Science.gov

Sample records for nucleic acid isolation

  1. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  2. Nucleic acid isolation

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, J.L.; Lewis, A.K.; Hildebrand, C.E.

    1988-01-21

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduces the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without effect on the protocol.

  3. Nucleic acid isolation process

    DOEpatents

    Longmire, Jonathan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Lewis, Annette K. (La Jolla, CA); Hildebrand, Carl E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A method is provided for isolating DNA from eukaryotic cell and flow sorted chromosomes. When DNA is removed from chromosome and cell structure, detergent and proteolytic digestion products remain with the DNA. These products can be removed with organic extraction, but the process steps associated with organic extraction reduce the size of DNA fragments available for experimental use. The present process removes the waste products by dialyzing a solution containing the DNA against a solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG). The waste products dialyze into the PEG leaving isolated DNA. The remaining DNA has been prepared with fragments containing more than 160 kb. The isolated DNA has been used in conventional protocols without affect on the protocol.

  4. Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Nivens, D.E.; Applegate, B.M.

    1999-07-13

    A method is disclosed for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification. 4 figs.

  5. Method for nucleic acid isolation using supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Nivens, David E. (11912 Kingsgate Rd., Knoxville, TN 37911); Applegate, Bruce M. (3700 Sutherland Ave. #Q2, Knoxville, TN 37911)

    1999-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of a microorganism in an environmental sample involves contacting the sample with a supercritical fluid to isolate nucleic acid from the microorganism, then detecting the presence of a particular sequence within the isolated nucleic acid. The nucleic acid may optionally be subjected to further purification.

  6. Isolated menthone reductase and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney B; Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L

    2013-04-23

    The present invention provides isolated menthone reductase proteins, isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding menthone reductase proteins, methods for expressing and isolating menthone reductase proteins, and transgenic plants expressing elevated levels of menthone reductase protein.

  7. Silicon dioxide thin film mediated single cell nucleic acid isolation.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  8. Silicon Dioxide Thin Film Mediated Single Cell Nucleic Acid Isolation

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Evgeny; Dominova, Irina; Shusharina, Natalia; Botman, Stepan; Kasymov, Vitaliy; Patrushev, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    A limited amount of DNA extracted from single cells, and the development of single cell diagnostics make it necessary to create a new highly effective method for the single cells nucleic acids isolation. In this paper, we propose the DNA isolation method from biomaterials with limited DNA quantity in sample, and from samples with degradable DNA based on the use of solid-phase adsorbent silicon dioxide nanofilm deposited on the inner surface of PCR tube. PMID:23874571

  9. Isolated nucleic acids encoding antipathogenic polypeptides and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Altier, Daniel J.; Crane, Virginia C.; Ellanskaya, Irina; Ellanskaya, Natalia; Gilliam, Jacob T.; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Presnail, James K.; Schepers, Eric J.; Simmons, Carl R.; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

    2010-04-20

    Compositions and methods for protecting a plant from a pathogen, particularly a fungal pathogen, are provided. Compositions include amino acid sequences, and variants and fragments thereof, for antipathogenic polypeptides that were isolated from fungal fermentation broths. Nucleic acids that encode the antipathogenic polypeptides are also provided. A method for inducing pathogen resistance in a plant using the nucleotide sequences disclosed herein is further provided. The method comprises introducing into a plant an expression cassette comprising a promoter operably linked to a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention. Compositions comprising an antipathogenic polypeptide or a transformed microorganism comprising a nucleic acid of the invention in combination with a carrier and methods of using these compositions to protect a plant from a pathogen are further provided. Transformed plants, plant cells, seeds, and microorganisms comprising a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention are also disclosed.

  10. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using a bifunctional hybridization probe

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA); Straume, Tore (Tracy, CA); Bogen, Kenneth T. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for detecting and isolating a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids is provided using a bifunctional hybridization probe capable of hybridizing to the target sequence that includes a detectable marker and a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent. A kit is also provided for detecting a target sequence in a sample of nucleic acids using a bifunctional hybridization probe according to this method.

  11. Scalable Isolation of Mammalian Mitochondria for Nucleic Acid and Nucleoid Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ken-Wing; Bogenhagen, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of mitochondria from cultured cells and animal tissues for analysis of nucleic acids and bona fide mitochondrial nucleic acid binding proteins and enzymes is complicated by contamination with cellular nucleic acids and their adherent proteins. Protocols presented here allow for quick isolation of mitochondria from a small number of cells and for preparation of highly purified mitochondria from a larger number of cells using nuclease treatment and high salt washing of mitochondria to reduce contamination. We further describe a method for the isolation of mitochondrial DNA-protein complexes known as nucleoids from these highly purified mitochondria using a combination of glycerol gradient sedimentation followed by isopycnic centrifugation in a non-ionic iodixanol gradient. PMID:26530675

  12. An integrated, self-contained microfluidic cassette for isolation, amplification, and detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dafeng; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Kim, Jitae; Ramprasad, Sudhir; Ongagna, Serge; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    A self-contained, integrated, disposable, sample-to-answer, polycarbonate microfluidic cassette for nucleic acid—based detection of pathogens at the point of care was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette comprises on-chip sample lysis, nucleic acid isolation, enzymatic amplification (polymerase chain reaction and, when needed, reverse transcription), amplicon labeling, and detection. On-chip pouches and valves facilitate fluid flow control. All the liquids and dry reagents needed for the various reactions are pre-stored in the cassette. The liquid reagents are stored in flexible pouches formed on the chip surface. Dry (RT-)PCR reagents are pre-stored in the thermal cycling, reaction chamber. The process operations include sample introduction; lysis of cells and viruses; solid-phase extraction, concentration, and purification of nucleic acids from the lysate; elution of the nucleic acids into a thermal cycling chamber and mixing with pre-stored (RT-)PCR dry reagents; thermal cycling; and detection. The PCR amplicons are labeled with digoxigenin and biotin and transmitted onto a lateral flow strip, where the target analytes bind to a test line consisting of immobilized avidin-D. The immobilized nucleic acids are labeled with up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporter particles. The operation of the cassette is automatically controlled by an analyzer that provides pouch and valve actuation with electrical motors and heating for the thermal cycling. The functionality of the device is demonstrated by detecting the presence of bacterial B.Cereus, viral armored RNA HIV, and HIV I virus in saliva samples. The cassette and actuator described here can be used to detect other diseases as well as the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens in the water supply and other fluids. PMID:20401537

  13. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Simple, rapid method for direct isolation of nucleic acids from aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Somerville, C C; Knight, I T; Straube, W L; Colwell, R R

    1989-03-01

    Direct isolation of nucleic acids from the environment may be useful in several respects, including the estimation of total biomass, detection of specific organisms and genes, estimations of species diversity, and cloning applications. We have developed a method that facilitates the concentration of microorganisms from aquatic samples and the extraction of their nucleic acids. Natural water samples of 350 to greater than 1,000 ml are concentrated on a single cylindrical filter membrane (type SVGS01015; Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.), and cell lysis and proteolysis are carried out within the filter housing. Crude, high-molecular-weight nucleic acid solutions are then drawn off the filter. These solutions can be immediately analyzed, concentrated, or purified, depending on the intended application. The method is simple, rapid, and economical and provides high-molecular-weight chromosomal DNA, plasmid DNA, and speciated RNAs which comigrate with 5S, 16S, and 23S rRNAs. The methods presented here should prove useful in studying both the ecology and the phylogeny of microbes that resist classical culture methods. PMID:2467621

  19. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  20. Comparison of manual and automated nucleic acid isolation methods for HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA assays.

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Gulhan; Altun, Hatice Uludag; Gökahmetoglu, Selma; Basok, Ela

    2015-09-01

    In the diagnosis and monitoring of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, it is important to use methods that can provide rapid and reliable results. The present study aimed to compare the automated and manual extraction methods during the nucleic acid isolation phase for HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA assays. The study included 93 serum samples, 49 of which were for the HBV-DNA assay and 44 for the HCV-RNA assay. DNA and RNA isolation from the samples was performed manually with a "QIAmpMin Elute Kit" (Qiagen, Germany) and the automated isolation system, NucliSens easyMAG (BioMérieux, France). All the extraction products were amplified using the iCycler device (Bio-Rad, USA). With both methods, compliance was found in 21 (42.8%) samples in the HBV-DNA assay; nine (18.3%) samples had a higher amount of viral nucleic acid with the manual method, whereas 19 samples (38.7%) were found to have a higher amount of nucleic acid with the automated system. For the HCV-RNA assay, total compliance was found in 31 (70.4%) samples; 12 (27.2%) samples had a higher amount of viral nucleic acid with the manual method whereas one sample (2.2%) was found to have a higher amount of nucleic acid with the automated system. It was concluded that the NucliSens easyMAG automated isolation system can be used with confidence for nucleic acid extraction due to its higher sensitivity, providing results in a shorter time, and assured standardization. PMID:26397294

  1. Detection and isolation of nucleic acid sequences using competitive hybridization probes

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1997-04-01

    A method for detecting a target nucleic acid sequence in a sample is provided using hybridization probes which competitively hybridize to a target nucleic acid. According to the method, a target nucleic acid sequence is hybridized to first and second hybridization probes which are complementary to overlapping portions of the target nucleic acid sequence, the first hybridization probe including a first complexing agent capable of forming a binding pair with a second complexing agent and the second hybridization probe including a detectable marker. The first complexing agent attached to the first hybridization probe is contacted with a second complexing agent, the second complexing agent being attached to a solid support such that when the first and second complexing agents are attached, target nucleic acid sequences hybridized to the first hybridization probe become immobilized on to the solid support. The immobilized target nucleic acids are then separated and detected by detecting the detectable marker attached to the second hybridization probe. A kit for performing the method is also provided. 7 figs.

  2. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  3. Calorimetry of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rozners, Eriks; Pilch, Daniel S; Egli, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (Cp ex ) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution. From a single curve of Cp ex versus T, one can derive the following information: the transition enthalpy (?H), entropy (?S), free energy (?G), and heat capacity (?Cp); the state of the transition (two-state versus multistate); and the average size of the molecule that melts as a single thermodynamic entity (e.g., the duplex). ITC is used to study the hybridization of nucleic acid molecules at constant temperature. In an ITC experiment, small aliquots of a titrant nucleic acid solution (strand 1) are added to an analyte nucleic acid solution (strand 2), and the released heat is monitored. ITC yields the stoichiometry of the association reaction (n), the enthalpy of association (?H), the equilibrium association constant (K), and thus the free energy of association (?G). Once ?H and ?G are known, ?S can also be derived. Repetition of the ITC experiment at a number of different temperatures yields the ?Cp for the association reaction from the temperature dependence of ?H. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:26623974

  4. Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

  5. Rotary-based platform with disposable fluidic modules for automated isolation of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Mamaev, Dmitry; Shaskolskiy, Boris; Dementieva, Ekaterina; Khodakov, Dmitry; Yurasov, Dmitry; Yurasov, Roman; Zimenkov, Danila; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Zasedatelev, Alexander; Gryadunov, Dmitry

    2015-02-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a rotary-based platform with multiple disposable fluidic modules for simultaneous automatic nucleic acid (NA) isolation from up to 24 biological samples. The procedure is performed inside insulated individual disposable modules, which minimizes both the risk of infection of personnel and laboratory cross-contamination. Each module is a segment of a circular cylinder containing a leak-proof inlet port for sample input, reservoirs with lyophilized chemicals and solvents, fluidic channels, stoppers, valves, a waste reservoir and an outlet port equipped with the standard micro test tube for NA collection. The entire platform, apart from the rotor that accommodates 24 modules, consists of functional elements that provide spinning of the rotor, reagent mixing, pressure delivery, and heating of reaction mixtures. The transfer of the reaction mixtures inside the modules is performed either with rotation of the rotor or with excessive air pressure applied to the module's reservoirs. The entire process takes less than 40 min, starting from the sample loading to the recovery of the purified NA, and it allows NA isolation both from bacterial cells and viral particles. The feasibility and reproducibility of the developed platform was demonstrated by the NA isolation from suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells within a concentration range of 10(8) to 10(2) cells/ml. Isolation of NAs from blood plasma samples with varying concentration of hepatitis B and C viruses from 10(7) to 10(2) particles/ml were also successful. The purity and integrity of the extracted NAs were both reliable for performing quantitative PCR. PMID:25653066

  6. The Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues–Which Methods Are Useful When?

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Haselkorn, Tamara; Bunce, Michael; Sanchez, Juan J.; Lucas, Sebastian B.; Jewell, Laurence D.; Marck, Eric Van; Worobey, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Museums and pathology collections around the world represent an archive of genetic material to study populations and diseases. For preservation purposes, a large portion of these collections has been fixed in formalin-containing solutions, a treatment that results in cross-linking of biomolecules. Cross-linking not only complicates isolation of nucleic acid but also introduces polymerase “blocks” during PCR. A wide variety of methods exists for the recovery of DNA and RNA from archival tissues, and although a number of previous studies have qualitatively compared the relative merits of the different techniques, very few have undertaken wide scale quantitative comparisons. To help address this issue, we have undertaken a study that investigates the quality of nucleic acids recovered from a test panel of fixed specimens that have been manipulated following a number of the published protocols. These include methods of pre-treating the samples prior to extraction, extraction and nucleic acid purification methods themselves, and a post-extraction enzymatic repair technique. We find that although many of the published methods have distinct positive effects on some characteristics of the nucleic acids, the benefits often come at a cost. In addition, a number of the previously published techniques appear to have no effect at all. Our findings recommend that the extraction methodology adopted should be chosen carefully. Here we provide a quick reference table that can be used to determine appropriate protocols for particular aims. PMID:17579711

  7. Method and Apparatus for Automated Isolation of Nucleic Acids from Small Cell Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaram, Shivshankar; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    RNA isolation is a ubiquitous need, driven by current emphasis on microarrays and miniaturization. With commercial systems requiring 100,000 to 1,000,000 cells for successful isolation, there is a growing need for a small-footprint, easy-to-use device that can harvest nucleic acids from much smaller cell samples (1,000 to 10,000 cells). The process of extraction of RNA from cell cultures is a complex, multi-step one, and requires timed, asynchronous operations with multiple reagents/buffers. An added complexity is the fragility of RNA (subject to degradation) and its reactivity to surface. A novel, microfluidics-based, integrated cartridge has been developed that can fully automate the complex process of RNA isolation (lyse, capture, and elute RNA) from small cell culture samples. On-cartridge cell lysis is achieved using either reagents or high-strength electric fields made possible by the miniaturized format. Traditionally, silica-based, porous-membrane formats have been used for RNA capture, requiring slow perfusion for effective capture. In this design, high efficiency capture/elution are achieved using a microsphere-based "microfluidized" format. Electrokinetic phenomena are harnessed to actively mix microspheres with the cell lysate and capture/elution buffer, providing important advantages in extraction efficiency, processing time, and operational flexibility. Successful RNA isolation was demonstrated using both suspension (HL-60) and adherent (BHK-21) cells. Novel features associated with this development are twofold. First, novel designs that execute needed processes with improved speed and efficiency were developed. These primarily encompass electric-field-driven lysis of cells. The configurations include electrode-containing constructs, or an "electrode-less" chip design, which is easy to fabricate and mitigates fouling at the electrode surface; and the "fluidized" extraction format based on electrokinetically assisted mixing and contacting of microbeads in a shape-optimized chamber. A secondary proprietary feature is in the particular layout integrating these components to perform the desired operation of RNA isolation. Apart from a novel functional capability, advantages of the innovation include reduced or eliminated use of toxic reagents, and operator-independent extraction of RNA.

  8. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-08-26

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  9. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Chip-based sequencing nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2014-08-26

    A system for fast DNA sequencing by amplification of genetic material within microreactors, denaturing, demulsifying, and then sequencing the material, while retaining it in a PCR/sequencing zone by a magnetic field. One embodiment includes sequencing nucleic acids on a microchip that includes a microchannel flow channel in the microchip. The nucleic acids are isolated and hybridized to magnetic nanoparticles or to magnetic polystyrene-coated beads. Microreactor droplets are formed in the microchannel flow channel. The microreactor droplets containing the nucleic acids and the magnetic nanoparticles are retained in a magnetic trap in the microchannel flow channel and sequenced.

  12. Isolation of phosphatidylethanolamine as a solitary cofactor for prion formation in the absence of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Deleault, Nathan R; Piro, Justin R; Walsh, Daniel J; Wang, Fei; Ma, Jiyan; Geoghegan, James C; Supattapone, Surachai

    2012-05-29

    Infectious prions containing the pathogenic conformer of the mammalian prion protein (PrP(Sc)) can be produced de novo from a mixture of the normal conformer (PrP(C)) with RNA and lipid molecules. Recent reconstitution studies indicate that nucleic acids are not required for the propagation of mouse prions in vitro, suggesting the existence of an alternative prion propagation cofactor in brain tissue. However, the identity and functional properties of this unique cofactor are unknown. Here, we show by purification and reconstitution that the molecule responsible for the nuclease-resistant cofactor activity in brain is endogenous phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Synthetic PE alone facilitates conversion of purified recombinant (rec)PrP substrate into infectious recPrP(Sc) molecules. Other phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidylglycerol, were unable to facilitate recPrP(Sc) formation in the absence of RNA. PE facilitated the propagation of PrP(Sc) molecules derived from all four different animal species tested including mouse, suggesting that unlike RNA, PE is a promiscuous cofactor for PrP(Sc) formation in vitro. Phospholipase treatment abolished the ability of brain homogenate to reconstitute the propagation of both mouse and hamster PrP(Sc) molecules. Our results identify a single endogenous cofactor able to facilitate the formation of prions from multiple species in the absence of nucleic acids or other polyanions. PMID:22586108

  13. Functional nucleic acid probes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2006-10-03

    The present invention provides functional nucleic acid probes, and methods of using functional nucleic acid probes, for binding a target to carry out a desired function. The probes have at least one functional nucleic acid, at least one regulating nucleic acid, and at least one attenuator. The functional nucleic acid is maintained in an inactive state by the attenuator and activated by the regulating nucleic acid only in the presence of a regulating nucleic acid target. In its activated state the functional nucleic acid can bind to its target to carry out a desired function, such as generating a signal, cleaving a nucleic acid, or catalyzing a reaction.

  14. Geranyl diphosphate synthase molecules, and nucleic acid molecules encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Burke, Charles Cullen (Moscow, ID)

    2008-06-24

    In one aspect, the present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules that each encode a geranyl diphosphate synthase protein, wherein each isolated nucleic acid molecule hybridizes to a nucleic acid molecule consisting of the sequence set forth in SEQ ID NO:1 under conditions of 5.times.SSC at 45.degree. C. for one hour. The present invention also provides isolated geranyl diphosphate synthase proteins, and methods for altering the level of expression of geranyl diphosphate synthase protein in a host cell.

  15. Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity of HIV1

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Nucleic Acid Chaperone Activity of HIV1 Nucleocapsid Protein: Critical Role in Reverse ............................................................................ 218 II. Structure and Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of HIV1 NC ........................................................................... 219 A. Specific and Nonspecific Nucleic Acid Binding .............................. 220 B. Structural

  16. Ramon Eritja Nucleic Acid Chemistry Group

    E-print Network

    Ritort, Felix

    Ramon Eritja Nucleic Acid Chemistry Group Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Dpt. IRB Barcelona of thrombin (60 pM) #12;UseUse ofof NucleicNucleic AcidsAcids inin thethe designdesign ofof newnew drugsdrugs

  17. Nucleic acid detection methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

  18. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

    1998-05-19

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

  19. Nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Sabanayagam, Chandran R. (Allston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Needham, MA); Misasi, John (Syracuse, NY); Hatch, Anson (Seattle, WA); Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to high density nucleic acid arrays and methods of synthesizing nucleic acid sequences on a solid surface. Specifically, the present invention contemplates the use of stabilized nucleic acid primer sequences immobilized on solid surfaces, and circular nucleic acid sequence templates combined with the use of isothermal rolling circle amplification to thereby increase nucleic acid sequence concentrations in a sample or on an array of nucleic acid sequences.

  20. A Simpler Nucleic Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orgel, Leslie

    2000-01-01

    It has been supposed that for a nucleic acid analog to pair with RNA it must, like RNA, have a backbone with at least a sixatom repeat; a shorter backbone presumably would not stretch far enough to bind RNA properly. The Eschenmoser group has shown, however, that this first impression is incorrect.As they report in their new paper, Eschenmoser and co-workers ( I ) have now synthesized a substantial number of these polymers, which are called (L)-a-threofuranosyl oligonucleotides or TNAs. They are composed of bases linked to a threose sugar-phosphate backbone, with phosphodiester bonds connecting the nucleotides. The investigators discovered that pairs of complementary TNAs do indeed form stable Watson-Crick double helices and, perhaps more importantly, that TNAs form stable double helices with complementary RNAs and DNAs.

  1. Direct Isolation of Purines and Pyrimidines from Nucleic Acids Using Sublimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Schubert, Michael; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    A sublimation technique was developed to isolate purines and pyrimidines directly from lambda-deoxyribonucleic acid (lambda-DNA) and Escherichia coli cells. The sublimation of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine from lambda-DNA was tested under reduced pressure (approx. 0.5 Torr) at temperatures of >150 C. With the exception of guanine, approximately 60 -75% of each base was sublimed directly from the lambda-DNA and recovered on a coldfinger of the sublimation apparatus after heating to 450 C. Several nucleobases including adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil were also recovered from E. coli bacteria after heating the cells to the same temperature, although some thermal decomposition of the bases also occurred. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using sublimation to isolate purines and pyrimidines from native E. coli DNA and RNA without any chemical treatment of the cells.

  2. Identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A.; Lipshutz, Robert J.; Huang, Xiaohua

    2005-02-08

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  3. Isothermal Amplification of Nucleic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongxi; Chen, Feng; Li, Qian; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Chunhai

    2015-11-25

    Isothermal amplification of nucleic acids is a simple process that rapidly and efficiently accumulates nucleic acid sequences at constant temperature. Since the early 1990s, various isothermal amplification techniques have been developed as alternatives to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isothermal amplification methods have been used for biosensing targets such as DNA, RNA, cells, proteins, small molecules, and ions. The applications of these techniques for in situ or intracellular bioimaging and sequencing have been amply demonstrated. Amplicons produced by isothermal amplification methods have also been utilized to construct versatile nucleic acid nanomaterials for promising applications in biomedicine, bioimaging, and biosensing. The integration of isothermal amplification into microsystems or portable devices improves nucleic acid-based on-site assays and confers high sensitivity. Single-cell and single-molecule analyses have also been implemented based on integrated microfluidic systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the isothermal amplification of nucleic acids encompassing work published in the past two decades. First, different isothermal amplification techniques are classified into three types based on reaction kinetics. Then, we summarize the applications of isothermal amplification in bioanalysis, diagnostics, nanotechnology, materials science, and device integration. Finally, several challenges and perspectives in the field are discussed. PMID:26551336

  4. Fluorescent nucleic acid base analogues.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsson, L Marcus

    2010-05-01

    The use of fluorescent nucleic acid base analogues is becoming increasingly important in the fields of biology, biochemistry and biophysical chemistry as well as in the field of DNA nanotechnology. The advantage of being able to incorporate a fluorescent probe molecule close to the site of examination in the nucleic acid-containing system of interest with merely a minimal perturbation to the natural structure makes fluorescent base analogues highly attractive. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in developing novel candidates in this group of fluorophores for utilization in various investigations. This review describes the different classes of fluorophores that can be used for studying nucleic acid-containing systems, with an emphasis on choosing the right kind of probe for the system under investigation. It describes the characteristics of the large group of base analogues that has an emission that is sensitive to the surrounding microenvironment and gives examples of investigations in which this group of molecules has been used so far. Furthermore, the characterization and use of fluorescent base analogues that are virtually insensitive to changes in their microenvironment are described in detail. This group of base analogues can be used in several fluorescence investigations of nucleic acids, especially in fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Finally, the development and characterization of the first nucleic base analogue FRET pair, tC(O)-tC(nitro), and its possible future uses are discussed. PMID:20478079

  5. Anions in Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzo, Luigi; Auffinger, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Nucleic acid crystallization buffers contain a large variety of chemicals fitting specific needs. Among them, anions are often solely considered for pH-regulating purposes and as cationic co-salts while their ability to directly bind to nucleic acid structures is rarely taken into account. Here we review current knowledge related to the use of anions in crystallization buffers along with data on their biological prevalence. Chloride ions are frequently identified in crystal structures but display low cytosolic concentrations. Hence, they are thought to be distant from nucleic acid structures in the cell. Sulfate ions are also frequently identified in crystal structures but their localization in the cell remains elusive. Nevertheless, the characterization of the binding properties of these ions is essential for better interpreting the solvent structure in crystals and consequently, avoiding mislabeling of electron densities. Furthermore, understanding the binding properties of these anions should help to get clues related to their potential effects in crowded cellular environments. PMID:26227054

  6. High speed nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid. Each type of labeled nucleotide comprises an acceptor fluorophore attached to a phosphate portion of the nucleotide such that the fluorophore is removed upon incorporation into a growing strand. Fluorescent signal is emitted via fluorescent resonance energy transfer between the donor fluorophore and the acceptor fluorophore as each nucleotide is incorporated into the growing strand. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing strand.

  7. Methods for detecting nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Duck, P.; Bender, R.

    1991-04-30

    This patent describes a method for detecting a single-stranded target nucleic acid. It comprises: obtaining the single-stranded target nucleic acid; forming a reaction mixture which includes the target nucleic acid and a complementary single-stranded nucleic acid probe under conditions which allow the target nucleic acid and the probe to hybridize to each other and form a double-stranded, target-probe complex, the probe being present in molar excess relative to the target; treating the double-stranded, target-probe complex so as to cleave the probe within a predetermined sequence of the scissile nucleic acid linkage and thereby form at least one intact DNA-containing oligonucleotide fragment from the probe, such fragment being, or being treated so as to be, no longer capable of remaining hybridized to the target nucleic acid; detecting the intact DNA-containing fragments so formed and thereby detecting the single-stranded target nucleic acid.

  8. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA)

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing a plurality of a nucleic acid array, comprising, in order, the steps of amplifying in situ nucleic acid molecules of a first randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array comprising a heterogeneous pool of nucleic acid molecules affixed to a support, transferring at least a subset of the nucleic acid molecules produced by such amplifying to a second support, and affixing the subset so transferred to the second support to form a second randomly-patterned, immobilized nucleic acid array, wherein the nucleic acid molecules of the second array occupy positions that correspond to those of the nucleic acid molecules from which they were amplified on the first array, so that the first array serves as a template to produce a plurality, is disclosed.

  9. Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Rapid hybridization of nucleic acids using isotachophoresis Moran Bercovicia,b,1,2 , Crystal M of nucleic acid hybridization reactions in free solution. We present a new physical model, validation are generally applicable to acceleration of reactions invol- ving nucleic acids, and may be applicable to a wide

  10. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization

    E-print Network

    Zhang, David Yu

    Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization David Yu Zhang1,2 *, Sherry Xi Chen3, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature to 37 88888C, from 1 mM Mg21 to 47 mM Mg21 , and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 m

  11. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-06-06

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  12. Method for sequencing nucleic acid molecules

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas; Webb, Watt W.; Levene, Michael; Turner, Stephen; Craighead, Harold G.; Foquet, Mathieu

    2006-05-30

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  13. Integrated isolation and quantitative analysis of exosome shuttled proteins and nucleic acids using immunocapture approaches.

    PubMed

    Zarovni, Natasa; Corrado, Antonietta; Guazzi, Paolo; Zocco, Davide; Lari, Elisa; Radano, Giorgia; Muhhina, Jekatarina; Fondelli, Costanza; Gavrilova, Julia; Chiesi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Clinical implementation of exosome based diagnostic and therapeutic applications is still limited by the lack of standardized technologies that integrate efficient isolation of exosomes with comprehensive detection of relevant biomarkers. Conventional methods for exosome isolation based on their physical properties such as size and density (filtration, ultracentrifugation or density gradient), or relying on their differential solubility (chemical precipitation) are established primarily for processing of cell supernatants and later adjusted to complex biological samples such as plasma. Though still representing gold standard in the field, these methods are clearly suboptimal for processing of routine clinical samples and have intrinsic limits that impair their use in biomarker discovery and development of novel diagnostics. Immunoisolation (IA) offers unique advantages for the recovery of exosomes from complex and viscous fluids, in terms of increased efficiency and specificity of exosome capture, integrity and selective origin of isolated vesicles. We have evaluated several commercially available solutions for immunoplate- and immunobead-based affinity isolation and have further optimized protocols to decrease non-specific binding due to exosomes complexity and matrix contaminants. In order to identify best molecular targets for total exosome capture from diverse biological sources, as well as for selective enrichment in populations of interest (e.g. tumor derived exosomes) several exosome displayed proteins and respective antibodies have been evaluated for plate and bead functionalisation. Moreover, we have optimized and directly implemented downstream steps allowing on-line quantification and characterization of bound exosome markers, namely proteins and RNAs. Thus assembled assays enabled rapid overall quantification and validation of specific exosome associated targets in/on plasma exosomes, with multifold increased yield and enrichment ratio over benchmarking technologies. Assays directly coupling selective immobilization of exosomes to a solid phase and their immune- and or molecular profiling through conventional ELISA and PCR analysis, resulted in easy-to-elaborate, quantitative readouts, with high low-end sensitivity and dynamic range, low costs and hands-on time, minimal sample handling and downscaling of a working plasma volumes to as few as 100?l. PMID:26044649

  14. Nucleic acid delivery with microbubbles and ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rychak, Joshua J.; Klibanov, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based therapy is a growing field of drug delivery research. Although ultrasound has been suggested to enhance transfection decades ago, it took a combination of ultrasound with nucleic acid carrier systems (microbubbles, liposomes, polyplexes, viral carriers) to achieve reasonable nucleic acid delivery efficacy. Microbubbles serve as foci for local deposition of ultrasound energy near the target cell, and greatly enhance sonoporation. Major advantage of this approach is in the minimal transfection in the non-insonated non-target tissues. Microbubbles can be simply co-administered with the nucleic acid carrier or can be modified to carry nucleic acid themselves. Liposomes with embedded gas or gas precursor particles can also be used to carry nucleic acid, release and deliver it by the ultrasound trigger. Successful testing in a wide variety of animal models (myocardium, solid tumors, skeletal muscle, pancreas) proves the potential usefulness of this technique for nucleic acid drug delivery. PMID:24486388

  15. Nucleic acid compositions and the encoding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, III, James F.; Chow, Virginia; Nong, Guang; Rice, John D.; St. John, Franz J.

    2014-09-02

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  16. Nucleic acids, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Preston, III, James F. (Micanopy, FL); Chow, Virginia (Gainesville, FL); Nong, Guang (Gainesville, FL); Rice, John D. (Gainesville, FL); St. John, Franz J. (Baltimore, MD)

    2012-02-21

    The subject invention provides at least one nucleic acid sequence encoding an aldouronate-utilization regulon isolated from Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, a bacterium which efficiently utilizes xylan and metabolizes aldouronates (methylglucuronoxylosaccharides). The subject invention also provides a means for providing a coordinately regulated process in which xylan depolymerization and product assimilation are coupled in Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2 to provide a favorable system for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biobased products. Additionally, the nucleic acid sequences encoding the aldouronate-utilization regulon can be used to transform other bacteria to form organisms capable of producing a desired product (e.g., ethanol, 1-butanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, 1,3-propanediol, succinate, lactate, acetate, malate or alanine) from lignocellulosic biomass.

  17. CHTN :: Nucleic Acid Isolation

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content CHTN Home | Admin Login Connect with the CHTN About Us What is the CHTN? Why use the CHTN? CHTN Divisions History of the CHTN Biospecimens We Provide Biospecimen Collection & Type Biospecimen Processing, Preservation & Shipping Quality

  18. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOEpatents

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  19. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOEpatents

    Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Niemeyer, Christof M. (Bremen, DE); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Sano, Takeshi (Boston, MA); Hnatowich, Donald J. (Brookline, MA); Rusckowski, Mary (Southborough, MA)

    1999-10-12

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products.

  20. Self-assembling multimeric nucleic acid constructs

    DOEpatents

    Cantor, C.R.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Smith, C.L.; Sano, Takeshi; Hnatowich, D.J.; Rusckowski, M.

    1996-10-01

    The invention is directed to constructs and compositions containing multimeric forms of nucleic acid. Multimeric nucleic acids comprise single-stranded nucleic acids attached via biotin to streptavidin and bound with a functional group. These constructs can be utilized in vivo to treat or identify diseased tissue or cells. Repeated administrations of multimeric nucleic acid compositions produce a rapid and specific amplification of nucleic acid constructs and their attached functional groups. For treatment purposes, functional groups may be toxins, radioisotopes, genes or enzymes. Diagnostically, labeled multimeric constructs may be used to identify specific targets in vivo or in vitro. Multimeric nucleic acids may also be used in nanotechnology and to create self-assembling polymeric aggregates such as membranes of defined porosity, microcircuits and many other products. 5 figs.

  1. Characterization of Nucleic Acids by Nanopore Analysis

    E-print Network

    Characterization of Nucleic Acids by Nanopore Analysis DAVID W. DEAMER* Department of Chemistry-molecule analysis of nucleic acids. In the 1970s, it became apparent that biological membranes of cells incorporate that allows nutrients (glucose, amino acids) and ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-) to cross the otherwise impermeable

  2. Synthesis of Glycol Nucleic Acids SynthesisofGlycolNucleicAcidsLilu Zhang, Adam E. Peritz, Patrick J. Carroll, Eric Meggers*

    E-print Network

    Meggers, Eric

    PAPER 645 Synthesis of Glycol Nucleic Acids SynthesisofGlycolNucleicAcidsLilu Zhang, Adam E. Peritz for the automated solid phase synthesis of glycol nucleic acids (GNA) oligonucleotides and it is demonstrated of analo- gous DNA duplexes. Key words: GNA, glycol nucleic acid, glycol nucleotides, acyclic nucleic acid

  3. Double stranded nucleic acid biochips

    DOEpatents

    Chernov, Boris; Golova, Julia

    2006-05-23

    This invention describes a new method of constructing double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) microarrays based on the use of pre-synthesized or natural DNA duplexes without a stem-loop structure. The complementary oligonucleotide chains are bonded together by a novel connector that includes a linker for immobilization on a matrix. A non-enzymatic method for synthesizing double-stranded nucleic acids with this novel connector enables the construction of inexpensive and robust dsDNA/dsRNA microarrays. DNA-DNA and DNA-protein interactions are investigated using the microarrays.

  4. Parsing nucleic acid pseudoknotted secondary structure: algorithm and applications

    E-print Network

    Condon, Anne

    Parsing nucleic acid pseudoknotted secondary structure: algorithm and applications Baharak of pseudoknotted nucleic acid secondary structure is an impor- tant computational challenge. Prediction algorithms Nucleic acids - that is, DNA and RNA molecules - play fundamental roles in the cell: in translation

  5. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food... § 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of...

  6. Electronic Detection of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Umek, Robert M.; Lin, Sharon W.; Vielmetter, Jost; Terbrueggen, Robert H.; Irvine, Bruce; Yu, C. J.; Kayyem, Jon Faiz; Yowanto, Handy; Blackburn, Gary F.; Farkas, Daniel H.; Chen, Yin-Peng

    2001-01-01

    A novel platform for the electronic detection of nucleic acids on microarrays is introduced and shown to perform well as a selective detection system for applications in molecular diagnostics. A gold electrode in a printed circuit board is coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) containing DNA capture probes. Unlabeled nucleic acid targets are immobilized on the surface of the SAM through sequence-specific hybridization with the DNA capture probe. A separate signaling probe, containing ferrocene-modified nucleotides and complementary to the target in the region adjoining the capture probe binding site, is held in close proximity to the SAM in a sandwich complex. The SAM allows electron transfer between the immobilized ferrocenes and the gold, while insulating the electrode from soluble redox species, including unbound signaling probes. Here, we demonstrate sequence-specific detection of amplicons after simple dilution of the reaction product into hybridization buffer. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphism discrimination is shown. A genotyping chip for the C282Y single nucleotide polymorphism associated with hereditary hemochromatosis is used to confirm the genotype of six patients’ DNA. In addition, a gene expression-monitoring chip is described that surveys five genes that are differentially regulated in the cellular apoptosis response. Finally, custom modification of individual electrodes through sequence-specific hybridization demonstrates the potential of this system for infectious disease diagnostics. The versatility of the electronic detection platform makes it suitable for multiple applications in diagnostics and pharmacogenetics. PMID:11333303

  7. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N. (San Ramon, CA); Straume, Tore (Tracy, CA); Bogen, Kenneth T. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration.

  8. Identification of random nucleic acid sequence aberrations using dual capture probes which hybridize to different chromosome regions

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-03-24

    A method is provided for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations using two immobilization steps. According to the method, a nucleic acid sequence aberration is detected by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a first chromosome) and a second nucleic acid sequence type (e.g., from a second chromosome), the presence of the first and the second nucleic acid sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. In the method, immobilization of a first hybridization probe is used to isolate a first set of nucleic acids in the sample which contain the first nucleic acid sequence type. Immobilization of a second hybridization probe is then used to isolate a second set of nucleic acids from within the first set of nucleic acids which contain the second nucleic acid sequence type. The second set of nucleic acids are then detected, their presence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. 14 figs.

  9. Sequence Comparison and Phylogeny of Nucleotide Sequence of Coat Protein and Nucleic Acid Binding Protein of a Distinct Isolate of Shallot virus X from India.

    PubMed

    Majumder, S; Baranwal, V K

    2011-06-01

    Shallot virus X (ShVX), a type species in the genus Allexivirus of the family Alfaflexiviridae has been associated with shallot plants in India and other shallot growing countries like Russia, Germany, Netherland, and New Zealand. Coat protein (CP) and nucleic acid binding protein (NB) region of the virus was obtained by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from scales leaves of shallot bulbs. The partial cDNA contained two open reading frames encoding proteins of molecular weights of 28.66 and 14.18 kDa belonging to Flexi_CP super-family and viral NB super-family, respectively. The percent identity and phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of CP and NB region of the virus associated with shallot indicated that it was a distinct isolate of ShVX. PMID:23637504

  10. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2010-06-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Volume 13 Number 9 1985 Nucleic Acids Research Nomenclature for incompletely specified bases in nucleic acid sequences: recommendations 1984

    E-print Network

    Volume 13 Number 9 1985 Nucleic Acids Research Nomenclature for incompletely specified bases in nucleic acid sequences: recommendations 1984 Athel Comnish-Bowden* Department of Biochemistry, University nucleic acid sequence determ- ination, synthesis of mixed oligonucleotide probes and computer

  14. Real-Time Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection and Quantification of agr Functionality in Clinical Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Shopsin, Bo; Zhao, Yanan; Smyth, Davida; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Fang, Christina; Liu, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in health care settings. S. aureus clinical isolates vary in the function of the accessory gene regulator (agr), which governs the expression of virulence determinants, including surface and exoproteins, while agr activity has been correlated with patient outcome and treatment efficiency. Here we describe a duplex real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) detection and quantification platform for rapid determination of agr functionality in clinical isolates. Using the effector of agr response, RNAIII, as the assay target, and expression of the gyrase gene (gyrB) as a normalizer, we were able to accurately discriminate agr functionality in a single reaction. Time to positivity (TTP) ratios between gyrB and RNAIII showed very good correlation with the ratios of RNAIII versus gyrB RNA standard inputs and were therefore used as a simple readout to evaluate agr functionality. We validated the assay by characterizing 106 clinical S. aureus isolates, including strains with genetically characterized agr mutations. All isolates with dysfunctional agr activity exhibited a TTP ratio (TTPgyrB/TTPRNAIII) lower than 1.10, whereas agr-positive isolates had a TTP ratio higher than this value. The results showed that the assay was capable of determining target RNA ratios over 8 logs (10?3 to 104) with high sensitivity and specificity, suggesting the duplex NASBA assay may be useful for rapid determination of agr phenotypes and virulence potential in S. aureus clinical isolates. PMID:22219302

  15. Virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus.

    PubMed Central

    Regnery, R L; Johnson, K M; Kiley, M P

    1980-01-01

    The virion nucleic acid of Ebola virus consists of a single-stranded RNA with a molecular weight of approximately 4.0 x 10(6). The virion RNA did not bind to oligodeoxythymidylic acid-cellulose under conditions known to bind RNAs rich in polyadenylic acid and was not infectious under conditions which yielded infectious RNA from Sindbis virus, suggesting that Ebola virus virion nucleic acid is a negative-stranded RNA. PMID:7431486

  16. Diagnosis of fetal rubella infection by nucleic acid hybridization.

    PubMed

    Ho-Terry, L; Terry, G M; Londesborough, P; Rees, K R; Wielaard, F; Denissen, A

    1988-02-01

    The efficacy of nucleic acid hybridization for the diagnosis of rubella infection in experimental and clinical materials was compared with immunoblot and virus isolation techniques. Our results showed that nucleic acid hybridization is specific and rapid but gives false-negative results when compared with conventional virus isolation in some experimental although not in clinical materials so far examined. For this reason, a failure to demonstrate rubella virus in fetal specimens by this method alone cannot yet be taken as a sole criterion for ruling out fetal rubella infection. PMID:3351485

  17. Universal nucleic acids sample preparation method for cells, spores and their mixture

    DOEpatents

    Bavykin, Sergei (Darien, IL)

    2011-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method for extracting nucleic acids from biological samples. More specifically the invention relates to a universal method for extracting nucleic acids from unidentified biological samples. An advantage of the presently invented method is its ability to effectively and efficiently extract nucleic acids from a variety of different cell types including but not limited to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and/or recalcitrant organisms (i.e. spores). Unlike prior art methods which are focused on extracting nucleic acids from vegetative cell or spores, the present invention effectively extracts nucleic acids from spores, multiple cell types or mixtures thereof using a single method. Important that the invented method has demonstrated an ability to extract nucleic acids from spores and vegetative bacterial cells with similar levels effectiveness. The invented method employs a multi-step protocol which erodes the cell structure of the biological sample, isolates, labels, fragments nucleic acids and purifies labeled samples from the excess of dye.

  18. Dendrimers as Nanovectors for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Qi; Peng, Ling

    2013-09-01

    Nucleic acid based gene therapy holds great promise in the treatment of various diseases. However, the success of both DNA- and siRNAbased gene therapies depends critically on safe and efficient nucleic acid delivery systems. Owing to their well-defined structure and multivalent cooperativity, dendrimers have attracted particular attention as ideal nanocarriers for nucleic acid delivery. The present chapter highlights the current status of dendrimers as non-viral nanovectors for both DNA and siRNA delivery, focusing on the different dendrimers investigated for their delivery efficiency with respect to structural alterations in the view to developing safe and efficient nanovectors for gene therapy application.

  19. Probing Interactions Between Plant Virus Movement Proteins and Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Citovsky, Vitaly

    and Nucleic Acids Tzvi Tzfira and Vitaly Citovsky Abstract Most plant viruses move between plant cells is almost invariably binding to nucleic acids. Presumably, the MP­nucleic acid interaction is directly or not it binds nucleic acids, and to characterize the hallmark parameters of such binding, i.e., prefer- ence

  20. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of... Special Controls Guidance Document: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay for the Detection of Enterovirus...

  1. Replica amplification of nucleic acid arrays

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Mitra, Robi D. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

    2010-08-31

    Disclosed are improved methods of making and using immobilized arrays of nucleic acids, particularly methods for producing replicas of such arrays. Included are methods for producing high density arrays of nucleic acids and replicas of such arrays, as well as methods for preserving the resolution of arrays through rounds of replication. Also included are methods which take advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays for increased sensitivity in detection of sequences on arrays. Improved methods of sequencing nucleic acids immobilized on arrays utilizing single copies of arrays and methods taking further advantage of the availability of replicas of arrays are disclosed. The improvements lead to higher fidelity and longer read lengths of sequences immobilized on arrays. Methods are also disclosed which improve the efficiency of multiplex PCR using arrays of immobilized nucleic acids.

  2. Methods for analyzing nucleic acid sequences

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2011-05-17

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid. The method provides a complex comprising a polymerase enzyme, a target nucleic acid molecule, and a primer, wherein the complex is immobilized on a support Fluorescent label is attached to a terminal phosphate group of the nucleotide or nucleotide analog. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The time duration of the signal from labeled nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated is distinguished from freely diffusing labels by a longer retention in the observation volume for the nucleotides or nucleotide analogs that become incorporated than for the freely diffusing labels.

  3. In vitro evolution of nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.; Miller, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews recent published reports of in vitro selection and evolution of nucleic acids. These nucleic acids will bind to a target ligand or catalyze a specific chemical reaction. The terms aptamers and systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) are explained. The review focuses on protein binders, small molecule binders, and ribozymes obtained by directed evolution. The reference list identifies articles of special or outstanding interest.

  4. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Zhang, Kun (Brighton, MA)

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  5. Probe kit for identifying a base in a nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A. (Palo Alto, CA); Lipshutz, Robert J. (Palo Alto, CA); Huang, Xiaohua (Mt. View, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  6. Hybridization and sequencing of nucleic acids using base pair mismatches

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A. (Palo Alto, CA); Lipshutz, Robert J. (Palo Alto, CA); Huang, Xiaohua (Mt. View, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  7. Method of Identifying a Base in a Nucleic Acid

    DOEpatents

    Fodor, Stephen P. A. (Palo Alto, CA); Lipshutz, Robert J. (Palo Alto, CA); Huang, Xiaohua (Mt. View, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Devices and techniques for hybridization of nucleic acids and for determining the sequence of nucleic acids. Arrays of nucleic acids are formed by techniques, preferably high resolution, light-directed techniques. Positions of hybridization of a target nucleic acid are determined by, e.g., epifluorescence microscopy. Devices and techniques are proposed to determine the sequence of a target nucleic acid more efficiently and more quickly through such synthesis and detection techniques.

  8. Cell cycle nucleic acids, polypeptides and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Gordon-Kamm, William J. (Urbandale, IA); Lowe, Keith S. (Johnston, IA); Larkins, Brian A. (Tucson, AZ); Dilkes, Brian R. (Tucson, AZ); Sun, Yuejin (Westfield, IN)

    2007-08-14

    The invention provides isolated nucleic acids and their encoded proteins that are involved in cell cycle regulation. The invention further provides recombinant expression cassettes, host cells, transgenic plants, and antibody compositions. The present invention provides methods and compositions relating to altering cell cycle protein content, cell cycle progression, cell number and/or composition of plants.

  9. Understanding Nucleic Acid–Ion Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lipfert, Jan; Doniach, Sebastian; Das, Rhiju; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Ions surround nucleic acids in what is referred to as an ion atmosphere. As a result, the folding and dynamics of RNA and DNA and their complexes with proteins and with each other cannot be understood without a reasonably sophisticated appreciation of these ions’ electrostatic interactions. However, the underlying behavior of the ion atmosphere follows physical rules that are distinct from the rules of site binding that biochemists are most familiar and comfortable with. The main goal of this review is to familiarize nucleic acid experimentalists with the physical concepts that underlie nucleic acid–ion interactions. Throughout, we provide practical strategies for interpreting and analyzing nucleic acid experiments that avoid pitfalls from oversimplified or incorrect models. We briefly review the status of theories that predict or simulate nucleic acid–ion interactions and experiments that test these theories. Finally, we describe opportunities for going beyond phenomenological fits to a next-generation, truly predictive understanding of nucleic acid–ion interactions. PMID:24606136

  10. Nucleic acids, proteins, and chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Profy, A. T.; Walstrum, S. A.; Needels, M. C.; Bulack, S. C.; Lo, K. M.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with experimental results related, in one case, to the chirality of nucleotides, and, in another case, to the possibility of a link between the chirality of nucleic acids, and that of peptides. It has been found that aminoacylation of the 'internal' hydroxyl group of a dinucleoside monophosphate can occur stereoselectively. However, this reaction has not yet been made a part of a working peptide synthesis scheme. The formation and cleavage of oligonucleotides is considered. In the event of the formation of a helical complex between the oligonucleotide and the polymer, 1-prime,5-prime-bonds in the oligomer are found to become more resistant towards cleavage. The conditions required for peptide bond formation are examined, taking into account the known structures of RNA and possible mechanisms for prebiotic peptide bond formation. The possibility is considered that the 2-prime,5-prime-internucleotide linkage could have played an important part in the early days of biological peptide synthesis.

  11. Nucleic Acid Aptamers for Living Cell Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiangling; Lv, Yifan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xiaobing; Wang, Kemin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-06-01

    Cells as the building blocks of life determine the basic functions and properties of a living organism. Understanding the structure and components of a cell aids in the elucidation of its biological functions. Moreover, knowledge of the similarities and differences between diseased and healthy cells is essential to understanding pathological mechanisms, identifying diagnostic markers, and designing therapeutic molecules. However, monitoring the structures and activities of a living cell remains a challenging task in bioanalytical and life science research. To meet the requirements of this task, aptamers, as “chemical antibodies,” have become increasingly powerful tools for cellular analysis. This article reviews recent advances in the development of nucleic acid aptamers in the areas of cell membrane analysis, cell detection and isolation, real-time monitoring of cell secretion, and intracellular delivery and analysis with living cell models. Limitations of aptamers and possible solutions are also discussed.

  12. Microbial Nucleic Acid Sensing in Oral and Systemic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Crump, K E; Sahingur, S E

    2016-01-01

    One challenge in studying chronic infectious and inflammatory disorders is understanding how host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), specifically toll-like receptors (TLRs), sense and respond to pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, their communication with each other and different components of the immune system, and their role in propagating inflammatory stages of disease. The discovery of innate immune activation through nucleic acid recognition by intracellular PRRs such as endosomal TLRs (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9) and cytoplasmic proteins (absent in melanoma 2 and DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor) opened a new paradigm: Nucleic acid sensing is now implicated in multiple immune and inflammatory conditions (e.g., atherosclerosis, cancer), viral (e.g., human papillomavirus, herpes virus) and bacterial (e.g., Helicobacter pylori, pneumonia) diseases, and autoimmune disorders (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis). Clinical investigations reveal the overexpression of specific nucleic acid sensors in diseased tissues. In vivo animal models show enhanced disease progression associated with receptor activation. The involvement of nucleic acid sensors in various systemic conditions is further supported by studies reporting receptor knockout mice being either protected from or prone to disease. TLR9-mediated inflammation is also implicated in periodontal diseases. Considering that persistent inflammation in the oral cavity is associated with systemic diseases and that oral microbial DNA is isolated at distal sites, nucleic acid sensing may potentially be a link between oral and systemic diseases. In this review, we discuss recent advances in how intracellular PRRs respond to microbial nucleic acids and emerging views on the role of nucleic acid sensors in various systemic diseases. We also highlight new information on the role of intracellular PRRs in the pathogenesis of oral diseases including periodontitis and oral cavity cancer, which might offer future possibilities for disease prevention and therapy. PMID:26438211

  13. Nucleic acid crystallography: a view from the nucleic acid database.

    PubMed

    Berman, H M; Gelbin, A; Westbrook, J

    1996-01-01

    What are the future directions of the field of nucleic acid crystallography? Although there have been many duplex structures determined, the sample is still relatively small. This is especially true if one wants to derive enough information about the relationships between sequence and structure. Indeed, there are data for all the possible 10 dimer steps, but for some steps it is very limited. If the structural code resides in trimers or tetrad steps then there is simply not enough data to do meaningful statistical analyses. So the first direction that needs to be explored is the determination of more structures with more varied sequences. The other noticeable thing about the data is the shortness of the strands. While it is probably true that attempts to crystallize very long sequences will not meet with success, the idea of crystallizing sequences engineered to fit together via sticky ends such as has been done for the CAP-DNA complex (Schultz et al., 1990) should give data about the behavior of much longer stretches of DNA. The question of the effects of environment on the structure of DNA continues to be a very important one to address since DNA is rarely alone. The preliminary data we have analysed from the current sample shows that the conformation of some steps are very sensitive to packing type. Numerous studies of the hydration around DNA shows that there is a real synergy between the hydration structure and the base conformation. More data will allow further quantitation of these observations. RNA structure is the next very exciting frontier. The emerging structures of duplexes with internal loops, the two hammerhead ribozyme structures and the group I intron ribozyme have given us a glimpse of the complexity and elegance of this class of molecules. With the technology now in place to allow the determination of the structures of these molecules, the expectation is that now we will see a large increase in the number of these structures in the NDB. PMID:9284453

  14. Detection of nucleic acid sequences by invader-directed cleavage

    DOEpatents

    Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff Steven Grotelueschen (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor (Madison, WI); Olive, David Michael (Madison, WI); Prudent, James Robert (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The 5' nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based by charge.

  15. Multiple Sequence Alignments of Partially Coding Nucleic Acid Sequences

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Multiple Sequence Alignments of Partially Coding Nucleic Acid Sequences Roman R. Stocsits 1 , Ivo L sequence data. Nucleic acid sequences, however, exhibit a much larger sequence heterogeneity compared use of the amino acid sequence when aligning coding nucleic acid sequences. In many cases, however

  16. Multiple Sequence Alignments of Partially Coding Nucleic Acid Sequences

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Multiple Sequence Alignments of Partially Coding Nucleic Acid Sequences Roman R. Stocsits1 , Ivo L data. Nucleic acid sequences, however, exhibit a much larger sequence heterogeneity compared use of the amino acid sequence when aligning coding nucleic acid sequences. In many cases, however

  17. Limitations in the Use of Fluorescein Diacetate/Propidium Iodide (FDA/PI) and Cell Permeable Nucleic Acid Stains for Viability Measurements of Isolated Islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Vinc; Cholewa, Olivia Maria; Papas, Klearchos K

    2008-03-01

    BACKGROUND: A review of current literature shows that the combined use of the cell permeable esterase-substrate fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and the cell impermeant nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI) to be one of the most common fluorescence-based methods to assess the viability of isolated islets of Langerhans, and it is currently used for islet product release prior to transplantation in humans. However, results from this assay do not correlate with islet viability and function or islet transplantation success in animals or humans (Eckhard et al. 2004; Ricordi et al. 2001). This may be in part attributed to considerable differences as well as discrepancies in the use of these reagents on islets. We critically surveyed the literature and evaluated the impact of a number of variables associated with the use of FDA/PI to determine their reliability in assessing islet cell viability. In addition, we evaluated other fluorescent stains, such as SYTO(R)13, SYTO(R)24 and SYBR(R)14 as possible alternatives to FDA. RESULTS: We found that the stability of stains in storage and stock solutions, the number of islets stained, concentration of stains, staining incubation time, the buffer/media used, and the method of examining islets were significant in the final scoring of viability. For archival file photos, the exposure time and camera/software settings can also impact interpretation of viability. Although our results show that FDA does detect intracellular esterase activity and staining with PI does assess cell membrane integrity, the results obtained from using these stains did not correlate directly with expected islet function and viability per transplantation into diabetic athymic nude mice (Papas et al. 2007). In addition, the use of two nucleic acid stains, such as SYTO(R)13 and PI, for live/dead scoring exhibited staining anomalies which limit their accuracy in assessing islet viability. CONCLUSIONS: From a review of the literature and from our observations on the impact of reagent handling and various staining and imaging parameters used to visually evaluate islets, consistent interpretation of islet cell membrane integrity and viability is dependent upon a number of factors. We discuss the utility and limitations of these reagents in evaluating islet cell membrane integrity and viability. PMID:20814586

  18. Nucleic acid recovery from complex environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Kevin J

    2005-01-01

    Effective extraction of nucleic acid from environmental samples is an essential starting point in the molecular analysis of microbial communities in the environment. However, there are many different extraction methods in the literature and deciding which one is best suited to a particular sample is very difficult. This article details the important steps and choices in deciding how to extract nucleic acids from environmental samples and gives specific details of one method that has proven very successful at extracting DNA and RNA from a range of different samples. PMID:16260297

  19. Multifunctional Nucleic Acids for Tumor Cell Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pofahl, Monika; Wengel, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We report on a multifunctional nucleic acid, termed AptamiR, composed of an aptamer domain and an antimiR domain. This composition mediates cell specific delivery of antimiR molecules for silencing of endogenous micro RNA. The introduced multifunctional molecule preserves cell targeting, anti-proliferative and antimiR function in one 37-nucleotide nucleic acid molecule. It inhibits cancer cell growth and induces gene expression that is pathologically damped by an oncomir. These findings will have a strong impact on future developments regarding aptamer- and antimiR-related applications for tumor targeting and treatment. PMID:24494617

  20. Imaging Functional Nucleic Acid Delivery to Skin.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Roger L; Hickerson, Robyn P; González-González, Emilio; Flores, Manuel A; Speaker, Tycho P; Rogers, Faye A; Milstone, Leonard M; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Monogenic skin diseases arise from well-defined single gene mutations, and in some cases a single point mutation. As the target cells are superficial, these diseases are ideally suited for treatment by nucleic acid-based therapies as well as monitoring through a variety of noninvasive imaging technologies. Despite the accessibility of the skin, there remain formidable barriers for functional delivery of nucleic acids to the target cells within the dermis and epidermis. These barriers include the stratum corneum and the layered structure of the skin, as well as more locally, the cellular, endosomal and nuclear membranes. A wide range of technologies for traversing these barriers has been described and moderate success has been reported for several approaches. The lessons learned from these studies include the need for combinations of approaches to facilitate nucleic acid delivery across these skin barriers and then functional delivery across the cellular and nuclear membranes for expression (e.g., reporter genes, DNA oligonucleotides or shRNA) or into the cytoplasm for regulation (e.g., siRNA, miRNA, antisense oligos). The tools for topical delivery that have been evaluated include chemical, physical and electrical methods, and the development and testing of each of these approaches has been greatly enabled by imaging tools. These techniques allow delivery and real time monitoring of reporter genes, therapeutic nucleic acids and also triplex nucleic acids for gene editing. Optical imaging is comprised of a number of modalities based on properties of light-tissue interaction (e.g., scattering, autofluorescence, and reflectance), the interaction of light with specific molecules (e.g., absorbtion, fluorescence), or enzymatic reactions that produce light (bioluminescence). Optical imaging technologies operate over a range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic and if necessary, nanoscopic, and thus can be used to assess nucleic acid delivery to organs, regions, cells and even subcellular structures. Here we describe the animal models, reporter genes, imaging approaches and general strategies for delivery of nucleic acids to cells in the skin for local expression (e.g., plasmid DNA) or gene silencing (e.g., siRNA) with the intent of developing nucleic acid-based therapies to treat diseases of the skin. PMID:26530911

  1. Advances in nucleic acid-based detection methods.

    PubMed Central

    Wolcott, M J

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory techniques based on nucleic acid methods have increased in popularity over the last decade with clinical microbiologists and other laboratory scientists who are concerned with the diagnosis of infectious agents. This increase in popularity is a result primarily of advances made in nucleic acid amplification and detection techniques. Polymerase chain reaction, the original nucleic acid amplification technique, changed the way many people viewed and used nucleic acid techniques in clinical settings. After the potential of polymerase chain reaction became apparent, other methods of nucleic acid amplification and detection were developed. These alternative nucleic acid amplification methods may become serious contenders for application to routine laboratory analyses. This review presents some background information on nucleic acid analyses that might be used in clinical and anatomical laboratories and describes some recent advances in the amplification and detection of nucleic acids. PMID:1423216

  2. The Right Chemistry: an Updated Nucleic Acids Textbook

    E-print Network

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    The Right Chemistry: an Updated Nucleic Acids Textbook Jennifer A. Doudna* Howard Hughes Medical­Berkeley's graduate course in nucleic acid struc- ture and function, and with it the accompany- ing struggle to find of the now- classic Nucleic Acids in Chemistry and Biol- ogybyBlackburn,Gait,Loakes,andWilliams. Previous

  3. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section... nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. An enterovirus nucleic acid assay is a device that consists of primers, probes, enzymes, and controls for the amplification and detection of enterovirus ribonucleic...

  4. Nucleic Acid Structure Many thanks to Dave Bevan for providing

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Liqing

    .H. Freeman and Co. #12;The Bases of Nucleic Acids Berg, J.M. et al. (2002) Biochemistry, Fifth Edition, W polynucleotides and polypeptides · As in proteins, the sequence of side chains (bases in nucleic acids) plays an important role in function. · Nucleic acid structure depends on the sequence of bases and on the type

  5. On low energy barrier folding pathways for nucleic acid sequences

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Frank

    On low energy barrier folding pathways for nucleic acid sequences Leigh-Anne Mathieson and Anne Introduction Nucleic acid folding pathways--sequences of structures visited by DNA and RNA molecules circuits, artificial neural networks and much more [10, 13, 14, 19, 20]. Kinetics constrain nucleic acids

  6. Volume 14 Number 1 1986 Nucleic Acids Research Sequence landscapes

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Ross

    Volume 14 Number 1 1986 Nucleic Acids Research Sequence landscapes B.Clift, D.Haussler, R the structure of ropeating sequences In nucleic-acids, proteins and other texts. A portion of the sequence. INTRODUCTION It is often useful to examine nucleic-acid sequences for subsequences that are either unusually

  7. Purification of Nucleic Acids from Whole Blood Using Isotachophoresis

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    PAGE S1 Purification of Nucleic Acids from Whole Blood Using Isotachophoresis Supplementary the principle of ITP (Figure S-1); the method for on-chip nucleic acid quantitation (Figure S-3); a figure showing two methods for localizing extracted nucleic acids during ITP (Figure S-2); and the experimental

  8. Molecular assembly for high-performance bivalent nucleic acid inhibitor

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    Molecular assembly for high-performance bivalent nucleic acid inhibitor Youngmi Kim, Zehui Cao for designing multifunctional or better- performing ligands. However, few attempts to use nucleic acid aptamers as functional domains have been reported. In this study, we explore the design of bivalent nucleic acid ligands

  9. Paradigms for Computational Nucleic Acid Design Robert M. Dirks

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    Paradigms for Computational Nucleic Acid Design Robert M. Dirks , Milo Lin¶ , Erik Winfree 91125 Nucleic Acids Research, in press ABSTRACT The design of DNA and RNA sequences is critical for many of a unified approach to nucleic acid design as parameter sets are further refined. Finally, we observe

  10. Electrostatics of Nucleic Acid Folding under Conformational Peter C. Anthony,

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Electrostatics of Nucleic Acid Folding under Conformational Constraint Peter C. Anthony, Adelene Y: RNA folding is enabled by interactions between the nucleic acid and its ion atmosphere, the mobile quantitative and predictive understanding of nucleic acid folding. INTRODUCTION RNA molecules carry genetic

  11. Characterization of Protein -Nucleic Acid Interactions Application Note NT016

    E-print Network

    Palva, Tapio

    Characterization of Protein - Nucleic Acid Interactions Application Note NT016 The Decondensation) with nucleic acids. Df31 was recently shown to form be part of a RNA dependent regulating mechanism influencing., 2012). To determine whether Df31 is capable to bind nucleic acids and especially RNA Micro

  12. Annotating Nucleic Acid-Binding Function Based on Protein Structure

    E-print Network

    Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    Annotating Nucleic Acid-Binding Function Based on Protein Structure Eric W. Stawiski1 , Lydia M an automated approach to predict nucleic-acid-binding (NA-binding) proteins, specifi- cally DNA positive electrostatic patches on their surfaces, but that do not bind nucleic acids. q 2003 Elsevier

  13. Complexes of Nucleic Acids with Group I and II Cations

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    CHAPTER 1 Complexes of Nucleic Acids with Group I and II Cations CHIAOLONG HSIAO,a EMMANUEL experiments, show cations in diverse and sometimes unexpected environments. The interactions of nucleic acids is the coordination of Na1 , K1 , Ca21 and Mg21 by phosphates and nucleic acids. We describe coordination chemistry

  14. Human jagged polypeptide, encoding nucleic acids and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Li, Linheng (Seattle, WA); Hood, Leroy (Seattle, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides an isolated polypeptide exhibiting substantially the same amino acid sequence as JAGGED, or an active fragment thereof, provided that the polypeptide does not have the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:6. The invention further provides an isolated nucleic acid molecule containing a nucleotide sequence encoding substantially the same amino acid sequence as JAGGED, or an active fragment thereof, provided that the nucleotide sequence does not encode the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:5 or SEQ ID NO:6. Also provided herein is a method of inhibiting differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells by contacting the progenitor cells with an isolated JAGGED polypeptide, or active fragment thereof. The invention additionally provides a method of diagnosing Alagille Syndrome in an individual. The method consists of detecting an Alagille Syndrome disease-associated mutation linked to a JAGGED locus.

  15. Nucleic acid-coupled colorimetric analyte detectors

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA); Jonas, Ulrich (Mainz, DE)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the direct detection of analytes and membrane conformational changes through the detection of color changes in biopolymeric materials. In particular, the present invention provide for the direct colorimetric detection of analytes using nucleic acid ligands at surfaces of polydiacetylene liposomes and related molecular layer systems.

  16. Non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Domingo, Gonzalo; Gerlach, Jay; Tang, Dennis; Harvey, Darrel; Talwar, Nick; Fichtenholz, Alex; van Lew, Bill; LaBarre, Paul

    2008-02-01

    We have developed components of a diagnostic disposable platform that has the dual purpose of providing molecular diagnostics at the point of care (POC) as well as stabilizing specimens for further analysis via a centralized surveillance system. This diagnostic is targeted for use in low-resource settings by minimally trained health workers. The disposable device does not require any additional instrumentation and will be almost as rapid and simple to use as a lateral flow strip test - yet will offer the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The low-cost integrated device is composed of three functional components: (1) a sample-processing subunit that generates clean and stabilized DNA from raw samples containing nucleic acids, (2) a NA amplification subunit, and (3) visual amplicon detection sub-unit. The device integrates chemical exothermic heating, temperature stabilization using phase-change materials, and isothermal nucleic acid amplification. The aim of developing this system is to provide pathogen detection with NAAT-level sensitivity in low-resource settings where there is no access to instrumentation. If a disease occurs, patients would be tested with the disposable in the field. A nucleic acid sample would be preserved within the spent disposable which could be sent to a central laboratory facility for further analysis if needed.

  17. Flexible identification of structural objects in nucleic acid sequences: palindromes, mirror repeats, pseudoknots and

    E-print Network

    Sagot, Marie-France

    Flexible identification of structural objects in nucleic acid sequences: palindromes, mirror algorithms for flexibly identifying structural objects in nucleic acid se­ quences. These objects, and | # | is the size of the alphabet of nucleotides. keywords : nucleic acid sequence, nucleic structural object

  18. In vitro selection of functional nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. S.; Szostak, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    In vitro selection allows rare functional RNA or DNA molecules to be isolated from pools of over 10(15) different sequences. This approach has been used to identify RNA and DNA ligands for numerous small molecules, and recent three-dimensional structure solutions have revealed the basis for ligand recognition in several cases. By selecting high-affinity and -specificity nucleic acid ligands for proteins, promising new therapeutic and diagnostic reagents have been identified. Selection experiments have also been carried out to identify ribozymes that catalyze a variety of chemical transformations, including RNA cleavage, ligation, and synthesis, as well as alkylation and acyl-transfer reactions and N-glycosidic and peptide bond formation. The existence of such RNA enzymes supports the notion that ribozymes could have directed a primitive metabolism before the evolution of protein synthesis. New in vitro protein selection techniques should allow for a direct comparison of the frequency of ligand binding and catalytic structures in pools of random sequence polynucleotides versus polypeptides.

  19. Nucleic acid analysis using terminal-phosphate-labeled nucleotides

    DOEpatents

    Korlach, Jonas (Ithaca, NY); Webb, Watt W. (Ithaca, NY); Levene, Michael (Ithaca, NY); Turner, Stephen (Ithaca, NY); Craighead, Harold G. (Ithaca, NY); Foquet, Mathieu (Ithaca, NY)

    2008-04-22

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is followed in real time. The sequence is deduced by identifying which base is being incorporated into the growing complementary strand of the target nucleic acid by the catalytic activity of the nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme at each step in the sequence of base additions. A polymerase on the target nucleic acid molecule complex is provided in a position suitable to move along the target nucleic acid molecule and extend the oligonucleotide primer at an active site. A plurality of labelled types of nucleotide analogs are provided proximate to the active site, with each distinguishable type of nucleotide analog being complementary to a different nucleotide in the target nucleic acid sequence. The growing nucleic acid strand is extended by using the polymerase to add a nucleotide analog to the nucleic acid strand at the active site, where the nucleotide analog being added is complementary to the nucleotide of the target nucleic acid at the active site. The nucleotide analog added to the oligonucleotide primer as a result of the polymerizing step is identified. The steps of providing labelled nucleotide analogs, polymerizing the growing nucleic acid strand, and identifying the added nucleotide analog are repeated so that the nucleic acid strand is further extended and the sequence of the target nucleic acid is determined.

  20. Nucleic acids encoding antifungal polypeptides and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Altier, Daniel J. (Granger, IA); Ellanskaya, I. A. (Kyiv, UA); Gilliam, Jacob T. (Norwalk, IA); Hunter-Cevera, Jennie (Elliott City, MD); Presnail, James K (Avondale, PA); Schepers, Eric (Port Deposit, MD); Simmons, Carl R. (Des Moines, IA); Torok, Tamas (Richmond, CA); Yalpani, Nasser (Johnston, IA)

    2010-11-02

    Compositions and methods for protecting a plant from a pathogen, particularly a fungal pathogen, are provided. Compositions include an amino acid sequence, and variants and fragments thereof, for an antipathogenic polypeptide that was isolated from a fungal fermentation broth. Nucleic acid molecules that encode the antipathogenic polypeptides of the invention, and antipathogenic domains thereof, are also provided. A method for inducing pathogen resistance in a plant using the nucleotide sequences disclosed herein is further provided. The method comprises introducing into a plant an expression cassette comprising a promoter operably linked to a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention. Compositions comprising an antipathogenic polypeptide or a transformed microorganism comprising a nucleic acid of the invention in combination with a carrier and methods of using these compositions to protect a plant from a pathogen are further provided. Transformed plants, plant cells, seeds, and microorganisms comprising a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention are also disclosed.

  1. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G; Lyamichev, Victor I; Mast, Andrea L; Brow, Mary Ann D

    2012-10-16

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  2. Detection of nucleic acids by multiple sequential invasive cleavages 02

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Mast, Andrea L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of human cytomegalovirus nucleic acid in a sample.

  3. Diagnostic applications of nucleic acid circuits.

    PubMed

    Jung, Cheulhee; Ellington, Andrew D

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: While the field of DNA computing and molecular programming was engendered in large measure as a curiosity-driven exercise, it has taken on increasing importance for analytical applications. This is in large measure because of the modularity of DNA circuitry, which can serve as a programmable intermediate between inputs and outputs. These qualities may make nucleic acid circuits useful for making decisions relevant to diagnostic applications. This is especially true given that nucleic acid circuits can potentially directly interact with and be triggered by diagnostic nucleic acids and other analytes. Chemists are, by and large, unaware of many of these advances, and this Account provides a means of touching on what might seem to be an arcane field. We begin by explaining nucleic acid amplification reactions that can lead to signal amplification, such as catalytic hairpin assembly (CHA) and the hybridization chain reaction (HCR). In these circuits, a single-stranded input acts on kinetically trapped substrates via exposed toeholds and strand exchange reactions, refolding the substrates and allowing them to interact with one another. As multiple duplexes (CHA) or concatemers of increasing length (HCR) are generated, there are opportunities to couple these outputs to different analytical modalities, including transduction to fluorescent, electrochemical, and colorimetric signals. Because both amplification and transduction are at their root dependent on the programmability of Waston-Crick base pairing, nucleic acid circuits can be much more readily tuned and adapted to new applications than can many other biomolecular amplifiers. As an example, robust methods for real-time monitoring of isothermal amplification reactions have been developed recently. Beyond amplification, nucleic acid circuits can include logic gates and thresholding components that allow them to be used for analysis and decision making. Scalable and complex DNA circuits (seesaw gates) capable of carrying out operations such as taking square roots or implementing neural networks capable of learning have now been constructed. Into the future, we can expect that molecular circuitry will be designed to make decisions on the fly that reconfigure diagnostic devices or lead to new treatment options. PMID:24828239

  4. Method for analyzing nucleic acids by means of a substrate having a microchannel structure containing immobilized nucleic acid probes

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael; Foote, Robert S.

    2003-12-09

    A method and apparatus for analyzing nucleic acids includes immobilizing nucleic probes at specific sites within a microchannel structure and moving target nucleic acids into proximity to the probes in order to allow hybridization and fluorescence detection of specific target sequences.

  5. Method for analyzing nucleic acids by means of a substrate having a microchannel structure containing immobilized nucleic acid probes

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for analyzing nucleic acids includes immobilizing nucleic probes at specific sites within a microchannel structure and moving target nucleic acids into proximity to the probes in order to allow hybridization and fluorescence detection of specific target sequences.

  6. Intracellular Nucleic Acid Sensors and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Dwight H.; Beutler, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    A collection of molecular sensors has been defined by studies in the last decade that can recognize a diverse array of pathogens and initiate protective immune and inflammatory responses. However, if the molecular signatures recognized are shared by both foreign and self-molecules, as is the case of nucleic acids, then the responses initiated by these sensors may have deleterious consequences. Notably, this adverse occurrence may be of primary importance in autoimmune disease pathogenesis. In this case, microbe-induced damage or mishandled physiologic processes could lead to the generation of microparticles containing self-nucleic acids. These particles may inappropriately gain access to the cytosol or endolysosomes and, hence, engage resident RNA and DNA sensors. Evidence, as reviewed here, strongly indicates that these sensors are primary contributors to autoimmune disease pathogenesis, spearheading efforts toward development of novel therapeutics for these disorders. PMID:22029446

  7. Nucleic acids and molecular biology. Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    Nucleic Acids and Molecular Biology provides reviews which are state-of-the-art and up-to-the-minute on topics of current interest in molecular biology. The scope extends from structural chemistry of nucleic acids to the functional aspects, including transcription and the control of gene expression. The first volume reflects the editors' research interests, in that it contains a significant proportion of papers devoted to the structure and chemistry of nucleic acids, especially DNA, B-DNA (Dickerson, Patel), Z-DNA (Nordheim, Jovin), bent DNA (Diekmann) and cruciforms (Lilley) are discussed, in addition to DNA-drug complexes and mismatched DNA and its repair. Crystallogrpahy, NMR and other biophysical methods are represented. Nucleic acid-protein interactions are considered in papers devoted to recA and initiation of transcription. In addition, papers devoted to enhance elements, DNA topoisomerases and anti-sense RNA are included. Contents: Drugs and Minor Groove Binding in B-DNA: Netropsin and Hoechst 33258. The Molecular Structure of Base Pair Mismatches. Interactions Between Antitumor Drugs and DNA. Conformation of DNA Base Pair Mismatches in Solution. Energetics of the B-Z DNA Transition. Z-DNA: Exploring the Biological Signficance. The Extrusion of Cruciform Structures in Supercoiled DNA. Kinetics and Mechanisms. DNA Curvature. Fidelity of DNA Synthesis. RecA Protein and Its Interaction with DNA. Initiation of Prokaryotic Transcription - Kinetic and Structural Approaches. Yeast DNA Toposiomerases and Their Structural Genes. Antisense RNA. Cell-Type Specificity of Transcription: The Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Enhancer as a Model System.

  8. Carbohydrate Polymers for Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sizovs, Antons; McLendon, Patrick M.; Srinivasachari, Sathya

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates have been investigated and developed as delivery vehicles for shuttling nucleic acids into cells. In this review, we present the state of the art in carbohydrate-based polymeric vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, with the focus on the recent successes in preclinical models, both in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric scaffolds based on the natural polysaccharides chitosan, hyaluronan, pullulan, dextran, and schizophyllan each have unique properties and potential for modification, and these results are discussed with the focus on facile synthetic routes and favorable performance in biological systems. Many of these carbohydrates have been used to develop alternative types of biomaterials for nucleic acid delivery to typical polyplexes, and these novel materials are discussed. Also presented are polymeric vehicles that incorporate copolymerized carbohydrates into polymer backbones based on polyethylenimine and polylysine and their effect on transfection and biocompatibility. Unique scaffolds, such as clusters and polymers based on cyclodextrin (CD), are also discussed, with the focus on recent successes in vivo and in the clinic. These results are presented with the emphasis on the role of carbohydrate and charge on transfection. Use of carbohydrates as molecular recognition ligands for cell-type specific delivery is also briefly reviewed. We contend that carbohydrates have contributed significantly to progress in the field of non-viral DNA delivery, and these new discoveries are impactful for developing new vehicles and materials for treatment of human disease. PMID:21504102

  9. A plastic microchip for nucleic acid purification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuxin; Cady, Nathaniel C; Batt, Carl A

    2007-10-01

    A microchip for purifying nucleic acids from bacterial pathogens was designed and fabricated in plastic. The fabricated plastic microchips were tested for their ability to purify nucleic acids from the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). These chips were constructed using rapid and low-cost plastic fabrication techniques including hot embossing and plastic casting. Silicon molds fabricated by photolithography and dry etching were used for chip prototyping. Zeonor plastic (poly (cycloolefin) resin) and epoxy microchips were fabricated using hot embossing and plastic casting, respectively. A low temperature sputtering technique was used to coat a layer of silicon dioxide onto the channel region for nucleic acid binding in chaotropic salt solutions. The purification channels contain an array of features to increase the surface area for DNA binding and purification. DNA was quantified with PicoGreen fluorescent dye and the quality of the material as a substrate for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was tested using target specific primers. DNA could be recovered from the microchip and detected using PCR from a minimum of 10(6) of L. monocytogenes, E. coli, and S. typhimurium cells, respectively. With the simplicity of the plastic chip's fabrication and DNA purification, our microchip makes it ideal for a miniaturized DNA testing system. PMID:17530410

  10. Optimizing the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, David Yu; Chen, Sherry Xi; Yin, Peng

    2012-03-01

    The specific hybridization of complementary sequences is an essential property of nucleic acids, enabling diverse biological and biotechnological reactions and functions. However, the specificity of nucleic acid hybridization is compromised for long strands, except near the melting temperature. Here, we analytically derived the thermodynamic properties of a hybridization probe that would enable near-optimal single-base discrimination and perform robustly across diverse temperature, salt and concentration conditions. We rationally designed ‘toehold exchange’ probes that approximate these properties, and comprehensively tested them against five different DNA targets and 55 spurious analogues with energetically representative single-base changes (replacements, deletions and insertions). These probes produced discrimination factors between 3 and 100+ (median, 26). Without retuning, our probes function robustly from 10 °C to 37 °C, from 1 mM Mg2+ to 47 mM Mg2+, and with nucleic acid concentrations from 1 nM to 5 µM. Experiments with RNA also showed effective single-base change discrimination.

  11. Nucleic Acid Database: a Repository of Three-Dimensional Information about Nucleic Acids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Berman, H. M.; Olson, W. K.; Beveridge, D. L.; Westbrook, J.; Gelbin, A.; Demeny, T.; Hsieh, S. H.; Srinivasan, A. R.; Schneider, B.

    The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) provides 3-D structural information about nucleic acids.  It is a relational database designed to facilitate the easy search for nucleic acid structures using any of the stored primary or derived structural features. Reports can then be created describing any properties of the selected structures and structures may be viewed in several different formats, including the mmCIF format, the NDB Atlas format, the NDB coordinate format, or the PDB coordinate format. Browsing structure images created directly from coordinates in the repository can also be done. More than 7000 structures have been released as of May 2014. This website also includes a number of specialized tools and interfaces. The NDB Project is funded by the National Institutes of Health and has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy in the past.

  12. CRC handbook of chromatography: Nucleic acids and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulovic, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book's contents include: Structure Elucidation of Nucleic Acid Components; Fundamentals of HPLC; Analysis of Nucleic Acids and Oligonucleotides; Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Tissues; Gel Filtration Chromatography of RNAs and DNS Fragments; Separation of tRNAs and Oligonucleotides by Mixed Mode Chromatography; Anion-Exchange and Reversed-Phase HPLC of Synthetic Oligonucleotides; Nucleic Acid Components in Biological Fluids; RPLC Separation of RNA and DNA Hydrolysates; Nucleotides in Tissue Extracts; and Determination of Adenine Nucleotides and Creatine Phosphate in Various Mammalian Tissues.

  13. Flexibility of nucleic acids: from DNA to RNA

    E-print Network

    Lei Bao; Xi Zhang; Lei Jin; Zhi-Jie Tan

    2015-09-23

    The structural flexibility of nucleic acids plays a key role in many fundamental life processes, such as gene replication and expression, DNA-protein recognition, and gene regulation. To obtain a thorough understanding of nucleic acid flexibility, extensive studies have been performed using various experimental methods and theoretical models. In this review, we will introduce the progress that has been made in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids including DNAs and RNAs, and will emphasize the experimental findings and the effects of salt, temperature, and sequence. Finally, we will discuss the major unanswered questions in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids.

  14. Flexibility of nucleic acids: from DNA to RNA

    E-print Network

    Bao, Lei; Jin, Lei; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The structural flexibility of nucleic acids plays a key role in many fundamental life processes, such as gene replication and expression, DNA-protein recognition, and gene regulation. To obtain a thorough understanding of nucleic acid flexibility, extensive studies have been performed using various experimental methods and theoretical models. In this review, we will introduce the progress that has been made in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids including DNAs and RNAs, and will emphasize the experimental findings and the effects of salt, temperature, and sequence. Finally, we will discuss the major unanswered questions in understanding the flexibility of nucleic acids.

  15. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2015-04-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2014-02-25

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  17. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2013-07-16

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  18. 7-9/99 Neuman Chapter 23 Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    -9 DNA RNA Tautomers of Heterocyclic Bases Forces that Influence Nucleic Acid Structure (23.1E) 237-9/99 Neuman Chapter 23 0 Chapter 23 Nucleic Acids from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Ketones, Aldehydes, and Carboxylic Acids 14. Substituent Effects 15. Carbonyl Compounds. Esters, Amides

  19. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-04-01

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  20. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-11-11

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  1. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2010-10-12

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2009-05-05

    The present invention provides an endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  3. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2010-10-05

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  4. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2012-02-14

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. EGVI endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-06-06

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl6, and the corresponding EGVI amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVI, recombinant EGVI proteins and methods for producing the same.

  6. EGVIII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-23

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl8, and the corresponding EGVIII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVIII, recombinant EGVIII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  7. EGVII endoglucanase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-16

    The present invention provides a novel endoglucanase nucleic acid sequence, designated egl7, and the corresponding EGVII amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding EGVII, recombinant EGVII proteins and methods for producing the same.

  8. Nucleic acid amplification using modular branched primers

    DOEpatents

    Ulanovsky, Levy (Westmont, IL)

    2001-01-01

    Methods and compositions expand the options for making primers for use in amplifying nucleic acid segments. The invention eliminates the step of custom synthesis of primers for Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). Instead of being custom-synthesized, a primer is replaced by a combination of several oligonucleotide modules selected from a pre-synthesized library. A modular combination of just a few oligonucleotides essentially mimics the performance of a conventional, custom-made primer by matching the sequence of the priming site in the template. Each oligonucleotide module has a segment that matches one of the stretches within the priming site.

  9. Nucleic acid probes in diagnostic medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberry, Phillip A.

    1991-01-01

    The need for improved diagnostic procedures is outlined and variations in probe technology are briefly reviewed. A discussion of the application of probe technology to the diagnosis of disease in animals and humans is presented. A comparison of probe versus nonprobe diagnostics and isotopic versus nonisotopic probes is made and the current state of sequence amplification is described. The current market status of nucleic acid probes is reviewed with respect to their diagnostic application in human and veterinary medicine. Representative product examples are described and information on probes being developed that offer promise as future products is discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. 866...Reagents § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. 866...Reagents § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. 866...Reagents § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay...

  13. Simultaneous Purification and Fractionation of Nucleic Acids and Proteins from Complex Samples Using Bidirectional

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Simultaneous Purification and Fractionation of Nucleic Acids and Proteins from Complex Samples and fractionate nucleic acids and proteins from complex samples using isotachophoresis (ITP). We have developed binding of proteins and DNA. Accessing correlated information between nucleic acids and proteins

  14. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 ...material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification . Quality...material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material for...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

  18. A Partition Function Algorithm for Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure Including Pseudoknots

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Niles A.

    A Partition Function Algorithm for Nucleic Acid Secondary Structure Including Pseudoknots ROBERT M 2003 Abstract: Nucleic acid secondary structure models usually exclude pseudoknots due implemented to predict the secondary structure or structures that a given nucleic acid sequence will adopt

  19. Design of Minimally Strained Nucleic Acid Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, William B.; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2006-01-01

    A practical theoretical framework is presented for designing and classifying minimally strained nucleic acid nanotubes. The structures are based on the double crossover motif where each double-helical domain is connected to each of its neighbors via two or more Holliday-junctionlike reciprocal exchanges, such that each domain is parallel to the main tube axis. Modeling is based on a five-parameter characterization of the segmented double-helical structure. Once the constraint equations have been derived, the primary design problem for a minimally strained N-domain structure is reduced to solving three simultaneous equations in 2N+2 variables. Symmetry analysis and tube merging then allow for the design of a wide variety of tubes, which can be tailored to satisfy requirements such as specific inner and outer radii, or multiple lobed structures. The general form of the equations allows similar techniques to be applied to various nucleic acid helices: B-DNA, A-DNA, RNA, DNA-PNA, or others. Possible applications for such tubes include nanoscale scaffolding as well as custom-shaped enclosures for other nano-objects. PMID:16581842

  20. Cancer immunotherapy via nucleic acid aptamers.

    PubMed

    Khedri, Mostafa; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Pouria; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, immune therapy has become a standard treatment for a variety of cancers. Monoclonal antibodies, immune adjuvants and vaccines against oncogenic viruses are now well-established cancer therapies. Immune modulation is a principal element of supportive care for many high-dose chemotherapy regimens. Aptamers are short nucleic acids that bind to defined targets with high affinity and specificity. The first aptamers have been selected around two decades ago by an in vitro process named SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment). Since then, numerous aptamers with specificities for a variety of targets from small molecules to proteins or even whole cells have been selected. Targeting immunomodulatory ligands in the progressive tumor lesions of the patients would be prophylactic or therapeutic and may reduce drug-associated toxicities. A new class of inhibitory and agonistic ligands composed of short oligonucleotide (ODN) aptamers was developed recently that exhibited bioactivities comparable or superior to that of antibodies. This paper addressed progress in cancer immunotherapy with nucleic acid aptamers and highlighted recent developments either in immune system targeting or in immunotherapy methods involved aptamers. We discussed aptamer limitations when used as therapeutic agents for cancer treatment and suggested ways to overcome those limitations. PMID:26603636

  1. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing in Suspected Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esernio-Jenssen, Debra; Barnes, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that site-specific cultures be obtained, when indicated, for sexually victimized children. Nucleic acid amplification testing is a highly sensitive and specific methodology for identifying sexually transmitted infections. Nucleic acid amplification tests are also less invasive than culture, and this…

  2. Solid phase sequencing of double-stranded nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Dong-Jing (Waltham, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA); Koster, Hubert (Concord, MA); Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing of target double-stranded nucleic acid sequences, to nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probe comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include nucleic acids in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated determination of molecular weights and identification of the target sequence.

  3. Nucleic acids encoding metal uptake transporters and their uses

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I. (La Jolla, CA); Antosiewicz, Danuta M. (Warsaw, PL); Schachtman, Daniel P. (Tranmere, AU); Clemens, Stephan (San Diego, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides LCT1 nucleic acids which encode metal ion uptake transporters. The invention also provides methods of modulating heavy metal and alkali metal uptake in plants. The methods involve producing transgenic plants comprising a recombinant expression cassette containing an LCT1 nucleic acid linked to a plant promoter.

  4. Nucleic acid based fluorescent sensor for mercury detection

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Juewen

    2013-02-05

    A nucleic acid enzyme comprises an oligonucleotide containing thymine bases. The nucleic acid enzyme is dependent on both Hg.sup.2+and a second ion as cofactors, to produce a product from a substrate. The substrate comprises a ribonucleotide, a deoxyribonucleotide, or both.

  5. Detecting Microbial Nucleic Acids within Nematode Bodies: A Photo Essay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed a taxa-specific, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique to localize microbial nucleic acids within nematode bodies. This technique involves hybridization of a nucleic acid probe to target microbial sequences. Hybridization is detected microscopically, as the probes have f...

  6. Digital MDA for enumeration of total nucleic acid contamination

    E-print Network

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Digital MDA for enumeration of total nucleic acid contamination Paul C. Blainey and Stephen R). Here we report digital MDA (dMDA), an ultrasensitive method for quantifying nucleic acid fragments in hot water, rinsed in hot water, treated with a 0.6% hypochlor- ite solution and rinsed with sterile

  7. Simultaneous purification and fractionation of nucleic acids and proteins from complex

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Simultaneous purification and fractionation of nucleic acids and proteins from complex samples purification and fractionation of nucleic acids and proteins from complex biological samples: · Figure S-1

  8. Cellular nucleic acid binding protein binds G-rich single-stranded nucleic acids and may function as a nucleic acid chaperone.

    PubMed

    Armas, Pablo; Nasif, Sofía; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2008-02-15

    Cellular nucleic acid binding protein (CNBP) is a small single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein made of seven Zn knuckles and an Arg-Gly rich box. CNBP is strikingly conserved among vertebrates and was reported to play broad-spectrum functions in eukaryotic cells biology. Neither its biological function nor its mechanisms of action were elucidated yet. The main goal of this work was to gain further insights into the CNBP biochemical and molecular features. We studied Bufo arenarum CNBP (bCNBP) binding to single-stranded nucleic acid probes representing the main reported CNBP putative targets. We report that, although bCNBP is able to bind RNA and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes in vitro, it binds RNA as a preformed dimer whereas both monomer and dimer are able to bind to ssDNA. A systematic analysis of variant probes shows that the preferred bCNBP targets contain unpaired guanosine-rich stretches. These data expand the knowledge about CNBP binding stoichiometry and begins to dissect the main features of CNBP nucleic acid targets. Besides, we show that bCNBP presents a highly disordered predicted structure and promotes the annealing and melting of nucleic acids in vitro. These features are typical of proteins that function as nucleic acid chaperones. Based on these data, we propose that CNBP may function as a nucleic acid chaperone through binding, remodeling, and stabilizing nucleic acids secondary structures. This novel CNBP biochemical activity broadens the field of study about its biological function and may be the basis to understand the diverse ways in which CNBP controls gene expression. PMID:17661353

  9. Applications of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques in studying nucleic acids and nucleic acid-functionalized nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peiwen; Yu, Yang; McGhee, Claire E.; Tan, Li Huey

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we summarize recent progresses in the application of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques for nucleic acid research that takes advantage of high-flux and high-brilliance electromagnetic radiation from synchrotron sources. The first section of the review focuses on the characterization of the structure and folding processes of nucleic acids using different types of synchrotron-based spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation circular dichroism, X-ray footprinting and small-angle X-ray scattering. In the second section, the characterization of nucleic acid-based nanostructures, nucleic acid-functionalized nanomaterials and nucleic acid-lipid interactions using these spectroscopic techniques is summarized. Insights gained from these studies are described and future directions of this field are also discussed. PMID:25205057

  10. Mechanism of helicase translocation along nucleic acid

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2012-01-01

    In cells, helicase translocation along nucleic acid is essential for many biological processes. However, so far, the mechanism of this translocation is not fully understood. Recent studies show that helicase might translocate through two processes, active process and passive process, with different translocation rate. In this study, a model including such two processes is presented. In which, each of these two processes consists of two sub-processes, chemical sub-process in which needed translocation factors are attached, and mechanochemical sub-process in which helicase makes a forward translocation step. Helicase can switch stochastically between these two processes with external force dependent rates. By this model, ribosome translocation along message RNA is detailed discussed. We found that, with the increase of external force, the mean translocation rate of ribosome increases from one lower limit to one upper limit, and both of these two limits increase with concentrations of the translocation factors. ...

  11. Fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum(III) and the fluorometry of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Zhi Huang; Ke An Li; Shen Yang Tong

    1996-07-01

    The ternary fluorescent complexes of nucleic acids/8-hydroxyquinoline/lanthanum (III) were studied. Nucleic acids in the study involve natured and thermally denatured calf thymus DNA, fish sperm DNA and yeast RNA. In the range of PH 8.0-8.4 (controlled by NH{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}Cl buffer) ternary fluorescent complexes are formed which emit at 485.0 nm for calf thymus DNA and at 480.0 nm for fish sperm DNA when excited at 265.0 nm. Based on the fluorescence reactions sensitive fluorometric methods for nucleic acids were proposed. Using optimal conditions, the calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.4 --3.6 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for calf thymus DNA, 0.4 -- 4.0 {mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for fish sperm DNA and 0.4 --4.0{mu}g{sup .}ml{sup -1} for yeast RNA, respectively. Five synthetic samples were determined with satisfaction.

  12. ATR-IR spectroscopy as applied to nucleic acid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanyugin, Andriy V.; Samijlenko, Svitlana P.; Martynenko, Olena I.; Hovorun, Dmytro M.

    2005-07-01

    For the first time the ATR technique was applied to obtain IR absorption spectra of DNA and RNA dry films. There was worked out procedure of the nucleic acid removal from germanium plate, which obviously was a main obstacle to application of ATR-IR spectroscopy to nucleic acids. This technique of IR spectroscopy was applied to confirmation of RNA tropism of aurin tricarboxylic acid observed by molecular biological methods.

  13. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje

    2006-07-04

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  14. Methods and compositions for efficient nucleic acid sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Drmanac, Radoje (850 E. Greenwich Pl., Palo Alto, CA 94303)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed are novel methods and compositions for rapid and highly efficient nucleic acid sequencing based upon hybridization with two sets of small oligonucleotide probes of known sequences. Extremely large nucleic acid molecules, including chromosomes and non-amplified RNA, may be sequenced without prior cloning or subcloning steps. The methods of the invention also solve various current problems associated with sequencing technology such as, for example, high noise to signal ratios and difficult discrimination, attaching many nucleic acid fragments to a surface, preparing many, longer or more complex probes and labelling more species.

  15. Electrical and Electrochemical Monitoring of Nucleic Acid Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Goda, Tatsuro; Tabata, Miyuki; Miyahara, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification is a gold standard technique for analyzing a tiny amount of nucleotides in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics, food safety, and environmental testing. Electrical and electrochemical monitoring of the amplification process draws attention over conventional optical methods because of the amenability toward point-of-care applications as there is a growing demand for nucleic acid sensing in situations outside the laboratory. A number of electrical and electrochemical techniques coupled with various amplification methods including isothermal amplification have been reported in the last 10?years. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the electrical and electrochemical monitoring of nucleic acid amplification. PMID:25798440

  16. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  17. Nucleic Acid Conformational Changes Essential for HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein-mediated Inhibition of

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Nucleic Acid Conformational Changes Essential for HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein-mediated Inhibition) is a nucleic acid chaperone protein that has been shown to greatly facilitate the nucleic acid rearrangements and a TAR-containing acceptor RNA molecule, we find that when both nucleic acids are present, NC facilitates

  18. Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn315

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn315 First published online 4 Jun 2008;Nucleic Acids Res://nar.oxfordjournals.org Additional information about Nucleic Acids Research, including how to subscribe can be found at Published -- Bio-Medical Library on 20 June 2008http://nar.oxfordjournals.orgDownloaded from #12;Nucleic Acids

  19. Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul S. (Baltimore, MD); Ts'o, Paul O.P. (Lutherville, MD)

    1999-06-15

    A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid and includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional.

  20. Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Miller, P.S.; Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1999-06-15

    A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid is provided. It includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional. 16 figs.

  1. Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn544

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn544 First published online 4 Oct 2008;Nucleic Acids Res://nar.oxfordjournals.org Additional information about Nucleic Acids Research, including how to subscribe can be found at Published on 8 October 2008http://nar.oxfordjournals.orgDownloaded from #12;Nucleic Acids Research, 2008, 1­8 doi

  2. Nucleic acid duplexes incorporating a dissociable covalent base pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, K.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    We have used molecular modeling techniques to design a dissociable covalently bonded base pair that can replace a Watson-Crick base pair in a nucleic acid with minimal distortion of the structure of the double helix. We introduced this base pair into a potential precursor of a nucleic acid double helix by chemical synthesis and have demonstrated efficient nonenzymatic template-directed ligation of the free hydroxyl groups of the base pair with appropriate short oligonucleotides. The nonenzymatic ligation reactions, which are characteristic of base paired nucleic acid structures, are abolished when the covalent base pair is reduced and becomes noncoplanar. This suggests that the covalent base pair linking the two strands in the duplex is compatible with a minimally distorted nucleic acid double-helical structure.

  3. Optimization of Encoded Hydrogel Particles for Nucleic Acid Quantification

    E-print Network

    Pregibon, Daniel C.

    The accurate quantification of nucleic acids is of utmost importance for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery, and basic science research. These applications require the concurrent measurement of multiple targets while ...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225 Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification . An...

  5. Simple Bulk Readout of Digital Nucleic Acid Quantification Assays

    E-print Network

    Morinishi, Leanna S.

    Digital assays are powerful methods that enable detection of rare cells and counting of individual nucleic acid molecules. However, digital assays are still not routinely applied, due to the cost and specific equipment ...

  6. Entrapment of nucleic acids in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Monnard, P A; Oberholzer, T; Luisi, P

    1997-10-01

    The entrapment efficiency of three main methods used in the literature for the encapsulation of nucleic acids in liposomes were studied using 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes. In particular the reverse phase method, the dehydration/rehydration method, and the freeze/thawing method were compared to each other under standardised conditions, i.e. using in every case the same concentration of guest molecules (DNA, tRNA and ATP as low molecular weight analogue) and equally extruded liposomes. The percentage of entrapment strictly referred to the material localized inside the liposomes, i.e. particular care was devoted to ruling out the contribution of the nucleic acid material bound to the outer surface of the liposomes: this was eliminated by extensive enzymatic digestion prior to column chromatography. Depending on the conditions used, the percentage of the entrapped material varied between 10 and 54% of the initial amount. Further, the encapsulation efficiency was markedly affected by the salt concentration, by the size of liposomes, but to a lower degree by the molecular weight of the guest molecules. In general, we observed that the freeze/thawing encapsulation procedure was the most efficient one. In a second part of the work the freeze/thawing method was applied to encapsulate DNA (369 bp and 3368 bp, respectively) using liposomes obtained from POPC mixed with 1-10% charged cosurfactant, i.e. phosphatidylserine (PS) or didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), respectively. Whereas PS had no significant effect, the entrapment efficiency went up to 60% in POPC/DDAB (97.5:2.5) liposomes. The large entrapment efficiency of DNA permits spectroscopic investigations of the DNA encapsulated in the water pool of the liposomes. UV absorption and circular dichroism spectra were practically the same as in water, indicating no appreciable perturbation of the electronic transitions or of the conformation of the entrapped biopolymer. This was in contrast to the DNA bound externally to the POPC/DDAB liposomes which showed significant spectral changes with respect to DNA dissolved in water. PMID:9370243

  7. Changes of nucleic acids of wheat seedlings under spaceflight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytnyk, K. M.; Musatenko, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the growth of wheat seedlings and their nucleic acid content were studied. It was shown that both space and ground seedlings have almost the same appearance, dry weight and nucleic acid content in the root, coleoptile and leaves. The only difference found is in the RNA and DNA content, which is twice as much in the ground seedling apices as in the space-grown seedlings.

  8. Nucleic acid in-situ hybridization detection of infectious agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Curtis T.

    2000-04-01

    Limitations of traditional culture methods and newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for detection and speciation of infectious agents demonstrate the need for more rapid and better diagnostics. Nucleic acid hybridization is a detection technology that has gained wide acceptance in cancer and prenatal cytogenetics. Using a modification of the nucleic acid hybridization technique known as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, infectious agents can be detected in a variety of specimens with high sensitivity and specificity. The specimens derive from all types of human and animal sources including body fluids, tissue aspirates and biopsy material. Nucleic acid hybridization can be performed in less than one hour. The result can be interpreted either using traditional fluorescence microscopy or automated platforms such as micro arrays. This paper demonstrates proof of concept for nucleic acid hybridization detection of different infectious agents. Interpretation within a cytologic and histologic context is possible with fluorescence microscopic analysis, thereby providing confirmatory evidence of hybridization. With careful probe selection, nucleic acid hybridization promises to be a highly sensitive and specific practical diagnostic alternative to culture, traditional staining methods, immunohistochemistry and complicated nucleic acid amplification tests.

  9. Sensors of Infection: Viral Nucleic Acid PRRs in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Poynter, Sarah; Lisser, Graeme; Monjo, Andrea; DeWitte-Orr, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Viruses produce nucleic acids during their replication, either during genomic replication or transcription. These nucleic acids are present in the cytoplasm or endosome of an infected cell, or in the extracellular space to be sensed by neighboring cells during lytic infections. Cells have mechanisms of sensing virus-generated nucleic acids; these nucleic acids act as flags to the cell, indicating an infection requiring defense mechanisms. The viral nucleic acids are called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and the sensors that bind them are called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). This review article focuses on the most recent findings regarding nucleic acids PRRs in fish, including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), cytoplasmic DNA sensors (CDSs) and class A scavenger receptors (SR-As). It also discusses what is currently known of the downstream signaling molecules for each PRR family and the resulting antiviral response, either type I interferons (IFNs) or pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The review highlights what is known but also defines what still requires elucidation in this economically important animal. Understanding innate immune systems to virus infections will aid in the development of better antiviral therapies and vaccines for the future. PMID:26184332

  10. Continuously tunable nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lucia R; Wang, Juexiao Sherry; Fang, John Z; R Evans, Emily; Pinto, Alessandro; Pekker, Irena; Boykin, Richard; Ngouenet, Celine; Webster, Philippa J; Beechem, Joseph; Zhang, David Yu

    2015-12-01

    In silico-designed nucleic acid probes and primers often do not achieve favorable specificity and sensitivity tradeoffs on the first try, and iterative empirical sequence-based optimization is needed, particularly in multiplexed assays. We present a novel, on-the-fly method of tuning probe affinity and selectivity by adjusting the stoichiometry of auxiliary species, which allows for independent and decoupled adjustment of the hybridization yield for different probes in multiplexed assays. Using this method, we achieved near-continuous tuning of probe effective free energy. To demonstrate our approach, we enforced uniform capture efficiency of 31 DNA molecules (GC content, 0-100%), maximized the signal difference for 11 pairs of single-nucleotide variants and performed tunable hybrid capture of mRNA from total RNA. Using the Nanostring nCounter platform, we applied stoichiometric tuning to simultaneously adjust yields for a 24-plex assay, and we show multiplexed quantitation of RNA sequences and variants from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. PMID:26480474

  11. Selenium Derivatization of Nucleic Acids for Crystallography

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang,J.; Sheng, J.; Carrasco, N.; Huang, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The high-resolution structure of the DNA (5'-GTGTACA-C-3') with the selenium derivatization at the 2'-position of T2 was determined via MAD and SAD phasing. The selenium-derivatized structure (1.28 {angstrom} resolution) with the 2'-Se modification in the minor groove is isomorphorous to the native structure (2.0 {angstrom}). To directly compare with the conventional bromine derivatization, we incorporated bromine into the 5-postion of T4, determined the bromine-derivatized DNA structure at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution, and found that the local backbone torsion angles and solvent hydration patterns were altered in the structure with the Br incorporation in the major groove. Furthermore, while the native and Br-derivatized DNAs needed over a week to form reasonable-size crystals, we observed that the Se-derivatized DNAs grew crystals overnight with high-diffraction quality, suggesting that the Se derivatization facilitated the crystal formation. In addition, the Se-derivatized DNA sequences crystallized under a broader range of buffer conditions, and generally had a faster crystal growth rate. Our experimental results indicate that the selenium derivatization of DNAs may facilitate the determination of nucleic acid X-ray crystal structures in phasing and high-quality crystal growth. In addition, our results suggest that the Se derivatization can be an alternative to the conventional Br derivatization.

  12. Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn305

    E-print Network

    Lin, Guohui

    Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn305 36:496-502, 2008. First published 30 May 2008;Nucleic://nar.oxfordjournals.org Additional information about Nucleic Acids Research, including how to subscribe can be found at Published 2008http://nar.oxfordjournals.orgDownloaded from #12;W496­W502 Nucleic Acids Research, 2008, Vol. 36

  13. Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn325

    E-print Network

    Nucleic Acids Research doi:10.1093/nar/gkn325 36:377-384, 2008. First published 28 May 2008;Nucleic://nar.oxfordjournals.org Additional information about Nucleic Acids Research, including how to subscribe can be found at Published 2008 Nucleic Acids Research, 2008, Vol. 36, Web Server issue W377­W384 doi:10.1093/nar/gkn325 ENDEAVOUR

  14. High Molecular Weight Phosphorus Compound in Nucleic Acid Extracts of the Slime Mold Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, H. W.; Babcock, K. L.; Rusch, H. P.

    1969-01-01

    Orthophosphate labeled with 32P was added to the growth medium of the plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum. The nucleic acid extracts of such plasmodia contained 32P that was not removed by nuclease, protease, or amylase. This labeled material was shown to be separable from nucleic acids, could be eluted from a methylated albumin-kieselguhr column at 0.5 m NaCl, was of high molecular weight, and had several characteristics in common with polyphosphate. A fraction of this polyphosphate-like material was also found in extracts of isolated nuclei. PMID:5392534

  15. Theoretical study of the influence of ribose on the proton transfer phenomenon of nucleic acid bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liqun; Li, Haoran; Hu, Xingbang; Jalbout, Abraham F.

    2007-08-01

    The first comprehensive theoretical study of ribose's effects on the behavior of proton transfer of nucleic acid base is presented. The specific hydrogen bonding of the ribose hydroxyls plays a very important role in the stabilization of the structure of ribonucleoside. Nine stable uridine conformations have been reported. The intermolecular proton transfer of the isolated, monohydrated uridine complexes in three different regions were extensively explored on the basis of density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31+G ? level. With the introduction of the ribose, not only the structural parameters of the nucleic acid bases changed, but also the energy barriers of the proton transfer process changed. Furthermore, changes of the electron distributions of the molecular orbital of the nucleic acid bases were also analyzed by NBO analysis. Consideration of the ribose's influence represents a much more real situation in the RNA.

  16. Recent Progress in Nucleic Acid Aptamer-Based Biosensors and Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Wendy; Li, Yingfu

    2008-01-01

    As the key constituents of the genetic code, the importance of nucleic acids to life has long been appreciated. Despite being composed of only four structurally similar nucleotides, single-stranded nucleic acids, as in single-stranded DNAs and RNAs, can fold into distinct three-dimensional shapes due to specific intramolecular interactions and carry out functions beyond serving as templates for protein synthesis. These functional nucleic acids (FNAs) can catalyze chemical reactions, regulate gene expression, and recognize target molecules. Aptamers, whose name is derived from the Latin word aptus meaning “to fit”, are oligonucleotides that can bind their target ligands with high affinity and specificity. Since aptamers exist in nature but can also be artificially isolated from pools of random nucleic acids through a process called in vitro selection, they can potentially bind a diverse array of compounds. In this review, we will discuss the research that is being done to develop aptamers against various biomolecules, the progress in engineering biosensors by coupling aptamers to signal transducers, and the prospect of employing these sensors for a range of chemical and biological applications. Advances in aptamer technology emphasizes that nucleic acids are not only the fundamental molecules of life, they can also serve as research tools to enhance our understanding of life. The possibility of using aptamer-based tools in drug discovery and the identification of infectious agents can ultimately augment our quality of life.

  17. Method for nucleic acid hybridization using single-stranded DNA binding protein

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley (Cambridge, MA); Richardson, Charles C. (Chestnut Hill, MA)

    1996-01-01

    Method of nucleic acid hybridization for detecting the presence of a specific nucleic acid sequence in a population of different nucleic acid sequences using a nucleic acid probe. The nucleic acid probe hybridizes with the specific nucleic acid sequence but not with other nucleic acid sequences in the population. The method includes contacting a sample (potentially including the nucleic acid sequence) with the nucleic acid probe under hybridizing conditions in the presence of a single-stranded DNA binding protein provided in an amount which stimulates renaturation of a dilute solution (i.e., one in which the t.sub.1/2 of renaturation is longer than 3 weeks) of single-stranded DNA greater than 500 fold (i.e., to a t.sub.1/2 less than 60 min, preferably less than 5 min, and most preferably about 1 min.) in the absence of nucleotide triphosphates.

  18. Optimization of influencing factors of nucleic acid adsorption onto silica-coated magnetic particles: application to viral nucleic acid extraction from serum.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tang, Yan; Liu, Renxiao; Xia, Qiang; Yan, Wenlong; Ge, Guanglu

    2014-01-17

    We present a detailed study of nucleic acid adsorption onto silica-coated magnetic particles in the presence of guanidinium thiocyanate, and extraction of nucleic acid from two important transfusion-transmitted viruses using these particles. Silica-coated magnetic particles were prepared by encapsulating Fe3O4 nanoparticles with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used for particle characterization. The results indicate that silica-coated magnetic particles are spheroid with a narrow hydrodynamic size distribution of about 500nm. VSM data indicates that these particles display paramagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization of about 30emu/g. The adsorption capacities were evaluated with DNA from salmon sperm and RNA of Escherichia coli strain JM109 in the presence of guanidinium thiocyanate. The maximum of adsorption is up to 10.6mg DNA or 7.7mg RNA per 1g of silica-coated magnetic particles with 4M guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC) at pH 5.5 without adding ethanol. The influencing factors were analyzed in term of the adsorption of nucleic acids onto silica-coated magnetic particles. The adsorption capacity in acidic condition is found to be larger than that in alkaline condition and increases with adding equivalent volume of ethanol. A simple method was therefore established to extract nucleic acids of two important transfusion-transmitted viruses from serum and compared with the commercial kits. The results indicate that the extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles can be adapted to rapidly and facilely isolate viral nucleic acid for diagnosis of viral infection from serum within 30min, irrespective of genome compositions of virus. PMID:24360257

  19. Use of nucleic acid probes to identify mycobacteria directly from Difco ESP-Myco bottles.

    PubMed Central

    Labombardi, V J; Carter, L; Massarella, S

    1997-01-01

    Mycobacterial isolates were identified directly from positive ESP-Myco bottles by use of nucleic acid probes. Retrospective analysis of 360 cultures which grew either Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. avium complex, or M. gordonae showed that 87% were identified by direct testing of an aliquot obtained at the time a positive culture was detected. Another 12% of these cultures gave results in the equivocal range, with only 1% of the isolates yielding negative results on initial testing. PMID:9157117

  20. Nucleic acid-based nanoengineering: novel structures for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanying; LaBean, Thomas H.; Leong, Kam W.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoengineering exploits the interactions of materials at the nanometre scale to create functional nanostructures. It relies on the precise organization of nanomaterials to achieve unique functionality. There are no interactions more elegant than those governing nucleic acids via Watson–Crick base-pairing rules. The infinite combinations of DNA/RNA base pairs and their remarkable molecular recognition capability can give rise to interesting nanostructures that are only limited by our imagination. Over the past years, creative assembly of nucleic acids has fashioned a plethora of two-dimensional and three-dimensional nanostructures with precisely controlled size, shape and spatial functionalization. These nanostructures have been precisely patterned with molecules, proteins and gold nanoparticles for the observation of chemical reactions at the single molecule level, activation of enzymatic cascade and novel modality of photonic detection, respectively. Recently, they have also been engineered to encapsulate and release bioactive agents in a stimulus-responsive manner for therapeutic applications. The future of nucleic acid-based nanoengineering is bright and exciting. In this review, we will discuss the strategies to control the assembly of nucleic acids and highlight the recent efforts to build functional nucleic acid nanodevices for nanomedicine. PMID:23050076

  1. Physical approaches for nucleic acid delivery to liver.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Kenya; Liu, Dexi

    2008-12-01

    The liver is a key organ for numerous metabolic pathways and involves many inherited diseases that, although being different in their pathology, are often caused by lack or overproduction of a critical gene product in the diseased cells. In principle, a straightforward method to fix such problem is to introduce into these cells with a gene-coding sequence to provide the missing gene product or with the nucleic acid sequence to inhibit production of the excessive gene product. Practically, however, success of nucleic acid-based pharmaceutics is dependent on the availability of a method capable of delivering nucleic acid sequence in the form of DNA or RNA to liver cells. In this review, we will summarize the progress toward the development of physical methods for nucleic acid delivery to the liver. Emphasis is placed on the mechanism of action, pros, and cons of each method developed so far. We hope the information provided will encourage new endeavor to improve the current methodologies or develop new strategies that will lead to safe and effective delivery of nucleic acids to the liver. PMID:19083101

  2. Structural Requirements for the Procoagulant Activity of Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Gansler, Julia; Jaax, Miriam; Leiting, Silke; Appel, Bettina; Greinacher, Andreas; Fischer, Silvia; Preissner, Klaus T.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids, especially extracellular RNA, are exposed following tissue- or vessel damage and have previously been shown to activate the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway in vitro and in vivo. Yet, no information on structural requirements for the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids is available. A comparison of linear and hairpin-forming RNA- and DNA-oligomers revealed that all tested oligomers forming a stable hairpin structure were protected from degradation in human plasma. In contrast to linear nucleic acids, hairpin forming compounds demonstrated highest procoagulant activities based on the analysis of clotting time in human plasma and in a prekallikrein activation assay. Moreover, the procoagulant activities of the DNA-oligomers correlated well with their binding affinity to high molecular weight kininogen, whereas the binding affinity of all tested oligomers to prekallikrein was low. Furthermore, four DNA-aptamers directed against thrombin, activated protein C, vascular endothelial growth factor and nucleolin as well as the naturally occurring small nucleolar RNA U6snRNA were identified as effective cofactors for prekallikrein auto-activation. Together, we conclude that hairpin-forming nucleic acids are most effective in promoting procoagulant activities, largely mediated by their specific binding to kininogen. Thus, in vivo application of therapeutic nucleic acids like aptamers might have undesired prothrombotic or proinflammatory side effects. PMID:23226277

  3. Structural requirements for the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Gansler, Julia; Jaax, Miriam; Leiting, Silke; Appel, Bettina; Greinacher, Andreas; Fischer, Silvia; Preissner, Klaus T

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids, especially extracellular RNA, are exposed following tissue- or vessel damage and have previously been shown to activate the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway in vitro and in vivo. Yet, no information on structural requirements for the procoagulant activity of nucleic acids is available. A comparison of linear and hairpin-forming RNA- and DNA-oligomers revealed that all tested oligomers forming a stable hairpin structure were protected from degradation in human plasma. In contrast to linear nucleic acids, hairpin forming compounds demonstrated highest procoagulant activities based on the analysis of clotting time in human plasma and in a prekallikrein activation assay. Moreover, the procoagulant activities of the DNA-oligomers correlated well with their binding affinity to high molecular weight kininogen, whereas the binding affinity of all tested oligomers to prekallikrein was low. Furthermore, four DNA-aptamers directed against thrombin, activated protein C, vascular endothelial growth factor and nucleolin as well as the naturally occurring small nucleolar RNA U6snRNA were identified as effective cofactors for prekallikrein auto-activation. Together, we conclude that hairpin-forming nucleic acids are most effective in promoting procoagulant activities, largely mediated by their specific binding to kininogen. Thus, in vivo application of therapeutic nucleic acids like aptamers might have undesired prothrombotic or proinflammatory side effects. PMID:23226277

  4. Methods And Devices For Characterizing Duplex Nucleic Acid Molecules

    DOEpatents

    Akeson, Mark (Santa Cruz, CA); Vercoutere, Wenonah (Santa Cruz, CA); Haussler, David (Santa Cruz, CA); Winters-Hilt, Stephen (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2005-08-30

    Methods and devices are provided for characterizing a duplex nucleic acid, e.g., a duplex DNA molecule. In the subject methods, a fluid conducting medium that includes a duplex nucleic acid molecule is contacted with a nanopore under the influence of an applied electric field and the resulting changes in current through the nanopore caused by the duplex nucleic acid molecule are monitored. The observed changes in current through the nanopore are then employed as a set of data values to characterize the duplex nucleic acid, where the set of data values may be employed in raw form or manipulated, e.g., into a current blockade profile. Also provided are nanopore devices for practicing the subject methods, where the subject nanopore devices are characterized by the presence of an algorithm which directs a processing means to employ monitored changes in current through a nanopore to characterize a duplex nucleic acid molecule responsible for the current changes. The subject methods and devices find use in a variety of applications, including, among other applications, the identification of an analyte duplex DNA molecule in a sample, the specific base sequence at a single nulceotide polymorphism (SNP), and the sequencing of duplex DNA molecules.

  5. Ultrasonic Investigation of Aqueous Solutions of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid*

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    .The ultrasonicabsorp- tion acid titration curvesfor DNA exhibitmaximaaroundpH 2.6 and 12 [-J.Chim. Phys.66, 81 (1969Ultrasonic Investigation of Aqueous Solutions of Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid* W. D. O'BRIEN,J·.,t C. L,and base. The four common bases found in DNA are the pyrimidinesthymine (T) and cytosine

  6. Nucleic acid compositions with scissile linkage useful for detecting nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Duck, P.; Bender, R.; Crosby, W.; Robertson, J.G.

    1989-10-24

    This patent describes a composition. It comprises the structure: S-L(NA{sub 1}-S-NA{sub 2}){sub n}M. NA{sub 1} and NA{sub 2} are nucleic acid sequences; -S- is a scissile linkage which is capable of being cleaved or disrupted without cleaving or disrupting the nuclei acid sequences of NA{sub 1} or NA{sub 2} or of a target nuclei acid sequence capable of hybridizing to the NA{sub 1} and NA{sub 2} sequences, or to the NA{sub 1} and NA{sub 2} sequences and the scissile linkage of the composition, wherein if the scissile linkage is a nuclei acid sequence it is RNA when both NA{sub 1} and NA{sub 2} are DNA sequences, or the scissile linkage is DNA when both NA{sub 1} and NA{sub 2} are RNA sequences; and n is an integer from 1 to 4. The solid lines represent chemical bonds; X is a solid support; L is a chemical entity which links NA{sub 1} to the solid support; and M is a marker.

  7. Prospects for using self-assembled nucleic acid structures.

    PubMed

    Rudchenko, M N; Zamyatnin, A A

    2015-04-01

    According to the central dogma in molecular biology, nucleic acids are assigned with key functions on storing and executing genetic information in any living cell. However, features of nucleic acids are not limited only with properties providing template-dependent biosynthetic processes. Studies of DNA and RNA unveiled unique features of these polymers able to make various self-assembled three-dimensional structures that, among other things, use the complementarity principle. Here, we review various self-assembled nucleic acid structures as well as application of DNA and RNA to develop nanomaterials, molecular automata, and nanodevices. It can be expected that in the near future results of these developments will allow designing novel next-generation diagnostic systems and medicinal drugs. PMID:25869355

  8. Point-of-care nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Niemz, Angelika; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Boyle, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing for infectious diseases at the point of care is beginning to enter clinical practice in developed and developing countries; especially for applications requiring fast turnaround times, and in settings where a centralized laboratory approach faces limitations. Current systems for clinical diagnostic applications are mainly PCR-based, can only be used in hospitals, and are still relatively complex and expensive. Integrating sample preparation with nucleic acid amplification and detection in a cost-effective, robust, and user-friendly format remains challenging. This review describes recent technical advances that might be able to address these limitations, with a focus on isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods. It briefly discusses selected applications related to the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis, HIV, and perinatal and nosocomial infections. PMID:21377748

  9. Translating nucleic acid-sensing pathways into therapies.

    PubMed

    Junt, Tobias; Barchet, Winfried

    2015-09-15

    Nucleic acid sensing by innate receptors initiates immune defences against viruses and other pathogens. A hallmark of this response is the release of interferons (IFNs), which promote protective immunity by inducing IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). A similar ISG signature is found in autoinflammatory and autoimmune conditions, indicating that chronic activation of nucleic acid-sensing pathways may contribute to these diseases. Here, we review how nucleic acid-sensing pathways are currently being targeted pharmacologically with both agonists and antagonists. We discuss how an improved understanding of the biology of these pathways is leading to novel therapies for infections, cancer, and autoimmune and autoinflammatory disorders, and how new therapeutics will, in turn, generate a deeper understanding of these complex diseases. PMID:26292638

  10. Accurate ab initio prediction of NMR chemical shifts of nucleic acids and nucleic acids/protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Andrea; Möller, Heiko M.; Exner, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    NMR chemical shift predictions based on empirical methods are nowadays indispensable tools during resonance assignment and 3D structure calculation of proteins. However, owing to the very limited statistical data basis, such methods are still in their infancy in the field of nucleic acids, especially when non-canonical structures and nucleic acid complexes are considered. Here, we present an ab initio approach for predicting proton chemical shifts of arbitrary nucleic acid structures based on state-of-the-art fragment-based quantum chemical calculations. We tested our prediction method on a diverse set of nucleic acid structures including double-stranded DNA, hairpins, DNA/protein complexes and chemically-modified DNA. Overall, our quantum chemical calculations yield highly/very accurate predictions with mean absolute deviations of 0.3–0.6 ppm and correlation coefficients (r2) usually above 0.9. This will allow for identifying misassignments and validating 3D structures. Furthermore, our calculations reveal that chemical shifts of protons involved in hydrogen bonding are predicted significantly less accurately. This is in part caused by insufficient inclusion of solvation effects. However, it also points toward shortcomings of current force fields used for structure determination of nucleic acids. Our quantum chemical calculations could therefore provide input for force field optimization. PMID:25404135

  11. Macromolecular Structure Description: This course covers the principles of protein and nucleic acid structure, stability

    E-print Network

    Sherrill, David

    of Biopolymers Amino Acids The Peptide Bond Protein Rotamers: Ramachandran plots The Nucleic Acid Bases Folding Nucleic Acids Structure Base pairs and base triples Helical Structures: A, B and Z-helices Cation and nucleic acid structure, stability and dynamics. Topics will include interactions, conformations, forces

  12. Nanopores and nucleic acids: prospects for ultrarapid sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.; Akeson, M.

    2000-01-01

    DNA and RNA molecules can be detected as they are driven through a nanopore by an applied electric field at rates ranging from several hundred microseconds to a few milliseconds per molecule. The nanopore can rapidly discriminate between pyrimidine and purine segments along a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule. Nanopore detection and characterization of single molecules represents a new method for directly reading information encoded in linear polymers. If single-nucleotide resolution can be achieved, it is possible that nucleic acid sequences can be determined at rates exceeding a thousand bases per second.

  13. Analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Maglia, Giovanni; Heron, Andrew J.; Stoddart, David; Japrung, Deanpen; Bayley, Hagan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the methods used in our laboratory for the analysis of single nucleic acid molecules with protein nanopores. The technical section is preceded by a review of the variety of experiments that can be done with protein nanopores. The end goal of much of this work is single-molecule DNA sequencing, although sequencing is not discussed explicitly here. The technical section covers the equipment required for nucleic acid analysis, the preparation and storage of the necessary materials, and aspects of signal processing and data analysis. PMID:20627172

  14. Classifying Nucleic Acid Sub-Sequences as lntrons or Exons Using Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Classifying Nucleic Acid Sub-Sequences as lntrons or Exons Using Genetic Programming Simon Handley (Handley 1995b); predicting whether or not nucleic acid sequence contains a splice site (Handley 1995a

  15. Nucleic Acids Research, 2014 1 doi: 10.1093/nar/gku825

    E-print Network

    Knopf, Dan

    Nucleic Acids Research, 2014 1 doi: 10.1093/nar/gku825 cgDNA: a software package for the prediction and models of nucleic acid flexibility). In this article, we introduce the cgDNA software package, which

  16. Polymerase chain reaction system using magnetic beads for analyzing a sample that includes nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Nasarabadi, Shanavaz (Livermore, CA)

    2011-01-11

    A polymerase chain reaction system for analyzing a sample containing nucleic acid includes providing magnetic beads; providing a flow channel having a polymerase chain reaction chamber, a pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber, and a post pre polymerase magnet position adjacent the polymerase chain reaction chamber. The nucleic acid is bound to the magnetic beads. The magnetic beads with the nucleic acid flow to the pre polymerase chain reaction magnet position in the flow channel. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are washed with ethanol. The nucleic acid in the polymerase chain reaction chamber is amplified. The magnetic beads and the nucleic acid are separated into a waste stream containing the magnetic beads and a post polymerase chain reaction mix containing the nucleic acid. The reaction mix containing the nucleic acid flows to an analysis unit in the channel for analysis.

  17. Volume 16 Number 22 1988 Nucleic Acids Research Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering

    E-print Network

    Ashlock, Dan

    Volume 16 Number 22 1988 Nucleic Acids Research Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical for the multiple alignment of sequences, either proteins or nucleic acids, that is both accurate and easy to use alignment of 39 sequences of cytochrome c. INTRODUCTION Macromolecules, either nucleic acids or proteins

  18. A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry

    E-print Network

    Bansal, Manju

    A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry Wilma K. Olson the three-dimensional arrangements of bases and base-pairs in nucleic acid structures. The different guidelines for understanding other nucleic acid structures. Base coordinates Models of the ®ve common bases

  19. 78 FR 36698 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for...of rapid detection of infection in patients with suspected...nucleic acid- based in vitro diagnostic devices for...transmission of tuberculosis infection to health care workers...nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices...

  20. 77 FR 16126 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...transmission of tuberculosis infection to healthcare workers...nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for...nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for...of rapid detection of infection in patients with suspected...nucleic acid- based in vitro diagnostic devices...

  1. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 061912 (2011) Kinetic Monte Carlo method applied to nucleic acid hairpin folding

    E-print Network

    Widom, Michael

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 061912 (2011) Kinetic Monte Carlo method applied to nucleic acid hairpin December 2011) Kinetic Monte Carlo on coarse-grained systems, such as nucleic acid secondary structure states. Secondary structure models of nucleic acids, which record the pairings of complementary

  2. Software News and Updates NUPACK: Analysis and Design of Nucleic Acid Systems

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Niles A.

    Software News and Updates NUPACK: Analysis and Design of Nucleic Acid Systems JOSEPH N. ZADEH,1 online 19 July 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). Abstract: The Nucleic Acid Package (NUPACK) is a growing software suite for the analysis and design of nucleic acid systems. The NUPACK web

  3. Multiplexed detection of nucleic acids in a combinatorial screening chip Benjamin R. Schudel,ac

    E-print Network

    Schroeder, Charles

    Multiplexed detection of nucleic acids in a combinatorial screening chip Benjamin R. Schudel of the world. Here, we report the multiplexed detection of nucleic acids as disease markers within discrete­25 In this work, we report a combinatorial microfluidic approach for the detec- tion of nucleic acid fragments

  4. Integrated Printed Circuit Board Device for Cell Lysis and Nucleic Acid Extraction

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Integrated Printed Circuit Board Device for Cell Lysis and Nucleic Acid Extraction Lewis A and an isotachophoresis assay for sample preparation of nucleic acids from biological samples. The device has integrated two 15 L reservoirs. We demonstrated this device by extracting pathogenic nucleic acids from 1 L

  5. Probing counterion modulated repulsion and attraction between nucleic acid duplexes in solution

    E-print Network

    Das, Rhiju

    Probing counterion modulated repulsion and attraction between nucleic acid duplexes in solution Yu for review June 22, 2004) Understanding biological and physical processes involving nucleic acids of the ion atmosphere that surrounds nucleic acids. We have used a simple model DNA system to determine how

  6. Energy Transfer from Nucleic Acids to Tb(III): Selective Emission Enhancement by Single DNA Mismatches

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Energy Transfer from Nucleic Acids to Tb(III): Selective Emission Enhancement by Single DNA energy transfer (EnT) from nucleic acids to Tb3+ has been utilized to investigate the binding of the ions in nucleic acid hybridization assays with applications that range from the determination of genetic

  7. Using Internal and Collective Variables in Monte Carlo Simulations of Nucleic Acid Structures: Chain

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    Using Internal and Collective Variables in Monte Carlo Simulations of Nucleic Acid Structures of nucleic acid structures by using the constant bond lengths approximation. The resulting chain breakage simulations; nucleic acid structures; Jacobians Introduction Simplified molecular models with a reduced number

  8. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...

  9. Highly Cooperative Behavior of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Linked DNA-Modified Gold-Nanoparticle and

    E-print Network

    Highly Cooperative Behavior of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Linked DNA-Modified Gold-Nanoparticle and Comb of nucleic acids, proteins, metal ions, and small molecules.[1­10] When complementary mixtures whether particle aggregates can be held together with peptide nucleic acids (PNAs),[15,16] uncharged

  10. Stochastic Simulation of the Kinetics of Multiple Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    Stochastic Simulation of the Kinetics of Multiple Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands Joseph Malcolm field which utilizes the unique structural properties of nucleic acids in order to build nanoscale nanotechnology [29] is an emerging field that utilizes the unique structural properties of nucleic acids in order

  11. Quantitative prediction of 3D solution shape and flexibility of nucleic acid nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Dietz, Hendrik

    Quantitative prediction of 3D solution shape and flexibility of nucleic acid nanostructures Do designed using nucleic acids. INTRODUCTION Programmable self-assembly of complementary single- stranded nucleic acids is a versatile approach to designing sophisticated nanoscale structures (2­4). Scaffolded

  12. Effect of Stalling after Mismatches on the Error Catastrophe in Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Replication

    E-print Network

    Antal, Tibor

    Effect of Stalling after Mismatches on the Error Catastrophe in Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid of nonenzymatic, template-directed nucleic acid polymerization. We found that most mismatches decrease the rate rates. Previous work indicates that nonenzymatic, template-directed nucleic acid polymerization has high

  13. reprinted with permission from Nature magazine A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid

    E-print Network

    Gottgens, Hans

    reprinted with permission from Nature magazine A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid J. D for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.). This structure has novel features which are of considerable biological interest. A structure for nucleic acid has already been proposed by Pauling (4) and Corey1

  14. SAFA: Semi-automated footprinting analysis software for high-throughput quantification of nucleic acid

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    of nucleic acid footprinting experiments RHIJU DAS,1,2,4 , ALAIN LAEDERACH3,4 SAMUEL M. PEARLMAN,4 DANIEL, and kinetics of nucleic acid folding and ligand binding reactions. However, quantitative analysis of the gel and can therefore facilitate the use of quantitative footprinting techniques in nucleic acid laboratories

  15. Paradigms for computational nucleic acid design Robert M. Dirks, Milo Lin1

    E-print Network

    Winfree, Erik

    Paradigms for computational nucleic acid design Robert M. Dirks, Milo Lin1 , Erik Winfree2®ed approach to nucleic acid design as parameter sets are re®ned further. Finally, we observe that designing systems with increasing functional density. Nucleic acids hold great promise as a design medium

  16. APPLICATION OF THE RATE OF NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS TO THE STUDY OF MICROBIAL GROWTH

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    APPLICATION OF THE RATE OF NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS TO THE STUDY OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCTION. Stroup Tom Humphreys #12;ABSTRACT The rate of nucleic acid synthesis was used as a measure of growth grown under controlled conditions. These studies demonstrated that accurate rates of nucleic acid

  17. Honey, I Shrunk the DNA: DNA Length as a Probe for Nucleic-Acid Enzyme Activity

    E-print Network

    Honey, I Shrunk the DNA: DNA Length as a Probe for Nucleic-Acid Enzyme Activity Antoine M. van to manipulate individual DNA molecules17 have allowed a large number of nucleic-acid enzymes to be charac will discuss how changes in the physical properties of DNA can be exploited to study the dynamics of nucleic-acid

  18. Selective Nucleic Acid Capture with Shielded Covalent Probes Jeffrey R. Vieregg,

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Niles A.

    Selective Nucleic Acid Capture with Shielded Covalent Probes Jeffrey R. Vieregg, Hosea M. Nelson 91125, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid probes are used for diverse binding of nucleic acid targets under conditions where base-pairing is disrupted (e.g., by stringent

  19. DNA Ligase-Mediated Translation of DNA Into Densely Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    DNA Ligase-Mediated Translation of DNA Into Densely Functionalized Nucleic Acid Polymers Ryan Hili nucleic acids by using T4 DNA ligase to mediate the DNA-templated polymerization of 5-phosphorylated) in length with remarkable efficiency. The resulting single-stranded highly modified nucleic acid

  20. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...

  1. A Stochastic Model of Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Replication: ``Elongators'' Sequester Replicators

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    A Stochastic Model of Nonenzymatic Nucleic Acid Replication: ``Elongators'' Sequester Replicators / Accepted: 22 January 2007 [Reviewing Editor: Dr. Niles Lehman] Abstract. The origin of nucleic acid template replication is a major unsolved problem in science. A novel stochastic model of nucleic acid

  2. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...

  3. A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    A Standard Reference Frame for the Description of Nucleic Acid Base-pair Geometry These preliminary recommendations were made at the Tsukuba Workshop on Nucleic Acid Structure and Interactions held on January 12 and Human- Technology and Helen M. Berman and Wilma K. Olson of the Nucleic Acid Database Project (supported

  4. Oxidative Strand Scission of Nucleic Acids: Routes Initiated by Hydrogen Abstraction from the Sugar Moiety

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    Oxidative Strand Scission of Nucleic Acids: Routes Initiated by Hydrogen Abstraction from the Sugar ionized by high-energy ra- diation. While the heterocyclic bases of nucleic acids are important sites produces a carbon-based sugar radical that can rearrange, culminating in scission of the nucleic acid

  5. Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 18, No. 18 5533 Ternary interactions of spermine with DNA

    E-print Network

    Williams, Loren

    Nucleic Acids Research, Vol. 18, No. 18 5533 Ternary interactions of spermine with DNA: 4 such as membranes (4,5) and nucleic acids. Polyamines stabilize duplex DNA (6-9), condense DNA (10-13) and chromatin (14,15) and promote the B-DNA to Z- DNA transition (16,17). Molecular aspects of nucleic acid

  6. A HANDHELD MAGNETIC SENSING PLATFORM FOR ANTIGEN AND NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION

    E-print Network

    Hajimiri, Ali

    A HANDHELD MAGNETIC SENSING PLATFORM FOR ANTIGEN AND NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION A. Pai1* , AM for the protein interferon- (IFN- ). KEYWORDS: Nucleic Acid, Antigen, Biosensor, Magnetic Figure 1: (a) Handheld. 1a) with two fully implemented assays for antigens and nucleic acids (Fig 2a,b). It is based

  7. Algorithms for predicting the secondary structure of pairs and combinatorial sets of nucleic acid strands

    E-print Network

    Hutter, Frank

    Algorithms for predicting the secondary structure of pairs and combinatorial sets of nucleic acid;Abstract Secondary structure prediction of nucleic acid molecules is a very important prob- lem prediction of pairs of nucleic acid molecules (PairFold), and (2) finding which sequences, formed from

  8. Supplementary Materials: A Partition Function Algorithm for Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands

    E-print Network

    Will, Sebastian

    Supplementary Materials: A Partition Function Algorithm for Interacting Nucleic Acid Strands the partition function of two interacting nucleic acid strands. We also present the sequence pairs in the data nucleic acid strands by R and S. Strand R is indexed from 1 to LR, and S is indexed from 1 to LS both in 5

  9. Trifluoromethylated nucleic acid analogues capable of self-assembly through hydrophobic

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    Trifluoromethylated nucleic acid analogues capable of self-assembly through hydrophobic*d and Weihong Tan*a An artificial nucleic acid analogue capable of self-assembly into a duplex merely through DNA nanodevices. To study how the hydrophobic effect works during the self-assembly of nucleic acid

  10. Opening of nucleic-acid double strands by helicases: Active versus passive opening M. D. Betterton

    E-print Network

    Betterton, Meredith D.

    Opening of nucleic-acid double strands by helicases: Active versus passive opening M. D. Betterton move along double-stranded nucleic-acid molecules and unwind the double helix. This paper presents the double-stranded nucleic acid dsNA to promote opening. Passive opening implies that the helicase binds ss

  11. NIH GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING RECOMBINANT OR SYNTHETIC NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES (NIH GUIDELINES)

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    NIH GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH INVOLVING RECOMBINANT OR SYNTHETIC NUCLEIC ACID MOLECULES (NIH in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories). Section III-F-1. Those synthetic nucleic acids that: (1) can neither replicate nor generate nucleic acids that can replicate in any living cell (e.g., oligonucleotides or other

  12. Theoretical Determination of One-Electron Oxidation Potentials for Nucleic Acid Bases

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Theoretical Determination of One-Electron Oxidation Potentials for Nucleic Acid Bases Brian T potentials for N-methyl substituted nucleic acid bases guanine, adenine, cytosine, thymine, uracil, xanthine of redox potentials for the standard nucleic acids guanine, adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil

  13. Bifacial Peptide Nucleic Acid as an Allosteric Switch for Aptamer and Ribozyme Function

    E-print Network

    Bong, Dennis

    Bifacial Peptide Nucleic Acid as an Allosteric Switch for Aptamer and Ribozyme Function Xin Xia demonstrate herein that bifacial peptide nucleic acid (bPNA) hybrid triplexes functionally sub- stitute for duplex DNA or RNA. Structure-function loss in three non-coding nucleic acids was inflicted by replacement

  14. Nucleic Acid Sample Preparation Using Spontaneous Biphasic Plug Peter C. Thomas,,

    E-print Network

    Beebe, David J.

    Nucleic Acid Sample Preparation Using Spontaneous Biphasic Plug Flow Peter C. Thomas,,§ Lindsay N States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid (NA) extraction and purification has become was determined. The results demonstrate the utility of the current technique for nucleic acid purification

  15. Mapping nucleic acid structure by hydroxyl radical cleavage Thomas D Tullius1,2

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    Mapping nucleic acid structure by hydroxyl radical cleavage Thomas D Tullius1,2 and Jason of the first use of the hydroxyl radical as a high-resolution tool for the structural study of nucleic acids [1 for assessing the folded structure of nucleic acids, particularly RNA. The characteristic chemistry

  16. Bifacial Peptide Nucleic Acid Directs Cooperative Folding and Assembly of Binary, Ternary, and Quaternary DNA Complexes

    E-print Network

    Bong, Dennis

    Bifacial Peptide Nucleic Acid Directs Cooperative Folding and Assembly of Binary, Ternary, which we term bifacial peptide nucleic acid (bPNA), function as a noncovalent template for thymine length. Synthetic bPNA structuring elements may be useful tools for biotechnology. Nucleic acid triplex

  17. An electrochemical clamp assay for direct, rapid analysis of circulating nucleic acids in serum

    E-print Network

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    An electrochemical clamp assay for direct, rapid analysis of circulating nucleic acids in serum,4 * The analysis of cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs), which are present at significant levels in the blood of cancer of the tissue. However, this requires differentiation between the nucleic acids that originate from healthy

  18. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification. Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control material...

  19. SINGLE MOLECULE DETECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS NUCLEIC ACID USING DARK FIELD TETHERED PARTICLE MOTION

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    SINGLE MOLECULE DETECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS NUCLEIC ACID USING DARK FIELD TETHERED PARTICLE MOTION for tuberculosis nucleic acid detection re- quire amplification and labeling before detection is possible. We of an exquisitely sensitive method of detecting the presence of nucleic acids derived from human pathogens directly

  20. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600435 Duplex Formation of the Simplified Nucleic Acid

    E-print Network

    Meggers, Eric

    DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600435 Duplex Formation of the Simplified Nucleic Acid GNA Mark K. Schlegel and altering its proper- ties.[1­7] We recently succeeded in demonstrating that a glycol nucleic acid (GNA nucleic acid backbone.[11,12] A very attractive feature of GNA is its straightforward chemi- cal synthesis

  1. SINGLE MOLECULE DETECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS NUCLEIC ACID USING DARK FIELD TETHERED PARTICLE MOTION

    E-print Network

    Rieger, Bernd

    SINGLE MOLECULE DETECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS NUCLEIC ACID USING DARK FIELD TETHERED PARTICLE MOTION for tuberculosis nucleic acid detection re- quire amplification and labeling before detection is possible. We of a range of infections (for example active tuberculosis) a nucleic acid Corresponding author: s

  2. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  6. An Algorithm for Computing Nucleic Acid Base-Pairing Probabilities Including Pseudoknots

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Niles A.

    An Algorithm for Computing Nucleic Acid Base-Pairing Probabilities Including Pseudoknots ROBERT M.interscience.wiley.com). Abstract: Given a nucleic acid sequence, a recent algorithm allows the calculation of the partition of natural and engineered nucleic acids, as demonstrated for a human telomerase RNA and a synthetic DNA

  7. Nucleic-acid-templated synthesis as a model system for ancient translation

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    Nucleic-acid-templated synthesis as a model system for ancient translation Christopher T Calderone and David R LiuÃ? The translation of nucleic acids into synthetic structures with expanded functional-molecule and polymer evolution, reaction discovery and sensing. Here, we review properties of nucleic-acid

  8. BIO 548--NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS--FALL 2014 Coursemaster

    E-print Network

    Kornfeld, S. Kerry

    BIO 548--NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS--FALL 2014 Coursemaster Peter Burgers Department: http://biochem.wustl.edu/studentinfo/courses/bio-548-nucleic-acids-and-protein-synthesis This course in molecular biology and nucleic acid biochemistry from appropriate undergraduate classes. Experience

  9. NAFlex: a web server for the study of nucleic acid flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Adam; Faustino, Ignacio; Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; González, Carlos; Gelpí, Josep Lluis; Orozco, Modesto

    2013-01-01

    We present NAFlex, a new web tool to study the flexibility of nucleic acids, either isolated or bound to other molecules. The server allows the user to incorporate structures from protein data banks, completing gaps and removing structural inconsistencies. It is also possible to define canonical (average or sequence-adapted) nucleic acid structures using a variety of predefined internal libraries, as well to create specific nucleic acid conformations from the sequence. The server offers a variety of methods to explore nucleic acid flexibility, such as a colorless wormlike-chain model, a base-pair resolution mesoscopic model and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with a wide variety of protocols and force fields. The trajectories obtained by simulations, or imported externally, can be visualized and analyzed using a large number of tools, including standard Cartesian analysis, essential dynamics, helical analysis, local and global stiffness, energy decomposition, principal components and in silico NMR spectra. The server is accessible free of charge from the mmb.irbbarcelona.org/NAFlex webpage. PMID:23685436

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy and principal component analysis for conformational study of virus nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbeshko, G. I.; Repnytska, O. P.; Pererva, T.; Miruta, A.; Kosenkov, D.

    2004-07-01

    Conformation analysis of mutated DNA-bacteriophages (PLys-23, P23-2, P47- the numbers have been assigned by T. Pererva) induced by MS2 virus incorporated in Ecoli AB 259 Hfr 3000 has been done. Surface enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopy and principal component analysis has been applied for solving this problem. The nucleic acids isolated from the mutated phages had a form of double stranded DNA with different modifications. The nucleic acid from phage P47 was undergone the structural rearrangement in the most degree. The shape and position ofthe fine structure of the Phosphate asymmetrical band at 1071cm-1 as well as the stretching OH vibration at 3370-3390 cm-1 has indicated to the appearance ofadditional OH-groups. The Z-form feature has been found in the base vibration region (1694 cm-1) and the sugar region (932 cm-1). A supposition about modification of structure of DNA by Z-fragments for P47 phage has been proposed. The P23-2 and PLys-23 phages have showed the numerous minor structural changes also. On the basis of SEIRA spectra we have determined the characteristic parameters of the marker bands of nucleic acid used for construction of principal components. Contribution of different spectral parameters of nucleic acids to principal components has been estimated.

  11. Spherical Nucleic Acids as Intracellular Agents for Nucleic Acid Based Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liangliang

    Recent functional discoveries on the noncoding sequences of human genome and transcriptome could lead to revolutionary treatment modalities because the noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) can be applied as therapeutic agents to manipulate disease-causing genes. To date few nucleic acid-based therapeutics have been translated into the clinic due to challenges in the delivery of the oligonucleotide agents in an effective, cell specific, and non-toxic fashion. Unmodified oligonucleotide agents are destroyed rapidly in biological fluids by enzymatic degradation and have difficulty crossing the plasma membrane without the aid of transfection reagents, which often cause inflammatory, cytotoxic, or immunogenic side effects. Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), nanoparticles consisting of densely organized and highly oriented oligonucleotides, pose one possible solution to circumventing these problems in both the antisense and RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. The unique three dimensional architecture of SNAs protects the bioactive oligonucleotides from unspecific degradation during delivery and supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft-dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. Owing to their unique structure, SNAs are able to cross cell membranes and regulate target genes expression as a single entity, without triggering the cellular innate immune response. Herein, my thesis has focused on understanding the interactions between SNAs and cellular components and developing SNA-based nanostructures to improve therapeutic capabilities. Specifically, I developed a novel SNA-based, nanoscale agent for delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides to manipulate microRNAs (miRNAs), the endogenous post-transcriptional gene regulators. I investigated the role of SNAs involving miRNAs in anti-cancer or anti-inflammation responses in cells and in in vivo murine disease models via systemic injection. Furthermore, I explored using different strategies to construct novel SNA-based nanomaterials with desired properties and applying targeting moieties to the SNA platform to achieve cell type specific gene regulation effects. Due to the flexibility of the SNA approach, the SNA platform can potentially be applied to many genetic disorders through tailored target specificities.

  12. Pyrene Excimer Signaling Molecular Beacons for Probing Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    Pyrene Excimer Signaling Molecular Beacons for Probing Nucleic Acids Patrick Conlon, Chaoyong JamesVersity, Xiamen 361005, P.R. China Received August 26, 2007; E-mail: tan@chem.ufl.edu Abstract: Molecular beacon, the multiple-pyrene labeled molecular beacons (MBs) assumed a stem- closed conformation resulting in quenching

  13. Continuously Tunable Nucleic Acid Hybridization Probes Supplementary Notes

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Continuously Tunable Nucleic Acid Hybridization Probes Supplementary Notes Lucia R. Wu,1 J. Sherry and Validation 5. Uniform Capture of Targets with Varying G/C Content 6. Yield Difference Optimization for SNP, the granularity is determined by the lower of the two base change G values. Given two choices, the median

  14. Nucleic Acids Why start with nucleo7des?

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1/28/15 1 Nucleic Acids DNA + RNA Why start with nucleo7des? ü Genetic helix." http://phys.org/news74251487.html#jCp http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/ content/cells/scale/ Macromolecule properties are determined by interactions resulting from 3D structure; structure = function! What

  15. Molecular modeling of nucleic acid structure: electrostatics and solvation.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, T E; Brooks, B R; Kollman, P A

    2001-08-01

    This unit presents an overview of computer simulation techniques as applied to nucleic acid systems, ranging from simple in vacuo molecular modeling techniques to more complete all-atom molecular dynamics treatments that include an explicit representation of the environment. The third in a series of four units, this unit focuses on critical issues in solvation and the treatment of electrostatics. PMID:18428877

  16. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3225 - Enterovirus nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enterovirus nucleic acid assay. 866.3225 Section 866.3225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3225...

  19. Designing Ordered Nucleic Acid Self-Assembly Processes Rebecca Schulmana

    E-print Network

    Doty, David

    is designed and built. Typically, cars or computers are assembled using well- defined, sequential processesDesigning Ordered Nucleic Acid Self-Assembly Processes Rebecca Schulmana , David Dotyb a of biomolecular structures with diverse, intricate features across multiple length scales. Designing self

  20. Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding of unlocked nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Langkjær, Niels; Wengel, Jesper; Pasternak, Anna

    2015-11-15

    We herein describe the synthesis of two new unlocked nucleic acid building blocks containing hypoxanthine and 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase moieties and their incorporation into oligonucleotides. The modified oligonucleotides were used to examine the thermodynamic properties of UNA against unmodified oligonucleotides and the resulting thermodynamic data support that the hydrogen bonding face of UNA is Watson-Crick like. PMID:26497284

  1. Mosaic protein and nucleic acid vaccines against hepatitis C virus

    SciTech Connect

    Yusim, Karina; Korber, Bette T. M.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Fischer, William M.

    2013-06-11

    The invention relates to immunogenic compositions useful as HCV vaccines. Provided are HCV mosaic polypeptide and nucleic acid compositions which provide higher levels of T-cell epitope coverage while minimizing the occurrence of unnatural and rare epitopes compared to natural HCV polypeptides and consensus HCV sequences.

  2. Nucleic acid analogues and the origins of replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Alan W.

    Recent interest in the properties of ``nucleic acid-like structures'' has been stimulated by difficulties encountered in the synthesis and nonenzymatic oligomerization of nucleotides. However, none of the newly proposed monomers has yet been synthesized in a plausibly prebiotic manner. Arguments are presented that analogues based on 8-hydroxymethyladenine and 5-hydroxymethyluracil are promising candidates for primitive nucleotide precursors.

  3. Nucleic acid encoding TGF-. beta. and its uses

    SciTech Connect

    Derynck, R.M.A.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a method. It comprises: constructing a vector which includes nucleic acid encoding biologically active TGF-{beta}, transforming a host eukaryotic cell with the vector, culturing the transformed cell and recovering mature TGF-{beta} from the culture medium.

  4. Nucleic acids encoding human trithorax protein

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Glen A. (Encinitas, CA); Djabali, Malek (Marseilles, FR); Selleri, Licia (Del Mar, CA); Parry, Pauline (San Diego, CA)

    2001-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, there is provided an isolated peptide having the characteristics of human trithorax protein (as well as DNA encoding same, antisense DNA derived therefrom and antagonists therefor). The invention peptide is characterized by having a DNA binding domain comprising multiple zinc fingers and at least 40% amino acid identity with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein and at least 70% conserved sequence with respect to the DNA binding domain of Drosophila trithorax protein, and wherein said peptide is encoded by a gene located at chromosome 11 of the human genome at q23. Also provided are methods for the treatment of subject(s) suffering from immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer by administering to said subject a therapeutically effective amount of one of the above-described agents (i.e., peptide, antagonist therefor, DNA encoding said peptide or antisense DNA derived therefrom). Also provided is a method for the diagnosis, in a subject, of immunodeficiency, developmental abnormality, inherited disease, or cancer associated with disruption of chromosome 11 at q23.

  5. Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven; Guss, Adam; Yang, Shihui; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lynd, Lee; Shao, Xiongjun

    2014-01-14

    The present invention provides isolated nucleic acid molecules which encode a mutant acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase or mutant alcohol dehydrogenase and confer enhanced tolerance to ethanol. The invention also provides related expression vectors, genetically engineered microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol, as well as methods of making and using such genetically modified microorganisms for production of biofuels based on fermentation of biomass materials.

  6. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Barton F.; Gao, Feng; Korber, Bette T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Kothe, Denise; Li, Ying Ying; Decker, Julie; Liao, Hua-Xin

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  7. Method for promoting specific alignment of short oligonucleotides on nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY); Kieleczawa, Jan (Coram, NY); Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for promoting specific alignment of short oligonucleotides on a nucleic acid polymer. The nucleic acid polymer is incubated in a solution containing a single-stranded DNA-binding protein and a plurality of oligonucleotides which are perfectly complementary to distinct but adjacent regions of a predetermined contiguous nucleotide sequence in the nucleic acid polymer. The plurality of oligonucleotides anneal to the nucleic acid polymer to form a contiguous region of double stranded nucleic acid. Specific application of the methods disclosed include priming DNA synthesis and template-directed ligation.

  8. NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS MEASURM,IEII]S IN SEDIMENT MICROBIAI CO}O{UNITIES

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    by NUCLEIC ACID SYNTHESIS MEASURM,IEII]S IN SEDIMENT MICROBIAI CO}O{UNITIES: I microbial communities. Biomass-specific raEes of nucleic acid synthesis in sediment microbial communities for measuring rates of nucleic acj-d synthesis in sedimentary microbial communi-ties has been adapted from

  9. Efficient, validated method for detection of mycobacterial growth in liquid culture media by use of bead beating, magnetic-particle-based nucleic acid isolation, and quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Plain, Karren M; Waldron, Anna M; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumudika; Purdie, Auriol C; Whittington, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenic mycobacteria are difficult to culture, requiring specialized media and a long incubation time, and have complex and exceedingly robust cell walls. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, a chronic wasting disease of ruminants, is a typical example. Culture of MAP from the feces and intestinal tissues is a commonly used test for confirmation of infection. Liquid medium offers greater sensitivity than solid medium for detection of MAP; however, support for the BD Bactec 460 system commonly used for this purpose has been discontinued. We previously developed a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, to replace it, with confirmation of growth reliant on PCR. Here, we report an efficient DNA isolation and quantitative PCR methodology for the specific detection and confirmation of MAP growth in liquid culture media containing egg yolk. The analytical sensitivity was at least 10(4)-fold higher than a commonly used method involving ethanol precipitation of DNA and conventional PCR; this may be partly due to the addition of a bead-beating step to manually disrupt the cell wall of the mycobacteria. The limit of detection, determined using pure cultures of two different MAP strains, was 100 to 1,000 MAP organisms/ml. The diagnostic accuracy was confirmed using a panel of cattle fecal (n=54) and sheep fecal and tissue (n=90) culture samples. This technique is directly relevant for diagnostic laboratories that perform MAP cultures but may also be applicable to the detection of other species, including M. avium and M. tuberculosis. PMID:25609725

  10. Fool's Gold Footprinting: microfluidic probing of nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christopher D.; Schlatterer, Joerg C.; Brenowitz, Michael; Pollack, Lois

    2012-02-01

    We describe a microfluidic device containing a mineral matrix capable of rapidly generating hydroxyl radicals that enables high-resolution structural studies of nucleic acids. Hydroxyl radicals cleave the solvent accessible backbone of DNA and RNA; the cleavage products can be detected with as fine as single nucleotide resolution. Protection from hydroxyl radical cleavage (footprinting) can identify sites of protein binding or the presence of tertiary structure. Here we report preparation of micron sized particles of iron sulfide (pyrite) and fabrication of a microfluidic prototype that together generate enough hydroxyl radicals within 20 ms to cleave DNA sufficiently for a footprinting analysis to be conducted. This prototype enables the development of high-throughput and/or rapid reaction devices with which to probe nucleic acid folding dynamics and ligand binding.

  11. Recent developments in nucleic acid delivery with polyethylenimines.

    PubMed

    Neuberg, Patrick; Kichler, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylenimines (PEIs) have proven to be highly efficient and versatile agents for nucleic acid delivery in vitro and in vivo. Despite the low biodegradability of these polymers, they have been used in several clinical trials and the results suggest that the nucleic acid/PEI complexes have a good safety profile. The high transfection efficiency of PEIs probably relies on the fact that these polymers possess a stock of amines that can undergo protonation during the acidification of endosomes. This buffering capacity likely enhances endosomal escape of the polyplexes through the "proton sponge" effect. PEIs have also attracted great interest because the presence of many amino groups allow for easy chemical modifications or conjugation of targeting moieties and hydrophilic polymers. In the present chapter, we summarize and discuss the mechanism of PEI-mediated transfection, as well as the recent developments in PEI-mediated DNA, antisense oligonucleotide, and siRNA delivery. PMID:25409609

  12. Ultrasensitive nucleic acid sequence detection by single-molecule electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, A; Shera, E.B.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year laboratory-directed research and development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There has been considerable interest in the development of very sensitive clinical diagnostic techniques over the last few years. Many pathogenic agents are often present in extremely small concentrations in clinical samples, especially at the initial stages of infection, making their detection very difficult. This project sought to develop a new technique for the detection and accurate quantification of specific bacterial and viral nucleic acid sequences in clinical samples. The scheme involved the use of novel hybridization probes for the detection of nucleic acids combined with our recently developed technique of single-molecule electrophoresis. This project is directly relevant to the DOE`s Defense Programs strategic directions in the area of biological warfare counter-proliferation.

  13. Zip nucleic acids are potent hydrolysis probes for quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Clément; Moreau, Valérie; Deglane, Gaëlle; Voirin, Emilie; Erbacher, Patrick; Lenne-Samuel, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    Zip nucleic acids (ZNAs) are oligonucleotides conjugated with cationic spermine units that increase affinity for their target. ZNAs were recently shown to enable specific and sensitive reactions when used as primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse-transcription. Here, we report their use as quantitative PCR hydrolysis probes. Ultraviolet duplex melting data demonstrate that attachment of cationic residues to the 3? end of an oligonucleotide does not alter its ability to discriminate nucleotides nor the destabilization pattern relative to mismatch location in the oligonucleotide sequence. The stability increase provided by the cationic charges allows the use of short dual-labeled probes that significantly improve single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Longer ZNA probes were shown to display reduced background fluorescence, therefore, generating greater sensitivity and signal level as compared to standard probes. ZNA probes thus provide broad flexibility in assay design and also represent an effective alternative to minor groove binder- and locked nucleic-acid-containing probes. PMID:20071749

  14. Synthetic nucleic acid delivery systems: present and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Draghici, Bogdan; Ilies, Marc A

    2015-05-28

    Self-assembled synthetic gene delivery systems represent the bottom-up approach to gene delivery and gene silencing, in which scientists are designing novel cationic and procationic amphiphiles that can pack, transport, and deliver nucleic acids to various targets in the body in a controlled manner. These supramolecular assemblies are safer than viruses, but they are lagging behind them in efficiency. We are presenting recent progress that has narrowed this gap through better understanding the delivery barriers and incorporation of this knowledge in the design of novel synthetic amphiphiles, formulations, and revolutionary screening and optimization processes. Structure-properties and structure-activity relationships were drawn within each amphiphile class, presenting the cellular and animal models used to generate them. We are also revealing pertinent in vitro/in vivo correlations that emphasize promising amphiphiles and successful formulation optimization efforts for efficient in vivo nucleic acid delivery, together with main organ targets and diseases treatable with these revolutionary technologies. PMID:25658858

  15. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  16. Spontaneous Mutual Ordering of Nucleic Acids and Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, Peter R.

    2014-12-01

    It is proposed that the prebiotic ordering of nucleic acid and peptide sequences was a cooperative process in which nearly random populations of both kinds of polymers went through a codependent series of self-organisation events that simultaneously refined not only the accuracy of genetic replication and coding but also the functional specificity of protein catalysts, especially nascent aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase "urzymes".

  17. System for portable nucleic acid testing in low resource settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Carey, Thomas; Niemz, Angelika

    2013-03-01

    Our overall goal is to enable timely diagnosis of infectious diseases through nucleic acid testing at the point-of-care and in low resource settings, via a compact system that integrates nucleic acid sample preparation, isothermal DNA amplification, and nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection. We herein present an interim milestone, the design of the amplification and detection subsystem, and the characterization of thermal and fluidic control and assay execution within this system. Using an earlier prototype of the amplification and detection unit, comprised of a disposable cartridge containing flexible pouches, passive valves, and electrolysis-driven pumps, in conjunction with a small heater, we have demonstrated successful execution of an established and clinically validated isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) reaction targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA, coupled to NALF detection. The refined design presented herein incorporates miniaturized and integrated electrolytic pumps, novel passive valves, overall design changes to facilitate integration with an upstream sample preparation unit, and a refined instrument design that automates pumping, heating, and timing. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that facilitates fluid handling and appropriate thermal control. The disposable cartridge is manufactured using low-cost and scalable techniques and forms a closed system to prevent workplace contamination by amplicons. In a parallel effort, we are developing a sample preparation unit based on similar design principles, which performs mechanical lysis of mycobacteria and DNA extraction from liquefied and disinfected sputum. Our next step is to combine sample preparation, amplification, and detection in a final integrated cartridge and device, to enable fully automated sample-in to answer-out diagnosis of active tuberculosis in primary care facilities of low-resource and high-burden countries.

  18. Method and apparatus for staining immobilized nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jacobson, Stephen C. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    A method for staining immobilized nucleic acids includes the steps of affixing DNA probes to a solid substrate, moving target DNA material into proximity with the DNA probes, whereby the target DNA hybridized with specific ones of the DNA probes, and moving a fluorescent dye into proximity with the hybridized target DNA, whereby the fluorescent dye binds to the hybridized DNA to enable subsequent detection of fluorescence.

  19. Devices and approaches for generating specific high-affinity nucleic acid aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeto, Kylan; Craighead, Harold G.

    2014-09-01

    High-affinity and highly specific antibody proteins have played a critical role in biological imaging, medical diagnostics, and therapeutics. Recently, a new class of molecules called aptamers has emerged as an alternative to antibodies. Aptamers are short nucleic acid molecules that can be generated and synthesized in vitro to bind to virtually any target in a wide range of environments. They are, in principal, less expensive and more reproducible than antibodies, and their versatility creates possibilities for new technologies. Aptamers are generated using libraries of nucleic acid molecules with random sequences that are subjected to affinity selections for binding to specific target molecules. This is commonly done through a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment, in which target-bound nucleic acids are isolated from the pool, amplified to high copy numbers, and then reselected against the desired target. This iterative process is continued until the highest affinity nucleic acid sequences dominate the enriched pool. Traditional selections require a dozen or more laborious cycles to isolate strongly binding aptamers, which can take months to complete and consume large quantities of reagents. However, new devices and insights from engineering and the physical sciences have contributed to a reduction in the time and effort needed to generate aptamers. As the demand for these new molecules increases, more efficient and sensitive selection technologies will be needed. These new technologies will need to use smaller samples, exploit a wider range of chemistries and techniques for manipulating binding, and integrate and automate the selection steps. Here, we review new methods and technologies that are being developed towards this goal, and we discuss their roles in accelerating the availability of novel aptamers.

  20. Nucleic Acid-Sensing Receptors: Rheostats of Autoimmunity and Autoinflammation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Fitzgerald, Katharine A; Cancro, Michael P; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2015-10-15

    Distinct families of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors can sense both microbial and endogenous nucleic acids. These DNA and RNA sensors include endosomal TLRs and cytosolic sensors upstream of stimulator of type I IFN genes (STING) and MAVS. The existence of overlapping specificities for both foreign and self nucleic acids suggests that, under optimal conditions, the activity of these receptors is finely tuned to effectively mediate host defense yet constrain pathogenic self-reactivity. This equilibrium becomes disrupted with the loss of either TLR9 or STING. To maintain immune protection, this loss can be counterbalanced by the elevated response of an alternative receptor(s). Unfortunately, this adjustment can lead to an increased risk for the development of systemic autoimmunity, as evidenced by the exacerbated clinical disease manifestations of TLR9-deficient and STING-deficient autoimmune-prone mice. These studies underscore the delicate balance normally maintained by tonic signals that prevent unchecked immune responses to nucleic acids released during infections and cellular duress or death. PMID:26432899

  1. Highly simplified lateral flow-based nucleic acid sample preparation and passive fluid flow control

    DOEpatents

    Cary, Robert E.

    2015-12-08

    Highly simplified lateral flow chromatographic nucleic acid sample preparation methods, devices, and integrated systems are provided for the efficient concentration of trace samples and the removal of nucleic acid amplification inhibitors. Methods for capturing and reducing inhibitors of nucleic acid amplification reactions, such as humic acid, using polyvinylpyrrolidone treated elements of the lateral flow device are also provided. Further provided are passive fluid control methods and systems for use in lateral flow assays.

  2. Early pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cows using circulating nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Jennifer; Soller, Jan T; Beck, Julia; Purwins, Vanessa; Wemheuer, Wilhelm; Schütz, Ekkehard; Brenig, Bertram

    2013-01-01

    Early and accurate pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle is a prerequisite for successful herd management. However, most of the currently available methods allow an early diagnosis only approximately 30 days after insemination. Recently, circulating nucleic acids (CNAs) have been used successfully as biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis at different gestational stages in human and animals. Here we show that CNAs can also be used as markers for the detection of early pregnancy in cattle. Serum samples were collected from multiparous pregnant (N = 24) and nonpregnant (N = 16) dairy cows at different days after insemination (Days 0, 20, and 40). Isolated serum DNA was preprocessed using a modified serial analysis of gene expression technique, which generated concatemerized short sequence tags for downstream next generation sequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified sequence tags specific for pregnant dairy cows at Day 20 after insemination. The identified CNA-tags originated from repetitive regions of the bovine genome. Tag sequences that showed increased hit counts per animal were used to design quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. These quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were applied to CNA samples from matched pregnant (N = 12) and nonpregnant cows (N = 16) at different times after insemination (Day 0, 20, and 40). At Day 20 after insemination the quantities of the interspersed repeats Art2A and BovB were increased in the pregnant cows compared with the nonpregnant control cows (P < 0.05). The best performing CNA biomarker BovB yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.76. At a defined cutoff value, the pregnant and the control groups can be distinguished with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 75%. These results suggest that CNAs can be used as biomarkers for the detection of early pregnancy in cattle. PMID:23122603

  3. PAPER www.rsc.org/analyst | The Analyst A double-stranded molecular probe for homogeneous nucleic acid analysis

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    fluorogenic conformational change upon hybridization to its complementary nucleic acid target. The molecular of specific nucleic acid molecules. In this sensing scheme, a fluorophore-conjugated nucleic acid sequencePAPER www.rsc.org/analyst | The Analyst A double-stranded molecular probe for homogeneous nucleic

  4. Solving nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement: examples from group II intron studies

    SciTech Connect

    Marcia, Marco Humphris-Narayanan, Elisabeth; Keating, Kevin S.; Somarowthu, Srinivas; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2013-11-01

    Strategies for phasing nucleic acid structures by molecular replacement, using both experimental and de novo designed models, are discussed. Structured RNA molecules are key players in ensuring cellular viability. It is now emerging that, like proteins, the functions of many nucleic acids are dictated by their tertiary folds. At the same time, the number of known crystal structures of nucleic acids is also increasing rapidly. In this context, molecular replacement will become an increasingly useful technique for phasing nucleic acid crystallographic data in the near future. Here, strategies to select, create and refine molecular-replacement search models for nucleic acids are discussed. Using examples taken primarily from research on group II introns, it is shown that nucleic acids are amenable to different and potentially more flexible and sophisticated molecular-replacement searches than proteins. These observations specifically aim to encourage future crystallographic studies on the newly discovered repertoire of noncoding transcripts.

  5. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) for Detecting Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Lance M.; Fried, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) is used to detect protein complexes with nucleic acids. It is the core technology underlying a wide range of qualitative and quantitative analyses for the characterization of interacting systems. In the classical assay, solutions of protein and nucleic acid are combined and the resulting mixtures are subjected to electrophoresis under native conditions through polyacrylamide or agarose gel. After electrophoresis, the distribution of species containing nucleic acid is determined, usually by autoradiography of 32P-labeled nucleic acid. In general, protein-nucleic acid complexes migrate more slowly than the corresponding free nucleic acid. In this article, we identify the most important factors that determine the stabilities and electrophoretic mobilities of complexes under assay conditions. A representative protocol is provided and commonly used variants are discussed. Expected outcomes are briefly described. References to extensions of the method and a troubleshooting guide are provided. PMID:17703195

  6. Introduction of structural affinity handles as a tool in selective nucleic acid separations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, III, Richard Coale (Inventor); Cano, Luis Antonio (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The method is used for separating nucleic acids and other similar constructs. It involves selective introduction, enhancement, or stabilization of affinity handles such as single-strandedness in the undesired (or desired) nucleic acids as compared to the usual structure (e.g., double-strandedness) of the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids. The undesired (or desired) nucleic acids are separated from the desired (or undesired) nucleic acids due to capture by methods including but not limited to immobilized metal affinity chromatography, immobilized single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) protein, and immobilized oligonucleotides. The invention is useful to: remove contaminating genomic DNA from plasmid DNA; remove genomic DNA from plasmids, BACs, and similar constructs; selectively separate oligonucleotides and similar DNA fragments from their partner strands; purification of aptamers, (deoxy)-ribozymes and other highly structured nucleic acids; Separation of restriction fragments without using agarose gels; manufacture recombinant Taq polymerase or similar products that are sensitive to host genomic DNA contamination; and other applications.

  7. Development and performance evaluation of calf diarrhea pathogen nucleic acid purification and detection workflow.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Megan E; Bounpheng, Mangkey A; Rodgers, Sandy; Baker, Rocky J; Black, Wendy; Naikare, Hemant; Velayudhan, Binu; Sneed, Loyd; Szonyi, Barbara; Clavijo, Alfonso

    2012-09-01

    Calf diarrhea (scours) is a primary cause of illness and death in young calves. Significant economic losses associated with this disease include morbidity, mortality, and direct cost of treatment. Multiple pathogens are responsible for infectious diarrhea, including, but not limited to, Bovine coronavirus (BCV), bovine Rotavirus A (BRV), and Cryptosporidium spp. Identification and isolation of carrier calves are essential for disease management. Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory current methods for calf diarrhea pathogen identification include electron microscopy (EM) for BCV and BRV and a direct fluorescent antibody test (DFAT) for organism detection of Cryptosporidium spp. A workflow was developed consisting of an optimized fecal nucleic acid purification and multiplex reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for single tube concurrent detection of BCV, BRV, and Cryptosporidium spp., and an internal control to monitor nucleic acid purification efficacy and PCR reagent functionality. In "spike-in" experiments using serial dilutions of each pathogen, the analytical sensitivity was determined to be <10 TCID(50)/ml for BCV and BRV, and <20 oocysts for Cryptosporidium spp. Analytical specificity was confirmed using Canine and Feline coronavirus, Giardia spp., and noninfected bovine purified nucleic acid. Diagnostic sensitivity was ?98% for all pathogens when compared with respective traditional methods. The results demonstrate that the newly developed assay can purify and subsequently detect BCV, BRV, and Cryptosporidium spp. concurrently in a single PCR, enabling simplified and streamlined calf diarrhea pathogen identification. PMID:22914823

  8. Design of Multi-Stable Nucleic Acid Sequences Ingrid G. Abfalter1

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Design of Multi-Stable Nucleic Acid Sequences Ingrid G. Abfalter1 , Christoph Flamm1 , Peter F nucleic acid-structure [6]. GCGGAUU U AG C U C A G U UG G G A G A G CG CCAGA C UG A A GAUCUGG A G GUCC U G. (below) bracket-dot-representation. 1 #12;Multi-Stable Nucleic Acid Structures 2 1 5 10 15 20 1 5 10 15

  9. Nucleic acid modifications in bacterial pathogens - impact on pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapy

    E-print Network

    Russell, Brandon S. (Brandon Skylur)

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acids are subject to extensive chemical modification by all organisms. These modifications display incredible structural diversity, and some are essential for survival. Intriguingly, several of these modifications ...

  10. Prefibrillar Tau oligomers alter the nucleic acid protective function of Tau in hippocampal neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Violet, Marie; Chauderlier, Alban; Delattre, Lucie; Tardivel, Meryem; Chouala, Meliza Sendid; Sultan, Audrey; Marciniak, Elodie; Humez, Sandrine; Binder, Lester; Kayed, Rakez; Lefebvre, Bruno; Bonnefoy, Eliette; Buée, Luc; Galas, Marie-Christine

    2015-10-01

    The accumulation of DNA and RNA oxidative damage is observed in cortical and hippocampal neurons from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains at early stages of pathology. We recently reported that Tau is a key nuclear player in the protection of neuronal nucleic acid integrity in vivo under physiological conditions and hyperthermia, a strong inducer of oxidative stress. In a mouse model of tauopathy (THY-Tau22), we demonstrate that hyperthermia selectively induces nucleic acid oxidative damage and nucleic acid strand breaks in the nucleus and cytoplasm of hippocampal neurons that display early Tau phosphorylation but no Tau fibrils. Nucleic acid-damaged neurons were exclusively immunoreactive for prefibrillar Tau oligomers. A similar association between prefibrillar Tau oligomers and nucleic acid oxidative damage was observed in AD brains. Pretreatment with Methylene Blue (MB), a Tau aggregation inhibitor and a redox cycler, reduced hyperthermia-induced Tau oligomerization as well as nucleic acid damage. This study clearly highlights the existence of an early and critical time frame for hyperthermia-induced Tau oligomerization, which most likely occurs through increased oxidative stress, and nucleic acid vulnerability during the progression of Tau pathology. These results suggest that at early stages of AD, Tau oligomerization triggers the loss of the nucleic acid protective function of monomeric Tau. This study highlights the existence of a short therapeutic window in which to prevent the formation of pathological forms of Tau and their harmful consequences on nucleic acid integrity during the progression of Tau pathology. PMID:26385829

  11. BGL7 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2015-04-14

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl7, and the corresponding BGL7 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL7, recombinant BGL7 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  12. BGL6 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2014-03-04

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl6, and the corresponding BGL6 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL6, recombinant BGL6 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  13. BGL7 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2013-01-29

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl7, and the corresponding BGL7 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL7, recombinant BGL7 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  14. BGL7 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2014-03-25

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl7, and the corresponding BGL7 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL7, recombinant BGL7 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  15. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-04-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  16. BGL5 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2008-03-18

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  17. BGL7 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2008-08-05

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl7, and the corresponding BGL7 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL7, recombinant BGL7 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  18. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2011-06-14

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  19. BGL6 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA)

    2009-09-01

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl6, and the corresponding BGL6 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL6, recombinant BGL6 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  20. BGL6 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2012-10-02

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl6, and the corresponding BGL6 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL6, recombinant BGL6 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  1. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2012-10-30

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  2. BGL4 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2011-12-06

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl4, and the corresponding BGL4 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL4, recombinant BGL4 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  3. BGL4 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA) [Los Gatos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL) [Vlaardingen, NL; Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA) [San Francisco, CA; Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA) [Sunnyvale, CA

    2008-01-22

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl4, and the corresponding BGL4 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL4, recombinant BGL4 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  4. BGL4 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-05-16

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl4, and the corresponding BGL4 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL4, recombinant BGL4 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  5. BGL5 .beta.-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael; Yao, Jian

    2006-02-28

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl5, and the corresponding BGL5 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL5, recombinant BGL5 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  6. BGL3 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel (Los Gatos, CA); Goedegebuur, Frits (Vlaardingen, NL); Ward, Michael (San Francisco, CA); Yao, Jian (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-09-25

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl3, and the corresponding BGL3 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL3, recombinant BGL3 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  7. BGL6 beta-glucosidase and nucleic acids encoding the same

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn-Coleman, Nigel; Ward, Michael

    2015-08-11

    The present invention provides a novel .beta.-glucosidase nucleic acid sequence, designated bgl6, and the corresponding BGL6 amino acid sequence. The invention also provides expression vectors and host cells comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding BGL6, recombinant BGL6 proteins and methods for producing the same.

  8. Poly(alkylene oxide) copolymers for nucleic acid delivery.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Swati; Peddada, Lavanya Y; Devore, David I; Roth, Charles M

    2012-07-17

    The advancement of gene-based therapeutics to the clinic is limited by the ability to deliver physiologically relevant doses of nucleic acids to target tissues safely and effectively. Over the last couple of decades, researchers have successfully employed polymer and lipid based nanoassemblies to deliver nucleic acids for the treatment of a variety of diseases. Results of phase I/II clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy and biosafety of these gene delivery vehicles have been encouraging, which has promoted the design of more efficient and biocompatible systems. Research has focused on designing carriers to achieve biocompatibility, stability in the circulatory system, biodistribution to target the disease site, and intracellular delivery, all of which enhance the resulting therapeutic effect. The family of poly(alkylene oxide) (PAO) polymers includes random, block, and branched structures, among which the ABA type triblocks copolymers of ethylene oxide (EO) and propylene oxide (PO) (commercially known as Pluronic) have received the greatest consideration. In this Account, we highlight examples of polycation-PAO conjugates, liposome-PAO formulations, and PAO micelles for nucleic acid delivery. Among the various polymer design considerations, which include molecular weight of polymer, molecular weight of blocks, and length of blocks, the overall hydrophobic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is a critical parameter in defining the behavior of the polymer conjugates for gene delivery. We discuss the effects of varying this parameter in the context of improving gene delivery processes, such as serum stability and association with cell membranes. Other innovative macromolecular modifications discussed in this category include our work to enhance the serum stability and efficiency of lipoplexes using PAO graft copolymers, the development of a PAO gel-based carrier for sustained and stimuli responsive delivery, and the development of biodegradable PAO-based amphiphilic block copolymers. PMID:22260518

  9. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sett, Arghya; Das, Suradip; Bora, Utpal

    2014-10-01

    Efforts to replace conventional chromatographic methods for environmental monitoring with cheaper and easy to use biosensors for precise detection and estimation of hazardous environmental toxicants, water or air borne pathogens as well as various other chemicals and biologics are gaining momentum. Out of the various types of biosensors classified according to their bio-recognition principle, nucleic-acid-based sensors have shown high potential in terms of cost, sensitivity, and specificity. The discovery of catalytic activities of RNA (ribozymes) and DNA (DNAzymes) which could be triggered by divalent metallic ions paved the way for their extensive use in detection of heavy metal contaminants in environment. This was followed with the invention of small oligonucleotide sequences called aptamers which can fold into specific 3D conformation under suitable conditions after binding to target molecules. Due to their high affinity, specificity, reusability, stability, and non-immunogenicity to vast array of targets like small and macromolecules from organic, inorganic, and biological origin, they can often be exploited as sensors in industrial waste management, pollution control, and environmental toxicology. Further, rational combination of the catalytic activity of DNAzymes and RNAzymes along with the sequence-specific binding ability of aptamers have given rise to the most advanced form of functional nucleic-acid-based sensors called aptazymes. Functional nucleic-acid-based sensors (FNASs) can be conjugated with fluorescent molecules, metallic nanoparticles, or quantum dots to aid in rapid detection of a variety of target molecules by target-induced structure switch (TISS) mode. Although intensive research is being carried out for further improvements of FNAs as sensors, challenges remain in integrating such bio-recognition element with advanced transduction platform to enable its use as a networked analytical system for tailor made analysis of environmental monitoring. PMID:24903959

  10. Nonenzymatic catalytic signal amplification for nucleic acid hybridization assays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wenhong (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Devices, methods, and kits for amplifying the signal from hybridization reactions between nucleic acid probes and their cognate targets are presented. The devices provide partially-duplexed, immobilized probe complexes, spatially separate from and separately addressable from immobilized docking strands. Cognate target acts catalytically to transfer probe from the site of probe complex immobilization to the site of immobilized docking strand, generating a detectable signal. The methods and kits of the present invention may be used to identify the presence of cognate target in a fluid sample.

  11. Recognition of Chromosomal DNA Inside Cells by Locked Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Beane, Randall; Gabillet, Sylvie; Montaillier, Christophe; Arar, Khalil; Corey, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Sequence-selective recognition of DNA inside cells by oligonucleotides would provide valuable insights into cellular processes and new leads for therapeutics. Recent work, however, has shown that noncoding RNA transcripts overlap chromosomal DNA. These RNAs provide alternate targets for oligonucleotides designed to bind promoter DNA, potentially overturning previous assumptions about mechanism. Here, we show that antigene locked nucleic acids (agLNAs) reduce RNA levels of targeted genes, block RNA polymerase and transcription factor association at gene promoters, and bind to chromosomal DNA. These data suggest that the mechanism of LNAs involves recognition of chromosomal DNA and that LNAs are bona fide antigene molecules. PMID:19053275

  12. The reaction of sulfite radical anion with nucleic acid components.

    PubMed

    Erben-Russ, M; Michel, C; Bors, W; Saran, M

    1987-01-01

    The sulfite radical anion (SO3.-) is the first intermediate in the autoxidation of sulfite to sulfate. Using competition kinetics, its reactivities with the nucleic acid bases and the corresponding nucleosides were investigated. The second order rate constants were found to be rather low, k less than or equal to 1 x 10(6) dm3mol-1s-1 at pH 7. As a competitor, the carotenoid crocin was used, which was found to be bleached very efficiently by SO3.- (k = 1.0 x 10(9) dm3mol-1 s-1). PMID:2849586

  13. Conducting Polymer Based Nucleic Acid Sensor for Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Bansi Dhar; Prabhakar, Nirmal; Solanki, Pratima R.

    Nucleic acid sensor based on polyaniline has been fabricated by covalently immobilizing double stranded calf thymus (dsCT) DNA onto perchlorate (ClO-4) doped polyaniline (PANI) film deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate using 1-(3-(dimethylamino) propyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry. These dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO and PANI/ITO electrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry, electrochemical impedance, and Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) measurements. This disposable dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO bioelectrode is stable for about four months, can be used to detect arsenic trioxide (0.1ppm) in 30s.

  14. Enantioselective Properties of Nucleic Acid Aptamer Molecular Recognition Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyrin, Eric

    Target-specific chiral selectors, which are characterized by a predictable elution order depending on the target enantiomer employed for the selection of the chiral selector, have recently received much attention in the enantioselective analysis field. In this context, bioaffinity-based molecular recognition tools such as nucleic acid aptamers have notably demonstrated very attractive features for the chiral discrimination of active molecules. In this chapter, the enantioselective properties of aptamer chiral selectors and the major factors that control and modulate the liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis enantiomer separation are addressed.

  15. Nucleic acid programmed polymeric nanomaterials for biological communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rush, Anthony Michael

    A number of nucleic acid-polymer conjugates were synthesized, resulting in amphiphilic polymer-nucleic acid conjugates with the capability to self-assemble into a range of discrete nanoscale architectures. These nanomaterials, termed DNA-polymer amphiphile nanoparticles (DPA NPs), were studied with respect to their enzymatic processing by both endo- and exonucleases and further deployed as antisense genetic regulatory elements in live cultured human cells. DPA NPs were designed to act as substrates for both non sequence-specific exonucleases and a sequence-specific endonuclease. In all cases, nucleic acids arranged in the corona of spherical nanoparticles exhibited increased resistance to nucleolytic cleavage as compared to native single- or double-stranded analogues. For the exonucleases studied (Exonuclease III from E. Coli and phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus), nanoparticle display retarded enzymatic processing by roughly a factor of five. For the endonuclease studied (Nt.CviPII), nanoparticle display prohibited virtually all enzyme activity on oligonucleotides within the nanoparticle shell. To test the ability of these materials to regulate mRNA levels in live cultured human cells, LPA (LNA-polymer amphiphile) NPs were designed to be perfectly complementary to a 20-base region of mRNA encoding the anti-apoptosis protein survivin. In this study two key observations were made. The first observation is that packaging LNA into spherical micellar nanoparticles serves to dramatically enhance cellular uptake of LNA based on flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy data. The second observation is that LPA NPs are capable of regulating mRNA levels by what is hypothesized to be activation of target mRNA for catalytic RNase H-mediated degradation. These materials represent a unique class of DNA delivery system capable of rendering nucleic acids with natural backbone chemistry resistant to nuclease degradation and further serving to deliver DNA into cells to facilitate depletion of mRNA levels in a sequence-specific fashion. Notably, the use of detergents, charge-neutralizing, or DNA-sequestering components are not required for these materials to be effective in cells.

  16. Simultaneous Extraction of Viral and Bacterial Nucleic Acids for Molecular Diagnostic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kajiura, Lauren N.; Stewart, Scott D.; Dresios, John; Uyehara, Catherine F. T.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular detection of microbial pathogens in clinical samples requires the application of efficient sample lysis protocols and subsequent extraction and isolation of their nucleic acids. Here, we describe a simple and time-efficient method for simultaneous extraction of genomic DNA from gram-positive and -negative bacteria, as well as RNA from viral agents present in a sample. This method compared well with existing bacterial- and viral-specialized extraction protocols, worked reliably on clinical samples, and was not pathogen specific. This method may be used to extract DNA and RNA concurrently from viral and bacterial pathogens present in a sample and effectively detect coinfections in routine clinical diagnostics. PMID:26543438

  17. Simultaneous Extraction of Viral and Bacterial Nucleic Acids for Molecular Diagnostic Applications.

    PubMed

    Kajiura, Lauren N; Stewart, Scott D; Dresios, John; Uyehara, Catherine F T

    2015-12-01

    Molecular detection of microbial pathogens in clinical samples requires the application of efficient sample lysis protocols and subsequent extraction and isolation of their nucleic acids. Here, we describe a simple and time-efficient method for simultaneous extraction of genomic DNA from gram-positive and -negative bacteria, as well as RNA from viral agents present in a sample. This method compared well with existing bacterial- and viral-specialized extraction protocols, worked reliably on clinical samples, and was not pathogen specific. This method may be used to extract DNA and RNA concurrently from viral and bacterial pathogens present in a sample and effectively detect coinfections in routine clinical diagnostics. PMID:26543438

  18. Molecular cytogenetics by polymerase catalyzed amplification or in situ labelling of specific nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bolund, L.; Brandt, C.; Hindkjaer, J.; Koch, J.; Koelvraa, S.; Pedersen, S. )

    1993-01-01

    The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can be performed on isolated cells or chromosomes and the product can be analyzed by DNA technology or by FISH to test metaphases. The authors have good experiences analyzing aberrant chromosomes by FACS sorting, PCR with degenerated primers and painting of test metaphases with the PCR product. They also utilize polymerases for PRimed IN Situ labelling (PRINS) of specific nucleic acid sequences. In PRINS oligonucleotides are hybridized to their target sequences and labeled nucleotides are incorporated at the site of hybridization with the oligonucleotide as primer. PRINS may eventually allow the study of individual genes, gene expression and even somatic mutations (in mRNA) in single cells.

  19. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2013-07-23

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  20. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2014-04-08

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  1. Compatible solute influence on nucleic acids: Many questions but few answers

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Compatible solutes are small organic osmolytes including but not limited to sugars, polyols, amino acids, and their derivatives. They are compatible with cell metabolism even at molar concentrations. A variety of organisms synthesize or take up compatible solutes for adaptation to extreme environments. In addition to their protective action on whole cells, compatible solutes display significant effects on biomolecules in vitro. These include stabilization of native protein and nucleic acid structures. They are used as additives in polymerase chain reactions to increase product yield and specificity, but also in other nucleic acid and protein applications. Interactions of compatible solutes with nucleic acids and protein-nucleic acid complexes are much less understood than the corresponding interactions of compatible solutes with proteins. Although we may begin to understand solute/nucleic acid interactions there are only few answers to the many questions we have. I summarize here the current state of knowledge and discuss possible molecular mechanisms and thermodynamics. PMID:18522725

  2. Single-molecule characterization and engineering of the surfaces of nucleic acid sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josephs, Eric Alan

    The advent of personalized medicine will require biosensors capable of reliably detecting small levels of disease biomarkers. In microarrays and sensors for nucleic acids, hybridization events between surface-tethered DNA probes and the nucleic acids of interest (targets) are transduced into a detectable signal. However, target-binding ultimately occurs as a result of molecular motions and interactions between the probe and target at the nanometer scale, and common characterization methods either lack the resolution to characterize the sensors at this scale or provide only limited information about their interactions with their nanoscale chemical environment. In this dissertation I argue that an impediment to the development of more reliable and practical biosensors is the lack of knowledge and control of the nanometer length-scale structure of biosensor surfaces, which has a profound impact on molecular recognition and reactions for detection. After reviewing the fundamental surface chemistry and structural motifs of biosensors in Chapter 1, in Chapter 2 I use electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) to characterize in situ a common class of model nucleic acid sensors---thiolated DNA attached to a gold electrode which has been passivated by an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer---with single-molecule resolution. This level of detail allows me to observe both the conformations of individual probes and their spatial distribution at the nanoscale, then determine how these are affected by assembly conditions, probe structure, and interactions with co-adsorbates. I also determine how these nanoscale details affect the dynamic response of probes to electric fields, which have been commonly used in sensing schemes, and ultimately the ability of the surface-tethered probes to bind with target nucleic acids. In Chapter 3, I demonstrate and optimize the nanoscale patterning of individual DNA molecules into isolated, chemically well-defined niches on the surface, and the use of these patterned probes as a single-molecule `nano-array' able to bind with target nucleic acids. Additionally, an outstanding issue is the expense of the high-quality substrates used in these studies. In Chapter 4, I discuss the development of single-crystal gold micro-plates with controllable surface chemistries as high-quality substrates for biotechnological platforms at a fraction of the cost.

  3. Mechanism for the endocytosis of spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chung Hang J.; Hao, Liangliang; Narayan, Suguna P.; Auyeung, Evelyn; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular delivery of nucleic acids as gene regulation agents typically requires the use of cationic carriers or viral vectors, yet issues related to cellular toxicity or immune responses hamper their attractiveness as therapeutic candidates. The discovery that spherical nucleic acids (SNAs), polyanionic structures comprised of densely packed, highly oriented oligonucleotides covalently attached to the surface of nanoparticles, can effectively enter more than 50 different cell types presents a potential strategy for overcoming the limitations of conventional transfection agents. Unfortunately, little is known about the mechanism of endocytosis of SNAs, including the pathway of entry and specific proteins involved. Here, we demonstrate that the rapid cellular uptake kinetics and intracellular transport of SNAs stem from the arrangement of oligonucleotides into a 3D architecture, which supports their targeting of class A scavenger receptors and endocytosis via a lipid-raft–dependent, caveolae-mediated pathway. These results reinforce the notion that SNAs can serve as therapeutic payloads and targeting structures to engage biological pathways not readily accessible with linear oligonucleotides. PMID:23613589

  4. Archaeal Nucleic Acid Ligases and Their Potential in Biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Cecilia R.; Patrick, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    With their ability to catalyse the formation of phosphodiester linkages, DNA ligases and RNA ligases are essential tools for many protocols in molecular biology and biotechnology. Currently, the nucleic acid ligases from bacteriophage T4 are used extensively in these protocols. In this review, we argue that the nucleic acid ligases from Archaea represent a largely untapped pool of enzymes with diverse and potentially favourable properties for new and emerging biotechnological applications. We summarise the current state of knowledge on archaeal DNA and RNA ligases, which makes apparent the relative scarcity of information on in vitro activities that are of most relevance to biotechnologists (such as the ability to join blunt- or cohesive-ended, double-stranded DNA fragments). We highlight the existing biotechnological applications of archaeal DNA ligases and RNA ligases. Finally, we draw attention to recent experiments in which protein engineering was used to modify the activities of the DNA ligase from Pyrococcus furiosus and the RNA ligase from Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, thus demonstrating the potential for further work in this area. PMID:26494982

  5. Nucleic acid sequence detection using multiplexed oligonucleotide PCR

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, John P. (Santa Fe, NM); White, P. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-12-26

    Methods for rapidly detecting single or multiple sequence alleles in a sample nucleic acid are described. Provided are all of the oligonucleotide pairs capable of annealing specifically to a target allele and discriminating among possible sequences thereof, and ligating to each other to form an oligonucleotide complex when a particular sequence feature is present (or, alternatively, absent) in the sample nucleic acid. The design of each oligonucleotide pair permits the subsequent high-level PCR amplification of a specific amplicon when the oligonucleotide complex is formed, but not when the oligonucleotide complex is not formed. The presence or absence of the specific amplicon is used to detect the allele. Detection of the specific amplicon may be achieved using a variety of methods well known in the art, including without limitation, oligonucleotide capture onto DNA chips or microarrays, oligonucleotide capture onto beads or microspheres, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Various labels and address-capture tags may be employed in the amplicon detection step of multiplexed assays, as further described herein.

  6. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  7. A Robust Technique for Assembly of Nucleic Acid Hybridization Chips Based on Electrochemically

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    A Robust Technique for Assembly of Nucleic Acid Hybridization Chips Based on Electrochemically and Biochemical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Maryland 21250 A nucleic acid hybridization assay was assembled onto a robust and readily addressable silicon-based chip using polysaccharide

  8. 78 FR 36698 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Nucleic Acid-Based Systems for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to reclassify nucleic acid-based in vitro diagnostic devices for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens from class III (premarket approval) into class II (special controls). FDA is also issuing the draft special controls guideline entitled ``Class II Special Controls Guideline: Nucleic Acid-Based In Vitro......

  9. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... assay. 866.3980 Section 866.3980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... § 866.3980 Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay. (a) Identification. A respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended...

  10. Chitosans for delivery of nucleic acids Michael D. Buschmann, Abderrazzak Merzouki, Marc Lavertu, Marc

    E-print Network

    Buschmann, Michael

    .addr.2013.07.005 Reference: ADR 12480 To appear in: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews Accepted date: 5 July Thibault, Myriam Jean, Vincent Darras, Chitosans for delivery of nucleic acids, Advanced Drug DeliveryÔØ Å ÒÙ× Ö ÔØ Chitosans for delivery of nucleic acids Michael D. Buschmann, Abderrazzak Merzouki

  11. Quantitative and Comprehensive Decomposition of the Ion Atmosphere around Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    Quantitative and Comprehensive Decomposition of the Ion Atmosphere around Nucleic Acids Yu Bai, 2007; E-mail: herschla@stanford.edu Abstract: The ion atmosphere around nucleic acids critically recognition. However, the dynamic nature of the ion atmosphere renders it difficult to characterize. The basic

  12. Determination of Three-Bond 1 P Couplings in Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    - periment is described for measuring 3 JH3 ­P couplings in nucleic acids and protein­nucleic acid complexes H COSY experiment which occurs in the pres- ence and absence of 3 JH3 ­P dephasing during other problems, including the measurement of JH­Cd cou- plings in cadmium-ligated proteins, or 3 JCH

  13. Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    REVIEW Microfluidic-based biosensors toward point-of-care detection of nucleic acids and proteins reviews state-of-the-art microflu- idic biosensors of nucleic acids and proteins for point- of-care (POC. The merger of microfluidics and advanced biosensor technolo- gies offers new promises for POC diagnostics

  14. Methods for point-of-care detection of nucleic acid in a sample

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P.; Dugan, Lawrence C.

    2015-12-29

    Provided herein are methods and apparatus for detecting a target nucleic acid in a sample and related methods and apparatus for diagnosing a condition in an individual. The condition is associated with presence of nucleic acid produced by certain pathogens in the individual.

  15. Comparative Assessment of Automated Nucleic Acid Sample Extraction Equipment for Biothreat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kalina, Warren Vincent; Douglas, Christina Elizabeth; Coyne, Susan Rajnik

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic beads offer superior impurity removal and nucleic acid selection over older extraction methods. The performances of nucleic acid extraction of biothreat agents in blood or buffer by easyMAG, MagNA Pure, EZ1 Advanced XL, and Nordiag Arrow were evaluated. All instruments showed excellent performance in blood; however, the easyMAG had the best precision and versatility. PMID:24452173

  16. Comparative assessment of automated nucleic acid sample extraction equipment for biothreat agents.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Warren Vincent; Douglas, Christina Elizabeth; Coyne, Susan Rajnik; Minogue, Timothy Devin

    2014-04-01

    Magnetic beads offer superior impurity removal and nucleic acid selection over older extraction methods. The performances of nucleic acid extraction of biothreat agents in blood or buffer by easyMAG, MagNA Pure, EZ1 Advanced XL, and Nordiag Arrow were evaluated. All instruments showed excellent performance in blood; however, the easyMAG had the best precision and versatility. PMID:24452173

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Rhodovulum sulfidophilum DSM 2351, an Extracellular Nucleic Acid-Producing Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Nobuyoshi; Hirose, Yuu; Misawa, Naomi; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Umekage, So; Kikuchi, Yo

    2015-01-01

    Rhodovulum sulfidophilum DSM 2351 is the nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium that efficiently releases nucleic acids into the extracellular milieu, which leads to flocculation. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of R. sulfidophilum DSM 2351, which will provide new insights into the mechanism of its unique nucleic acid release. PMID:25931606

  18. Cells labeled with multiple fluorophores bound to a nucleic acid carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Dattagupta, N.; Kamarch, M.E.

    1989-04-25

    In passing labeled cells through a cell sorter, the improvement which comprises employing a labeled cell comprising a cell, an antibody specific to and bound to such cell, a nucleic acid fragment joined to the antibody, and a plurality of labels on the nucleic acid fragment. Because of the presence of multiple labels, the sensitivity of the separation of labeled cells in increased.

  19. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3?-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  20. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-01-01

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology. PMID:26168909

  1. Molecular Dynamic Modeling of Nanodiamond (ND) PEI Interaction Towards Delivery of Nucleic Acids Goal: Understand the interaction between NDs and

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wei

    of Nucleic Acids Goal: Understand the interaction between NDs and polyethylenimine (PEI) towards delivery nucleic acids into cells in an invivo environment. ND PEI combines the efficacy of industry standard

  2. Nucleic Acid Encoding A Lectin-Derived Progenitor Cell Preservation Factor

    DOEpatents

    Colucci, M. Gabriella (Dugenta, IT); Chrispeels, Maarten J. (La Jolla, CA); Moore, Jeffrey G. (New York, NY)

    2001-10-30

    The invention relates to an isolated nucleic acid molecule that encodes a protein that is effective to preserve progenitor cells, such as hematopoietic progenitor cells. The nucleic acid comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:1, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof. The encoded protein has an amino acid sequence that comprises a sequence defined by SEQ ID NO:2, a homolog thereof, or a fragment thereof that contains an amino acid sequence TNNVLQVT. Methods of using the encoded protein for preserving progenitor cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo are also described. The invention, therefore, include methods such as myeloablation therapies for cancer treatment wherein myeloid reconstitution is facilitated by means of the specified protein. Other therapeutic utilities are also enabled through the invention, for example, expanding progenitor cell populations ex vivo to increase chances of engraftation, improving conditions for transporting and storing progenitor cells, and facilitating gene therapy to treat and cure a broad range of life-threatening hematologic diseases.

  3. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Zeinab; Schlee, Martin; Roth, Susanne; Mraheil, Mobarak Abu; Barchet, Winfried; Böttcher, Jan; Hain, Torsten; Geiger, Sergej; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Fritz, Jörg H; Civril, Filiz; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Kurts, Christian; Ruland, Jürgen; Hartmann, Gunther; Chakraborty, Trinad; Knolle, Percy A

    2012-01-01

    Immunity against infection with Listeria monocytogenes is not achieved from innate immune stimulation by contact with killed but requires viable Listeria gaining access to the cytosol of infected cells. It has remained ill-defined how such immune sensing of live Listeria occurs. Here, we report that efficient cytosolic immune sensing requires access of nucleic acids derived from live Listeria to the cytoplasm of infected cells. We found that Listeria released nucleic acids and that such secreted bacterial RNA/DNA was recognized by the cytosolic sensors RIG-I, MDA5 and STING thereby triggering interferon ? production. Secreted Listeria nucleic acids also caused RIG-I-dependent IL-1?-production and inflammasome activation. The signalling molecule CARD9 contributed to IL-1? production in response to secreted nucleic acids. In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria. PMID:23064150

  4. Exploring the role of polymer structure on intracellular nucleic acid delivery via polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Corey J; Kozielski, Kristen L; Green, Jordan J

    2015-12-10

    Intracellular nucleic acid delivery has the potential to treat many genetically-based diseases, however, gene delivery safety and efficacy remains a challenging obstacle. One promising approach is the use of polymers to form polymeric nanoparticles with nucleic acids that have led to exciting advances in non-viral gene delivery. Understanding the successes and failures of gene delivery polymers and structures is the key to engineering optimal polymers for gene delivery in the future. This article discusses the polymer structural features that enable effective intracellular delivery of DNA and RNA, including protection of nucleic acid cargo, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, vector unpacking, and delivery to the intracellular site of activity. The chemical properties that aid in each step of intracellular nucleic acid delivery are described and specific structures of note are highlighted. Understanding the chemical design parameters of polymeric nucleic acid delivery nanoparticles is important to achieving the goal of safe and effective non-viral genetic nanomedicine. PMID:26433125

  5. Trifluoromethylated Nucleic Acid Analogues Capable of Self-Assembly through Hydrophobic Interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, RuoWen; Wang, Chunming; Cao, Yang; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong; Chen, Jianzhong; Qing, Feng-Ling; Tan, Weihong

    2014-10-01

    An artificial nucleic acid analogue capable of self-assembly into duplex merely through hydrophobic interactions is presented. The replacement of Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with strictly hydrophobic interactions has the potential to confer new properties and facilitate the construction of complex DNA nanodevices. To study how the hydrophobic effect works during the self-assembly of nucleic acid bases, we have designed and synthesized a series of fluorinated nucleic acids (FNA) containing 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) benzene (F) and nucleic acids incorporating 3,5-dimethylbenzene (M) as hydrophobic base surrogates. Our experiments illustrate that two single-stranded nucleic acid oligomers could spontaneously organize into a duplex entirely by hydrophobic base pairing if the bases were size-complementary and the intermolecular forces were sufficiently strong. PMID:25285193

  6. Locked Nucleic Acid Pentamers as Universal PCR Primers for Genomic DNA Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhen; Chen, Zhi; Hou, Xiaoli; Li, Shuping; Zhu, Haihong; Qian, Ji; Lu, Daru; Liu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background Multiplexing technologies, which allow for simultaneous detection of multiple nucleic acid sequences in a single reaction, can save a lot of time, cost and labor compared to traditional single reaction detection methods. However, the multiplexing method currently used requires precise handiwork and many complicated steps, making a new, simpler technique desirable. Oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acid residues are an attractive tool because they have strong affinities for their complementary targets, they have been used to avoid dimer formation and mismatch hybridization and to enhance efficient priming. In this study, we aimed to investigate the use of locked nucleic acid pentamers for genomic DNA amplification and multiplex genotyping. Results We designed locked nucleic acid pentamers as universal PCR primers for genomic DNA amplification. The locked nucleic acid pentamers were able to prime amplification of the selected sequences within the investigated genomes, and the resulting products were similar in length to those obtained by restriction digest. In Real Time PCR of genomic DNA from three bacterial species, locked nucleic acid pentamers showed high priming efficiencies. Data from bias tests demonstrated that locked nucleic acid pentamers have equal affinities for each of the six genes tested from the Klebsiella pneumoniae genome. Combined with suspension array genotyping, locked nucleic acid pentamer-based PCR amplification was able to identify a total of 15 strains, including 3 species of bacteria, by gene- and species-specific probes. Among the 32 species used in the assay, 28 species and 50 different genes were clearly identified using this method. Conclusion As a novel genomic DNA amplification, the use of locked nucleic acid pentamers as universal primer pairs in conjunction with suspension array genotyping, allows for the identification of multiple distinct genes or species with a single amplification procedure. This demonstrates that locked nucleic acid pentamer-based PCR can be utilized extensively in pathogen identification. PMID:19002243

  7. Interaction of keratin K1 with nucleic acids on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Chelobanov, B P; Laktionov, P P; Kharkova, M V; Rykova, E Yu; Pyshnyi, D V; Pyshnaya, I A; Marcus, K; Meyer, H E; Vlassov, V V

    2003-11-01

    The interaction of surface proteins from A431 cells and cellular extracts with nucleic acids was investigated using affinity modification with 32P-labeled reactive oligonucleotide derivatives. Proteins with molecular weights of 68, 46, 38, and 28 kD as well as several low molecular weight proteins capable of binding to nucleic acids were found on the surface of intact cells. It was demonstrated that a protein with molecular weight of 68 kD is exposed at the cell surface, since the treatment of cells with trypsin results in the cleavage of this protein. Disruption of the integrity of the cell membrane (scrapping, treatment with trypsin, or permeabilization of the cell membrane with streptolysin O or saponin) disrupts the interaction of the reactive oligonucleotides with the cell surface proteins. Affinity modification of the cytosolic and membrane-cytosolic cell fractions with labeled oligonucleotides results in the modification of a large number of proteins, where proteins with molecular weights of 68, 46, 38, and 28 kD can be found as minor components. Surface oligonucleotide-binding proteins with molecular weight of ~68 kD were isolated by affinity chromatography after the modification of intact A431 cells with a reactive oligonucleotide derivative. The isolated surface oligonucleotide-binding proteins from A431 cells were sequenced, and one of the proteins was identified as keratin K1. PMID:14640967

  8. Binding of reticulocyte elongation factor 1 to ribosomes and nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kolb, A J; Redfield, B; Twardowski, T; Weissbach, H

    1978-07-24

    The present study has examined the requirements for the binding of rabbit reticulocyte elongation factor 1 (EF-1) to ribosomes under different assay conditions. When a centrifugation procedure was used to separate the ribosome EF-1 complex, the binding of EF-1 to ribosomes required GTP and Phe-tRNA, but not poly(U). The results suggested that undr these conditions a ternary complex, EF-1 . GTP . aminoacyl-tRNA, is necessary for the formation of a ribosome . EF-1 complex. However, when gel filtration was used to isolate the ribosome . EF-1 complex, only template and tRNA were required. These studie emphasize the fact that the procedure used to isolate the ribosome . EF-1 complex determines the requirements for stable complex formation. EF-1 can also interact with nucleic acids such as 28 S and 18 S rRNA, messenger RNA and DNA. In contrast to the binding to ribosomes, EF-1 binding to nucleic acids requires only Mg2+. PMID:248283

  9. Volume 10 Number 24 1982 Nucleic Acids Research An algorithm for the disply of nudeic aad secondary sbtcture

    E-print Network

    Sankoff, David

    Volume 10 Number 24 1982 Nucleic Acids Research An algorithm for the disply of nudeic aad secondary A simple algorithm is presented for the graphic display of nucleic acid secondary structure. Examples display of secondary structures of nucleic acids. THE DATA AND THE ALGORITHM The data for the algorithm

  10. Alteration of Nucleic Acid Structure and Stability Modulates the Efficiency of Minus-Strand Transfer Mediated by the

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Alteration of Nucleic Acid Structure and Stability Modulates the Efficiency of Minus with minus-strand transfer. To investigate the relationship between nucleic acid sec- ondary structure and NC) NC is a small, highly basic, nucleic acid-binding protein with two zinc fingers, each containing

  11. Helicases and nucleic acid translocases are a diverse group of motor proteins that function in nearly all

    E-print Network

    Lohman, Timothy M.

    Helicases and nucleic acid translocases are a diverse group of motor proteins that function in nearly all aspects of nucleic acid metabolism. Helicases use the binding and hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs) to catalyse the separation of double-stranded (ds) nucleic acids into their complementary

  12. The Effect of Dye-Dye Interactions on the Spatial Resolution of Single-Molecule FRET Measurements in Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Meller, Amit

    in Nucleic Acids Nicolas Di Fiori and Amit Meller * Department of Physics and Department of Biomedical, these results are useful when deciding which dye pairs to use for nucleic acids analyses using FRET and dynamics of proteins and nucleic acids, DNA-protein interactions, RNA catalysis, and many other systems (5

  13. Molecular evolution allows chemists and biologists to generate nucleic acids with tailor-made binding or catalytic activities.

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    367 Molecular evolution allows chemists and biologists to generate nucleic acids with tailor-made binding or catalytic activities. Recent examples of nucleic acid evolution in vitro provide insights. Efforts to expand the scope of nucleic acid evolution are also underway, including the development

  14. The C-Terminal Domain of Nucleolin Accelerates Nucleic Acid Annealing L. A. Hanakahi,*,, Zimei Bu,,| and Nancy Maizels,,#

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Nancy

    The C-Terminal Domain of Nucleolin Accelerates Nucleic Acid Annealing L. A. Hanakahi,*,,§ Zimei Bu protein nucleolin accelerates nucleic acid annealing. Nucleolin accelerates annealing of complementary it independently accelerate annealing. Acceleration of nucleic acid annealing by nucleolin is likely to depend

  15. Vibrational Stark Effect Probes for Nucleic Acids Lisa N. Silverman, Michael E. Pitzer, Peter O. Ankomah, Steven G. Boxer,*, and

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    Vibrational Stark Effect Probes for Nucleic Acids Lisa N. Silverman, Michael E. Pitzer, Peter O of infrared probes. To explore the use of VSE in nucleic acids, we investigated the Stark spectroscopy of nine in nucleic acids have been studied extensively by a variety of theoretical methods,1-7 often with conflicting

  16. Integrated, DC voltage-driven nucleic acid diagnostic platform for real sample analysis: Detection of oral cancer

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Integrated, DC voltage-driven nucleic acid diagnostic platform for real sample analysis: Detection-cost microfluidic platform capable of extraction of nucleic acids from real biological samples. We demonstrate of three units including a pretreatment unit for separation of nucleic acids from lysates

  17. Microgel Tethering For Microarray-Based Nucleic Acid Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoguang

    Molecular diagnostics (MDx) have radically changed the process of clinical microbial identification based on identifying genetic information, MDx approaches are both specific and fast. They can identify microbes to the species and strain level over a time scale that can be as short as one hour. With such information clinicians can administer the most effective and appropriate antimicrobial treatment at an early time point with substantial implications both for patient well-being and for easing the burden on the health-care system. Among the different MDx approaches, such as fluorescence in-situ hybridization, microarrays, next-generation sequencing, and mass spectrometry, point-of-care MDx platforms are drawing particular interest due to their low cost, robustness, and wide application. This dissertation develops a novel MDx technology platform capable of high target amplification and detection performance. For nucleic acid target detection, we fabricate an array of electron-beam-patterned microgels on a standard glass microscope slide. The microgels can be as small as a few hundred nanometers. The unique way of energy deposition during electron-beam lithography provides the microgels with a very diffuse water -gel interface that enables them to not only serve as substrates to immobilize DNA probes but do so while preserving them in a highly hydrated environment that optimizes their performance. Benefiting from the high spatial resolution provided by such techniques as position-sensitive microspotting and dip-pen nanolithography, multiple oligonucleotide probes known as molecular beacons (MBs) can be patterned on microgels. Furthermore, nucleic acid target amplification can be conducted in direct contact with the microgel-tethered detection array. Specifically, we use an isothermal RNA amplification reaction - nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA). ssRNA amplicons of from the NASBA reaction can directly hybridize with microgel-tethered MBs, and the fluorescence response can be monitored in real-time without any additional labeling. With the properties of low complexity, high sensitivity and specificity, this platform holds important possibilities for commercialization. To further de-risk this MDx approach, future research includes enhancing the multiplexity of target amplification and detection by solid-phase NASBA, as well as combining the platform into a microfluidic device that can both process and handle small sample sizes.

  18. Integrated, DC voltage-driven nucleic acid diagnostic platform for real sample analysis: Detection of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Slouka, Zdenek; Senapati, Satyajyoti; Shah, Sunny; Lawler, Robin; Shi, Zonggao; Stack, M Sharon; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2015-12-01

    We present an integrated and low-cost microfluidic platform capable of extraction of nucleic acids from real biological samples. We demonstrate the application of this platform in pathogen detection and cancer screening. The integrated platform consists of three units including a pretreatment unit for separation of nucleic acids from lysates, a preconcentration unit for concentration of isolated nucleic acids and a sensing unit localized at a designated position on the chip for specific detection of the target nucleic acid. The platform is based on various electrokinetic phenomena exhibited by ion exchange membranes in a DC electrical field that allow them to serve as molecular filters, analyte preconcentrators and sensors. In this manuscript, we describe each unit of the integrated chip separately and show specific detection of a microRNA (miRNA 146a) biomarker associated with oral cancer as a proof-of-concept experiment. This platform technology can easily be extended to other targets of interest by optimizing the properties of the ion exchange membranes and the specific probes functionalized onto the sensors. PMID:26459441

  19. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    -Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a newBrønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  20. Nucleic Acid-Based Approaches for Detection of Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Payam; Ranjbar, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2014-01-01

    Context: To determining suitable nucleic acid diagnostics for individual viral hepatitis agent, an extensive search using related keywords was done in major medical library and data were collected, categorized, and summarized in different sections. Results: Various types of molecular biology tools can be used to detect and quantify viral genomic elements and analyze the sequences. These molecular assays are proper technologies for rapidly detecting viral agents with high accuracy, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Nonetheless, the application of each diagnostic method is completely dependent on viral agent. Conclusions: Despite rapidity, automation, accuracy, cost-effectiveness, high sensitivity, and high specificity of molecular techniques, each type of molecular technology has its own advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25789132

  1. Spherical Nucleic Acids: A New Form of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Joshua Isaac

    Spherical Nucleic Acids (SNAs) are a new class of nucleic acid-based nanomaterials that exhibit unique properties currently being explored in the contexts of gene-based cancer therapies and in the design of programmable nanoparticle-based materials. The properties of SNAs differ from canonical, linear nucleic acids by virtue of their dense packing into an oriented 3-dimensional array. SNAs can be synthesized from a number of useful nanoparticle templates, such as plasmonic gold and silver, magnetic oxides, luminescent semi-conductor quantum dots, and silica. In addition, by crosslinking the oligonucleotides and dissolving the core, they can be made in a hollow form as well. This dissertation describes the evolution of SNAs from initial studies of inorganic nanoparticle-based materials densely functionalized with oligonucleotides to the proving of a hypothesis that their unique properties can be observed in a core-less structure if the nucleic acids are densely packed and highly oriented. Chapter two describes the synthesis of densely functionalized polyvalent oligonucleotide superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. These particles are shown to exhibit cooperative binding in a density- and salt concentration-dependent fashion, with nearly identical behaviors to those of SNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles. Importantly, these particles are the first non-gold particles shown to be capable of entering cells in high numbers via the SNA-mediated cellular uptake pathway, and provided the first evidence that SNA-mediated cellular uptake is core-independent. In the third chapter, a gold nanoparticle catalyzed alkyne cross-linking reaction is described that is capable of forming hollow organic nanoparticles using polymers with alkyne-functionalized backbones. With this method, the alkyne-modified polymers adsorb to the particle surfaces, cross-link on the surface, allowing the gold nanoparticle to be subsequently dissolved oxidatively with KCN or Iodine. The reaction pathway is analyzed through characterization of the reaction progression and resulting products, and a mechanistic pathway is proposed. This is the first report of a gold nanoparticle catalyzed reaction involving the conversion of propargyl ethers to terminal alcohols, which can subsequently cross-link if densely arranged on a gold nanoparticle surface. Importantly, these structures can be synthesized using gold nanoparticles of a range of sizes, thereby providing control over the size and properties of the resulting crosslinked particle. Chapter four returns to the topic of SNAs and builds upon the chemistry of chapter three culminating in the synthesis of cross-linked hollow SNA nanoparticles. These structures are formed by the cross-linking of synthetically modified alkyne-bearing oligonucleotides through the pathway described in chapter three. When the gold core is dissolved, the resulting hollow SNAs exhibit nearly identical binding, nuclease resistance, cellular uptake, and gene regulation properties of SNA-gold nanoparticle conjugates. Indeed, this chapter demonstrates that the unique properties of SNA-nanoparticle conjugates are core-independent and stem solely from the dense ensemble of oligonucleotides arranged on their surfaces. The fifth chapter further asserts the synthetic achievements made in chapter four by showing how hollow SNAs can be substituted for SNA-gold nanoparticles in the context of DNA-programmable assembly. In this case, they can be used as building blocks within binary synthetic schemes to synthesize unique nanoparticle superlattices. It bolsters the design rules of DNA-programmable assembly by showing that the predicted structures form based on the behavior of SNA hybridization, and are universal for any SNA-functionalized nanoparticle.

  2. Ion-beam-induced deoxyribose nucleic acid transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuntalabhochai, S.; Chandej, R.; Phanchaisri, B.; Yu, L. D.; Vilaithong, T.; Brown, I. G.

    2001-04-01

    We report our observations of the interaction of energetic ions with bacterial cells, inducing direct deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) transfer into Escherichia coli (E. coli). Argon- and nitrogen-ion beams were used to bombard the bacteria E. coli in a vacuum with energy of 26 keV and fluence in the range 0.5-4×1015 ions/cm2. Three DNA plasmids, pGEM2, pGEM-T easy, and pGFP, carrying different marker genes, were subsequently transferred (separately) into the appropriately ion-bombarded bacteria and successfully expressed. The results of this study indicate that ion beams with an energy such that the ion range is approximately equal to the cell envelope thickness, at a certain range of fluence, are able to generate pathways for macromolecule transfer through the envelope without irreversible damage.

  3. Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays.

    PubMed

    van De Rijke, F; Zijlmans, H; Li, S; Vail, T; Raap, A K; Niedbala, R S; Tanke, H J

    2001-03-01

    An important application of robotically spotted DNA microarrays is the monitoring of RNA expression levels. A clear limitation of this technology is the relatively large amount of RNA that is required per hybridization as a result of low hybridization efficiency and limiting detection sensitivity provided by conventional fluorescent reporters. We have used a recently introduced luminescent reporter technology, called UPT (up-converting phosphor technology). Down-converting phosphors have been applied before to detect nucleic acids on filters using time-resolved fluorometry. The unique feature of the phosphor particles (size 0.4 microm) used here is that they emit visible light when illuminated with infrared (IR) light (980 nm) as a result of a phenomenon called up-conversion. Because neither support material of microarrays nor biomolecules possess up-conversion properties, an enhanced image contrast is expected when these nonfading phosphor particles are applied to detect nucleic acid hybrids on microarrays. Comparison of the UPT reporter to cyanin 5 (Cy5) in a low-complexity model system showed a two order of maginitude linear relationship between phosphor luminescence and target concentration and resulted in an excellent correlation between the two reporter systems for variable target concentrations (R2 = 0.95). However, UPT proved to be superior in sensitivity, even though a wide-field microscope equipped with a xenon lamp was used. This higher sensitivity was demonstrated by complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray hybridizations using cDNAs for housekeeping genes as probes and complex cDNA as target. These results suggest that a UPT reporter technology in combination with a dedicated IR laser array-scanner holds significant promise for various microarray applications. PMID:11231563

  4. Nucleic acid hybridization analyses confirm the presence of a hitherto unknown morbillivirus in Mediterranean dolphins.

    PubMed

    Bolt, G; Blixenkrone-Møller, M

    1994-08-15

    In 1990 an epidemic caused by a morbillivirus was noticed among Mediterranean dolphins. RNA was extracted from the tissues of dolphins and from cell cultures infected with a corresponding dolphin morbillivirus isolate. By nucleic acid hybridization this RNA was compared to RNA extracted from animal tissue or cell cultures infected with canine distemper virus (CDV), phocine distemper virus (PDV) or measles virus (MV). The presence of morbillivirus RNA in the dolphin tissue was demonstrated. Morbillivirus N, P, M and F gene mRNAs were detected in the RNA from dolphin morbillivirus infected cells. These mRNA species seemed to be of approximately the same size as the corresponding mRNA species of CDV, PDV and MV. The results of the comparison demonstrated that the dolphin morbillivirus is genetically different from CDV, PDV and MV. No indication of a close relationship between the dolphin isolate and either CDV, PDV or MV was found. PMID:7801536

  5. BIOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AT SURFACES RELEVANT TO MICROARRAY PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Archana N.; Grainger, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and analytical metrics produced by microarray-based assay technology have recognized problems in reproducibility, reliability and analytical sensitivity. These issues are often attributed to poor understanding and control of nucleic acid behaviors and properties at solid-liquid interfaces. Nucleic acid hybridization, central to DNA and RNA microarray formats, depends on the properties and behaviors of single strand (ss) nucleic acids (e.g., probe oligomeric DNA) bound to surfaces. ssDNA’s persistence length, radius of gyration, electrostatics, conformations on different surfaces and under various assay conditions, its chain flexibility and curvature, charging effects in ionic solutions, and fluorescent labeling all influence its physical chemistry and hybridization under assay conditions. Nucleic acid (e.g., both RNA and DNA) target interactions with immobilized ssDNA strands are highly impacted by these biophysical states. Furthermore, the kinetics, thermodynamics, and enthalpic and entropic contributions to DNA hybridization reflect global probe/target structures and interaction dynamics. Here we review several biophysical issues relevant to oligomeric nucleic acid molecular behaviors at surfaces and their influences on duplex formation that influence microarray assay performance. Correlation of biophysical aspects of single and double-stranded nucleic acids with their complexes in bulk solution is common. Such analysis at surfaces is not commonly reported, despite its importance to microarray assays. We seek to provide further insight into nucleic acid-surface challenges facing microarray diagnostic formats that have hindered their clinical adoption and compromise their research quality and value as genomics tools. PMID:24765522

  6. Nucleic acid-sensing TLRs and autoimmunity: novel insights from structural and cell biology.

    PubMed

    Pelka, Karin; Shibata, Takuma; Miyake, Kensuke; Latz, Eicke

    2016-01-01

    Invasion of pathogenic microorganisms or tissue damage activates innate immune signaling receptors that sample subcellular locations for foreign molecular structures, altered host molecules, or signs of compartment breaches. Upon engagement of innate immune receptors an acute but transient inflammatory response is initiated, aimed at the clearance of pathogens and cellular debris. Among the molecules that are sensed are nucleic acids, which activate several members of the transmembrane Toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Inappropriate recognition of nucleic acids by TLRs can cause inflammatory pathologies and autoimmunity. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in triggering nucleic acid-sensing TLRs and indicate checkpoints that restrict their activation to endolysosomal compartments. These mechanisms are crucial to sample the content of endosomes for nucleic acids in the context of infection or tissue damage, yet prevent accidental activation by host nucleic acids under physiological conditions. Decoding the molecular mechanisms that regulate nucleic acid recognition by TLRs is central to understand pathologies linked to unrestricted nucleic acid sensing and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26683145

  7. Adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals: a few suggestions for prebiotic chemistry experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2012-10-01

    Amino acids and nucleic acid bases are very important for the living organisms. Thus, their protection from decomposition, selection, pre-concentration and formation of biopolymers are important issues for understanding the origin of life on the Earth. Minerals could have played all of these roles. This paper discusses several aspects involving the adsorption of amino acids and nucleic acid bases onto minerals under conditions that could have been found on the prebiotic Earth; in particular, we recommend the use of minerals, amino acids, nucleic acid bases and seawater ions in prebiotic chemistry experiments. Several experiments involving amino acids, nucleic acid bases, minerals and seawater ions are also suggested, including: (a) using well-characterized minerals and the standardization of the mineral synthesis methods; (b) using primary chondrite minerals (olivine, pyroxene, etc.) and clays modified with metals (Cu, Fe, Ni, Mo, Zn, etc.); (c) determination of the possible products of decomposition due to interactions of amino acids and nucleic acid bases with minerals; (d) using minerals with more organophilic characteristics; (e) using seawaters with different concentrations of ions (i.e. Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2- and Cl-) (f) using non-protein amino acids (AIB, ?-ABA, ?-ABA, ?-ABA and ?-Ala and g) using nucleic acid bases other than adenine, thymine, uracil and cytosine. These experiments could be useful to clarify the role played by minerals in the origin of life on the Earth.

  8. Synthesis of phosphoramidites of isoGNA, an isomer of glycerol nucleic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Keunsoo; Punna, Venkateshwarlu; Karri, Phaneendrasai

    2014-01-01

    Summary IsoGNA, an isomer of glycerol nucleic acid GNA, is a flexible (acyclic) nucleic acid with bases directly attached to its linear backbone. IsoGNA exhibits (limited) base-pairing properties which are unique compared to other known flexible nucleic acids. Herein, we report on the details of the preparation of isoGNA phosphoramidites and an alternative route for the synthesis of the adenine derivative. The synthetic improvements described here enable an easy access to isoGNA and allows for the further exploration of this structural unit in oligonucleotide chemistry thereby spurring investigations of its usefulness and applicability. PMID:25246971

  9. Carbon composite micro- and nano-tubes-based electrodes for detection of nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to fabricate vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were successfully prepared by using plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. Further, three carbon composite electrodes with different content of carbon particles with various shapes and sizes were prepared and tested on measuring of nucleic acids. The dependences of adenine peak height on the concentration of nucleic acid sample were measured. Carbon composite electrode prepared from a mixture of glassy and spherical carbon powder and MWCNTs had the highest sensitivity to nucleic acids. Other interesting result is the fact that we were able to distinguish signals for all bases using this electrode. PMID:21711910

  10. Intracellular Nucleic Acid Delivery by the Supercharged Dengue Virus Capsid Protein

    PubMed Central

    Freire, João Miguel; Veiga, Ana Salomé; Conceição, Thaís M.; Kowalczyk, Wioleta; Mohana-Borges, Ronaldo; Andreu, David; Santos, Nuno C.; Da Poian, Andrea T.; Castanho, Miguel A. R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Supercharged proteins are a recently identified class of proteins that have the ability to efficiently deliver functional macromolecules into mammalian cells. They were first developed as bioengineering products, but were later found in the human proteome. In this work, we show that this class of proteins with unusually high net positive charge is frequently found among viral structural proteins, more specifically among capsid proteins. In particular, the capsid proteins of viruses from the Flaviviridae family have all a very high net charge to molecular weight ratio (> +1.07/kDa), thus qualifying as supercharged proteins. This ubiquity raises the hypothesis that supercharged viral capsid proteins may have biological roles that arise from an intrinsic ability to penetrate cells. Dengue virus capsid protein was selected for a detailed experimental analysis. We showed that this protein is able to deliver functional nucleic acids into mammalian cells. The same result was obtained with two isolated domains of this protein, one of them being able to translocate lipid bilayers independently of endocytic routes. Nucleic acids such as siRNA and plasmids were delivered fully functional into cells. The results raise the possibility that the ability to penetrate cells is part of the native biological functions of some viral capsid proteins. PMID:24339931

  11. 70967108 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, Vol. 35, No. 21 Published online 16 October 2007 doi:10.1093/nar/gkm750

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    7096­7108 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, Vol. 35, No. 21 Published online 16 October 2007 doi:10 of Vif, displays cytidine deaminase and single- stranded (ss) nucleic acid binding activities. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) also binds nucleic acids and has a unique property, nucleic acid chaperone activity

  12. Shedding light on proteins, nucleic acids, cells, humans and fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlow, Richard B.

    2002-01-01

    I was trained as a physicist in graduate school. Hence, when I decided to go into the field of biophysics, it was natural that I concentrated on the effects of light on relatively simple biological systems, such as proteins. The wavelengths absorbed by the amino acid subunits of proteins are in the ultraviolet (UV). The wavelengths that affect the biological activities, the action spectra, also are in the UV, but are not necessarily parallel to the absorption spectra. Understanding these differences led me to investigate the action spectra for affecting nucleic acids, and the effects of UV on viruses and cells. The latter studies led me to the discovery of the important molecular nature of the damages affecting DNA (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers) and to the discovery of nucleotide excision repair. Individuals with the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) are extraordinarily sensitive to sunlight-induced skin cancer. The finding, by James Cleaver, that their skin cells were defective in DNA repair strongly suggested that DNA damage was a key step in carcinogenesis. Such information was important for estimating the wavelengths in sunlight responsible for human skin cancer and for predicting the effects of ozone depletion on the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer. It took experiments with backcross hybrid fish to call attention to the probable role of the longer UV wavelengths not absorbed by DNA in the induction of melanoma. These reflections trace the biophysicist's path from molecules to melanoma.

  13. Nonisotopic detection methods for strand displacement assays of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Vary, C P; McMahon, F J; Barbone, F P; Diamond, S E

    1986-09-01

    Using the enzymes terminal deoxyribonucleotidyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.31) and polynucleotide phosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.8), we constructed polyriboadenylic acid tracts, approximately 8000 AMP residues long, attached to the 3'-terminus of a synthetic deoxynucleotide. The polyadenylated DNA, termed the "signal strand", was used in a displacement-type nucleic acid probe assay (see pp 1631-6, this issue). A probe-signal strand complex was made by hybridizing the signal strand to a deoxycytidylate-terminal probe DNA. The probe-signal strand complex was immobilized on an oligo (dG)-cellulose support and subsequently displaced from the immobilized hybrid complex with various amounts of analyte DNA. After the displacement procedure, the polyadenylate tracts were converted to ATP by the combined action of polynucleotide phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase. ATP was quantified by a bioluminescence assay with luciferase from Photinus pyralis. Displacement events were also quantified with biotinylated signal strand bound to avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase. Such enzyme-amplified assays offer considerable versatility: they may be coupled to a variety of detection systems including colorimetry, fluorimetry, and luminometry. PMID:2427259

  14. Rapid Molecular Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis by PCR-Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Kamphee, Hatairat; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Prammananan, Therdsak; Wiriyachaiporn, Natpapas; Kanchanatavee, Airin; Dharakul, Tararaj

    2015-01-01

    Several existing molecular tests for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are limited by complexity and cost, hindering their widespread application. The objective of this proof of concept study was to develop a simple Nucleic Acid Lateral Flow (NALF) immunoassay as a potential diagnostic alternative, to complement conventional PCR, for the rapid molecular detection of MDR-TB. The NALF device was designed using antibodies for the indirect detection of labeled PCR amplification products. Multiplex PCR was optimized to permit the simultaneous detection of the drug resistant determining mutations in the 81-bp hot spot region of the rpoB gene (rifampicin resistance), while semi-nested PCR was optimized for the S315T mutation detection in the katG gene (isoniazid resistance). The amplification process additionally targeted a conserved region of the genes as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DNA control. The optimized conditions were validated with the H37Rv wild-type (WT) Mtb isolate and Mtb isolates with known mutations (MT) within the rpoB and katG genes. Results indicate the correct identification of WT (drug susceptible) and MT (drug resistant) Mtb isolates, with the least limit of detection (LOD) being 104 genomic copies per PCR reaction. NALF is a simple, rapid and low-cost device suitable for low resource settings where conventional PCR is already employed on a regular basis. Moreover, the use of antibody-based NALF to target primer-labels, without the requirement for DNA hybridization, renders the device generic, which could easily be adapted for the molecular diagnosis of other infectious and non-infectious diseases requiring nucleic acid detection. PMID:26355296

  15. Peptide nucleic acid-encoded libraries for microarray-based high-throughput screening 

    E-print Network

    Planonth, Songsak

    2012-06-22

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) were used as encoding tags to enable the analysis of peptide libraries by PNA/DNA hybridisation onto DNA microarrays. This allowed entire peptide libraries to be organised and sorted in a two ...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended to simultaneously...exhibiting signs and symptoms of respiratory infection aids in the diagnosis of respiratory viral infection when used in conjunction with other...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3980 - Respiratory viral panel multiplex nucleic acid assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...multiplex nucleic acid assay is a qualitative in vitro diagnostic device intended to simultaneously...exhibiting signs and symptoms of respiratory infection aids in the diagnosis of respiratory viral infection when used in conjunction with other...

  18. Prediction of nucleic acid binding probability in proteins: a neighboring residue network based score

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We describe a general binding score for predicting the nucleic acid binding probability in proteins. The score is directly derived from physicochemical and evolutionary features and integrates a residue neighboring network approach. Our process achieves stable and high accuracies on both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins and illustrates how the main driving forces for nucleic acid binding are common. Because of the effective integration of the synergetic effects of the network of neighboring residues and the fact that the prediction yields a hierarchical scoring on the protein surface, energy funnels for nucleic acid binding appear on protein surfaces, pointing to the dynamic process occurring in the binding of nucleic acids to proteins. PMID:25940624

  19. Prediction of nucleic acid binding probability in proteins: a neighboring residue network based score.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhichao; Westhof, Eric

    2015-06-23

    We describe a general binding score for predicting the nucleic acid binding probability in proteins. The score is directly derived from physicochemical and evolutionary features and integrates a residue neighboring network approach. Our process achieves stable and high accuracies on both DNA- and RNA-binding proteins and illustrates how the main driving forces for nucleic acid binding are common. Because of the effective integration of the synergetic effects of the network of neighboring residues and the fact that the prediction yields a hierarchical scoring on the protein surface, energy funnels for nucleic acid binding appear on protein surfaces, pointing to the dynamic process occurring in the binding of nucleic acids to proteins. PMID:25940624

  20. Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy of nucleic acids : application to tautomerism and DNA aptamer unfolding dynamics

    E-print Network

    Peng, Chunte Sam

    2014-01-01

    The structural dynamics of nucleic acids are intimately related to their biological functions; however, our ability to study these molecular dynamics has been largely impeded by the lack of techniques that possess both ...

  1. Electrochemical control of reversible DNA hybridisation : for future use in nucleic acid amplification 

    E-print Network

    Syed, Shahida Nina

    2014-06-28

    Denaturation and renaturation is indispensable for the biological function of nucleic acids in many cellular processes, such as for example transcription for the synthesis of RNA and DNA replication during cell division. ...

  2. Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid

    DOEpatents

    Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

    2001-01-01

    The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

  3. Development of polymer and lipid materials for enhanced delivery of nucleic acids and proteins

    E-print Network

    Eltoukhy, Ahmed Atef

    2013-01-01

    The development of synthetic vectors enabling efficient intracellular delivery of macromolecular therapeutics such as nucleic acids and proteins could potentially catalyze the clinical translation of many gene and protein-based ...

  4. Method for detection of polymorphic restriction sites and nucleic acid sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Saiki, R.K.; Erlich, H.A.

    1987-07-28

    A method is detected for detecting the presence or absence of at least one specific restriction site in a specific nucleic acid sequence comprising the steps of: (a) hybridizing the nucleic acid sequence in solution with an oligonucleotide probe for each restriction site detected. A probe is complementary to a region in the nucleic acid sequence spanning the respective restriction site of the probe is labeled at the end which is nearer to the respective restriction site than the other end of the probe; (b) digesting the hybridized nucleic acid sequence with a restriction endonuclease for each restriction site detected by each probe capable of cleaving its respective probe at the restriction site being detected. This produces labeled and unlabeled oligomer fragments.; (c) separating any labeled cleaved oligomer fragments from labeled uncleaved oligomers, and (d) detecting the presence or absence of labeled oligomer fragments.

  5. Understanding barriers to efficient nucleic acid delivery with bioresponsive block copolymers

    E-print Network

    Bonner, Daniel Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The delivery of nucleic acids has the potential to revolutionize medicine by allowing previously untreatable diseases to be clinically addressed. Viral delivery systems have been held back by immunogenicity and toxicity ...

  6. Evaluation of DNA/RNAshells for room temperature nucleic acids storage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaopan; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin; He, Xuheng; Liao, Qiuyan; Zhu, Fengqin; Cheng, Le; Zhang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    Traditional nucleic acids preservation methods rely on maintaining samples in cold environments, which are costly to operate and time sensitive. Recent work validated that using room temperature for the storage of nucleic acids is possible if the samples are completely protected from water and oxygen. Here, we conducted accelerated aging and real-time degradation studies to evaluate the new technology DNAshell and RNAshell, which preserves DNA and RNA at room temperature, including the DNA and RNA yield, purity, and integrity. DNA and RNA solutions are dried in the presence of stabilizers in stainless steel minicapsules, then redissolved after different time points of heating and storing at room temperature. Results show that DNAshell and RNAshell ensure the safe storage of nucleic acids at room temperature for long periods of time, and that the quality of these nucleic acids is suitable for common downstream analysis. PMID:25686048

  7. In-silico design of computational nucleic acids for molecular information processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Within recent years nucleic acids have become a focus of interest for prototype implementations of molecular computing concepts. During the same period the importance of ribonucleic acids as components of the regulatory networks within living cells has increasingly been revealed. Molecular computers are attractive due to their ability to function within a biological system; an application area extraneous to the present information technology paradigm. The existence of natural information processing architectures (predominately exemplified by protein) demonstrates that computing based on physical substrates that are radically different from silicon is feasible. Two key principles underlie molecular level information processing in organisms: conformational dynamics of macromolecules and self-assembly of macromolecules. Nucleic acids support both principles, and moreover computational design of these molecules is practicable. This study demonstrates the simplicity with which one can construct a set of nucleic acid computing units using a new computational protocol. With the new protocol, diverse classes of nucleic acids imitating the complete set of boolean logical operators were constructed. These nucleic acid classes display favourable thermodynamic properties and are significantly similar to the approximation of successful candidates implemented in the laboratory. This new protocol would enable the construction of a network of interconnecting nucleic acids (as a circuit) for molecular information processing. PMID:23647621

  8. 5'to 3' nucleic acid synthesis using 3'-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, Michael C. (Houston, TX); Shuey, Steven W. (Durham, NC); Bradley, Jean-Claude (Durham, NC)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5' to 3' nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5' end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  9. 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis using 3[prime]-photoremovable protecting group

    DOEpatents

    Pirrung, M.C.; Shuey, S.W.; Bradley, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    The present invention relates, in general, to a method of synthesizing a nucleic acid, and, in particular, to a method of effecting 5[prime] to 3[prime] nucleic acid synthesis. The method can be used to prepare arrays of oligomers bound to a support via their 5[prime] end. The invention also relates to a method of effecting mutation analysis using such arrays. The invention further relates to compounds and compositions suitable for use in such methods.

  10. Simple Protocol for Secondary School Hands-On Activity: Electrophoresis of Pre-Stained Nucleic Acids on Agar-Agar Borate Gels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britos, Leticia; Goyenola, Guillermo; Orono, Silvia Umpierrez

    2004-01-01

    An extremely simple, inexpensive, and safe method is presented, which emulates nucleic acids isolation and electrophoretic analysis as performed in a research environment, in the context of a secondary school hands-on activity. The protocol is amenable to an interdisciplinary approach, taking into consideration the electrical and chemical…

  11. Effect of Varying Magnetic Fields on Targeted Gene Delivery of Nucleic Acid-Based Molecules.

    PubMed

    Oral, Ozlem; C?k?m, Taha; Zuvin, Merve; Unal, Ozlem; Yagci-Acar, Havva; Gozuacik, Devrim; Ko?ar, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Several physical methods have been developed to introduce nucleic acid expression vectors into mammalian cells. Magnetic transfection (magnetofection) is one such transfection method, and it involves binding of nucleic acids such as DNA, RNA or siRNA to magnetic nanoparticles followed by subsequent exposure to external magnetic fields. However, the challenge between high efficiency of nucleic acid uptake by cells and toxicity was not totally resolved. Delivery of nucleic acids and their transport to the target cells require carefully designed and controlled systems. In this study, we introduced a novel magnetic system design providing varying magnet turn speeds and magnetic field directions. The system was tested in the magnetofection of human breast (MCF-7), prostate (DU-145, PC-3) and bladder (RT-4) cancer cell lines using green fluorescent protein DNA as a reporter. Polyethylenimine coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were used as nucleic acid carriers. Adsorption of PEI on SPION improved the cytocompatibility dramatically. Application of external magnetic field increased intracellular uptake of nanoparticles and transfection efficiency without any additional cytotoxicity. We introduce our novel magnetism-based method as a promising tool for enhanced nucleic acid delivery into mammalian cells. PMID:25963582

  12. Stability of free and mineral-protected nucleic acids: Implications for the RNA world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swadling, Jacob B.; Coveney, Peter V.; Christopher Greenwell, H.

    2012-04-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations we study the structural stability of three different nucleic acids intercalated within a magnesium aluminium layered double hydroxide (LDH) mineral, at varying degrees of hydration, and free in aqueous solution. The nucleotides investigated are ribose nucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and peptide nucleic acid (PNA), all in duplex form. Our simulations show that DNA has enhanced Watson-Crick hydrogen-bonding when intercalated within the LDH clay interlayers, compared with intercalated RNA and PNA, whilst the reverse trend is found for the nucleic acids in bulk water. The tendency for LDH to alter the stability of the three nucleic acids persists for higher temperature and pressure conditions. The uncharged protein backbone of PNA is found to have a detrimental effect on the overall stability of the duplex, as it experiences a greatly reduced electrostatic interaction with the charged LDH sheets compared to RNA and DNA. Assuming an RNA world, in which RNA preceded the DNA/protein world, at some point in time DNA must have taken over the role as the information storage molecule from RNA. These results suggest that a mineral based origin of life may have favoured DNA as the information-storage biomolecule over potentially competing RNA and PNA, providing a route to modern biology from the RNA world.

  13. Functional nucleic acid entrapment in sol-gel derived materials.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, Carmen; Brennan, John D

    2013-10-01

    Functional nucleic acids (FNAs) are single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules, typically generated through in vitro selection, that have the ability to act as receptors for target molecules (aptamers) or perform catalysis of a chemical reaction (deoxyribozymes and ribozymes). Fluorescence-signaling aptamers and deoxyribozymes have recently emerged as promising biological recognition and signaling elements, although little has been done to evaluate their potential for solid-phase assays, particularly with species made of RNA due to their lack of chemical stability and susceptibility to nuclease attack. Herein, we present a detailed overview of the methods utilized for solid-phase immobilization of FNAs using a sol-gel entrapment method that can provide protection from nuclease degradation and impart long-term chemical stability to the FNA reporter systems, while maintaining their signaling capabilities. This article will also provide a brief review of the results of such entrapment studies involving fluorescence-signaling versions of a DNA aptamer, selected RNA-cleaving deoxyribozymes, and two different RNA aptamers in a series of sol-gel derived composites, ranging from highly polar silica to hydrophobic methylsilsesquioxane-based materials. Given the ability to produce sol-gel derived materials in a variety of configurations, particularly as thin film coatings on electrodes, optical fibers, and other devices, this entrapment method should provide a useful platform for numerous solid-phase FNA-based biosensing applications. PMID:24025165

  14. Solution influence on biomolecular equilibria - Nucleic acid base associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, A.; Pratt, L. R.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Various attempts to construct an understanding of the influence of solution environment on biomolecular equilibria at the molecular level using computer simulation are discussed. First, the application of the formal statistical thermodynamic program for investigating biomolecular equilibria in solution is presented, addressing modeling and conceptual simplications such as perturbative methods, long-range interaction approximations, surface thermodynamics, and hydration shell. Then, Monte Carlo calculations on the associations of nucleic acid bases in both polar and nonpolar solvents such as water and carbon tetrachloride are carried out. The solvent contribution to the enthalpy of base association is positive (destabilizing) in both polar and nonpolar solvents while negative enthalpies for stacked complexes are obtained only when the solute-solute in vacuo energy is added to the total energy. The release upon association of solvent molecules from the first hydration layer around a solute to the bulk is accompanied by an increase in solute-solvent energy and decrease in solvent-solvent energy. The techniques presented are expectd to displace less molecular and more heuristic modeling of biomolecular equilibria in solution.

  15. Monitoring Gene Expression In Vivo with Nucleic Acid Molecular Switches

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Ward; Patricia Bray-Ward

    2005-01-26

    The overall objectives of this project were (1) to develop allosteric ribozymes capable of acting as molecular switches for monitoring the levels of both wild-type and mutant mRNA species in living cells and whole animals and (2) to develop highly efficient reagents to deliver nucleic acid molecular switches into living cells, tissues and animals with the ultimate goal of expression profiling specific mRNAs of diagnostic or prognostic value within tumors in animals. During the past year, we have moved our laboratory to Nevada and in the moving process we have lost electronic and paper copies of prior progress reports concerning the construction and biological properties of the molecular switches. Since there was minimal progress during the last year on molecular switches, we are relying on past project reports to provide a summary of our data on this facet of the grant. Here we are summarizing the work done on the delivery reagents and their application to inducing mutations in living cells, which will include work done during the no cost extension.

  16. Quantum-Sequencing: Biophysics of quantum tunneling through nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casamada Ribot, Josep; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy has extensively been used in physical surface sciences to study quantum tunneling to measure electronic local density of states of nanomaterials and to characterize adsorbed species. Quantum-Sequencing (Q-Seq) is a new method based on tunneling microscopy for electronic sequencing of single molecule of nucleic acids. A major goal of third-generation sequencing technologies is to develop a fast, reliable, enzyme-free single-molecule sequencing method. Here, we present the unique ``electronic fingerprints'' for all nucleotides on DNA and RNA using Q-Seq along their intrinsic biophysical parameters. We have analyzed tunneling spectra for the nucleotides at different pH conditions and analyzed the HOMO, LUMO and energy gap for all of them. In addition we show a number of biophysical parameters to further characterize all nucleobases (electron and hole transition voltage and energy barriers). These results highlight the robustness of Q-Seq as a technique for next-generation sequencing.

  17. New nucleic acid triple helix, Poly(AAU)

    SciTech Connect

    Broitman, S.L.; Im, D.D.; Fresco, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    A polynucleotide helical structure containing two strands of poly(A) and one of poly(U) has been discovered. The stoichiometry of the complex was determined by continuous variation titrations and isosbestic wavelength analysis. Thermal denaturation profiles were used to examine complex stability over a wide range of conditions. The complex forms only when the poly(A) strands are of molecular weight between 9000-50,000 Daltons (dp approx. 28-150), whereas the size of the poly(U) strand has no effect. This limitation may explain why poly(AAU) was not observed in previous investigations. The complex shows inverse dependence of stability on ionic strength, but is not favored by decreasing pH. This behavior, together with the intermediate poly(A) size requirement suggest that the conformational entropy of the poly(A) strands is a critical determinant of the stability of this complex. The potential of the poly(A) tails of mRNA for formation of this triple helix, and of AAU/T triplet formation to contribute to the binding of unique sequence RNA strands to gene-encoding nucleic acid double helices are noted.

  18. Mass spectral characterization of a protein-nucleic acid photocrosslink.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, M. C.; Resing, K. A.; Collins, B. D.; Willis, M. C.; Koch, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    A photocrosslink between basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF155) and a high affinity ssDNA oligonucleotide was characterized by positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS). The DNA was a 61-mer oligonucleotide photoaptamer bearing seven bromodeoxyuridines, identified by in vitro selection. Specific photocrosslinking of the protein to the oligonucleotide was achieved by 308 nm XeCl excimer laser excitation. The cross-linked protein nucleic acid complex was proteolyzed with trypsin. The resulting peptide crosslink was purified by PAGE, eluted, and digested by snake venom phosphodiesterase/alkaline phosphatase. Comparison of the oligonucleotide vs. the degraded peptide crosslink by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometer showed a single ion unique to the crosslinked material. Sequencing by collision induced dissociation (MS/MS) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer revealed that this ion was the nonapeptide TGQYKLGSK (residues 130-138) crosslinked to a dinucleotide at Tyr133. The MS/MS spectrum indicated sequential fragmentation of the oligonucleotide to uracil covalently attached to the nonapeptide followed by fragmentation of the peptide bonds. Tyr133 is located within the heparin binding pocket, suggesting that the in vitro selection targeted this negative ion binding region of bFGF155. PMID:10631998

  19. Method for producing labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probes

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, John J. (Bellport, NY); Quesada, Mark A. (Middle Island, NY); Randesi, Matthew (Upton, NY)

    1999-10-19

    Disclosed is a method for the introduction of unidirectional deletions in a cloned DNA segment. More specifically, the method comprises providing a recombinant DNA construct comprising a DNA segment of interest inserted in a cloning vector, the cloning vector having an f1 endonuclease recognition sequence adjacent to the insertion site of the DNA segment of interest. The recombinant DNA construct is then contacted with the protein pII encoded by gene II of phage f1 thereby generating a single-stranded nick. The nicked DNA is then contacted with E. coli Exonuclease III thereby expanding the single-stranded nick into a single-stranded gap. The single-stranded gapped DNA is then contacted with a single-strand-specific endonuclease thereby producing a linearized DNA molecule containing a double-stranded deletion corresponding in size to the single-stranded gap. The DNA treated in this manner is then incubated with DNA ligase under conditions appropriate for ligation. Also disclosed is a method for producing single-stranded DNA probes. In this embodiment, single-stranded gapped DNA, produced as described above, is contacted with a DNA polymerase in the presence of labeled nucleotides to fill in the gap. This DNA is then linearized by digestion with a restriction enzyme which cuts outside the DNA segment of interest. The product of this digestion is then denatured to produce a labeled single-stranded nucleic acid probe.

  20. [Development of Nucleic Acid-Based Adjuvant for Cancer Immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kobiyama, Kouji; Ishii, Ken J

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of the human T cell-defined tumor antigen, the cancer immunotherapy field has rapidly progressed, with the research and development of cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccines, being conducted actively. However, the disadvantages of most cancer vaccines include relatively weak immunogenicity and immune escape or exhaustion. Adjuvants with innate immunostimulatory activities have been used to overcome these issues, and these agents have been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of cancer vaccines and to act as mono-therapeutic anti-tumor agents. CpG ODN, an agonist for TLR9, is one of the promising nucleic acid-based adjuvants, and it is a potent inducer of innate immune effector functions. CpG ODN suppresses tumor growth in the absence of tumor antigens and peptide administration. Therefore, CpG ODN is expected to be useful as a cancer vaccine adjuvant as well as a cancer immunotherapy agent. In this review, we discuss the potential therapeutic applications and mechanisms of CpG ODN for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26469159

  1. Flavin conjugates for delivery of peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Fanny; Simon, Philippe; Bonneau, Stéphanie; Alberti, Patrizia; Cordier, Céline; Boix, Charlotte; Perrouault, Loïc; Fossey, Aurélie; Saison-Behmoaras, Tula; Fontecave, Marc; Giovannangeli, Carine

    2012-11-26

    Oligonucleotides and their analogues, such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs), can be used in chemical strategies to artificially control gene expression. Inefficient cellular uptake and inappropriate cellular localization still remain obstacles in biological applications, however, especially for PNAs. Here we demonstrate that conjugation of PNAs to flavin resulted in efficient internalization into cells through an endocytic pathway. The flavin-PNAs exhibited antisense activity in the sub-micromolar range, in the context of a treatment facilitating endosomal escape. Increased endosomal release of flavin conjugates into the cytoplasm and/or nucleus was shown by chloroquine treatment and also--when the flavin-PNA was conjugated to rhodamine, a mild photosensitizer--upon light irradiation. In conclusion, an isoalloxazine moiety can be used as a carrier and attached to a cargo biomolecule, here a PNA, for internalization and functional cytoplasmic/nuclear delivery. Our findings could be useful for further design of PNAs and other oligonucleotide analogues as potent antisense agents. PMID:23129496

  2. Phospholipid conjugate for intracellular delivery of peptide nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Gang; Fang, Huafeng; Song, Yinyin; Bielska, Agata A.; Wang, Zhenghui; Taylor, John-Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) have a number of attractive features that have made them an ideal choice for antisense and antigene-based tools, probes and drugs, but their poor membrane permeability has limited their application as therapeutic or diagnostic agents. Herein we report a general method for the synthesis of phospholipid-PNAs (LP-PNAs), and compare the effect of non-cleavable lipids and bioreductively cleavable lipids (L and LSS) and phospholipid (LP) on the splice-correcting bioactivity of a PNA bearing the cell penetrating Arg9 group (PNA-R9). While the three constructs show similar and increasing bioactivity at 1–3 ?M, the activity of LP-PNA-R9 continues to increase from 4–6 ?M while the activity of L-PNA-R9 remains constant and LSS-PNA-R9 decreases rapidly in parallel with their relative cytotoxicity. The activity of both LP-PNA-R9 and L-PNA-R9 were found to dramatically increase with chloroquine, as expected for an endocytotic entry mechanism. Both constructs were also found to have CMC values of 1.0 and 4.5 ?M in 150 mM NaCl, pH 7 water, suggesting that micelle formation may play a hitherto unrecognized role in modulating toxicity and/or facilitating endocytosis. PMID:19678628

  3. Protection against dengue disease by synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Flingai, Seleeke; Plummer, Emily M.; Patel, Ami; Shresta, Sujan; Mendoza, Janess M.; Broderick, Kate E.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Muthumani, Kar; Weiner, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. In recent years, the number of cases and outbreaks has dramatically increased worldwide. While vaccines are being developed, none are currently available that provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes. Advances in human antibody isolation have uncovered DENV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are capable of preventing infection from multiple serotypes. Yet delivering monoclonal antibodies using conventional methods is impractical due to high costs. Engineering novel methods of delivering monoclonal antibodies could tip the scale in the fight against DENV. Here we demonstrate that simple intramuscular delivery by electroporation of synthetic DNA plasmids engineered to express modified human nAbs against multiple DENV serotypes confers protection against DENV disease and prevents antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease in mice. This synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy approach may have important applications in the fight against infectious disease. PMID:26220099

  4. Peptide nucleic acid-mediated recombination for targeted genomic repair and modification.

    PubMed

    Schleifman, Erica B; Glazer, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    The ability to directly manipulate the human genome to correct a disease-related mutation, introduce a sequence change that would lead to site-specific gene knockout, or increase gene expression is a very powerful tool with tremendous clinical value. Triplex formation by synthetic DNA-binding molecules such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) has been studied for over 20 years and much of the work in the last 10 years has shown its great promise in its use to direct site-specific gene modification for the use in gene therapy. In this chapter, detailed protocols are described for the design and use of triplex-forming PNAs to bind and mediate gene modification at specific chromosomal targets. Target site identification, PNA and donor oligonucleotide design, in vitro characterization of binding, optimization with reporter systems, as well as various methods to assess gene modification and isolate modified cells are described. PMID:24297362

  5. Exosome Encased Spherical Nucleic Acid Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates As Potent MicroRNA Regulation Agents

    PubMed Central

    Alhasan, Ali H.; Patel, Pinal C.; Choi, Chung Hang J.

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are a class of naturally occurring nanomaterials that play crucial roles in the protection and transport of endogenous macromolecules, such as microRNA and mRNA, over long distances. Intense effort is underway to exploit the use of exosomes to deliver synthetic therapeutics. Herein, we use transmission electron microscopy to show that when spherical nucleic acid (SNA) constructs are endocytosed into PC-3 prostate cancer cells, a small fraction of them (< 1%) can be naturally sorted into exosomes. The exosome-encased SNAs are secreted into the extracellular environment from which they can be isolated and selectively re-introduced into the cell type from which they were derived. In the context of anti-miR21 experiments, the exosome-encased SNAs knockdown miR-21 target by approximately 50%. Similar knockdown of miR-21 by free SNAs requires a ~3000-fold higher concentration. PMID:24106176

  6. Protection against dengue disease by synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Flingai, Seleeke; Plummer, Emily M; Patel, Ami; Shresta, Sujan; Mendoza, Janess M; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Muthumani, Kar; Weiner, David B

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection in humans. In recent years, the number of cases and outbreaks has dramatically increased worldwide. While vaccines are being developed, none are currently available that provide balanced protection against all DENV serotypes. Advances in human antibody isolation have uncovered DENV neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that are capable of preventing infection from multiple serotypes. Yet delivering monoclonal antibodies using conventional methods is impractical due to high costs. Engineering novel methods of delivering monoclonal antibodies could tip the scale in the fight against DENV. Here we demonstrate that simple intramuscular delivery by electroporation of synthetic DNA plasmids engineered to express modified human nAbs against multiple DENV serotypes confers protection against DENV disease and prevents antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease in mice. This synthetic nucleic acid antibody prophylaxis/immunotherapy approach may have important applications in the fight against infectious disease. PMID:26220099

  7. Oxidative Stress and Nucleic Acid Oxidation in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Chih-Chien; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Yuh-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and a high risk for developing malignancy. Excessive oxidative stress is thought to play a major role in elevating these risks by increasing oxidative nucleic acid damage. Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) production and antioxidant defense mechanisms and can cause vascular and tissue injuries as well as nucleic acid damage in CKD patients. The increased production of RONS, impaired nonenzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant defense mechanisms, and other risk factors including gene polymorphisms, uremic toxins (indoxyl sulfate), deficiency of arylesterase/paraoxonase, hyperhomocysteinemia, dialysis-associated membrane bioincompatibility, and endotoxin in patients with CKD can inhibit normal cell function by damaging cell lipids, arachidonic acid derivatives, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and nucleic acids. Several clinical biomarkers and techniques have been used to detect the antioxidant status and oxidative stress/oxidative nucleic acid damage associated with long-term complications such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, amyloidosis, and malignancy in CKD patients. Antioxidant therapies have been studied to reduce the oxidative stress and nucleic acid oxidation in patients with CKD, including alpha-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, glutathione, folic acid, bardoxolone methyl, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and providing better dialysis strategies. This paper provides an overview of radical production, antioxidant defence, pathogenesis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with CKD, and possible antioxidant therapies. PMID:24058721

  8. Integration of On-chip Isotachophoresis and Functionalized Hydrogels for Enhanced-Sensitivity Nucleic Acid Detection

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    for Enhanced-Sensitivity Nucleic Acid Detection Giancarlo Garcia-Schwarz and Juan G. Santiago* Department% perchloric acid from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). We purchased the photoinitiator 2,2- azobis[2-methyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl) propionamide] (VA-086) from Wako Chemicals (Richmond, VA). We also purchased hydrochloric acid

  9. Peptide nucleic acid probe for protein affinity purification based on biotin-streptavidin interaction and peptide nucleic acid strand hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tse, Jenny; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zengeya, Thomas; Rozners, Eriks; Tan-Wilson, Anna

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new method for protein affinity purification that capitalizes on the high affinity of streptavidin for biotin but does not require dissociation of the biotin-streptavidin complex for protein retrieval. Conventional reagents place both the selectively reacting group (the "warhead") and the biotin on the same molecule. We place the warhead and the biotin on separate molecules, each linked to a short strand of peptide nucleic acid (PNA), synthetic polymers that use the same bases as DNA but attached to a backbone that is resistant to attack by proteases and nucleases. As in DNA, PNA strands with complementary base sequences hybridize. In conditions that favor PNA duplex formation, the warhead strand (carrying the tagged protein) and the biotin strand form a complex that is held onto immobilized streptavidin. As in DNA, the PNA duplex dissociates at moderately elevated temperature; therefore, retrieval of the tagged protein is accomplished by a brief exposure to heat. Using iodoacetate as the warhead, 8-base PNA strands, biotin, and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, we demonstrate retrieval of the cysteine protease papain. We were also able to use our iodoacetyl-PNA:PNA-biotin probe for retrieval and identification of a thiol reductase and a glutathione transferase from soybean seedling cotyledons. PMID:25447466

  10. SURVEY AND SUMMARY: Difference in conformational diversity between nucleic acids with a six-membered ‘sugar’ unit and natural ‘furanose’ nucleic acids

    PubMed Central

    Lescrinier, Eveline; Froeyen, Matheus; Herdewijn, Piet

    2003-01-01

    Natural nucleic acids duplexes formed by Watson–Crick base pairing fold into right-handed helices that are classified in two families of secondary structures, i.e. the A- and B-form. For a long time, these A and B allomorphic nucleic acids have been considered as the ‘non plus ultra’ of double-stranded nucleic acids geometries with the only exception of Z-DNA, a left-handed helix that can be adopted by some DNA sequences. The five-membered furanose ring in the sugar–phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA is the underlying cause of this restriction in conformational diversity. A collection of new Watson–Crick duplexes have joined the ‘original’ nucleic acid double helixes at the moment the furanose sugar was replaced by different types of six-membered ring systems. The increase in this structural and conformational diversity originates from the rigid chair conformation of a saturated six-membered ring that determines the orientation of the ring substituents with respect to each other. The original A- and B-form oligonucleotide duplexes have expanded into a whole family of new structures with the potential for selective cross-communication in a parallel or antiparallel orientation, opening up a new world for information storage and for molecular recognition-directed self-organization. PMID:12799423

  11. DimaSense™: A Novel Nucleic Acid Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, A.

    2011-05-18

    Recently, we developed a suite of methods for the rational design and fabrication of well-defined nanoparticle architectures, including clusters using bio-encoded nanoscale building blocks and layer-by-layer stepwise assembly on a solid support. In particular, the Nano-Assembly platform using Encoded Solid Supports (NAESS) allows for controlled interactions, purification of side products, modularity of design, and the construction of complex nanoparticle architectures. This approach offers several advantages over the current art of designing nanoparticle clusters, which include the high-yield synthesis of desired architectures, a 'plug-and-play' design allowing for the introduction of a variety of sensing modalities, and ease of scalability in high-throughput and synthesis yield. As a utility proof of concept, we implemented our unique cluster fabrication platform to design gold nanoparticle dimers which are linked via a single-stranded DNA oligonucleotide recognition motif. The design of this motif is such that binding of complementary nucleic acids results in specific, selective and rapid dimer dissociation, which can be monitored by dynamic light scattering (DLS). We demonstrated single level mismatch selectivity using this approach. The limit of detection was determined to be 1011 molecules of synthetic target RNA or DNA within 30 minutes of incubation at 33 C. This detection limit is determined by the dimer's concentration which can be probed by currently used standard DLS instruments. We also demonstrated a specific detection of target RNA in a solution containing competing 1,000-fold excess of non-complementary DNA fragments, 10% BSA, and endonucleases. Molecular diagnostic companies, RNA-based technology developers, and personalized medicine companies have applications that could benefit from using DimaSense{trademark}. The technology represents a platform which enables the simple and reasonably inexpensive design and fabrication of highly selective genetic sensors. These sensors operate with very low concentrations of target, can utilize standard instrumentation, produce detection results rapidly, and are robust enough to function in the presence of many competing genetic targets. Many current genetic target detection products/approaches/technologies rely upon methods (such as qPCR) which are more complicated, cumbersome, and costly to perform, and are not well suited to point-of-care diagnostic applications. Several clinical diagnostic applications, particularly point-of-care (POC) diagnostics for infectious diseases, are possible and appear to be a good fit for the technology. In addition, the advent of personalized medicine will create opportunities for molecular diagnostic companies with the capabilities of rapidly and quantitatively detecting nucleic acid sequences. The global POC market was {approx}$7.7B in 2010, with a recent annual growth rate of {approx}7%. A specific disease or disease-class diagnostic would need to be identified before a more meaningful sub-market value could be stated. Additional validation of the technology to show that it displays appropriate performance parameters for a commercial application on 'real world' samples is required for true commercial readiness. In addition, optimization of sensor design parameters, to effect a 10-fold increase in sensitivity, may be required to produce a commercially ready sensor system. These validation and sensor design optimization are estimated to require 3-4 months and {approx}$75k. For an unregulated product to give this sensor system a distinct competitive advantage, 2-3 years of product development and $1.5-3M are likely required. For regulated markets, time to market (through clinic) and cost would depend upon the product.

  12. Experimental characterization of the human non-sequence-specific nucleic acid interactome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The interactions between proteins and nucleic acids have a fundamental function in many biological processes, including gene transcription, RNA homeostasis, protein translation and pathogen sensing for innate immunity. While our knowledge of the ensemble of proteins that bind individual mRNAs in mammalian cells has been greatly augmented by recent surveys, no systematic study on the non-sequence-specific engagement of native human proteins with various types of nucleic acids has been reported. Results We designed an experimental approach to achieve broad coverage of the non-sequence-specific RNA and DNA binding space, including methylated cytosine, and tested for interaction potential with the human proteome. We used 25 rationally designed nucleic acid probes in an affinity purification mass spectrometry and bioinformatics workflow to identify proteins from whole cell extracts of three different human cell lines. The proteins were profiled for their binding preferences to the different general types of nucleic acids. The study identified 746 high-confidence direct binders, 139 of which were novel and 237 devoid of previous experimental evidence. We could assign specific affinities for sub-types of nucleic acid probes to 219 distinct proteins and individual domains. The evolutionarily conserved protein YB-1, previously associated with cancer and drug resistance, was shown to bind methylated cytosine preferentially, potentially conferring upon YB-1 an epigenetics-related function. Conclusions The dataset described here represents a rich resource of experimentally determined nucleic acid-binding proteins, and our methodology has great potential for further exploration of the interface between the protein and nucleic acid realms. PMID:23902751

  13. Base pairing and base mis-pairing in nucleic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years we have learned that DNA is conformationally active. It can exist in a number of different stable conformations including both right-handed and left-handed forms. Using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis we are able to discover not only additional conformations of the nucleic acids but also different types of hydrogen bonded base-base interactions. Although Watson-Crick base pairings are the predominant type of interaction in double helical DNA, they are not the only types. Recently, we have been able to examine mismatching of guanine-thymine base pairs in left-handed Z-DNA at atomic resolution (1A). A minimum amount of distortion of the sugar phosphate backbone is found in the G x T pairing in which the bases are held together by two hydrogen bonds in the wobble pairing interaction. Because of the high resolution of the analysis we can visualize water molecules which fill in to accommodate the other hydrogen bonding positions in the bases which are not used in the base-base interactions. Studies on other DNA oligomers have revealed that other types of non-Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding interactions can occur. In the structure of a DNA octamer with the sequence d(GCGTACGC) complexed to an antibiotic triostin A, it was found that the two central AT base pairs are held together by Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick base pairs. Similarly, the G x C base pairs at the ends are also Hoogsteen rather than Watson-Crick pairing. Hoogsteen base pairs make a modified helix which is distinct from the Watson-Crick double helix.

  14. Remote Enantioselection Transmitted by an Achiral Peptide Nucleic Acid Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, Igor A.; Orgel, Leslie E.; Nielsen, Peter E.

    2000-01-01

    short homochiral segment of DNA into a PNA helix could have guaranteed that the next short segment of DNA to be incorporated would have the same handedness as the first. Once two segments of the same handedness were present, the probability that a third segment would have the same handedness would increase, and so on. Evolution could then slowly dilute out the PNA part. This scenario would ultimately allow the formation of a chiral oligonucleotide by processes that are largely resistant to enantiomeric crossinhibition. It is important to note that the ligation of homochiral dinucleotides on a nucleic acid template would probably be at least as enantiospecific as the reaction that we have studied. The disadvantage of using chiral monomers as components of a replicating system arises from the difficulty of generating a first long homochiral template from a racemic mixture of monomers, although results of experiments designed to overcome this difficulty by employing homochiral tetramers have been reported.l l The probability of obtaining a homochiral n-mer from achiral substrates is approximately 1P-I if the nontemplate-directed extension of the primer is not enantioselective. Hence, it would be very hard to get started with a homochiral 40-mer, for example. No such difficulty exists in a scenario that originates with an achiral genetic material and in which the incorporation of very few chiral monomers in this achiral background gradually progresses towards homochirality. It seems possible that some PNA sequences could act as catalysts, analogous to ribozymes, even though PNA lacks clear metal binding sites. Although such catalysts could not be enantioselective, the incorporation of as few as two chiral nucleotides could then impose chiral specificity on the system. Furthermore, such patch chimeras could help to bridge the gap in catalytic potential between PNA and RNA, while guaranteeing enantioselectivity.

  15. Chance and necessity in the selection of nucleic acid catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorsch, J. R.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    In Tom Stoppard's famous play [Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead], the ill-fated heroes toss a coin 101 times. The first 100 times they do so the coin lands heads up. The chance of this happening is approximately 1 in 10(30), a sequence of events so rare that one might argue that it could only happen in such a delightful fiction. Similarly rare events, however, may underlie the origins of biological catalysis. What is the probability that an RNA, DNA, or protein molecule of a given random sequence will display a particular catalytic activity? The answer to this question determines whether a collection of such sequences, such as might result from prebiotic chemistry on the early earth, is extremely likely or unlikely to contain catalytically active molecules, and hence whether the origin of life itself is a virtually inevitable consequence of chemical laws or merely a bizarre fluke. The fact that a priori estimates of this probability, given by otherwise informed chemists and biologists, ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-50), inspired us to begin to address the question experimentally. As it turns out, the chance that a given random sequence RNA molecule will be able to catalyze an RNA polymerase-like phosphoryl transfer reaction is close to 1 in 10(13), rare enough, to be sure, but nevertheless in a range that is comfortably accessible by experiment. It is the purpose of this Account to describe the recent advances in combinatorial biochemistry that have made it possible for us to explore the abundance and diversity of catalysts existing in nucleic acid sequence space.

  16. Yield and future issues of nucleic acid testing.

    PubMed

    Roth, W K; Seifried, E

    2001-06-01

    Despite the much lower actual yield than that estimated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nucleic acid testing (NAT)-only positives in the USA and Germany, look-back procedures have revealed that no HCV transmission has occurred in Germany since the introduction of NAT. This indicates sufficient sensitivity of the pool-PCR approach. The slow ramp-up of hepatitis B virus (HBV) however, may require a different approach. It has been shown in Germany that the pooling of samples followed by virus enrichment results in a significant yield. Single donation testing for HBV would not increase the yield, because virus enrichment from mini-pool results in a similar sensitivity to that of single donation testing. Both strategies may be useful for extending future NAT to HBV screening. New candidate viruses for NAT are Parvo B19 and hepatitis A virus (HAV) because of their extreme resistance to inactivation procedures. Their low pathogenicity and epidemiologic characteristics, however, make them candidate viruses only for pooled source plasma. The main future issues of NAT will be related to the automation of pooling, extraction and amplification as a single homogeneous process. Depending on the throughput, automated single donation NAT as demonstrated by the 'Tigris' system may be an option, as far as all transfusion-relevant viruses will be included. In the near future high throughput systems will rely on pooled donor samples, most probably in conjunction with efficient enrichment procedures. For these systems, automation of the extraction and amplification process will be one of the first steps. These procedures will also limitthe costs of NAT and keep it available for use with future candidate viruses. PMID:11499978

  17. [Genotoxic modification of nucleic acid bases and biological consequences of it. Review and prospects of experimental and computational investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poltev, V. I.; Bruskov, V. I.; Shuliupina, N. V.; Rein, R.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R.; Miller, J.

    1993-01-01

    The review is presented of experimental and computational data on the influence of genotoxic modification of bases (deamination, alkylation, oxidation) on the structure and biological functioning of nucleic acids. Pathways are discussed for the influence of modification on coding properties of bases, on possible errors of nucleic acid biosynthesis, and on configurations of nucleotide mispairs. The atomic structure of nucleic acid fragments with modified bases and the role of base damages in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are considered.

  18. Variables Influencing Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Microbial Plankton (Viruses, Bacteria, and Protists) Collected on Nanoporous Aluminum Oxide Filters

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Jaclyn A.; Culley, Alexander I.

    2014-01-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters have high porosity and can be manufactured with a pore size that is small enough to quantitatively capture viruses. These properties make the filters potentially useful for harvesting total microbial communities from water samples for molecular analyses, but their performance for nucleic acid extraction has not been systematically or quantitatively evaluated. In this study, we characterized the flux of water through commercially produced nanoporous (0.02 ?m) AAO filters (Anotop; Whatman) and used isolates (a virus, a bacterium, and a protist) and natural seawater samples to test variables that we expected would influence the efficiency with which nucleic acids are recovered from the filters. Extraction chemistry had a significant effect on DNA yield, and back flushing the filters during extraction was found to improve yields of high-molecular-weight DNA. Using the back-flush protocol, the mass of DNA recovered from microorganisms collected on AAO filters was ?100% of that extracted from pellets of cells and viruses and 94% ± 9% of that obtained by direct extraction of a liquid bacterial culture. The latter is a minimum estimate of the relative recovery of microbial DNA, since liquid cultures include dissolved nucleic acids that are retained inefficiently by the filter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that nucleic acids can be extracted from microorganisms on AAO filters with an efficiency similar to that achievable by direct extraction of microbes in suspension or in pellets. These filters are therefore a convenient means by which to harvest total microbial communities from multiple aqueous samples in parallel for subsequent molecular analyses. PMID:24747903

  19. 9034 Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 90349036 This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Sustained release of nucleic acids from polymeric nanoparticles using

    E-print Network

    Sustained release of nucleic acids from polymeric nanoparticles using microemulsion precipitation for producing biodegradable nanoparticles for sustained nucleic acid release is presented. The nanoparticles of a transfer RNA aqueous solution (water phase), dichloromethane containing poly(L-lactic acid

  20. Biomedical publications of Prof. David N. Nikogosyan, made in UCC UV-induced nucleic acid-protein cross-linking

    E-print Network

    Nikogosyan, David N.

    Biomedical publications of Prof. David N. Nikogosyan, made in UCC UV-induced nucleic acid-protein cross-linking 1. E.N. Dobrov, D.N. Nikogosyan: UV-induced nucleic acid-protein cross-linking: manual acids in collagen. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B: Biol., 47(1), 63-67 (1998) 2. D.N. Nikogosyan, H. Görner

  1. Mismatch discrimination in fluorescent in situ hybridization using different types of nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fontenete, Silvia; Silvia, Fontenete; Barros, Joana; Joana, Barros; Madureira, Pedro; Pedro, Madureira; Figueiredo, Céu; Céu, Figueiredo; Wengel, Jesper; Jesper, Wengel; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Filipe, Azevedo Nuno

    2015-05-01

    In the past few years, several researchers have focused their attention on nucleic acid mimics due to the increasing necessity of developing a more robust recognition of DNA or RNA sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is an example of a method where the use of these novel nucleic acid monomers might be crucial to the success of the analysis. To achieve the expected accuracy in detection, FISH probes should have high binding affinity towards their complementary strands and discriminate effectively the noncomplementary strands. In this study, we investigate the effect of different chemical modifications in fluorescent probes on their ability to successfully detect the complementary target and discriminate the mismatched base pairs by FISH. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first study where this analysis is performed with different types of FISH probes directly in biological targets, Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter acinonychis. This is also the first study where unlocked nucleic acids (UNA) were used as chemistry modification in oligonucleotides for FISH methodologies. The effectiveness in detecting the specific target and in mismatch discrimination appears to be improved using locked nucleic acids (LNA)/2'-O-methyl RNA (2'OMe) or peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in comparison to LNA/DNA, LNA/UNA, or DNA probes. Further, the use of LNA modifications together with 2'OMe monomers allowed the use of shorter fluorescent probes and increased the range of hybridization temperatures at which FISH would work. PMID:25840566

  2. Phytoagents for Cancer Management: Regulation of Nucleic Acid Oxidation, ROS, and Related Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shyur, Lie-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidized nucleic acids causes genomic instability leading to senescence, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Phytoagents are known to reduce the risk of cancer development; whether such effects are through regulating the extent of nucleic acid oxidation remains unclear. Here, we outlined the role of reactive oxygen species in nucleic acid oxidation as a driving force in cancer progression. The consequential relationship between genome instability and cancer progression highlights the importance of modulation of cellular redox level in cancer management. Current epidemiological and experimental evidence demonstrate the effects and modes of action of phytoagents in nucleic acid oxidation and provide rationales for the use of phytoagents as chemopreventive or therapeutic agents. Vitamins and various phytoagents antagonize carcinogen-triggered oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals and/or activating endogenous defence systems such as Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes or pathways. Moreover, metal ion chelation by phytoagents helps to attenuate oxidative DNA damage caused by transition metal ions. Besides, the prooxidant effects of some phytoagents pose selective cytotoxicity on cancer cells and shed light on a new strategy of cancer therapy. The “double-edged sword” role of phytoagents as redox regulators in nucleic acid oxidation and their possible roles in cancer prevention or therapy are discussed in this review. PMID:24454991

  3. Fluorescent detection of differentially expressed cDNA using SYBR gold nucleic acid gel stain.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Keith G; Kanthala, Shirisha; Tuli, Richard; Tuan, Rocky S

    2004-09-01

    We describe herein a modified differential gene display (DGD) technique that can be rapidly and simply performed and that eliminates the need for radioactivity by fluorescent visualization of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) bands with SYBR gold nucleic acid gel stain. To streamline the DGD procedure, a number of modifications were employed. Ribonucleic acid isolated from differentially treated populations of human trabecular bone-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells was reverse-transcribed into cDNA using oligo-dT primer, and subsequent amplification of differentially expressed cDNAs was done using arbitrary 25-mer primers and oligo-dT9 30-mer primers. Moderate-sized nondenaturing 6% polyacrylamide gels (30 x 20 cm) of 1.5-mm thickness were used for easier handling and increased sample loading capacity. Gels were subjected to electrophoresis overnight, stained with SYBR gold, and visualized and photographed using a commercially available gel imager. DNA bands ranging in size from 100 to 400 bp were visualized directly on an ultraviolet transilluminator, excised from the gel, and reamplified. The cDNA amplicons were subcloned, sequenced, and gene sequences were identified by a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool of genomic databases. Overall, this rapid and functional method proved quite effective for identification of novel genes that may be of interest in studies of cartilage and bone differentiation. PMID:15456962

  4. Relaxation-Optimized NMR Spectroscopy of Methylene Groups in Proteins and Nucleic Acids

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    Relaxation-Optimized NMR Spectroscopy of Methylene Groups in Proteins and Nucleic Acids Emeric that transverse-relaxation- optimized NMR spectroscopy (TROSY) methods can extend the application of NMR acids is of the methylene type. Their detailed study, however, in terms of structure and dynamics by NMR

  5. Urea Destabilizes RNA by Forming Stacking Interactions and Multiple Hydrogen Bonds with Nucleic Acid Bases

    E-print Network

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    Acid Bases U. Deva Priyakumar, Changbong Hyeon, D. Thirumalai,*,§ and Alexander D. MacKerell, Jr interactions with amide- like surfaces of the nucleic acids. The average base-base interaction energies (GC, AU that have a high propensity to misfold can be resolved using moderate amounts of urea.2 Urea titrations can

  6. Self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungsup; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Shin, Yong; Park, Mi Kyoung

    2015-12-15

    Over the past few decades, lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies have played a great role in revolutionizing the way in vitro medical diagnostics are conducted and transforming bulky and expensive laboratory instruments and labour-intensive tests into easy to use, cost-effective miniaturized systems with faster analysis time, which can be used for near-patient or point-of-care (POC) tests. Fluidic pumps and valves are among the key components for LOC systems; however, they often require on-line electrical power or batteries and make the whole system bulky and complex, therefore limiting its application to POC testing especially in low-resource setting. This is particularly problematic for molecular diagnostics where multi-step sample processing (e.g. lysing, washing, elution) is necessary. In this work, we have developed a self-powered switch-controlled nucleic acid extraction system (SSNES). The main components of SSNES are a powerless vacuum actuator using two disposable syringes and a switchgear made of PMMA blocks and an O-ring. In the vacuum actuator, an opened syringe and a blocked syringe are bound together and act as a working syringe and an actuating syringe, respectively. The negative pressure in the opened syringe is generated by a restoring force of the compressed air inside the blocked syringe and utilized as the vacuum source. The Venus symbol shape of the switchgear provides multiple functions including being a reagent reservoir, a push-button for the vacuum actuator, and an on-off valve. The SSNES consists of three sets of vacuum actuators, switchgears and microfluidic components. The entire system can be easily fabricated and is fully disposable. We have successfully demonstrated DNA extraction from a urine sample using a dimethyl adipimidate (DMA)-based extraction method and the performance of the DNA extraction has been confirmed by genetic (HRAS) analysis of DNA biomarkers from the extracted DNAs using the SSNES. Therefore, the SSNES can be widely used as a powerless and disposable system for DNA extraction and the syringe-based vacuum actuator would be easily utilized for diverse applications with various microchannels as a powerless fluidic pump. PMID:26562630

  7. Nucleic acid therapeutic carriers with on-demand triggered release.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Siddarth; Wower, Jacek; Byrne, Mark E

    2009-09-01

    Biohybrid platforms such as synthetic polymer networks engineered from artificial and natural materials hold immense potential as drug and gene delivery vehicles. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of novel polymer networks that release oligonucleotide sequences via enzymatic and physical triggers. Chemical monomers and acrylated oligonucleotides were copolymerized into networks, and phosphoimaging revealed that 70% of the oligonucleotides were incorporated into the networks. We observed that the immobilized oligonucleotides were readily cleaved when the networks were incubated with the type II restriction enzyme BamHI. The diffusion of the cleaved fragments through the macromolecular chains resulted in relatively constant release profiles very close to zero-order. To our knowledge, this is the first study which harnesses the sequence-specificity of restriction endonucleases as triggering agents for the cleavage and release of oligonucleotide sequences from a synthetic polymer network. The polymer networks exhibited an oligonucleotide diffusion coefficient of 5.6 x 10(-8) cm(2)/s and a diffusional exponent of 0.92. Sigmoidal temperature responsive characteristics of the networks matched the theoretical melting temperature of the oligonucleotides and indicated a cooperative melting transition of the oligonucleotides. The networks were also triggered to release a RNA-cleaving deoxyribozyme, which degraded a HIV-1 mRNA transcript in vitro. To tailor release profiles of the oligonucleotides, we controlled the structure of the macromolecular architecture of the networks by varying their cross-linking content. When incubated with DNase I, networks of cross-linking content 0.15%, 0.22%, and 0.45% exhibited oligonucleotide diffusion coefficients of 1.67 x 10(-8), 7.65 x 10(-9), and 2.7 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s, and diffusional exponents of 0.55, 0.8, and 0.8, respectively. The modular nature of our platform promises to open new avenues for the creation and optimization of a rich toolbox of novel drug and gene delivery platforms. We anticipate further inquiry into nucleic acid based programmable on-demand switches and modulatory devices of exquisite sensitivity and control. PMID:19670897

  8. Advances in polymeric and inorganic vectors for nonviral nucleic acid delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sunshine, Joel C; Bishop, Corey J; Green, Jordan J

    2014-01-01

    Nonviral systems for nucleic acid delivery offer a host of potential advantages compared with viruses, including reduced toxicity and immunogenicity, increased ease of production and less stringent vector size limitations, but remain far less efficient than their viral counterparts. In this article we review recent advances in the delivery of nucleic acids using polymeric and inorganic vectors. We discuss the wide range of materials being designed and evaluated for these purposes while considering the physical requirements and barriers to entry that these agents face and reviewing recent novel approaches towards improving delivery with respect to each of these barriers. Furthermore, we provide a brief overview of past and ongoing nonviral gene therapy clinical trials. We conclude with a discussion of multifunctional nucleic acid carriers and future directions. PMID:22826857

  9. Label-free functional nucleic acid sensors for detecting target agents

    DOEpatents

    Lu, Yi; Xiang, Yu

    2015-01-13

    A general methodology to design label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors using a vacant site approach and an abasic site approach is described. In one example, a method for designing label-free fluorescent functional nucleic acid sensors (e.g., those that include a DNAzyme, aptamer or aptazyme) that have a tunable dynamic range through the introduction of an abasic site (e.g., dSpacer) or a vacant site into the functional nucleic acids. Also provided is a general method for designing label-free fluorescent aptamer sensors based on the regulation of malachite green (MG) fluorescence. A general method for designing label-free fluorescent catalytic and molecular beacons (CAMBs) is also provided. The methods demonstrated here can be used to design many other label-free fluorescent sensors to detect a wide range of analytes. Sensors and methods of using the disclosed sensors are also provided.

  10. Achiral, acyclic nucleic acids: synthesis and biophysical studies of a possible prebiotic polymer.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, P; Abou El Asrar, R; Knies, C; Abramov, M; Froeyen, M; Rozenski, J; Rosemeyer, H; Herdewijn, P

    2015-09-21

    The search for prebiotic, nucleic acid precursors is, at its best, a speculative undertaking. Given the complex structure of RNA, it is not very likely that RNA was the first information system in the universe and thus finding possible precursor/s i.e. pre-RNA remains an open challenge. We, in this paper, have tried to construct nucleic acid polymers with a simple acyclic, achiral backbone. Such a linear, achiral backbone may have been formed from simple monomers that may have existed in the "prebiotic soup". We have shown that such polymers are capable of identifying the complementary "other self" and thus forming a potential system for information storage and transmission. This study thus involves investigation of nucleic acid analogues with a modified backbone that are likely to have formed in the prebiotic setting. PMID:26228702

  11. Salt Contribution to the Flexibility of Single-stranded Nucleic Acid of Finite Length

    E-print Network

    Wang, Feng-Hua; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids are negatively charged macromolecules and their structure properties are strongly coupled to metal ions in solutions. In this paper, the salt effects on the flexibility of single stranded (ss) nucleic acid chain ranging from 12 to 120 nucleotides are investigated systematically by the coarse grained Monte Carlo simulations where the salt ions are considered explicitly and the ss chain is modeled with the virtual bond structural model. Our calculations show that, the increase of ion concentration causes the structural collapse of ss chain and multivalent ions are much more efficient in causing such collapse, and trivalent and small divalent ions can both induce more compact state than a random relaxation state. We found that monovalent, divalent and trivalent ions can all overcharge ss chain, and the dominating source for such overcharging changes from ion exclusion volume effect to ion Coulomb correlations. In addition, the predicted Na and Mg dependent persistence length lp of ss nucleic acid a...

  12. Challenges and surprises that arise with nucleic acids during model building and refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, William G.

    2012-04-01

    The challenges that arise in nucleic acid model building as a consequence of their simpler and more symmetric super-secondary structures are addressed. The process of building and refining crystal structures of nucleic acids, although similar to that for proteins, has some peculiarities that give rise to both various complications and various benefits. Although conventional isomorphous replacement phasing techniques are typically used to generate an experimental electron-density map for the purposes of determining novel nucleic acid structures, it is also possible to couple the phasing and model-building steps to permit the solution of complex and novel RNA three-dimensional structures without the need for conventional heavy-atom phasing approaches.

  13. Measuring Residual Dipolar Couplings in Excited Conformational States of Nucleic Acids by CEST NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acids undergo structural transitions to access sparsely populated and transiently lived conformational states—or excited conformational states—that play important roles in diverse biological processes. Despite ever-increasing detection of these functionally essential states, 3D structure determination of excited states (ESs) of RNA remains elusive. This is largely due to challenges in obtaining high-resolution structural constraints in these ESs by conventional structural biology approaches. Here, we present nucleic-acid-optimized chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) NMR spectroscopy for measuring residual dipolar couplings (RDCs), which provide unique long-range angular constraints in ESs of nucleic acids. We demonstrate these approaches on a fluoride riboswitch, where one-bond 13C-1H RDCs from both base and sugar moieties provide direct structural probes into an ES of the ligand-free riboswitch. PMID:26462068

  14. Microwell array-mediated delivery of lipoplexes containing nucleic acids for enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Gallego-Perez, Daniel; Lee, L James

    2015-01-01

    Many delivery methods have been developed to improve the therapeutic efficacy and facilitate the clinical translation of nucleic acids-based therapeutics. We present a facile microwell array to mediate the delivery of nucleic acids carried by lipoplexes, which combines the advantages of lipoplexes as an efficient carrier system, the surface mediated delivery, and the control of surface topography. This method shows much higher transfection efficiency than conventional transfection method for oligodeoxynucleotides and microRNAs, and thus significantly reduces the effective therapeutic dosages. Microwell array is also a very flexible platform. Multifunctional lipoplexes containing both nucleic acid therapeutics and imaging reagents can be easily prepared in the microwell array and efficiently delivered to cells, demonstrating its potential applications in theranostic medicine. PMID:25319649

  15. Peptide modules for overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport to cells.

    PubMed

    Egorova, Anna A; Kiselev, Anton V

    2016-01-01

    Absence of safe and efficient methods of nucleic acids delivery is one of the major issues which limits the development of human gene therapy. Highly efficient viral vectors raise questions due to safety reasons. Among non-viral vectors peptide-based carriers can be considered as good candidates for the development of "artificial viruses" - multifunctional polyplexes that mimic viruses. Suggested strategy to obtain multifunctionality is to combine several peptide modules into one modular carrier. Different kinds of peptide modules are needed for successful overcoming barriers of nucleic acids transport into the cells. Design of such modules and establishment of structure-function relationships are issues of importance to researchers working in the field of nucleic acids delivery. PMID:26265355

  16. Combating hepatitis C virus by targeting microRNA-122 using locked nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Machlin, Erica S; Sarnow, Peter; Sagan, Selena M

    2012-08-01

    MicroRNAs have been predicted to regulate the stability and translation of many target mRNAs that are involved in modulating disease outcome. Thus, valuable strategies to enhance or to diminish the function of microRNAs are needed to manipulate microRNA-mediated target gene expression. Recently, it has become apparent that one class of antisense oligonucleotides, locked nucleic acids, can be used to sequester microRNAs in the liver of a variety of animals including humans, opening the possibility of applying locked nucleic acid-mediated gene therapy. This review summarizes the success of sequestration of liver-specific microRNA miR-122 by antisense locked nucleic acids and their use in combating hepatitis C virus in clinical trials. PMID:22856605

  17. Methods of staining target chromosomal DNA employing high complexity nucleic acid probes

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Joe W.; Pinkel, Daniel; Kallioniemi, Ol'li-Pekka; Kallioniemi, Anne; Sakamoto, Masaru

    2006-10-03

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyses. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acid probes are typically of a complexity greater than 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), retinoblastoma, ovarian and uterine cancers, and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar but genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  18. Multiplexed microfluidic blotting of proteins and nucleic acids by parallel, serpentine microchannels.

    PubMed

    He, Sha; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Pei; Xu, Xingzhi; Zhu, Kui; Pan, Wenying; Liu, Wenwen; Cai, Kaiyong; Sun, Jiashu; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-01

    This work develops a high-throughput, high-efficiency and straightforward microfluidic blotting method for analyzing proteins and nucleic acids. Sample solutions containing antibodies (for protein detection) or hybridization probes (for nucleic acid detection) are introduced into the parallel, serpentine microchannels to specifically recognize the immobilized targets on the substrate, achieving the identification of multiple targets in multiple samples simultaneously. The loading control, molecular weight markers, and antigen/antibody titration are designed and integrated into the microfluidic chip, thus allowing for the quantification of proteins and nucleic acids. Importantly, we could easily distinguish the adjacent blotting bands inside parallel microchannels, which may be difficult to achieve in conventional blotting. The small dimensions of microfluidic channels also help to reduce the amount of probing molecules and to accelerate the biochemical reaction. Our microfluidic blotting could bypass the steps of blocking and washing, further reducing the operation time and complexity. PMID:25342223

  19. Intracellular mRNA Regulation with Self-Assembled Locked Nucleic Acid Polymer Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present an untemplated, single-component antisense oligonucleotide delivery system capable of regulating mRNA abundance in live human cells. While most approaches to nucleic acid delivery rely on secondary carriers and complex multicomponent charge-neutralizing formulations, we demonstrate efficient delivery using a simple locked nucleic acid (LNA)-polymer conjugate that assembles into spherical micellar nanoparticles displaying a dense shell of nucleic acid at the surface. Cellular uptake of soft LNA nanoparticles occurs rapidly within minutes as evidenced by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Importantly, these LNA nanoparticles knockdown survivin mRNA, an established target for cancer therapy, in a sequence-specific fashion as analyzed by RT-PCR. PMID:24827740

  20. A Simple, Low-Cost Platform for Real-Time Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Craw, Pascal; Mackay, Ruth E.; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Hudson, Chris; Branavan, Manoharanehru; Sadiq, S. Tariq; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2015-01-01

    Advances in microfluidics and the introduction of isothermal nucleic acid amplification assays have resulted in a range of solutions for nucleic acid amplification tests suited for point of care and field use. However, miniaturisation of instrumentation for such assays has not seen such rapid advances and fluorescence based assays still depend on complex, bulky and expensive optics such as fluorescence microscopes, photomultiplier tubes and sensitive lens assemblies. In this work we demonstrate a robust, low cost platform for isothermal nucleic acid amplification on a microfluidic device. Using easily obtainable materials and commercial off-the-shelf components, we show real time fluorescence detection using a low cost photodiode and operational amplifier without need for lenses. Temperature regulation on the device is achieved using a heater fabricated with standard printed circuit board fabrication methods. These facile construction methods allow fabrications at a cost compatible with widespread deployment to resource poor settings. PMID:26389913

  1. Reactive Derivatives of Nucleic Acids and Their Components as Affinity Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knorre, Dmitrii G.; Vlasov, Valentin V.

    1985-09-01

    The review is devoted to derivatives of nucleic acids and their components — nucleotides, nucleoside triphosphates, and oligonucleotides carrying reactive groups. Such derivatives are important tools for the investigation of protein-nucleic acid interactions and the functional topography of complex protein and nucleoprotein structures and can give rise to the prospect of being able to influence in a highly selective manner living organisms, including the nucleic acids and the nucleoproteins of the genetic apparatus. The review considers the principal groups of such reagents, the methods of their synthesis, and their properties which determine the possibility of their use for the selective (affinity) modification of biopolymers. The general principles of the construction of affinity reagents and their applications are analysed in relation to nucleotide affinity reagents. The bibliography includes 121 references.

  2. Detecting and Genotyping Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiplexed PCR and nucleic acid microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J. ); Chandler, Darrell P.

    2000-12-01

    Rapid detection and characterization of food borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. As an alternative to conventional technologies, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid microarrays for detecting and genotyping E. coli O157:H7. The array was composed of oligonucleotide probes (25-30 mer) complementary to four virulence loci (intimin, Shiga-like toxins I and II, and hemolysin A). Target DNA was amplified from whole cells or from purified DNA via single or multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were hybridized to the array without further modification or purification. The array was 32-fold more sensitive than gel electrophoresis and capable of detecting amplification products from < 1 cell equivalent of genomic DNA (1 fg). Immunomagnetic capture, PCR and a microarray were subsequently used to detect 55 CFU ml-1 (E. coli O157:H7) from chicken rinsate without the aid of pre-enrichment. Four isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and one isolate of O91:H2, for which genotypic data were available, were unambiguously genotyped with this array. Glass based microarrays are relatively simple to construct and provide a rapid and sensitive means to detect multiplexed PCR products and the system is amenable to automation.

  3. Detecting and genotyping Escherichia coli O157:H7 using multiplexed PCR and nucleic acid microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Call, Douglas R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Chandler, Darrell P.

    2001-07-05

    Rapid detection and characterization of food borne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 is crucial for epidemiological investigations and food safety surveillance. As an alternative to conventional technologies, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid microarrays for detecting and genotyping E. coli O157:H7. The array was composed of oligonucleotide probes (25-30 mer) complementary to four virulence loci (intimin, Shiga-like toxins I and II, and hemolysin A). Target DNA was amplified from whole cells or from purified DNA via single or multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR products were hybridized to the array without further modification or purification. The array was 32-fold more sensitive than gel electrophoresis and capable of detecting amplification products from < 1 cell equivalent of genomic DNA (1 fg). Immunomagnetic capture, PCR and a microarray were subsequently used to detect 55 CFUs ml-1 (E. coli O157:H7) from chicken rinsate without the aid of pre-enrichment. Four isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and one isolate of O91:H2, for which genotypic data were available, were unambiguously genotyped with this array. Glass based microarrays are relatively simple to construct and provide a rapid and sensitive means to detect multiplexed PCR products and the system is amenable to automation.

  4. Reducible Poly(amido ethylenimine)s for Nucleic Acid Delivery

    E-print Network

    Christensen, Lane

    2006-10-26

    Poly(amido ethylenimine)s for Nucleic Acid Delivery GPEN 2006 L.V. Christensen 1 , C.-W. Chang 1 , J.H. Jeong 1 , Z. Zhong 2 , J. Feijen 2 , and S.W. Kim 1 1 Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Utah. 2 Department... Therapeutic Window Traditional Pharmaceutical Approach MTC MEC Gene Delivery 3 Vector Systems for Nucleic Acid Delivery ? Ability to deliver a diverse range of genetic material ? RNAi, shRNA, oligos, pDNA ? Chemistry allows for modification...

  5. Nucleic acid and protein structures and interactions in viruses investigated by laser Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, George J.

    1986-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy may be profitably exploited to determine details of protein and nucleic acid structures and their mutual interactions in viruses and gene regulatory complexes. Present applications use data obtained from model nucleic acid crystals, fibers and solutions to reveal preferred backbone and nucleoside conformations for different morphological states of DNA and RNA in plant (TMV, BDMV) and bacterial viruses (P22, Pfl, Xf, Pf3, fd, Ifl, IKe). Interpretation of the results is enhanced by deconvolution methods which, in favorable cases, permit quantitative conclusions regarding macromolecular structures. Both equilibrium and dynamic Raman applications are described.

  6. Methods and kits for nucleic acid analysis using fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    DOEpatents

    Kwok, Pui-Yan (Clayton, MO); Chen, Xiangning (St. Louis, MO)

    1999-01-01

    A method for detecting the presence of a target nucleotide or sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid is disclosed. The method is comprised of forming an oligonucleotide labeled with two fluorophores on the nucleic acid target site. The doubly labeled oligonucleotide is formed by addition of a singly labeled dideoxynucleoside triphosphate to a singly labeled polynucleotide or by ligation of two singly labeled polynucleotides. Detection of fluorescence resonance energy transfer upon denaturation indicates the presence of the target. Kits are also provided. The method is particularly applicable to genotyping.

  7. Delivery of Nucleic Acids and Nanomaterials by Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue-Wern; Lee, Han-Jung; Tolliver, Larry M.; Aronstam, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Many viral and nonviral systems have been developed to aid delivery of biologically active molecules into cells. Among these, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have received increasing attention in the past two decades for biomedical applications. In this review, we focus on opportunities and challenges associated with CPP delivery of nucleic acids and nanomaterials. We first describe the nature of versatile CPPs and their interactions with various types of cargoes. We then discuss in vivo and in vitro delivery of nucleic acids and nanomaterials by CPPs. Studies on the mechanisms of cellular entry and limitations in the methods used are detailed. PMID:25883975

  8. Highly selective and sensitive nucleic acid detection based on polysaccharide-functionalized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing-Kun; Ma, Hai-Le; Cai, Pan-Fu; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide-functionalized silver nanoparticles (Oc-AgNPs) with a mean diameter of 15 nm were utilized as a novel and effective fluorescence-sensing platform for nucleic acid detection. Tests on the oligonucleotide sequences associated with the human immunodeficiency virus as a model system showed that the Oc-AgNPs effectively absorbed and quenched dye-labeled single-stranded DNA through strong hydrogen bonding interactions and slight electrostatic attractive interactions. The proposed system efficiently differentiated between complementary and mismatched nucleic acid sequences with high selectivity and good reproducibility at room temperature.

  9. Nucleic Acid-based Detection of Bacterial Pathogens Using Integrated Microfluidic Platform Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Clarissa; Cady, Nathaniel C.; Batt, Carl A.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of nucleic acid-based pathogen detection methods offers increased sensitivity and specificity over traditional microbiological techniques, driving the development of portable, integrated biosensors. The miniaturization and automation of integrated detection systems presents a significant advantage for rapid, portable field-based testing. In this review, we highlight current developments and directions in nucleic acid-based micro total analysis systems for the detection of bacterial pathogens. Recent progress in the miniaturization of microfluidic processing steps for cell capture, DNA extraction and purification, polymerase chain reaction, and product detection are detailed. Discussions include strategies and challenges for implementation of an integrated portable platform. PMID:22412335

  10. In-situ detection of viral nucleic acids using fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Richard M.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and improve technologies in cytometry and molecular biology for the specific in situ detection of viral nucleic acids. The major application for this system was the detection and measurement of individual cells stained specifically for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Staining procedures used nucleic acid either directly or indirect labeled with enzymes or fluorescent probes. A cytometry system was used to acquire digitized images of labeled cells and determine their individual staining density or intensity. Efforts are underway to improve the sensitivity of these assays using time-resolved methods.

  11. Biodegradable DNA-Brush Block Copolymer Spherical Nucleic Acids Enable Transfection Agent-Free Intracellular Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan; Hao, Liangliang; Calabrese, Colin M; Zhou, Yu; Choi, Chung Hang J; Xing, Hang; Mirkin, Chad A

    2015-10-01

    By grafting multiple DNA strands onto one terminus of a polyester chain, a DNA-brush block copolymer that can assemble into micelle structure is constructed. These micelle spherical nucleic acids have a density of nucleic acids that is substantively higher than linear DNA block copolymer structures, which makes them effective cellular transfection and intracellular gene regulation agents. PMID:26297167

  12. Triazole linkages and backbone branches in nucleic acids for biological and extra-biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Eduardo

    The recently increasing evidence of nucleic acids' alternative roles in biology and potential as useful nanomaterials and therapeutic agents has enabled the development of useful probes, elaborate nanostructures and therapeutic effectors based on nucleic acids. The study of alternative nucleic acid structure and function, particularly RNA, hinges on the ability to introduce site-specific modifications that either provide clues to the nucleic acid structure function relationship or alter the nucleic acid's function. Although the available chemistries allow for the conjugation of useful labels and molecules, their limitations lie in their tedious conjugation conditions or the lability of the installed probes. The development and optimization of click chemistry with RNA now provides the access to a robust and orthogonal conjugation methodology while providing stable conjugates. Our ability to introduce click reactive groups enzymatically, rather than only in the solid-phase, allows for the modification of larger, more cell relevant RNAs. Additionally, ligation of modified RNAs with larger RNA constructs through click chemistry represents an improvement over traditional ligation techniques. We determined that the triazole linkage generated through click chemistry is compatible in diverse nucleic acid based biological systems. Click chemistry has also been developed for extra-biological applications, particularly with DNA. We have expanded its use to generate useful polymer-DNA conjugates which can form controllable soft nanoparticles which take advantage of DNA's properties, i.e. DNA hybridization and computing. Additionally, we have generated protein-DNA conjugates and assembled protein-polymer hybrids mediated by DNA hybridization. The use of click chemistry in these reactions allows for the facile synthesis of these unnatural conjugates. We have also developed backbone branched DNA through click chemistry and showed that these branched DNAs are useful in generating well-defined architectures based solely on DNA. While backbone branched DNAs are useful for nanotechnological applications, backbone branches in RNA occur in nature and are involved in the distinct but related processes of splicing, debranching and RNAi. Therefore we have developed protocols for the synthesis of backbone branched nucleic acids in the solid-phase using photoprotecting groups. Using the synthesized backbone branched RNAs we have uncovered a specific substrate requirement of debranching enzyme which distinguishes it from other homologous proteins with alternative functions. Finally, through the marriage of click chemistry and backbone branches, we have produced useful progeny in the synthesis of lariat RNAs. We investigated the potential of these lariats as therapeutic agents by synthesizing siRNA sequences as lariats. We showed that these lariats are efficiently debranched by debranching enzyme and are able to induce an RNAi response in vivo. Altogether, the development of click chemistry and backbone branched nucleic acids represents a significant advantage in the ability to modify nucleic acid structure and affect its function. I envision that these methods can become generally useful to probe nucleic acid systems, useful nanomaterials and functional effectors in nucleic acid based therapies.

  13. Uric acid, a nucleic acid degradation product, down-regulates dsRNA-triggered arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zare, Fariba; Magnusson, Mattias; Bergström, Tomas; Brisslert, Mikael; Josefsson, Elisabet; Karlsson, Anna; Tarkowski, Andrej

    2006-03-01

    Uric acid, the naturally occurring degradation product of purine metabolism, is a danger signal, driving maturation of dendritic cells. It is well known that uric acid crystals display potent proinflammatory properties--the cause of gout--whereas the biological properties of soluble uric acid are less well documented. We have demonstrated previously that nucleic acids of endogenous and exogenous origin display proinflammatory properties. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of soluble uric acid on in vivo inflammatory responses. Mice were administered with uric acid suspension in saline or saline alone prior to induction of neutrophil-mediated inflammation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, histamin-induced edema (measure of vasodilation capacity), as well as double-stranded (ds)RNA-triggered arthritis. Frequency and severity of arthritis were decreased significantly in mice exposed to dsRNA and simultaneously treated with uric acid as compared with saline-treated controls. Also, granulocyte-mediated inflammatory response and vasodilation capacity were reduced significantly in mice treated with uric acid as compared with their control group. The data suggest that down-regulation of inflammation was mediated by skewing the inflammatory response from the peripheral sites to the peritoneal cavity and down-regulating vasodilatatory capacity and thereby affecting leukocyte migration. In contrast, the T cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction was not affected significantly in mice exposed to uric acid. These findings demonstrate that uric acid displays a potent, distant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo. This property seems to be mediated by down-regulation of neutrophil influx to the site of inflammatory insult. PMID:16387838

  14. Structural aspects of catalytic mechanisms of endonucleases and their binding to nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Balaev, V. V.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A.

    2012-05-15

    Endonucleases (EC 3.1) are enzymes of the hydrolase class that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids at any region of the polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are widely used both in biotechnological processes and in veterinary medicine as antiviral agents. Medical applications of endonucleases in human cancer therapy hold promise. The results of X-ray diffraction studies of the spatial organization of endonucleases and their complexes and the mechanism of their action are analyzed and generalized. An analysis of the structural studies of this class of enzymes showed that the specific binding of enzymes to nucleic acids is characterized by interactions with nitrogen bases and the nucleotide backbone, whereas the nonspecific binding of enzymes is generally characterized by interactions only with the nucleic-acid backbone. It should be taken into account that the specificity can be modulated by metal ions and certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds. To test the hypotheses about specific and nonspecific nucleic-acid-binding proteins, it is necessary to perform additional studies of atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of enzyme-nucleic-acid complexes by methods of structural biology.

  15. The evolution of bat nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Zepeda-Mendoza, M Lisandra; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Méndez-Ojeda, Maria L; Arias, Carlos F; Greenwood, Alex D

    2015-12-01

    We characterized the nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLR) of a New World bat species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), and through a comparative molecular evolutionary approach searched for general adaptation patterns among the nucleic acid-sensing TLRs of eight different bats species belonging to three families (Pteropodidae, Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae). We found that the bat TLRs are evolving slowly and mostly under purifying selection and that the divergence pattern of such receptors is overall congruent with the species tree, consistent with the evolution of many other mammalian nuclear genes. However, the chiropteran TLRs exhibited unique mutations fixed in ligand-binding sites, some of which involved nonconservative amino acid changes and/or targets of positive selection. Such changes could potentially modify protein function and ligand-binding properties, as some changes were predicted to alter nucleic acid binding motifs in TLR 9. Moreover, evidence for episodic diversifying selection acting specifically upon the bat lineage and sublineages was detected. Thus, the long-term adaptation of chiropterans to a wide variety of environments and ecological niches with different pathogen profiles is likely to have shaped the evolution of the bat TLRs in an order-specific manner. The observed evolutionary patterns provide evidence for potential functional differences between bat and other mammalian TLRs in terms of resistance to specific pathogens or recognition of nucleic acids in general. PMID:26503258

  16. Structural aspects of catalytic mechanisms of endonucleases and their binding to nucleic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Balaev, V. V.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Lashkov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    Endonucleases (EC 3.1) are enzymes of the hydrolase class that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids at any region of the polynucleotide chain. Endonucleases are widely used both in biotechnological processes and in veterinary medicine as antiviral agents. Medical applications of endonucleases in human cancer therapy hold promise. The results of X-ray diffraction studies of the spatial organization of endonucleases and their complexes and the mechanism of their action are analyzed and generalized. An analysis of the structural studies of this class of enzymes showed that the specific binding of enzymes to nucleic acids is characterized by interactions with nitrogen bases and the nucleotide backbone, whereas the nonspecific binding of enzymes is generally characterized by interactions only with the nucleic-acid backbone. It should be taken into account that the specificity can be modulated by metal ions and certain low-molecular-weight organic compounds. To test the hypotheses about specific and nonspecific nucleic-acid-binding proteins, it is necessary to perform additional studies of atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of enzyme-nucleic-acid complexes by methods of structural biology.

  17. Molecular Systems and Synthetic Biology Laboratory This is an elective advanced laboratory course for the bioengineering of nucleic acids, genetic circuits

    E-print Network

    course for the bioengineering of nucleic acids, genetic circuits and genome. This is the first wet. In the nucleic acids engineering portion, focus will be on the use, modification, and amplification of DNA "journal club." Proposed Syllabus Theme 1: Nucleic Acids Detection and Amplification Module 1: Engineering

  18. A Highly Salt-Dependent Enthalpy Change for Escherichia coli SSB Protein-Nucleic Acid Binding Due to Ion-Protein Interactions

    E-print Network

    Lohman, Timothy M.

    to understand the bases for stability and specificity of protein-nucleic acid interactions. The equilibriumA Highly Salt-Dependent Enthalpy Change for Escherichia coli SSB Protein-Nucleic Acid Binding Due) protein to three single-stranded nucleic acids, poly(U), dA(pA)69, and dT(pT)69, by van't Hoff analysis

  19. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  20. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  1. Preprint copy of chapter from Functional Nucleic Acids for Sensing and Other Ana-lytical Applications, Y. Lu and Y. Li, eds.; Springer: New York, 2007.

    E-print Network

    Silverman, Scott K.

    Preprint copy of chapter from Functional Nucleic Acids for Sensing and Other Ana- lytical Applications, Y. Lu and Y. Li, eds.; Springer: New York, 2007. Artificial functional nucleic acids: Aptamers nucleic acids. In vitro selection is the experimental process by which large random-sequence pools of RNA

  2. 39743987 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, Vol. 35, No. 12 Published online 6 June 2007 doi:10.1093/nar/gkm375

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    3974­3987 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, Vol. 35, No. 12 Published online 6 June 2007 doi:10.1093/nar/gkm375 Effects of nucleic acid local structure and magnesium ions on minus-strand transfer mediated by the nucleic acid chaperone activity of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein Tiyun Wu, Susan L. Heilman

  3. W526W530 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, Vol. 35, Web Server issue doi:10.1093/nar/gkm401

    E-print Network

    Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    W526­W530 Nucleic Acids Research, 2007, Vol. 35, Web Server issue doi:10.1093/nar/gkm401 Patch surfaces are usually indicative of nucleic acid binding interfaces. Interestingly, many proteins which are not involved in nucleic acid binding possess large positive patches on their surface as well. In some cases

  4. Volume 16 Number 4 1988 Nucleic Acids Research Synthesis of a thymidine phosphoramidite labelled with 13C at C6 relaxation studies of the loop

    E-print Network

    Boxer, Steven G.

    Volume 16 Number 4 1988 Nucleic Acids Research Synthesis of a thymidine phosphoramidite labelled are difficult to obtain. © I R L Press Limited, Oxford, England. 1529 Nucleic Acids ResearchVolume 16 Number 4 1988 #12;Nucleic Acids Research In particular, the measurement of several carbon relaxation parameters

  5. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  6. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  7. Published online 27 February 2008 Nucleic Acids Research, 2008, Vol. 36, No. 6 e36 doi:10.1093/nar/gkn033

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Published online 27 February 2008 Nucleic Acids Research, 2008, Vol. 36, No. 6 e36 doi:10.1093/nar January 21, 2008 ABSTRACT Molecular beacons represent a new family of fluorescent probes for nucleic acids. Detection of nucleic acids using molecular beacons has been based on hybridization between target molecules

  8. RPA nucleic acid-binding properties of IFI16-HIN200 Hongyue Yan, Kush Dalal, Benjamin K. Hon, Philippe Youkharibache, Desmond Lau, Frederic Pio

    E-print Network

    RPA nucleic acid-binding properties of IFI16-HIN200 Hongyue Yan, Kush Dalal, Benjamin K. Hon IFI16-HIN200 is Replication Protein A (RPA) in complex with single-stranded nucleic acids, we tested six RPA nucleic acid-binding characteristics for IFI16-HIN200. Our results indicate that IFI16-HIN200

  9. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  10. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  11. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  12. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  13. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant... Residues of nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated...

  14. Versatile DNAzyme-Based Amplified Biosensing Platforms for Nucleic Acid, Protein, and Enzyme Activity Detection

    E-print Network

    Tan, Weihong

    and concentrations of certain biomolecules (e.g., nucleic acids and proteins) inside a human body can reflect of the above-mentioned diseases, the concen- trations of their biomarkers in human body are usually very low amplification is an efficient way to construct biosensing systems with high sensitivity. Various amplification

  15. Efficient transfer of information from hexitol nucleic acids to RNA during nonenzymatic oligomerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; De Bouvere, B.; Van Aerschot, A.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.

    1999-01-01

    Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) are DNA analogues that contain the standard nucleoside bases attached to a phosphorylated 1,5-anhydrohexitol backbone. We find that HNAs support efficient information transfer in nonensymatic template-directed reactions. HNA heterosequences appeared to be superior to the corresponding DNA heterosequences in facilitating synthesis of complementary oligonucleotides from nucleoside-5'-phosphoro-2-methyl imidazolides.

  16. Introductory Course Based on a Single Problem: Learning Nucleic Acid Biochemistry from AIDS Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Neena

    2004-01-01

    In departure from the standard approach of using several problems to cover specific topics in a class, I use a single problem to cover the contents of the entire semester-equivalent biochemistry classes. I have developed a problem-based service-learning (PBSL) problem on HIV/AIDS to cover nucleic acid concepts that are typically taught in the…

  17. The Chemistry of Polymers, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids: A Short Course on Macromolecules for Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulav, Ilan; Samuel, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes a unit on macromolecules that has been used in the 12th grade of many Israeli secondary schools. Topic areas in the unit include synthetic polymers, biological macromolecules, and nucleic acids. A unit outline is provided in an appendix. (JN)

  18. 21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section 866.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5910 Quality...

  19. Nucleic Acids Research, 2015 1 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv333

    E-print Network

    Bartel, David

    Nucleic Acids Research, 2015 1 doi: 10.1093/nar/gkv333 Sequencing the cap-snatching repertoire of H-throughput sequencing to determine the 5 ends of A/WSN/33 (H1N1) influenza mRNAs. The sequences provided clear evidence information content within snatched fragments and found that small nuclear RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs

  20. { 1998 Oxford University Press 544--548 Nucleic Acids Research, 1998, Vol. 26, No. 2

    E-print Network

    Salzberg, Steven

    { 1998 Oxford University Press 544--548 Nucleic Acids Research, 1998, Vol. 26, No. 2 Microbial gene have previously been the primary content­based technique for finding genes in microbial DNA is determining which of two or more overlapping open reading frames (orfs) represent true genes. Other difficult