S. longepedunculata and characterized by spectroscopic methods. Securidacaside A, which occurred as (E)- and (Z)-regioisomers, showed deterrency and toxicity toward C. maculatus and S. zeamais and could contribute to the biological activity of the methanol extract. The potential to optimize the use of this plant for stored product protection using water extracts, which would be appropriate technology for target farmers, is discussed. PMID:19769365

  2. Examining deterrence of adult sex crimes: A semi-parametric intervention time series approach

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hong; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Letourneau, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments on dimension reduction (DR) techniques for time series data, the association of a general deterrent effect towards South Carolina (SC)’s registration and notification (SORN) policy for preventing sex crimes was examined. Using adult sex crime arrestee data from 1990 to 2005, the the idea of Central Mean Subspace (CMS) is extended to intervention time series analysis (CMS-ITS) to model the sequential intervention effects of 1995 (the year SC’s SORN policy was initially implemented) and 1999 (the year the policy was revised to include online notification) on the time series spectrum. The CMS-ITS model estimation was achieved via kernel smoothing techniques, and compared to interrupted auto-regressive integrated time series (ARIMA) models. Simulation studies and application to the real data underscores our model’s ability towards achieving parsimony, and to detect intervention effects not earlier determined via traditional ARIMA models. From a public health perspective, findings from this study draw attention to the potential general deterrent effects of SC’s SORN policy. These findings are considered in light of the overall body of research on sex crime arrestee registration and notification policies, which remain controversial. PMID:24795489

  3. The second coming of the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    Ikle, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear weapons were used for the first and only time in World War II, and the world has grown accustomed to their nonuse. But the overwhelming deterrent forces that worked during the Cold War will not provide protection against the new threats: terrorism and catastrophic accident. The arsenals and mindsets of the past half-century present a formidable barrier to change, but the United States must lead the way in preventing nuclear weapons from becoming acceptable.

  4. Photonuclear-based, nuclear material detection system for cargo containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. L.; Yoon, W. Y.; Norman, D. R.; Haskell, K. J.; Zabriskie, J. M.; Watson, S. M.; Sterbentz, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing electron accelerator-based, photonuclear inspection technologies for over a decade. A current need, having important national implications, has been with the detection of smuggled nuclear material within air- and, especially, sea-cargo transportation containers. This paper describes the latest pulsed, photonuclear inspection system for nuclear material detection and identification in cargo configurations, the numerical responses of 5 kg of a nuclear material placed within selected cargo configurations, and the technology's potential role in addressing future inspection needs.

  5. Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria`s nuclear weapons experience. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    The primary focus of this paper is the impact of key South African leaders on the successful developments and subsequent rollbacks of South Africa`s nuclear weapons capability. It highlights the key milestones in the development of South Africa`s nuclear weapon capability. It also relates how different groups within South Africa (scientists, politicians, military and technocrats) interacted to successfully produce South Africa`s nuclear deterrent. It emphasizes the pivotal influence of the senior political leadership to pursue nuclear rollback given the disadvantages of its nuclear means to achieve vital national interests. The conclusions drawn from flu`s effort are the South African nuclear program was an extreme response to its own identity Crisis. Nuclear weapons became a means to achieving a long term end of a closer affiliation with the West. A South Africa yearning to be identified as a Western nation and receive guarantees of its security rationalized the need for a nuclear deterrent. The deterrent was intended to draw in Western support to counter a feared total onslaught by Communist forces in the region. Two decades later, that same South Africa relinquished its nuclear deterrent and reformed its domestic policies to secure improved economic and political integration with the West.

  6. Nuclear proliferation: The diplomatic role of non-weaponized programs

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.R.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has not seen the end of reliance on nuclear weapons for deterrence or diplomacy purposes. The use of nuclear weapons for such purposes is as evident in the threshold states as in the nuclear powers. The nuclear weapon states used their nuclear weapons for deterrence, bargaining, and blackmail, even during the early years of the Cold War when the US was essentially non-Weaponized. In the nuclear non-Weaponized states in Asia a non-Weaponized deterrent relationship is developing between India and Pakistan and North Korea has used its nuclear program to restore diplomatic relations with the international community. The role of nuclear weapons in the post Cold War world is determined by the role of non-Weaponized programs in proliferating states. This paper describes examples in South Asia and the Korean peninsula and show that while an increased reliance on nuclear weapons programs may be a threat to the current non-proliferation regime, the focus on non-Weaponized programs rather than on weapons themselves actually improves international security by reducing the threat of nuclear war.

  7. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  8. Deterrents to Nurses' Participation in Continuing Professional Education as Perceived by Licensed Nurses in Oklahoma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahnestock, Annetta Bethene

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the deterrents to licensed nurses' participation in continuing professional education (CPE) in Oklahoma, the licensed nurses' preferred method for obtaining CPE, and the ways in which employers support participation in CPE. A random sample of 78 licensed nurses in Oklahoma completed a 20 item questionnaire and a 40…

  9. Feeding deterrent compounds to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman in Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus L.

    PubMed

    Bird, T G; Hedin, P A; Burks, M L

    1987-05-01

    The Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus (L.), can be a significant alternate host plant for the boll weevil,Anthonomus gradis (Boh.). Boll weevils are known to be deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the buds unless the calyx is removed. This investigation was initiated to identify calyx allelochemicals that deter feeding with the eventual strategy of breeding for cotton lines high in these allelochemicals in the appropriate tissues. The feeding deterrency of calyx tissue from the buds of Rose-of-Sharon for the boll weevil was confirmed. The most active deterrent fraction was found to contain mostly fatty acids and their methyl esters. Saturated fatty acids and their methyl esters were generally found to be stimulatory, while the unsaturated species were found to be deterrent. Higher quantities of the fatty acids, particularly the unsaturated species, were found in Rose-of-Sharon calyx tissue than in the buds without calyx. This supports the hypothesis developed through the isolational work and testing of standards that the unsaturated fatty acids are significant deterrents of boll weevil feeding. PMID:24302134

  10. Callicarpenal and Intermedeol: Two Natural Arthropod Feeding Deterrent and Repellent Compounds Identified from the Southern Folk Remedy Plant, Callicarpa americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies on the American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), it was demonstrated that callicarpenal and intermedeol were responsible for the arthropod repellent and feeding deterrent activity of this folk remedy. Both compounds showed significant bite-deterring activity against Aedes aeg...

  11. How Close is too Close? The Effect of a Non-Lethal Electric Shark Deterrent on White Shark Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nathan S.; Ryan, Laura; Chapuis, Lucille; Kerr, Caroline C.; Schmidt, Carl; Huveneers, Charlie; Gennari, Enrico; Yopak, Kara E.; Meeuwig, Jessica J.; Collin, Shaun P.

    2016-01-01

    Sharks play a vital role in the health of marine ecosystems, but the potential threat that sharks pose to humans is a reminder of our vulnerability when entering the ocean. Personal shark deterrents are being marketed as the solution to mitigate the threat that sharks pose. However, the effectiveness claims of many personal deterrents are based on our knowledge of shark sensory biology rather than robust testing of the devices themselves, as most have not been subjected to independent scientific studies. Therefore, there is a clear need for thorough testing of commercially available shark deterrents to provide the public with recommendations of their effectiveness. Using a modified stereo-camera system, we quantified behavioural interactions between white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) and a baited target in the presence of a commercially available, personal electric shark deterrent (Shark Shield Freedom7™). The stereo-camera system enabled an accurate assessment of the behavioural responses of C. carcharias when encountering a non-lethal electric field many times stronger than what they would naturally experience. Upon their first observed encounter, all C. carcharias were repelled at a mean (± std. error) proximity of 131 (± 10.3) cm, which corresponded to a mean voltage gradient of 9.7 (± 0.9) V/m. With each subsequent encounter, their proximity decreased by an average of 11.6 cm, which corresponded to an increase in tolerance to the electric field by an average of 2.6 (± 0.5) V/m per encounter. Despite the increase in tolerance, sharks continued to be deterred from interacting for the duration of each trial when in the presence of an active Shark Shield™. Furthermore, the findings provide no support to the theory that electric deterrents attract sharks. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence of the effectiveness of a non-lethal electric shark deterrent, its influence on the behaviour of C. carcharias, and an accurate method for testing

  12. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    PubMed

    Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation. PMID:26771548

  13. Oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of seven herbal essential oils against female adults of housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Sinthusiri, Jirisuda; Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-08-01

    The oviposition deterrent and ovicidal of seven herbal essential oils derived from Citrus sinensis, Cymbopogon citratus, Eucalyptus glubulus, Illicium verum, Lavandula angustifolia, Mentha piperita, and Zingiber cussumunar were assessed against the gravid female of housefly, Musca domestica L., under laboratory conditions and compared with commercial insecticide (10% w/v cypermethrin). They were assayed at three concentrations (1.0, 5.0, and 10.0%) where plastic cups containing 1 ml of desired oil concentration and cotton pad soaked with 10 ml of milk solution (10% w/v) were used as oviposition substrate. The 0.1 ml of deferent concentrations was dropped on ten housefly eggs, which were used for ovicidal activity. The number of eggs laid and the hatched larvae in each cup was recorded to evaluate the oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activities of the herbal essential oils. High concentration (10%) of herbal essential oils showed high percent effective repellency (ER). The 10% I. verum oil caused complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, oviposition activity index (OAI) = -1.0), followed by Z. cussumunar, M. piperita, L. angustifolia, C. citratus, C. sinensis, and E. glubulus oils with 97.20, 88.55, 88.14, 87.93, 76.68, and 57.00% ER, respectively. As the concentration of herbal essential oils increased from 1.0, 5.0, and up to 10.0% concentration, the hatching rate decreased. Ten percent I. verum oil gave the maximum inhibiting rate at 97.3% (LC50 value of 6.85%); in addition, the other herbal essential oils showed the minimum inhibiting rate of 3.3-22.7%. On the other hand, cypermethrin 10% w/v showed complete oviposition deterrence (100% ER, OAI = -1.0) and ovicidal activity (100% inhibiting rate). Our data showed that I. verum oil have high potential of oviposition deterrence and ovicide housefly control. PMID:24894080

  14. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Cantrell, Charles L; Bernier, Ulrich R; Duke, Stephen O; Schneider, John C; Agramonte, Natasha M; Khan, Ikhlas

    2012-11-01

    In this study we evaluated the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti (L), yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) using the K & Dbioassay module system. Saturated (C6:0 to C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated fatty acids (C11:1 to C14:1, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2) showed biting deterrence index (BDI) values significantly greater than ethanol, the negative control. Among the saturated fatty acids, mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) showed higher biting deterrence than short (C6:0 to C9:0) and long chain length acids (C14:0 to C18:0), except for C8:0 and C16:0 that were more active than the other short and long chain acids. The BDI values of mid chain length acids (C10:0 to C13:0) were not significantly less than N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), the positive control. Among the unsaturated fatty acids, C11:1 showed the highest activity (BDI = 1.05) and C18:2 had the lowest activity (BDI = 0.7). In C11:1, C12:1, and C14:1 BDI values were not significantly less than DEET. After the preliminary observations, residual activity bioassays were performed on C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1 over a 24-h period. All the fatty acids (C11:0, C12:0, C11:1, and C12:1) and DEET showed significantly higher activity at all test intervals than the solvent control. At treatment and 1-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed proportion not biting (PNB) values not significantly less than DEET. At 3-, 6-, and 12-h posttreatment, all fatty acids showed PNB values significantly greater than DEET. At 24-h posttreatment, only the PNB value for C12:0 was significantly higher than DEET. The dose-responses of C12:0 and DEET were determined at concentrations of 5-25 nmol/cm2. As in the residual activity bioassays, the PNB values for C12:0 and DEET at 25 nmol/cm(2) were not significantly different. However, at lower concentrations, the PNB values for C12:0 were significantly greater than DEET. These results clearly indicate that mid

  15. A Large Specific Deterrent Effect of Arrest for Patronizing a Prostitute

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Devon D.; Potterat, John J.; Muth, Stephen Q.; Roberts, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Background Prior research suggests that arrest, compared with no police detection, of some types of offenders does not decrease the chances they will reoffend. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the specific deterrent effect of arrest for patronizing a street prostitute in Colorado Springs by comparing the incidence of arrest for clients of prostitutes first detected through public health surveillance with the incidence of rearrest for clients first detected by police arrest. Although these sets of clients were demographically and behaviorally similar, arrest reduced the likelihood of a subsequent arrest by approximately 70%. In other areas of the United States, arrest did not appear to displace a client's patronizing. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that apprehending clients decreases their patronizing behavior substantially. PMID:17183691

  16. Nesting bird deterrents for the Federal Republic of Germany glass log storage pad

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-04-15

    A proposed storage pad wi11 be constructed in the 200 West Area for the storage of isotopic heat and radiation sources from the Federal Republic of Germany. The pad will be constructed in the southern portion of the Solid Waste Operations Complex near the existing Sodium Storage Pad (Figure 1). Following a biological review by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) personnel (Brandt 1996), it was determined that in order for construction to take place after March 15, 1997, actions would need to be taken to prevent migratory birds from nesting in the project area. Special attention was focused on preventing sage sparrows and loggerhead shrikes, both Hanford Site species of concern (DOE/RL 1996), from nesting in the area. This activity plan details the methods and procedures that will be used to implement these nesting deterrents.

  17. International Technical Working Group Cooperation to Counter Illicit Nuclear Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Niemeyer, S

    2004-09-18

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an international body of nuclear forensic experts that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance in nuclear forensics. The ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time more than 28 nations and organizations have participated in 9 international meetings and 2 analytical round-robin trials. Soon after its founding the ITWG adopted a general framework to guide nuclear forensics investigations that includes recommendations for nuclear crime scene security and analysis, the best application of radioanalytical methods, the conduct of traditional forensic analysis of contaminated materials, and effective data analysis to interpret the history of seized nuclear materials. This approach has been adopted by many nations as they respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking.

  18. Nuclear War. The moral dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Child, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    U.S. nuclear policy has become the target of increasing criticism during the past decade. Critics often argue that the use of nuclear weapons would be irrational, would destroy humankind, and thus could not serve any rational policy goal. Other critics point to the immortality of the use of nuclear weapons. Both groups condemn U.S. military policy. In Nuclear War, James Child considers and rejects both these lines of criticism. He argues that a policy of deterrence can be both rational and moral; that U.S. nuclear policy is, on balance, based on rational and moral foundations. Child examines near-term consequences of a nuclear war and finds them ghastly but not unthinkable or incomparable to the havoc produced by previous wars. He also analyzes long-term consequences, such as those proposed by the ''nuclear winter'' theory, and finds the fear of total annihilation of humankind to be unfounded.

  19. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2014-06-11

    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  20. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  1. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-01

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  2. Scanning of vehicles for nuclear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J. I.

    2014-05-09

    Might a nuclear-armed terrorist group or state use ordinary commerce to deliver a nuclear weapon by smuggling it in a cargo container or vehicle? This delivery method would be the only one available to a sub-state actor, and it might enable a state to make an unattributed attack. Detection of a weapon or fissile material smuggled in this manner is difficult because of the large volume and mass available for shielding. Here I review methods for screening cargo containers to detect the possible presence of nuclear threats. Because of the large volume of innocent international commerce, and the cost and disruption of secondary screening by opening and inspection, it is essential that the method be rapid and have a low false-positive rate. Shielding can prevent the detection of neutrons emitted spontaneously or by induced fission. The two promising methods are muon tomography and high energy X-radiography. If they do not detect a shielded threat object they can detect the shield itself.

  3. Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson)Fosberg)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most a...

  4. The Need for a Strong Science and Technology Program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex for the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Garaizar, Xabier

    2009-07-02

    In this paper I argue for the need for a strong Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons Complex as the basis for maintaining a credible deterrence capability. The current Nuclear Posture Review establishes a New Triad as the basis for the United States deterrence strategy in a changing security environment. A predictive science capability is at the core of a credible National Nuclear Weapons program in the 21st Century. In absence of nuclear testing, the certification of our current Nuclear Weapons relies on predictive simulations and quantification of the associated simulation uncertainties. In addition, a robust nuclear infrastructure needs an active research and development program that considers all the required nuclear scenarios, including new configurations for which there is no nuclear test data. This paper also considers alternative positions to the need for a Science and Technology program in the Nuclear Weapons complex.

  5. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution for Improved Energy Security: The Use of Taggants in Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kristo, M J; Robel, M; Hutcheon, I D

    2007-04-05

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), recently announced by DOE Secretary Bodman, poses significant new challenges with regard to securing, safeguarding, monitoring and tracking nuclear materials. In order to reduce the risk of nuclear proliferation, new technologies must be developed to reduce the risk that nuclear material can be diverted from its intended use. Regardless of the specific nature of the fuel cycle, nuclear forensics and attribution will play key roles to ensure the effectiveness of nonproliferation controls and to deter the likelihood of illicit activities. As the leader of the DHS nuclear and radiological pre-detonation attribution program, LLNL is uniquely positioned to play a national leadership role in this effort. Ensuring that individuals or organizations engaged in illicit trafficking are rapidly identified and apprehended following theft or diversion of nuclear material provides a strong deterrent against unlawful activities. Key to establishing this deterrent is developing the ability to rapidly and accurately determine the identity, source and prior use history of any interdicted nuclear material. Taggants offer one potentially effective means for positively identifying lost or stolen nuclear fuels. Taggants are materials that can be encoded with a unique signature and introduced into nuclear fuel during fuel fabrication. During a nuclear forensics investigation, the taggant signature can be recovered and the nuclear material identified through comparison with information stored in an appropriate database. Unlike serial numbers or barcodes, microtaggants can provide positive identification with only partial recovery, providing extreme resistance to any attempt to delete or alter them.

  6. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Veena; Tripathi, A K; Aggarwal, K K; Khanuja, S P S

    2005-11-01

    Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with equivalent LD95 values of 115.7 microg/ml, whereas it was 149.7 microg/ml against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Essential oils of Zingiber officinale and Rosmarinus officinalis were found to be ovicidal and repellent, respectively towards the three mosquito species. The essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum resulted into highest repellent (RD95) values of 49.6, 53.9 and 44.2 mg/mat against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively apart from oviposition-deterrent potential. PMID:16051081

  7. Off the street and into “the cut”: Deterrence and displacement in NYC's quality of life marijuana policing

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew; Dunlap, Eloise

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the accounts of NYC marijuana smokers about the information and values underlying decisions about where to smoke. We do so to assess the deterrent value of NYC's “quality of life” policing of marijuana in public view. Participants indicated a general awareness of escalated marijuana policing and its attendant risks and almost universally spoke of avoiding public use in high-traffic locations and in the city's cultural and commercial centres. Beyond that, however, the deterrent value of aggressive marijuana policing appears limited. Individuals without access to private space reported outdoor marijuana use as a normalized peer group activity that has increasingly been displaced to marginal and interstitial public spaces that were collectively referred to by participants as “the cut.” PMID:22001856

  8. [Excise taxes on tobacco and the problem of smuggling - concerning the credibility of the tobacco industry's "Discarded-Cigarette-Packages-Study"].

    PubMed

    Adams, M; Effertz, T

    2011-10-01

    The consumption of tobacco products is one of the main causes of illnesses. An often neglected but highly effective instrument for fiscal and preventive purposes is higher taxes on tobacco products. The tobacco industry however claims that higher taxes have tremendous effects on smuggling activity with additional costs with regard to law enforcement. The claim appears to be substantiated by a study which collects and documents the amounts of discarded empty cigarette packs, and which is used to estimate the fraction of illegally imported cigarettes. We show that this study makes use of systematic misspecifications and impreciseness and thus seems to pursue the aim of showing an exaggerated high amount of illegally imported cigarettes. The industry's claim that two thirds of non-taxed cigarettes in Germany are imported illegally, thus lacks any sound, well-grounded empirical corroboration. PMID:20848381

  9. Motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    PubMed Central

    Muthivhi, T. N.; Olmsted, M. G.; Park, H.; Sha, M.; Raju, V.; Mokoena, T.; Bloch, E. M.; Murphy, E. L.; Reddy, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background and Objectives South Africa has a markedly skewed representation where the majority of blood (62%) is presently collected from an ethnically White minority. This study seeks to identify culturally specific factors affecting motivation of donors in South Africa. Materials and Methods We performed a qualitative study to evaluate motivators and deterrents to blood donation among Black South Africans. A total of 13 focus groups, comprising a total of 97 Black South Africans, stratified by age and geographic location were conducted. Transcripts of the interviews were analysed using a coding framework by Bednall & Bove. Results Participants made 463 unique comments about motivators focusing primarily on promotional communications (28%), incentives (20%) and prosocial motivation (16%). Participants made 376 comments about deterrents which focused primarily on fear (41%), negative attitudes (14%) and lack of knowledge (10%). Conclusion Although prosocial motivation (altruism) was the most frequently mentioned individual motivator, promotional communication elicited more overall comments by participants. As reported by many authors, fear and lack of awareness were strong deterrents, but scepticism engendered by perceived racial discrimination in blood collection were unique to the South African environment. PMID:26104809

  10. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  11. Do individual characteristics explain variation in sanction risk updating among serious juvenile offenders? Advancing the logic of differential deterrence.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Kyle J; Loughran, Thomas A; Piquero, Alex R

    2013-02-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical research in deterrence has detected evidence of differential deterrability, or that the effect of sanctions is not uniform across persons. Important questions in this area remain to be explored, and this study considered a central question: Whether important across-individual variability in risk perceptions can be tied to important individual-level factors. This article extends the Bayesian risk updating model developed by Anwar and Loughran (2011) to determine whether the weight individuals place on new offending information differs across persons on the basis of individual characteristics. Using longitudinal data from a sample of serious youthful offenders, we found that the effect of an arrest on updated risk perceptions differs as a function of IQ and early behavioral problems. In particular, individuals low in verbal IQ and those who display early behavioral problems place greater weight on new information, suggesting that individuals who are traditionally viewed as being high in criminal propensity are more affected by arrest such that they are more likely to increase their perceived risk of getting caught when offending after experiencing an arrest. Findings support the idea that high-propensity offenders are more responsive to formal sanctions, and thus (potentially) more deterrable, than low-propensity individuals. PMID:22449003

  12. Decay chains and photofission investigation based on nuclear spectroscopy of highly enriched uranium sample.

    PubMed

    Sibczynski, P; Kownacki, J; Syntfeld-Kazuch, A; Moszynski, M; Kisielinski, M; Czarnacki, W; Kosinski, K; Matusiak, M; Klimasz, M; Kowalczyk, M; Abraham, T; Mierzejewski, J; Srebrny, J

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear spectroscopy experiments were performed for 100g metallic uranium rod enriched to 93% (235)U, in order to establish and characterize the most prominent γ-rays in the natural decay series and photofission reaction. Single γ-ray spectra and γ-γ coincidences measurements were conducted before irradiation. The uranium sample was subsequently irradiated with 15 MeV bremsstrahlung photons. Relative intensities of γ-lines and several values of half-lives of the fission fragments decays were determined. The obtained information can be utilized in detection of smuggled nuclear materials and characterization of bulky nuclear waste packages. PMID:24013389

  13. Copepod behavior in thin layers of attractive and deterrent chemical cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, M.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the oceanographic distribution of mobile zooplankton can be attributed, at least in part, to foraging and aggregative behaviors. A laboratory system was developed to test the cues that induce these behaviors. The system mimics thin layer structure in the ocean, and the research has focused on calanoid copepods, specifically Temora longicornis and Acartia tonsa. Responses are directly observed as copepod cultures are subjected to different attractive and deterrent chemical cues, such as phytoplankton (food) and harmful algal bloom metabolites. Behaviors are quantified using three behavioral markers: proportional residence time in the thin layer, swimming speed, and turn frequency. These three markers are measured using video-based observation, which quantifies path kinematics and swimming behavior. Previous experiments have shown that attractive chemical exudates elicite behaviors such as increased swimming speed and excited area-restricted search behavior. Thus, understanding how zooplankton behave in response to chemicals from toxic species will extend our understanding of zooplankton interaction with thin layers and the potential consequences for population dynamics, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity in coastal and pelagic ecosystems.

  14. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Finck, Rachel; Ziman, Alyssa; Hoffman, Matthew; Phan-Tang, Michelle; Yuan, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  15. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Phan-Tang, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives. PMID:27293985

  16. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products

    PubMed Central

    Machtinger, E.T.; Weeks, E.N.I.; Geden, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  17. The role of physician-owned insurance companies in the detection and deterrence of negligence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, W B; Mendelson, D N

    1989-09-01

    This study presents evidence that physician-owned insurance companies and their physician members play an important role in the detection and deterrence of negligent behavior. A survey of physician-owned companies indicates that 94% involve their physicians in one or more aspects of the underwriting process. About 60% involve their members in assessing the competence of physicians who have been sued and in advising the underwriters on decisions concerning both continued insurability and the conditions of insurance. During 1985, a total of 0.66% of the physicians in physician-owned companies had their insurance terminated or were forced to give up their coverage because of negligence-prone behavior. An additional 0.7% of active policyholders were subject to restrictions on practice or other medical sanctions and 1.8% to surcharges and deductibles. Thus, disciplinary actions were in place against 3.2% of insured physicians whose performance was viewed as in some way substandard. The findings indicate that the physician-owned companies are effective agents in identifying negligence-prone behavior, and suggest that these companies also play an important role in deterring substandard performance. PMID:2761034

  18. Oviposition Deterrence and Immature Survival of Filth Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) When Exposed to Commercial Fungal Products.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Weeks, E N I; Geden, C J

    2016-01-01

    Filth flies are pests of livestock, and can transmit pathogens that cause disease to animals and their caretakers. Studies have shown successful infection of adult filth flies following exposure to different strains and formulations of entomopathogenic fungi. This study aimed to examine the effects of commercial formulations of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Moniliales: Moniliaceae) (i.e., BotaniGard ES, Mycotrol O, balEnce), and Metarhizium brunneum (Metsch.) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) (i.e., Met52 EC), on filth fly oviposition and immature fly survival after exposure. House flies, Musca domestica L., laid significantly fewer eggs on Met52 EC-treated surfaces than on surfaces treated with all other products and the control. Similar numbers of eggs were laid on surfaces treated with all B. bassiana products, but egg production was half of the control. Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), laid the fewest eggs on Met52 EC- and Mycotrol O-treated surfaces. This species did not distinguish between the remaining products and the control. In a second experiment, house fly eggs were placed on treated cloths so that hatched larvae contacted the treatment prior to development. Met52 EC had the greatest effect on immature survival with a significant reduction in recovered pupae at the medium and high doses of fungi. Overall, Met52 EC, containing M. brunneum, had the greatest effect on house fly and stable fly oviposition deterrence and immature development of house flies. Management implications are discussed. PMID:27302955

  19. Nuclear proliferation and the stability-instability paradox. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Barretta, M.A.

    1995-06-01

    This thesis tests the theory that nuclear proliferation might enhance strategic stability by making the use of military force between possessors of nuclear weapons unlikely. It discusses the existing literature on deterrence and nonproliferation, emphasizing the stability-instability paradox. The stability-instability paradox offers an alternative to the optimism of deterrence logic, which views nuclear weapons as a beneficial and stabilizing force, and the pessimism of nonproliferation, which foresees dire consequences in the spread of nuclear weapons. The paradox is a synthesis of deterrence and nonproliferation logic because it allows for the coexistence of nuclear peace and lower levels of conventional war. Three cases of nuclear rivalry are examined. They are the United States and the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union and the People`s Republic of China, and India and Pakistan. These cases provide evidence that challenges the Waltzian argument that nuclear weapons enhance international stability by forbidding violent response to confrontations between nuclear-armed states. Nuclear powers that have employable conventional forces at their disposal, a territorial interest at stake, and exist in a condition of nuclear stalemate can, and do, engage in conventional warfare.

  20. Gravid females of the mosquito Aedes aegypti avoid oviposition on m-cresol in the presence of the deterrent isomer p-cresol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and its isomer m-cresol (3-methylphenol) have been shown to activate the same sensilla in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) mosquitoes. Whereas p-cresol has been suggested to play a role in oviposition site choice, the behavioral significance of m-cresol is unknown. Methods Here, we assayed the oviposition behavior of Aedes aegypti towards p-cresol and m-cresol using cage assay. Specifically we tested different concentrations of p-cresol (10-12-103 ppm) and m-cresol (10-1-103 ppm), the 1:1 mixture of the two compounds at 102 ppm, and the two individual compounds at 102 ppm together in the same cage. Results We show that (1) p-cresol is a stimulant at a low concentration and deterrent over a broad range of higher concentrations (10-8-103 ppm), while m-cresol was behaviorally ineffective, except for a deterrent effect at the highest concentration (103 ppm) (2) in concentration choice tests (different concentrations tested against each other), both compounds were deterrent only at the highest concentration (3) a 1:1 mixture of both compounds exhibited a deterrent effect on oviposition (4) when presented in separate cups but together in the same cage, p-cresol and m-cresol (102 ppm) both received significantly less eggs than water alone. Conclusions Our results suggest that p-cresol is a strong oviposition deterrent with a stimulant effect at only a very low concentration, while m-cresol is not a deterrent per se. However, in the presence of p-cresol in the vicinity, m-cresol acts as a deterrent. This finding adds a new twist to the possible interactions of different odors in oviposition site choice: not only the source itself, but nearby odors also influence a mosquito’s choice. PMID:25008201

  1. Development concept for a small, split-core, heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lantz, E.; Breitwieser, R.; Niederauer, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    There have been two main deterrents to the development of semiportable nuclear reactors. One is the high development costs; the other is the inability to satisfy with assurance the questions of operational safety. This report shows how a split-core, heat-pipe cooled reactor could conceptually eliminate these deterrents, and examines and summarizes recent work on split-core, heat-pipe reactors. A concept for a small reactor that could be developed at a comparatively low cost is presented. The concept would extend the technology of subcritical radioisotope thermoelectric generators using 238 PuO2 to the evolution of critical space power reactors using 239 PuO2.

  2. Low-dose naloxone provides an abuse-deterrent effect to buprenorphine

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Lynn R; Smith, Michael D; Unal, Cemal; Finn, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In developmental research, plasma buprenorphine concentrations comparable to a 2 mg buprenorphine–naloxone (BN) sublingual tablet have been achieved with a 0.75 mg dose of BN buccal film, a small, bioerodible polymer film for application to mucosal membranes. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, four-period crossover study in opioid-dependent subjects with chronic pain receiving >100 mg oral morphine equivalents daily who experienced withdrawal following a naloxone challenge dose. The objective of the study was to determine if intravenous (IV) naloxone doses of 0.1 and 0.2 mg would produce a withdrawal response when coadministered with a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. Fifteen subjects receiving 90–1,260 mg oral morphine equivalents per day enrolled and completed the study. Precipitated withdrawal occurred in 13% (2/15) of placebo-treated subjects and 47% (7/15) of buprenorphine-treated subjects. When combined with the 0.75 mg dose of buprenorphine, a 0.1 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence of precipitated withdrawal to 60%, and a 0.2 mg dose of naloxone increased the incidence to 73%. By 15 minutes postdose, the mean change in Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS) score from predose was 3.0 for placebo, 6.9 for buprenorphine, 9.8 for BN 0.1 mg, and 12.4 for BN 0.2 mg. The mean COWS score with each active treatment was significantly greater than placebo (P<0.001), and the mean COWS score for each of the naloxone-containing treatments was significantly greater than for buprenorphine alone (P<0.001). Naloxone doses as low as 0.1 mg added an abuse-deterrent effect to a 0.75 mg IV dose of buprenorphine. PMID:26604818

  3. An Ethylene-Protected Achilles’ Heel of Etiolated Seedlings for Arthropod Deterrence

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    A small family of Kunitz protease inhibitors exists in Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of which (encoded by At1g72290) accomplishes highly specific roles during plant development. Arabidopsis Kunitz-protease inhibitor 1 (Kunitz-PI;1), as we dubbed this protein here, is operative as cysteine PI. Activity measurements revealed that despite the presence of the conserved Kunitz-motif the bacterially expressed Kunitz-PI;1 was unable to inhibit serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, but very efficiently inhibited the cysteine protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21. Western blotting and cytolocalization studies using mono-specific antibodies recalled Kunitz-PI;1 protein expression in flowers, young siliques and etiolated seedlings. In dark-grown seedlings, maximum Kunitz-PI;1 promoter activity was detected in the apical hook region and apical parts of the hypocotyls. Immunolocalization confirmed Kunitz-PI;1 expression in these organs and tissues. No transmitting tract (NTT) and HECATE 1 (HEC1), two transcription factors previously implicated in the formation of the female reproductive tract in flowers of Arabidopsis, were identified to regulate Kunitz-PI;1 expression in the dark and during greening, with NTT acting negatively and HEC1 acting positively. Laboratory feeding experiments with isopod crustaceans such as Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug) pinpointed the apical hook as ethylene-protected Achilles’ heel of etiolated seedlings. Because exogenous application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and mechanical stress (wounding) strongly up-regulated HEC1-dependent Kunitz-PI;1 gene expression, our results identify a new circuit controlling herbivore deterrence of etiolated plants in which Kunitz-PI;1 is involved. PMID:27625656

  4. An Ethylene-Protected Achilles' Heel of Etiolated Seedlings for Arthropod Deterrence.

    PubMed

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Pollmann, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    A small family of Kunitz protease inhibitors exists in Arabidopsis thaliana, a member of which (encoded by At1g72290) accomplishes highly specific roles during plant development. Arabidopsis Kunitz-protease inhibitor 1 (Kunitz-PI;1), as we dubbed this protein here, is operative as cysteine PI. Activity measurements revealed that despite the presence of the conserved Kunitz-motif the bacterially expressed Kunitz-PI;1 was unable to inhibit serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, but very efficiently inhibited the cysteine protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21. Western blotting and cytolocalization studies using mono-specific antibodies recalled Kunitz-PI;1 protein expression in flowers, young siliques and etiolated seedlings. In dark-grown seedlings, maximum Kunitz-PI;1 promoter activity was detected in the apical hook region and apical parts of the hypocotyls. Immunolocalization confirmed Kunitz-PI;1 expression in these organs and tissues. No transmitting tract (NTT) and HECATE 1 (HEC1), two transcription factors previously implicated in the formation of the female reproductive tract in flowers of Arabidopsis, were identified to regulate Kunitz-PI;1 expression in the dark and during greening, with NTT acting negatively and HEC1 acting positively. Laboratory feeding experiments with isopod crustaceans such as Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug) pinpointed the apical hook as ethylene-protected Achilles' heel of etiolated seedlings. Because exogenous application of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and mechanical stress (wounding) strongly up-regulated HEC1-dependent Kunitz-PI;1 gene expression, our results identify a new circuit controlling herbivore deterrence of etiolated plants in which Kunitz-PI;1 is involved. PMID:27625656

  5. Oxycodone/Naloxone: role in chronic pain management, opioid-induced constipation, and abuse deterrence.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Anne Z; Miller, Katie

    2014-06-01

    place in therapy, discussion of opioid abuse/misuse, and various abuse-deterrent mechanisms, and areas of continuing research. PMID:25135384

  6. The effects of initial participation motivations on learning engagement in transition training for future general practitioners in rural China: perceived deterrents as mediator

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guan-yu; Yao, Mei-lin; Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yan-kui; Li, Hui-min; Yao, Xiu-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background For the shortage of high-quality general practitioners (GPs) in China's rural areas, Chinese government has taken steps to encourage rural specialists to participate in transition training for future GPs. Specialists’ initial participation motivations and their perceived deterrents during training may play important roles for their learning engagement in the transition training. This study aimed at revealing the relationships among the variables of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents in training, and learning engagement. Methods A questionnaire survey was used in this study. A total of 156 rural specialists who participated in transition training for future GPs filled out the questionnaire, which consisted of the measurements of initial participation motivations, perceived deterrents, and learning engagement in training. The data about specialists’ demographic variables were collected at the same time. Results The variance of initial escape/stimulations motivation significantly predicted the variance of learning engagement through the full mediating role of perceived deterrents in training. In addition, initial educational preparation motivations predicted the variance of learning engagement directly. Conclusions Specialists’ initial participation motivations and perceived deterrents in training played important roles for learning engagement in the transition training. PMID:27340086

  7. Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: new Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism (412th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Vanier, Peter

    2006-02-15

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism — nuclear terrorism — has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks — or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port — suddenly becomes possible.

  8. Biting deterrence, repellency, and larvicidal activity of Ruta chalepensis (Sapindales: Rutaceae) essential oil and its major individual constituents against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abbas; Demirci, Betul; Kiyan, Hulya Tuba; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Wedge, David E; Khan, Ikhlas A; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Tabanca, Nurhayat

    2013-11-01

    The essential oil from aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis L. (Sapindales: Rutaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation, and its chemical profile was identified using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds, 2-undecanone (43.2%), 2-nonanone (27.9%), and 2-nonyl acetate (10.6%) were the major constituents of the oil. Biting deterrent activity of R. chalepensis essential oil at 10 and 50 microg/cm2, 2-undecanone at 8.5 microg/cm2, 2-nonanone at 9 microg/cm2, and 2-nonyl acetate at 9.3 microg/cm2 was similar to DEET (N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) at 4.8 microg/cm2, against Aedes aegypti L. Biting deterrent activity of R. chalepensis oil at 50 microg/cm2 against Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say was statistically similar to DEET at 4.8 microg/cm2, whereas the activity was lower in the other compounds tested. In cloth patch assay, R. chalepensis essential oil was effective at 187 microg/cm2, whereas 2-undecanone was effective at 108.9 microg/cm2 against Ae. aegypti. In larval bioassays, 2-undecanone showed similar toxicity whereas toxicity of R. chalepensis essential oil and 2-nonanone was higher at 24-h posttreatment at the LD50 in An. quadrimaculatus than Ae. aegypti. This study revealed that R. chalepensis essential oil and its major compounds were active biting deterrents against Ae. aegypti at higher application rates whereas only the essential oil showed activity similar to DEET against An. quadrimaculatus. 2-undecanone was the most active compound in in vivo repellency bioassay against Ae. aegypti. Chemical composition of R. chalepensis essential oil varies because of plant production and harvest practices, and the activity level of the essential oil may depend on the source of the sample. PMID:24843931

  9. Evidence of Subterranean Termite Feeding Deterrent Produced by Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto 1968 (Polyporales, Fomitopsidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, Nadia Nuraniya; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Nishizawa, Shota; Fukunaga, Ayuko; Doi, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Horisawa, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    We found that decayed wood stakes with no termite damage collected from a termite-infested field exhibited a deterrent effect against the termite Reticulitermes speratus, Kolbe, 1885. The effect was observed to be lost or reduced by drying. After identification, it was found that the decayed stakes were infected by brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa (Peck) Parmasto, 1968. In a no-choice feeding test, wood blocks decayed by this fungus under laboratory condition deterred R. speratus feeding and n-hexane extract from the decayed stake and blocks induced termite mortality. These data provided an insight into the interaction between wood-rot fungi and wood-feeding termites. PMID:27548231

  10. Experimental model of the device for detection of nuclear cycle materials by photoneutron technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalyarov, A. M.; Karetnikov, M. D.; Kozlov, K. N.; Lebedev, V. I.; Meleshko, E. A.; Obinyakov, B. A.; Ostashev, I. E.; Tupikin, N. A.; Yakovlev, G. V.

    2007-08-01

    The inherent complexity of sea container control makes them potentially dangerous for smuggling nuclear materials. The experts believe that only active technologies based on recording the products of induced radiation from sensitive materials might solve the problem. The paper reports on the experimental model of the device on the basis of the electron LINAC U-28 for detection of nuclear materials by photonuclear technology. The preliminary numerical optimization of output units (converter, filter, collimator) for shaping the bremsstrahlung was carried out. The setup of experimental device and initial results of recording the prompt and delayed fission products are discussed.