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Sample records for nude mice model

  1. Lethal graft-versus-host disease in nude mice. I. Establishment of model systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuribayashi, K.; Masuda, T.; Hanaoka, M.

    1988-08-01

    We examined whether nude mice, which are deficient in T cell function, could be used as a model for induction of lethal graft-versus-host disease. Nude mice injected with MHC-disparate spleen cells exhibited only transient GVH reaction such as splenomegaly. Inoculation of B6 spleen cells into BALB/c nude mice produced high titers of alloantibodies to the donor cells. These alloantibodies eliminated host-MHC-reactive donor T cells from the host. After abolition by 400 rads irradiation of the capacity of nude mice to produce antibody, lethal GVHD could be induced by allogeneic spleen cell transfer and was mediated by donor T cells. This lethal GVHD was prevented by prior administration of antidonor alloantibody to the irradiated recipients at least 24 hr before donor-cell grafting. The role of alloantibody was substantiated in 2 other combinations in which little or no alloantibodies to donor spleen cells were produced. Engraftment of either MHC-identical but non-MHC disparate donor spleen cells into BALB/c nude mice or of parental spleen cells into F1 nude mice resulted in death mediated by T cells. In addition, irradiated BALB/c nude mice inoculated with non-MHC-incompatible B10.D2 spleen cells were much more sensitive to alloaggression by the donor cells than were nonirradiated hosts, indicating the presence of some radiation-sensitive component(s) acting in nude mice against GVHD induction by donor T cells. Thus the nude mouse is considered to be a useful recipient for clarifying the basic mechanisms involved in lethal GVHD.

  2. [Establishment of a keloid model by transplanting human keloid onto the backs of nude mice].

    PubMed

    Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Andrac-Meyer, L; Bruno, M; Magalon, G; Mordon, S

    2014-08-01

    Keloid scar is a proliferative healing dysfunction formed by an excessive build-up of collagen fibers on the dermis. It is responsible of aesthetic and functional disabilities. There is no ideal treatment and recurrence occurs very often. Keloid scars occur only to human, that's why animal model needs to be made to study this pathology and new treatments. Few models have been described using human keloid scars implanted into subcutaneous tissue of nude mice or rat. To allow study of topical and laser treatment we have developed a new animal model using human keloid scar fragment with epidermal and dermal tissue implanted into back of nude mice like a full thickness skin graft. Keloid fragments from five donors have been grafted onto 40 nudes mice. Macroscopic and microscopic studies have been made at day 28, 56, 84 and 112. We observed integration of the fragments in all cases. Hyalinized collagen bundles were observed in all implant biopsies confirming the stability of the keloid architecture within 112 days. This model is easily reproducible and allows the study of topical treatment and laser due to the accessibility of the keloid. PMID:22699002

  3. Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Goto, Y; Yamazaki, S; Fujiwara, K

    1977-12-01

    A chronic pulmonary disease was encountered in nude mice of a barrier sustained colony, and Pneumocystis carinii was identified as the causative agent histopathologically as well as on impression smear preparations in the affected lungs. Fatal infection was seen only in old nude mice aged more than 6 months, while focal pulmonary lesions were developed without clinical signs in young adult nudes 2 to 3 months of age. The lesions produced in aged nude mice were characterized by propagation of mononuclear cells with the presence of foamy masses of P. carinii. Heterozygous littermates were much less susceptible to the infection but pneumocystic lesions could be produced readily by multiple treatment with immunosuppressants. The infection could be transmitted without immunosuppressant to non-infected nudes but not to heterozygous littermates after intranasal inoculation of affected tissue emulsion or by cage mating with severely affected nudes. PMID:305493

  4. Experimental chemotherapy of human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B C

    1980-01-01

    Human tumors heterotransplanted in nude mice offer the most realistic model for experimental chemotherapy of human neoplasms. Almost all the known human malignancies have been successfully transplanted in the nudes, although the rate of takes varies considerably between different tumor types. So far, a good correlation has been observed between the results obtained treating with the same drug the same tumor in the patient and in the nude mouse. Our experience in this field is, however, still too limited for the direct extrapolation of chemotherapeutic results obtained in the nudes to human tumors. PMID:6998362

  5. Altered schistosome granuloma formation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Byram, J E; von Lichtenberg, F

    1977-09-01

    Schistosome egg-induced lesions in congenitally athymic mice differed from those found in normal heterozygous controls. Heterozygote liver granulomas were chareacterized by poorly phagocytic epithelioid macrophages, and were rich in eosinophils and fibroblasts, with peripheral lymphocytes and plasma cells. Hepatic lesions in nude mice were much smaller and lacked epithelioid macrophages, with lesions about mature eggs, typically consisting of monocytes and macrophages filled with pigment, occasional neutrophils, and rarely one or more eosinophils or giant cells. While heterozygote granulomas damaged liver cells mainly by encroachment or by their vascular effects, in the nudes hepatocytes bordering the lesions showed microvesicular cytoplasmic damage and either hydropic degeneration or focal acidophilic necrosis of individual liver cells. In heterozygotes, immunofluorescent-stainable schistosome egg antigen (SEA) was concentrated in the granuloma center. In nude mice, SEA, was distributed throughout the infiltrates and in and around hepatocytes adjacent to egg lesions corresponding to the observed pattern of hepatocyte necrosis. We conclude that, in contrast to heterozygotes, nude mice lack hypersensitivity granulomas and fail to sequester toxic egg products, this resulting in zonal hepatocellular damage. Alternative explanations include the possibility of a latent hepatitis virus being activated by the schistosome infection; however, several cogent arguments are presented against that alternative. PMID:303056

  6. Human malignant melanoma heterotransplanted to nude mice.

    PubMed

    Tropé, C; Johnsson, J E; Alm, P; Landberg, T; Olsson, H; Wennerberg, J

    1981-01-01

    Five different human malignant melanoma were heterotransplanted subcutaneously to nude mice. When small tissue pieces were used 3 out of 5 tumors grew. Subcutaneous injections of suspended tumor cells were also made, but all failed to take. Metastatic or infiltrative growth was never seen in the mice observed for up to 2.5 months. The successful grafts largely retained the original morphologicaL features. The three successfully transplanted tumors could all be serially transferred with 100% tumor take. In one case passage time was reduced from 40 days to 15 days. As measured with 3H-thymidine incorporation the proliferation rate increased during the passages. These changes might be due to a selection of more rapidly growing tumor cells in the nudes. PMID:7312076

  7. Models of Human Metastatic Colon Cancer in Nude Mice Orthotopically Constructed by Using Histologically Intact Patient Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xinyu; Besterman, Jeffrey M.; Monosov, Ann; Hoffman, Robert M.

    1991-10-01

    There is an important need for clinically relevant animal models for human cancers. Toward this goal, histologically intact human colon-cancer specimens derived surgically from patients were implanted orthotopically to the colon or cecum of nude mice. We have observed extensive orthotopic growth in 13 of 20 cases of implanted patient colon tumors. These showed various growth patterns with subsequent regional, lymph-node, and liver metastasis, as well as general abdominal carcinomatosis. Thus, models for human colon cancer have been developed that show (i) local growth, (ii) abdominal metastasis, (iii) general abdominal carcinomatosis with extensive peritoneal seeding, (iv) lymph-node metastasis, (v) liver metastasis, and (vi) colonic obstruction. These models permit the passage of the tumors to form large cohorts. They will facilitate research into the biology of colon cancer metastatic capability and the development of new drugs active against metastatic cancer. These models may also predict the clinical course and the in vivo response to drugs of the cancer of individual patients.

  8. Hair growth cycles and wave patterns in "nude" mice.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J

    1976-09-01

    Hair growth cycles and waves were studied through five generations of hair growth in C57BL/6Icr "nude" mice. One group of nudes received thymus grafts, a second group was composed of athymid nudes and a third consisted of heterozygous (nu/&) haired littermates. The results showed that hair growth cycles and wave patterns were essentially the same in thymus-restored nudes and athymic nudes which indicated that thymus did not play a role in these phenomena. The time interval between hair cycles was considerably shorter in both groups of nude mice as compared to heterozygotes (nu/&). Finally, the hair growth wave pattern in nude mice did not change throughout the generation of hair growth whereas profound changes in wave patterns were observed in heterozygous (nu/&) littermates. PMID:788248

  9. Effect of P144® (Anti-TGF-β) in an “In Vivo” Human Hypertrophic Scar Model in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Shan Shan; Dotor, Javier; Hontanilla, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scars are one of the most important complications in surgery due to their cosmetic and functional impairments. Previous studies in tissue fibrotic disorders have shown promising results by inhibiting the biological activity effect of Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). The aim of the current study was to determine the clinical effect of the inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling in human hypertrophic scars implanted in nude mice by topical application of an inhibitor of TGF-β1 (P144®). Material and Methods A total of 30 human hypertrophic scars were implanted in 60 nude mice. The animals were divided in two groups, group A (placebo) and group B (treatment). Group C (basal) was considered as the preimplanted scar samples and they were not implanted in the nude mice. After the shedding period, topical application of a lipogel containing placebo (group A) or P144 (group B) was daily administered during two weeks. The animals were sacrificed upon completion of the study. Total area, thickness and collagen fibers area were measure and compared across all groups. Immunohistochemistry was also performed in order to quantify collagen type I and type III and elastic fiber expressions present in the dermis. Results Successful shedding was achieved in 83,3% of the xenografts. The mean time for shedding was 35±5.4 days. Statistically significant differences were found in the total area, collagen fibers area and thickness between the groups. Increased elastic fibers and decreased collagen I were found in the P144-treated group compared to the basal group. Conclusion Topical application of an inhibitor of TGF-β1 may promote scar maturation and clinical improvement of hypertrophic scar morphology features in an “in vivo” model in nude mice after two weeks of treatment. PMID:26720517

  10. Spontaneous hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance in athymic nude BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Zeidler, A; Tosco, C; Kumar, D; Slavin, B; Parker, J

    1982-09-01

    Basal plasma glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion were investigated in young and mature athymic nude BALB/c mice and in age-matched controls. Basal plasma glucose levels in male athymic nude mice were similar to those of controls at 1, 3, and 4 wk of age. At 6, 8, and 12 wk of age, male athymic nudes had significantly higher basal plasma glucose levels when compared with controls (P less than 0.01). Plasma immunoreactive insulin concentrations were similar in athymic nudes and controls at 1 wk of age, but at 3 wk of age and subsequently at 6, 8, and 12 wk athymic nude mice had significantly decreased insulin levels when compared with their age-matched controls (P less than 0.05). We found impaired glucose tolerance in male athymic nude mice at all age groups when compared with both female athymic nudes and control BALB/c mice. The discovery of a spontaneous diabetic syndrome (hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and decreased insulin secretion) in a colony of athymic nude mice may provide an excellent model for studying the genetics and interactions between the immune and endocrine systems. PMID:6761217

  11. Studies on the immune response of congenitally athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed

    Jutila, J W; Reed, N D; Isaak, D D

    1975-01-01

    The central role of the thymus in immunity was assessed in nude mice. Nudes failed to reject allografts and xenografts and to respond to foreign erythrocytes but responded normally to endotoxin and pneumococcal polysaccharide. Thymus reconstitution was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro whereas reconstitution with thymic humoral factors or polyanions was not detected. Coliform overgrowth and depressed IgA levels in nudes appeared to contribute to wasting. These data emphasize the need for thymus participation in many immune phenomena. PMID:238688

  12. Anomalies in the hormonal status of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Köpf-Maier, P; Mboneko, V F

    1990-01-01

    The serum levels of hormones that are known to influence growth, development, and differentiation of the skin and its appendages were analyzed in female haired (NMRI) and nude (NMRI, nu/nu) mice. Whereas the concentrations of testosterone, prolactin, and triiodothyronine did not differ in nude animals from those found in normal mice of the same age in the anestrous phase of the sexual cycle, the serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, and thyroxine were found in female nude mice at significantly lower levels than in normally haired animals. These results point to a hormonal situation that contributes to the poor fertility of homozygous (nu/nu) female mice and may promote impairment of growth and differentiation of skin and hair, resulting in the macroscopic nudity of athymic, nude mice. PMID:2370246

  13. Tumor development after polyoma infection in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Stutman

    1975-04-01

    Nude (nu/nu) mice in a CBA/H background show an age-dependent ssuceptibility to tumor development after polyoma virus infection (strain LID-1) when compared with nu/ + or CBA/H mice, which is apparent when 15- or 30-day-old mice are used: tumor incidence was 83 to 90% in nudes and 0 to 10% in controls. Latent perids for tumor development were also shortened in nudes. However, with increasing age nude mice become partially resistant and only 25% develop tumors when infected at 120 days of age. This partial resistance could be transferred with spleen cells to newborn mice. The cells in spleen responsible for this transfer can be eliminated by lysis with anti-Ig and complement or by pre-treatment of the donor with 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide and were not affected by treatment in vitro with anti-Thy.1.2 or procedures that remove adherent cells and/or macrophages. When the cells in 15-day-old nu/ + spleen were studied, both anti-Ig or anti-Thy.1.2 treatment eliminated tranfer of resistance to newborn. Virus replication in tissues of nude mice was increased 5 days after infection when compared with nu/ + but became comparable by day 15 after infection. Hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies in serum of nude and nu/ + had comparable titers when measured early after infection but higher titers were observed in nu/ + later after infection. PMID:163861

  14. Biodistribution and Safety Assessment of Bladder Cancer Specific Recombinant Oncolytic Adenovirus in Subcutaneous Xenografts Tumor Model in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Zhiping; Tian, Hongwei; Qi, Meijiao; Zhai, Zhenxing; Li, Shuwen; Li, Renju; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Wenyun; Fu, Shenjun; Lu, Jianzhong; Rodriguez, Ronald; Guo, Yinglu; Zhou, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    Background The previous works about safety evaluation for constructed bladder tissue specific adenovirus are poorly documented. Thus, we investigated the biodistribution and body toxicity of bladder specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A (APU-E1A) and Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A-AR (APU-E1A-AR), providing meaningful information prior to embarking on human clinical trials. Materials and Method Conditionally replicate recombinant adenovirus (CRADs) APU-E1A, APU-EIA-AR were constructed with bladder tissue specific Uroplakin II (UP II) promoter to induce the expression of Ad5E1A gene and E1A-AR fusing gene, and PSCAE was inserted at upstream of promoter to enhance the function of promoter. Based on the cytopathic and anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer, these CRADs were intratumorally injected into subcutaneous xenografts tumor in nude mice. We then determined the toxicity through general health and behavioral assessment, hepatic and hematological toxicity evaluation, macroscopic and microscopic postmortem analyses. The spread of the transgene E1A of adenovirus was detected with RT-PCR and Western blot. Virus replication and distribution were examined with APU-LUC administration and Luciferase Assay. Results General assessment and body weight of the animals did not reveal any alteration in general behavior. The hematological alterations of groups which were injected with 5×108 pfu or higher dose (5×109 pfu) of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR showed no difference in comparison with PBS group, and only slight increased transaminases in contrast to PBS group at 5×109 pfu of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR were observed. E1A transgene did not disseminate to organs outside of xenograft tumor. Virus replication was not detected in other organs beside tumor according to Luciferase Assay. Conclusions Our study showed that recombinant adenovirus APU-E1A-AR and APU-E1A appear safe with 5×107 pfu and 5×108 pfu intratumorally injection in mice, without any discernable effects on general health

  15. Effect of zinc on prostatic tumorigenicity in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pei; Li, Tie Luo; Guan, Zhi Xin; Franklin, Renty B; Costello, Leslie C

    2003-12-01

    Prostate epithelial cells accumulate the highest zinc levels of any cells in the body. Evidence indicates that zinc plays critical roles in the normal function and pathology of the prostate gland. We have identified two important effects of zinc in the prostate epithelial cells: the inhibition of m-aconitase and the induction of mitochondrial apoptogenesis. However, at the present time, the effects of zinc on prostatic cells in in vivo conditions have not yet been reported. The objectives of this in vivo study were to investigate the effect of zinc on: tumorogenicity in nude mice, zinc accumulation in tumor tissues, and the levels of mitochondrial membrane permeability related proteins, Bax/Bcl-2. A tumorigenicity animal model was established using male nude mice (4-6 weeks old) with inoculation of PC-3 cells (5-10x10(6)/mL) prepared in 10% Matrigel. The mice were treated with zinc by ALZET osmotic pumps (Durect Corporation), with a releasing rate of 0.25 micro l/h for 28 days. Zinc concentrations of the tumor tissues were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer method. Frozen sections of tumor tissues were prepared for TUNEL assay. The levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in the tumor tissues were determined by Western blot analyses. Our study demonstrated that in vivo treatment of zinc increased zinc accumulation and citrate production in PC-3 cell induced tumor tissues and inhibited tumor growth. The inhibitory effect of zinc appears to result from zinc-induced apoptosis by regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability-related Bax/Bcl-2 proteins. PMID:15033742

  16. Gastrointestinal microecology of BALB/c nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J F; Balish, E

    1978-01-01

    The aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic microorganisms cultivable from the stomachs, ilea, ceca, and colons of BALB/c athymic (nu/nu) mice (normal and wasting), thymus-implanted normal nude mice, and their heterozygous (nu/+) littermates were investigated. Ninety-one species representing 23 genera of bacteria and yeasts were isolated from the 27 mice. The wasting nude mice showed significantly lower numbers of lactobacilli in their stomach microbiota than did mice from the other three groups. The littermate animals appeared unique among the four groups in having corynebacteria as a major constituent of their stomach and ileal flora. The normal nude mice appeared to have a more diverse anaerobic stomach flora than their heterozygous littermates. These minor differences are discussed with respect to possible immunological, physiological, and environmental factors as their cause. Because the gastrointestinal microfloras of the mice from the four groups were not radically divergent from each other, it was concluded that loss of T-cell function does not dramatically alter the makeup of the cultivable gastrointestinal microflora in these mice. PMID:697355

  17. New immunodeficient (nude-scid, beige-scid) mice as excellent recipients of human skin grafts containing intraepidermal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Y; Saida, T; Tokuda, Y; Dohi, S; Wang, Y L; Urano, K; Hioki, K; Ueyama, Y

    1997-03-01

    Engraftment of normal or lesional human skin onto nude or SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice has been used as an in vivo experimental model. However, this model has some limitations, such as shrinkage and loss of the grafted skin over time. To improve the experimental model, we have produced two new SCID-lineage mouse strains, BALB/cA-nude-scid (nu/nu, scid/scid) and BALB/cA-beige-scid (bg/bg, scid/scid) mice, by the method of cross intercross. Intraepidermal neoplastic lesions such as Bowen's disease were grafted onto the back of the mice of these strains. The rate of reduction in the size of the grafts was lower on nude-scid and beige-scid mice than on SCID mice. Rates of survival of neoplastic cells in the grafts were higher in nude-scid mice than in SCID and beige-scid mice (SCID mice 38%, nude-scid mice 55%, beige-scid mice 38%). Neoplastic cells of Bowen's disease grafted onto a beige-scid mouse proliferated and invaded the dermis during 233 days of observation, confirming the progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma from carcinoma in situ. The present study revealed that nude-scid and beige-scide mice newly produced by us provide a very useful in vivo experimental model for the investigation of carcinogenesis and tumor progression in human skin. PMID:9143737

  18. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-01-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  19. Effect of Enrichment Devices on Aggression in Manipulated Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Lockworth, Cynthia R; Kim, Sun-Jin; Liu, Jun; Palla, Shana L; Craig, Suzanne L

    2015-11-01

    Agonistic behavior in group-housed male mice is a recurring problem in many animal research facilities. Common management procedures, such as the removal of aggressors, are moderately successful but often fail, owing to recurrence of aggressive behavior among cagemates. Studies have incorporated enrichment devices to attenuate aggression, but such devices have had mixed results. However, these studies did not include research manipulations when assessing the benefits of various enrichment devices. We obtained 100 male athymic nude mice and studied the efficacy of various enrichment devices, including cotton squares, paper rolls, shredded paper, nylon bones, and a mouse house and wheel combination in the reduction of fighting during an ongoing study that involved randomization followed by prostate and intratibial injections. Groups were evaluated according to a numerical grading system for wound assessment. Examination of the data revealed that the enrichment devices had no effect on the presence of wounds, thus none of the devices tested affected fighting in nude mice. However, when mice began experimental use, fight wounds increased significantly at cage change and after randomization, reflecting a disruption of existing social hierarchies. Therefore, in the context of an actual research study that involves common manipulations, the specific enrichment device had less effect on aggression in male nude mice than did the destruction and reconstruction of social structures within each group. PMID:26632782

  20. Diethylcarbamazine-mediated clearance of Brugia pahangi microfilariae in immunodeficient nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Nayar, J K; Tamplin, M L

    1985-05-01

    Congenitally athymic nude C3H/HeN mice, microfilaremic with Brugia pahangi, were treated with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC). A single oral dose (100 mg/Kg body weight) of DEC resulted in the rapid reduction of numbers of circulating microfilariae in nude, thymus-grafted nude and complement-depleted nude mice. Antibodies of the IgM and IgG isotypes were not detected in the serum of microfilaremic nudes or on the microfilarial surface. These results suggest that DEC-mediated clearance of microfilariae from the circulation of nude mice is probably independent of thymus-dependent immunological mechanisms. PMID:3890576

  1. Study of Camelpox Virus Pathogenesis in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Duraffour, Sophie; Matthys, Patrick; van den Oord, Joost J.; De Schutter, Tim; Mitera, Tania; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Camelpox virus (CMLV) is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n.) CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c.) infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c+CD8α+ lymphoid and CD11c+CD11b+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog) was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral therapies in an

  2. Infections of Brugia pahangi in conventional and nude (athymic) mice.

    PubMed

    Suswillo, R R; Owen, D G; Denham, D A

    1980-12-01

    AKR, BALB/c and CBA/Ca and T.O. mice were completely resistant to infection with third stage infective larvae of Brugia pahangi. Third, fourth and fifth stage worms transplanted from the peritoneal cavity of jirds into the peritoneal cavity of mice continued to develop. BALB/c mice were the most susceptible of the strains tested and adult worms were obtained after each type of transplanted infection. Congenitally athymic nude mice were much less resistant to transplanted worms and infective larvae developed to full maturity in most of them. Ten of 14 athymic mice infected by the intraperitoneal (ip) inoculation of infective larvae had microfilariae in their blood or peritoneal cavities. At autopsy a percentage recovery of adult worms of 0-38% (mean 11.1%) was obtained. Microfilariae were only found in the blood of 2 of 6 athymic mice infected by subcutaneous (sc) infection and at autopsy 0-19.1% (mean 6.1%) recoveries were obtained. The thymic littermates of the nudes were more resistant than those most of the other strains used. PMID:6110323

  3. [Biologic and molecular genetic properties of a transplantable human primary gastric cancer in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, S S

    1989-05-01

    A human primary gastric cancer tissue (adenocarcinoma II-III) was transplanted into nude mice (SWISS/DF. nu/nu). It has been transferred for 8 generations at 56 sites in 28 nude mice with transplantable rate of 100%. The transplanted tumor is designated as transplantable human primary gastric cancer-1 in nude mice (THPGC-1). The growth of THPGC-1 is rather rapid and the size of transplanted tumor reaches 1 cm2, 4-5 weeks after transfer. The morphology and histochemistry of the original tumor were retained well in the initial and serial transplanted tumors. THPGC-1 could secret carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). After intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of 131I-antiCEA monoclonal antibody into the THPGC-1 bearing nude mice, the radiolabeled antibody was concentrated and localized in the tumor as shown by gamma-camera analysis. Similar pattern of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme was observed both in primary gastric cancer tissue and THPGC-1 tissue. Chromosomal examination revealed that THPGC-1 was human aneuploid ones. Southern blot analysis showed that the pattern of repetitive DNA bands and the structures of 28s, rDNA, c-H-ras and c-myc genes in THPGC-1 were identical to the original primary gastric cancer DNA. The results suggest that THPGC-1 be a reliable model for the research of the molecular biology of cancer cells and experimental gastric cancer diagnosis and treatment. PMID:2693024

  4. Human cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for the treatment of premature ovarian failure in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jianhong; Jin, Zhijun; Liu, Xiaojun; Hu, Dian; Wang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the potential of human cord blood mononuclear cell (HCMNC) transplantation as a treatment for premature ovarian failure (POF) in a nude mouse model. Methods: Female nude mice were randomly divided into three groups; a normal control group (n = 35), a POF group (POF plus vehicle, n = 35) and a POF plus cell transplantation group (HCMNCs were implanted into the ovaries, n = 35). HCMNCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation and labeled with BrdU. Four weeks after transplantation, the nude mice were sacrificed to determine serum levels of E2, FSH and LH as indicators of ovarian function, and the ovaries were examined both histologically and immunochemically. Results: The transplanted HCMNCs survived in the transplantation group and were detected by BrdU. In the transplantation group, serum levels of E2 significantly increased while serum levels of FSH and LH significantly decreased compared to the POF control group. Additionally, the transplantation group had a recovery in follicle number. Conclusion: HCMNCs can be successfully transplanted into the ovaries of nude mice and can improve ovarian function in POF. PMID:26064319

  5. Combination of 13-Cis retinoic acid and lovastatin: marked antitumor potential in vivo in a pheochromocytoma allograft model in female athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Giubellino, Alessio; Tayem, Yasin; Young, Karen; Lauseker, Michael; Bullova, Petra; Schovanek, Jan; Anver, Miriam; Fliedner, Stephanie; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Vlotides, George; Grossman, Ashley; Pacak, Karel

    2014-07-01

    Currently, there are no reliably effective therapeutic options for metastatic pheochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma. Moreover, there are no therapies that may prevent the onset or progression of tumors in patients with succinate dehydrogenase type B mutations, which are associated with very aggressive tumors. Therefore, we tested the approved and well-tolerated drugs lovastatin and 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) in vitro in an aggressive PCC mouse cell line, mouse tumor tissue-derived (MTT) cells, and in vivo in a PCC allograft nude mouse model, in therapeutically relevant doses. Treatment was started 24 hours before sc tumor cell injection and continued for 30 more days. Tumor sizes were measured from outside by caliper and sizes of viable tumor mass by bioluminescence imaging. Lovastatin showed antiproliferative effects in vitro and led to significantly smaller tumor sizes in vivo compared with vehicle treatment. 13cRA promoted tumor cell growth in vitro and led to significantly larger viable tumor mass and significantly faster increase of viable tumor mass in vivo over time compared with vehicle, lovastatin, and combination treatment. However, when combined with lovastatin, 13cRA enhanced the antiproliferative effect of lovastatin in vivo. The combination-treated mice showed slowest tumor growth of all groups with significantly slower tumor growth compared with the vehicle-treated mice and significantly smaller tumor sizes. Moreover, the combination-treated group displayed the smallest size of viable tumor mass and the slowest increase in viable tumor mass over time of all groups, with a significant difference compared with the vehicle- and 13cRA-treated group. The combination-treated tumors showed highest extent of necrosis, lowest median microvessel density and highest expression of α-smooth muscle actin. The combination of high microvessel density and low α-smooth muscle actin is a predictor of poor prognosis in other tumor entities. Therefore, this drug

  6. Adaptation to statins restricts human tumour growth in Nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Statins have long been used as anti-hypercholesterolemia drugs, but numerous lines of evidence suggest that they may also bear anti-tumour potential. We have recently demonstrated that it was possible to isolate cancer cells adapted to growth in the continuous presence of lovastatin. These cells grew more slowly than the statin-sensitive cells of origin. In the present study, we compared the ability of both statin-sensitive and statin-resistant cells to give rise to tumours in Nude mice. Methods HGT-1 human gastric cancer cells and L50 statin-resistant derivatives were injected subcutaneously into Nude mice and tumour growth was recorded. At the end of the experiment, tumours were recovered and marker proteins were analyzed by western blotting, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results L50 tumours grew more slowly, showed a strong decrease in cyclin B1, over-expressed collagen IV, and had reduced laminin 332, VEGF and CD34 levels, which, collectively, may have restricted cell division, cell adhesion and neoangiogenesis. Conclusions Taken together, these results showed that statin-resistant cells developed into smaller tumours than statin-sensitive cells. This may be reflective of the cancer restricting activity of statins in humans, as suggested from several retrospective studies with subjects undergoing statin therapy for several years. PMID:22107808

  7. Protein expression changes during human triple negative breast cancer cell line progression to lymph node metastasis in a xenografted model in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, María Paula; Arriaga, Juan Martín; Bianchini, Michele; Quintá, Héctor Ramiro; Bravo, Alicia Inés; Levy, Estrella Mariel; Mordoh, José; Barrio, María Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) lacking hormone receptors and HER-2 amplification are very aggressive tumors. Since relevant differences between primary tumors and metastases could arise during tumor progression as evidenced by phenotypic discordances reported for hormonal receptors or HER-2 expression, in this analysis we studied changes that occurred in our TNBC model IIB-BR-G throughout the development of IIB-BR-G-MTS6 metastasis to the lymph nodes (LN) in nude mice, using an antibody-based protein array to characterize their expression profile. We also analyzed their growth kinetics, migration, invasiveness and cytoskeleton structure in vitro and in vivo. In vitro IIB-BR-G-MTS6 cells grew slower but showed higher anchorage independent growth. In vivo IIB-BR-G-MTS6 tumors grew significantly faster and showed a 100% incidence of LN metastasis after s.c. inoculation, although no metastasis was observed for IIB-BR-G. CCL3, IL1β, CXCL1, CSF2, CSF3, IGFBP1, IL1α, IL6, IL8, CCL20, PLAUR, PlGF and VEGF were strongly upregulated in IIB-BR-G-MTS6 while CCL4, ICAM3, CXCL12, TNFRSF18, FIGF were the most downregulated proteins in the metastatic cell line. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 protein expression profile could reflect a higher NFκB activation in these cells. In vitro, IIB-BR-G displayed higher migration but IIB-BR-G-MTS6 had more elevated matrigel invasion ability. In agreement with that observation, IIB-BR-G-MTS6 had an upregulated expression of MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, PLAUR and HGF. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 tumors presented also higher local lymphatic invasion than IIB-BR-G but similar lymphatic vessel densities. VEGFC and VEGFA/B expression were higher both in vitro and in vivo for IIB-BR-G-MTS6. IIB-BR-G-MTS6 expressed more vimentin than IB-BR-G cells, which was mainly localized in the cellular extremities and both cell lines are E-cadherin negative. Our results suggest that IIB-BR-G-MTS6 cells have acquired a pronounced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Protein

  8. Use of nude mice in experimental neutron capture therapy with 10B-BPA

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaoki, N.; Ueda, M.; Tamauchi, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Mishima, Y. )

    1989-07-01

    Mouse B16 melanoma allografts in nude mice were successfully treated by thermal neutron irradiation after IP injection of 10B-paraboronophenylalanine hydrochloride. The tumor growth was significantly suppressed for 4 weeks after irradiation, compared with animals given neutron irradiation alone. Tumor-bearing nude mice were shown to be useful for evaluating the treatment for melanoma.

  9. Nitrosylhemoglobin in photodynamically stressed human tumors growing in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Monika; Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Pyka, Janusz; Susz, Anna; Urbanska, Krystyna; Płonka, Beata K; Kuleta, Patryk; Łącki, Piotr; Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Fiedor, Leszek; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2013-11-30

    The role of nitric oxide in human tumor biology and therapy has been the subject of extensive studies. However, there is only limited knowledge about the mechanisms of NO production and its metabolism, and about the role NO can play in modern therapeutic procedures, such as photodynamic therapy. Here, for the first time, we report the presence of nitrosylhemoglobin, a stable complex of NO, in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 tumors growing in situ in nude mice. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy we show that the level of nitrosylhemoglobin increases in the course of photodynamic therapy and that the phenomenon is local. Even the destruction of strongly vascularized normal liver tissue did not induce the paramagnetic signal, despite bringing about tissue necrosis. We conclude that photodynamic stress substantiates NO production and blood extravasation in situ, both processes on-going even in non-treated tumors, although at a lower intensity. PMID:23973529

  10. Hexamita and Giardia as a cause of mortality in congenitally thymus-less (nude) mice

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G. A.; Lina, P. H. C.; Zurcher, C.; Nieuwerkerk, H. T. M.

    1973-01-01

    Two intestinal flagellates, Hexamita muris and Giardia muris, were found in high concentrations in most of the congenitally thymus-less (nude) mice in a conventional colony being maintained at the Radiobiological Institute TNO. Antiflagellate therapy markedly reduced mortality, with >50% of the mice living to 110 days. In mice receiving thymus transplants but no antiflagellate treatment the mortality rate was less than in either control or treated mice. In addition, histopathological examination of mice with thymus transplants revealed fewer intestinal flagellates than in control mice. It is suggested that the wasting syndrome seen in nude and neonatally thymectomized mice may be aggravated by infestation with Hexamita and Giardia. PMID:4778720

  11. Lack of correlation between natural killer activity and tumor growth control in nude mice with different immune defects.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, O; Hansen, C T; Cannon, G B; Statham, C N; Lichtenstein, G R; Boyd, M R

    1984-10-01

    To elucidate the in vivo role of natural killer (NK) cells, the growth of several murine and human tumors was studied in four variants of athymic, nude mice with different levels of NK activity. Beige-nude mice, homozygous for both the beige and the nude genes, had very low levels of NK activity, and their response to the B-cell mitogen, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, was lower than that of high-NK, adult NIH nude mice. Young and adult NIH nudes had different NK levels and showed different response in assays for K-cell, T-cell, and B-cell activity. The B-cell-defective NIH-II mice had slightly lower NK levels than adult NIH animals, but much lower response in the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay. No correlation was found between host NK activity and the s.c. growth of various human (LOX, CEM, K562) and murine (YAC-1) tumor cells. Low NK activity was not associated with increased lung colony formation in a metastasis model using i.v.-injected human (LOX) and murine (B16F10) melanoma cells. No relationship was found between host NK activity and the rate of elimination of i.v.-injected 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine-labeled LOX, B16F10, and YAC-1 cells from lungs, liver, or spleen. The results fail to support the view that NK cells exert significant direct effects on tumor cells in vivo. PMID:6467201

  12. Effects of Per2 overexpression on growth inhibition and metastasis, and on MTA1, nm23-H1 and the autophagy-associated PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Li, Li; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between Period2 (Per2) and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, in addition to evaluating the effect of this gene on the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in nude mice xenograft models. The detection of Per2 by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting methods at various stages of ovarian cancer in tumor tissue samples was conducted. Nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer were constructed using an ovarian cancer cell line and, using a gene transfection technique, exogenous infusion of the recombinant gene, Per2, was performed. To assess for the successful and stable expression of Per2 in the tumor tissue, levels of Per2 expression in the nude mice xenograft models were detected by RT‑qPCR. During the experimental period, the tumor volumes were measured every three days. Two weeks following treatment cessation, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumor weight and volume were measured. Furthermore, detection of the changes in expression levels of metastasis‑associated gene 1 (MTA‑1) and tumor metastasis suppressor gene, non‑metastasis protein 23‑H1 (nm23‑H1), and the expression change of autophagy‑associated signal transduction pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that with ovarian cancer stage development, the expression of Per2 gradually reduced or ceased. In addition, exogenous Per2 was successfully and stably expressed in nude mice tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, in the Per2 overexpression group, MTA‑1 protein expression was significantly reduced when compared with the phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) control and empty plasmid groups, while nm23‑H1 protein expression was significantly higher when compared with those two groups. The expression levels of PI3K and PKB kinase, which are marker proteins of the autophagy

  13. Effects of Per2 overexpression on growth inhibition and metastasis, and on MTA1, nm23-H1 and the autophagy-associated PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAOXIA; LI, LI; WANG, YANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between Period2 (Per2) and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, in addition to evaluating the effect of this gene on the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in nude mice xenograft models. The detection of Per2 by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting methods at various stages of ovarian cancer in tumor tissue samples was conducted. Nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer were constructed using an ovarian cancer cell line and, using a gene transfection technique, exogenous infusion of the recombinant gene, Per2, was performed. To assess for the successful and stable expression of Per2 in the tumor tissue, levels of Per2 expression in the nude mice xenograft models were detected by RT-qPCR. During the experimental period, the tumor volumes were measured every three days. Two weeks following treatment cessation, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumor weight and volume were measured. Furthermore, detection of the changes in expression levels of metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA-1) and tumor metastasis suppressor gene, non-metastasis protein 23-H1 (nm23-H1), and the expression change of autophagy-associated signal transduction pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that with ovarian cancer stage development, the expression of Per2 gradually reduced or ceased. In addition, exogenous Per2 was successfully and stably expressed in nude mice tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, in the Per2 overexpression group, MTA-1 protein expression was significantly reduced when compared with the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control and empty plasmid groups, while nm23-H1 protein expression was significantly higher when compared with those two groups. The expression levels of PI3K and PKB kinase, which are marker proteins of the autophagy associated signaling pathway PI3

  14. Effect of curcumin on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in nude mice prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiayi; Ning, Jianping; Peng, Linlin; He, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in urinary system. Curcumin has curative effect on many kinds of cancers and can inhibit prostate cancer (PC)-3 cells proliferation. This study aimed to explore the curcumin induced prostate cancer cell apoptosis and apoptosis related proteins Bcl-2 and Bax expression. PC-3 cells were injected subcutaneously to the nude mice to establish the tumor model. The nude mice were randomly divided into group C (normal saline), group B (6% polyethylene glycol and 6% anhydrous ethanol), group H, M, L (100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 25 mg/kg curcumin). The tumor volume was measured every 6 days to draw the tumor growth curve. The mice were killed at the 30th day after injection to weight the tumor. TUNEL assay was applied to determine cell apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Bcl-2 and Bax expression. The tumor volume and weight in group H, M, L were significantly lower than the control group (C, B) (P<0.05), and the inhibitory rate increased following the curcumin dose increase. Compared with the control group, Bcl-2 expression in group H, M, L gradually decreased, while Bax protein expression increased (P<0.05). The cell apoptosis rate showed no statistical difference between group B and C, while it increased in curcumin group H, M, and L (P<0.05). Curcumin could inhibit PC-3 growth, decrease tumor volume, reduce tumor weight, and induce cell apoptosis under the skin of nude mice by up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl-2. PMID:26464676

  15. Expression of B7-H3 in cancer tissue during osteosarcoma progression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, S J; Wang, W J; Zhang, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Immune cells might participate in the ontogenesis of osteosarcoma. B7-H3 is a new discovered T cell co-stimulatory molecule that was found to be overexpressed in malignant tumors. We aimed to investigate the dynamic expression level of B7-H3 in nude mice with osteosarcoma. A nude mouse osteosarcoma model was successfully established. B7-H3 expression and distribution changes in the early, middle, and late phases of osteosarcoma formation after tumor implantation were observed. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were applied to measure the B7-H3 mRNA and protein dynamic changes. Confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to determine B7-H3 localization and CD3+ T cell expression, respectively, in osteosarcoma tissue. B7-H3 mRNA and protein levels fluctuated during the process of osteosarcoma formation in the nude mouse model. Expression levels were lower in the early and middle phases, while B7-H3 mRNA and protein were overexpressed in the late stage. Accordingly, CD3+ T cell numbers in the early, middle, and late phases in osteosarcoma tissue were 93 ± 13, 92 ± 12, and 46 ± 15, respectively; they can be seen to have decreased significantly in the late stage (P < 0.05). Overall, our results indicated that the B7-H3 expression level is correlated with tumor volume and severity; therefore, it might serve as a tumor biomarker for osteosarcoma. PMID:26600483

  16. Anticancer effect of Jinlongshe granules on in situ-transplanted human MKN-45 gastric cancer in nude mice and xenografted sarcoma 180 in Kunming mice and its mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhi-Hong; Wei, Pin-Kang; Xu, Ling; Qin, Zhi-Feng; Shi, Jun

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the antitumor effect of Chinese compound Jinlongshe (JLS) granules on sarcoma 180 and MKN-45 human gastric cancer cell lines in vivo and its mechanism. METHODS: After establishment of S180 sarcoma (S180) and MKN-45 gastric cancer model of nude mice, the tumor-bearing mice were divided into 5 groups at random. Three experimental groups were respectively given the aqueous extract of JLS granules at doses of 120 g, 60 g and 20 g /(kg per 6/wk, i.g) for 3 wk in S180 and 6 wk in nude mice model. Positive control was given cyclophosphamide (Cy) at a dose of 50 mg/(kg per 3 /wk, i.g) for 3 wk in S180 models and 5- Fluorouracil (5-FU) 20 mg/(kg per 3 /wk, i.g) for 3 wk in nude mice model. Negative control was given normal saline (NS) at a dose of 0.18 g/(kg per 6/wk, i.g) respectively. After 3 wk in mice bearing S180 tumor and 6 wk in nude mice model, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the masses of tumor were weighed, and the rates of tumor inhibition of each treated group were calculated respectively. To determine the antitumor mechanisms, the morphological changes, cell cycle and apoptosis were observed in MKN-45 nude mice model. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining FCM assay was used to further determine the live cells, apoptotic cells, necrotic cells and debris. RESULTS: The inhibitory rates of JLS granules at the doses of 20 g/kg, 60 g/kg and 120 g/kg were 50.31%, 55.94% and 68.13% (P < 0.01) in nude mice models and 40.90%, 50.32% and 58.46% (P < 0.01) in S180 model. The inhibitory rate of Cy was 85.22% in S180 models and the inhibitory rate of 5-FU was 53.43% in nude mice model (P < 0.01). Nuclear chromatin and margination were observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The G0/G1 phase was arrested, typical apoptotic peak appeared, the apoptotic rate was 22.81%-38.54% in three JLS granule-treated groups. Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining FCM assay showed that the apoptotic cells were 4.36%, 3.08%and 7.08% in three dosages, most

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy of Astatine-211-Labeled Trastuzumab on Radioresistant SKOV-3 Tumors in Nude Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Palm, Stig Baeck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Danielsson, Anna; Elgqvist, Joergen; Frost, Sofia; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential use of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At)-labeled trastuzumab for the treatment of HER-2-positive, radioresistant ovarian carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Four-week-old nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 5 . 10{sup 6} SKOV-3 cells in 0.4 mL saline on Day 0. The endpoint was the total tumor weight in each mouse on Day 63. Three experiments were performed in which the response to single-dose and fractionated treatment with unlabeled and {sup 211}At-labeled antibody was evaluated. Results: Experiment 1 showed, for the same total amount of trastuzumab, a dose-response relationship between {sup 211}At activity (0-400 kBq on Day 7) and therapeutic efficacy (p = 0.001). The effect of varying the amount of unlabeled trastuzumab was studied in Experiment 2. All mice, except for the controls, received 400 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab, and different groups received 5, 50, or 500 {mu}g trastuzumab on Day 7. The increase from 5 to 50 {mu}g trastuzumab reduced the tumors by 78% in weight. No tumors were present in mice given 500 {mu}g trastuzumab. In Experiment 3, the effect of a fractionated treatment regimen was studied. Mice that received 100 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab on Days 7 and 8 had a 42% smaller tumor burden than did controls. Groups of mice injected with 200 + 100 kBq on Days 7 and 21 and mice injected with 100 kBq on Days 7, 8, and 21 both had 24% less tumor weight than the corresponding controls. Conclusion: The combination of 500 {mu}g trastuzumab and 400 kBq {sup 211}At-trastuzumab had the greatest effect, with complete eradication of the tumors in this nude mouse model.

  18. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. II. The growth of the oocyte and follicle.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1975-01-01

    Congenitally athymic mice homozygous for the Mendelian recessive mutation "nude" develop well defined morphological and quantitative changes in the ovarian follicle population. A decline in follicle numbers at 2 months of age is preceded by a retardation in follicle growth at 1 month of age. The growth of the oocyte and its nucleus are not affected by the nude mutation. However, the rate of growth and maximum size of the oocyte nucleolus are reduced in nudes. These developmental events are discussed in relation to the genetic activity of the oocyte, the role of pituitary gonadotrophins in follicular and oocyte growth and the possible role of the thymus gland in these processes. PMID:1228337

  19. Chemosensitivity of human head and neck cancer xenografts in the clonogenic assay and in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Boerrigter, G. H.; Heinerman, E. C.; Braakhuis, B. J.; Snow, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The potential use of human head and neck (H & N) tumours, growing in athymic nude mice, for preclinical assessment of cytostatic drug sensitivity in a soft agar cloning system was examined. Of 20 H & N tumour xenografts, obtained from 6 different xenograft lines, 17 demonstrated sufficient colony growth to evaluate in vitro drug sensitivity. Moreover, all xenografts provided enough cells to test 8 cytostatic drugs at 3 concentrations each. A dose-dependent inhibition of colony growth was obtained with all drugs tested, except methotrexate. Tumours were considered sensitive when the drug concentration required to inhibit colony formation by 50%, was less than 1/10 of the peak plasma concentration in patients. All H & N tumour lines were resistant to cisplatin, doxorubicin, hydroxyurea, mafosfamide (an in vitro active analogue of cyclophosphamide) and methotrexate. Bleomycin was active in 1/6 and 5-fluorouracil in 6/6 of the H & N tumour lines tested. In 32 cases the in vitro data of the H & N tumour lines and a chemosensitive rat rhabdomyosarcoma were compared directly with in vivo results obtained in nude mice. The clonogenic assay correctly predicted sensitivity in 4/6 (66.7%) and resistance in 21/26 (80.8%) of the cases. A lack of correlation was noted for methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. In vitro culture of human H & N xenografts may provide a means for a rapid and large scale screening to identify new drugs active against H & N malignancies. In addition the clonogenic assay may help to select drugs for subsequent testing in the nude mouse xenograft model. The lack of correlation for some drugs in the present study indicates that there are some limitations in the use of xenograft tumour material for in vitro testing of new drugs. PMID:3730256

  20. Neonatal Thymulin Gene Therapy Prevents Ovarian Dysgenesis and Attenuates Reproductive Derangements in Nude Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, Paula C.; Barbeito, Claudio G.; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O.; Cónsole, Gloria M.; Flamini, Alicia M.; Dardenne, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70–71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:22700775

  1. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy prevents ovarian dysgenesis and attenuates reproductive derangements in nude female mice.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Paula C; Barbeito, Claudio G; Zuccolilli, Gustavo O; Cónsole, Gloria M; Flamini, Alicia M; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2012-08-01

    Congenitally athymic (nude) female mice show severe ovarian dysgenesis after puberty, which seems to be consequential to a number of neuroendocrine derangements described in these mutants. Thus, considerable evidence suggests that thymulin, a thymic peptide, may be involved in thymus-pituitary communication. In order to clarify the relevance of thymulin for the maturation of the female reproductive system, we assessed at hypothalamic, pituitary, ovarian, and uterine level the preventive action of neonatal thymulin gene therapy (NTGT) on the changes that typically occur after puberty in congenitally athymic female mice. We injected (im) an adenoviral vector harboring a synthetic DNA sequence encoding a biologically active analog of thymulin, methionine-serum thymic factor, in newborn nude mice (which are thymulin deficient) and killed the animals at 70-71 d of age. NTGT in the athymic mice restored the serum thymulin levels. Morphometric analysis revealed that athymic nudes have reduced numbers of brain GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotropic cells as compared with heterozygous controls. NTGT prevented these changes and also rescued the premature ovarian failure phenotype typically observed in athymic nude mice (marked reduction in the number of antral follicles and corpora lutea, increase in atretic follicles). Serum estrogen, but not progesterone, levels were low in athymic nudes, a reduction that was partially prevented by NTGT. Little to no morphological changes were observed in the endometrium of female nudes. The delay in the age of vaginal opening that occurs in athymic nudes was significantly prevented by NTGT. Our results suggest that thymulin plays a relevant physiologic role in the thymus-hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. PMID:22700775

  2. Strategies to Prevent, Treat, and Provoke Corynebacterium-Associated Hyperkeratosis in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Holly N; Lipman, Neil S; White, Julie R; Zheng, Junting; Wolf, Felix R

    2011-01-01

    Athymic nude mice infected with Corynebacterium bovis typically exhibit transient hyperkeratotic dermatitis. Our vivarium experienced an increased incidence of disease characterized by persistent skin lesions and increased mortality, leading to this study. For detection of infection, skin and buccal swab methods showed comparable sensitivities in nude mice. Various prevention, treatment, and eradication strategies were evaluated through clinical assessment, microbiology, and histopathology. In experimentally naïve athymic nude mice, a 2-wk course of prophylactic amoxicillin-containing diet (1200 ppm amoxicillin; effective dose, 200 mg/kg) was ineffective at preventing infection or disease. There was also no significant difference in disease duration or severity in athymic nude mice that received amoxicillin diet or penicillin–streptomycin topical spray (penicillin, 2500 U/mL; streptomycin, 2500 µg/mL). Prolonged treatment with 4 or 8 wk of amoxicillin diet cleared only a small number of athymic nude mice that had subclinical C. bovis infections. Antibiotic sensitivity of C. bovis isolates demonstrated a small colony isolate with less susceptibility to all antibiotics compared with a large colony isolate. Resistance did not appear to develop after prolonged treatment with amoxicillin. Provocation testing by administration of cyclophosphamide (50 mg/kg IP every 48 to 72 h for 90 d) to subclinically infected athymic nude mice resulted in prolonged clinical disease that waxed and waned without progression to severe disease. Our findings suggest that antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment of clinical disease in experimentally naïve mice is unrewarding, eradication of bacterial infection is difficult, and severe disease associated with C. bovis is likely multifactorial. PMID:21640035

  3. Epirubicin-gold nanoparticles suppress hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Meng, William C. S.; Pan, Yunlong; Zhao, Xiaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We sought to investigate the effects of epirubicin-nanogold compounds (EPI-AuNP) on hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft growth in nude mice. EPI-AuNP was prepared and hepatoma xenograft model was established in nude mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: the control group with injection of saline, the AuNP treatment group, the EPI treatment group and the EPI-AuNP treatment group. After two weeks, the hepatoma weight and volume of the xenografts were assessed. Our transmission electron microscopy revealed that epirubicin-gold nanoparticles caused significantly more structural changes of hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2. The tumor weight in the Epi-AuNP treatment group (0.80±0.11 g) was significantly lower than that of the control group (2.48±0.15 g), the AuNP treatment group (1.67±0.17 g), and the EPI treatment group (1.39±0.10 g) (P<0.01). Furthermore, the tumor volume of mice in the EPI-AuNP treatment group (0.27±0.06 cm3) was significantly smaller than that of the control group (2.23±0.34 cm3), the AuNP treatment group (1.21±0.25 cm3) and the EPI treatment group (0.81±0.11 cm3) (P<0.01). In conclusion, epirubicin-nanogold compounds (EPI-AuNP) have significant inhibitory effects on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo. PMID:26423611

  4. Effect of immune reconstitution on resistance to Brugia pahangi in congenitally athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L; Sodeman, W A

    1983-06-01

    The dichotomy of resistance to Brugia pahangi (Nematoda: Filarioidea) between nonsusceptible, euthymic C3H/HeN mice, heterozygotic for the "nu" gene (+/nu), and susceptible, congenitally-athymic "nude" (nu/nu) C3H/HeN mice, suggests that resistance is thymus-dependent. To test this hypothesis, the effect of syngeneic neonatal thymus grafts and neonatal thymus cell suspensions on recovery of worms at day 40 PI, and responses to Concanavalin A (Con A) were examined in reconstituted nudes. Nude recipients of a thymus graft 7 or 14 wk before subcutaneous inoculation with 50 infective larvae (L3) yielded no worms and responded strongly to Con A. Serum from these mice reacted in two lines of identity with serum from similarly-infected heterozygotes by double radial immunodiffusion against an adult worm saline extract. Nude recipients of a thymus 2 days or 3 wk before inoculation harbored an average of three or two worms, respectively. Intravenous injection of nude recipients with 10(7) or 10(8) neonatal thymus cells seven weeks before inoculation was less effective in conferring resistance to B. pahangi and responsiveness to Con A. Complete resistance to B. pahangi could be adoptively transferred to nude mice by 10(8) spleen cells obtained from infection-primed heterozygotes and injected intravenously on the day of larval inoculation. The same numbers of worms were significantly reduced. less effective when injected 3 wk before inoculation, although numbers of worms were significantly reduced. Passive transfer of primed heterozygote serum, containing high titers of antibodies to adult worm and larval antigens, failed to protect nude recipients against a larval inoculum in the absence of cellular reconstitution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6605421

  5. Induction of IgG in young nude mice by lipid A or thymus grafts.

    PubMed

    Kolb, C; Di Pauli, R; Weiler, E

    1976-10-01

    Postnatal serum concentrations of IgG2a of paternal allotype, measured in congenitally thymusless nude mice, increase with kinetics and titers comparable to their normal congeneic counterparts. Lipid A, the mitogenic part of LPS, stimulates IgG synthesis in nude mice when it is given 7 days after birth. IgG concentrations at 15 days of age are 6- to 8-fold higher than in untreated control nudes; this is considerably lower, however, than in normal mice, which show up to 45-fold higher IgG2ab levels after lipid A treatment. A thymus graft from nearly congeneic donors of the same age, transplanted at 4 days after birth, also stimulates long-lasting IgG synthesis in the nude recipients. If the grafted nudes are injected with lipid A 3 days later, IgG synthesis is further stimulated 8- to 16-fold. The data are discussed in relation to the thymus dependency of IgG production and the conditions for lipid A stimulation. PMID:978133

  6. Comparative Hair Restorer Efficacy of Medicinal Herb on Nude (Foxn1nu) Mice

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md. Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P > 0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  7. Comparative hair restorer efficacy of medicinal herb on nude (Foxn1nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-01-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk, Asiasarum sieboldii (Miq.) F. Maek (Asiasari radix), and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey (red ginseng) are traditionally acclaimed for therapeutic properties of various human ailments. Synergistic effect of each standardized plant extract was investigated for hair growth potential on nude mice, as these mutant mice genetically lack hair due to abnormal keratinization. Dried plant samples were ground and extracted by methanol. Topical application was performed on the back of nude mice daily up to completion of two hair growth generations. The hair density and length of Eclipta alba treated mice were increased significantly (P>0.001) than control mice. Hair growth area was also distinctly visible in Eclipta alba treated mice. On the other hand, Asiasari radix and Panax ginseng treated mice developing hair loss were recognized from the abortive boundaries of hair coverage. Histomorphometric observation of nude mice skin samples revealed an increase in number of hair follicles (HFs). The presence of follicular keratinocytes was confirmed by BrdU labeling, S-phase cells in HFs. Therefore, Eclipta alba extract and/or phytochemicals strongly displayed incomparability of hair growth promotion activity than others. Thus, the standardized Eclipta alba extract can be used as an effective, alternative, and complementary treatment against hair loss. PMID:25478567

  8. Optoacoustic system for 3D functional and molecular imaging in nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Stein, Alan; Herzog, Don; Thompson, Scott; Liopo, Anton; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Motamedi, Massoud; Ermilov, Sergey; Conjusteau, Andre; Gharieb, Reda; Lacewell, Ron; Miller, Tom; Mehta, Ketan; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2008-02-01

    A three-dimensional laser optoacoustic imaging system was developed, which combines the advantages of optical spectroscopy and high resolution ultrasonic detection, to produce high contrast maps of optical absorbance in tissues. This system was tested in a nude mouse model of breast cancer and produced tissue images of tumors and vasculature. The imaging can utilize either optical properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin, which are the main endogenous tissue chromophores in the red and near-infrared spectral ranges, or exogenous contrast agent based on gold nanorods. Visualization of tissue molecules targeted by the contrast agent provides molecular information. Visulization of blood at multiple colors of light provides functional information on blood concentration and oxygen saturation. Optoacoustic imaging, using two or more laser illumination wavelengths, permits an assessment of the angiogenesis-related microvasculature, and thereby, an evaluation of the tumor stage and its metastatic potential. The optoacoustic imaging system was also used to generate molecular images of the malignancy-related receptors induced by the xenografts of BT474 mammary adenocarcinoma cells in nude mice. The development of the latter images was facilitated by the use of an optoacoustic contrast agent that utilizes gold nanorods conjugated to monoclonal antibody raised against HER2/neu antigens. These nanorods possess a very strong optical absorption peak that can be tuned in the near-infrared by changing their aspect ratio. The effective conversion of the optical energy into heat by the gold nanorods, followed by the thermal expansion of the surrounding water, makes these nanoparticles an effective optoacoustic contrast agent. Optical scattering methods and x-ray tomography may also benefit from the application of this contrast agent. Administration of the gold nanorod bioconjugates to mice resulted in an enhanced contrast of breast tumors relative the background of normal tissues

  9. Tumourigenic phenotypes of human melanoma cell lines in nude mice determined by an active antitumour mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Jacubovich, R.; Cabrillat, H.; Gerlier, D.; Bailly, M.; Doré, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Ten human melanoma cell lines (HMCL) were tested for their ability to grow subcutaneously in nude mice. Using a standard inoculum, the HMCL could be characterized by their highly, fairly or poorly xenografting phenotype. These phenotypes were stable and the phenotype of one HMCL was recovered within cell clones derived from it. The role of nude mice natural defences in the expression of HMCL xenografting phenotypes was studied. Sublethal whole body irradiation and silica pretreatment of recipients enabled poorly tumourigenic HMCL to grow in most animals without affecting their splenic NK activity. Admixture of BCG or MDP encapsulated in liposomes with highly tumourigenic HMCL resulted in the abrogation of tumour growth in naive nude mice. The long lasting abrogating of NK activity in vivo by treatment with anti-asialo-GM1 anti-serum did not enhance the growth of a poorly tumourigenic HMCL. The HMCL were found to be resistant to in vitro murine NK activity. These results showed that the expression of the HMCL xenografting phenotypes could be controlled by the nude mice natural defences. NK cells did not seem to be largely involved whereas macrophages might be good candidates as anti-xenograft effectors. PMID:3882112

  10. Effect of dietary selenium on T cell immunity and cancer xenograft in nude mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium is known to regulate carcinogenesis and immunity at nutritional and supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides one of the main body defenses against cancer, we asked whether T cell immunity can modulate selenium chemoprevention. Twenty-four homozygous NU/J nude mice were fe...

  11. Scaffold-Free Coculture Spheroids of Human Colonic Adenocarcinoma Cells and Normal Colonic Fibroblasts Promote Tumorigenicity in Nude Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-il; Lee, Jisu; Kwon, Ju-Lee; Park, Hong-Bum; Lee, Su-Yel; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Sung, Jaekye; Kim, Jin Man; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Kyung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to form a scaffold-free coculture spheroid model of colonic adenocarcinoma cells (CACs) and normal colonic fibroblasts (NCFs) and to use the spheroids to investigate the role of NCFs in the tumorigenicity of CACs in nude mice. We analysed three-dimensional (3D) scaffold-free coculture spheroids of CACs and NCFs. CAC Matrigel invasion assays and tumorigenicity assays in nude mice were performed to examine the effect of NCFs on CAC invasive behaviour and tumorigenicity in 3D spheroids. We investigated the expression pattern of fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP-α) by immunohistochemical staining. CAC monocultures did not form densely-packed 3D spheroids, whereas cocultured CACs and NCFs formed 3D spheroids. The 3D coculture spheroids seeded on a Matrigel extracellular matrix showed higher CAC invasiveness compared to CACs alone or CACs and NCFs in suspension. 3D spheroids injected into nude mice generated more and faster-growing tumors compared to CACs alone or mixed suspensions consisting of CACs and NCFs. FAP-α was expressed in NCFs-CACs cocultures and xenograft tumors, whereas monocultures of NCFs or CACs were negative for FAP-α expression. Our findings provide evidence that the interaction between CACs and NCFs is essential for the tumorigenicity of cancer cells as well as for tumor propagation. PMID:26947885

  12. Electrochemical red-ox therapy of prostate cancer in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Cury, Fabio L; Bhindi, Bimal; Rocha, Joice; Scarlata, Eleonora; El Jurdi, Katia; Ladouceur, Michel; Beauregard, Stéphane; Vijh, Ashok K; Taguchi, Yosh; Chevalier, Simone

    2015-08-01

    Minimally invasive therapies are increasingly in demand for organ-confined prostate tumors. Electrochemical therapy (EChT) is attractive, as it relies on locally-induced reduction-oxidation reactions to kill tumor cells. Its efficacy for prostate cancer was assessed in human PC-3 and LNCaP tumor xenografts growing subcutaneously in nude mice (n = 80) by applying 2 Stainless Steel vs. 4 Platinum-Iridium (Pt-Ir) electrodes to deliver current densities of 10 to 35 mA/cm(2) for 30 or 60 min. The procedure was uneventful in 90% of mice. No difference in tumor vs. body temperature was observed. Changes at electrode-tumor junctions were immediate, with dryness and acidity (pH2-3) at the anode and oedema and alkalinity (pH10-12) at the cathode. This was accompanied by cellular alterations, found more pronounced at the cathode. Such acidic and alkaline conditions were cytotoxic in vitro and dissolved cells at pH>10. In mice, tumor destruction was extensive by 24h with almost undetectable blood prostate specific antigen (LNCaP model) and covered the whole tumor surface by 4 days. EChT was most efficient at 25-30 mA/cm(2) for 60 min, yielding the longest recurrence-free survival and higher cure rates, especially with 4 Pt-Ir electrodes. EChT is a promising option to optimize for organ-confined prostate tumors. PMID:25578541

  13. Thyrotropin dependent and independent thyroid cell lines selected from FRTL-5 derived tumors grown in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ossendorp, F.A.; Bruning, P.F.; Schuuring, E.M.; Van Den Brink, J.A.; van der Heide, D.; De Vijlder, J.J.; De Bruin, T.W. )

    1990-07-01

    FRTL-5 cells were used to set up a thyroid tumor model system in C3H nu/nu mice. FRTL-5 tumors could be grown in nude mice provided serum TSH levels were elevated. Persistent TSH elevation was obtained by administration of Na131I, rendering the mice hypothyroid. After 4 weeks FRTL-5 cells were injected sc resulting in tumor growth within 2 weeks in eight out of eight mice. Although the tumors showed an apparently undifferentiated histology, lacking normal follicular structures, they were functional since the tumors were capable of concentrating (131)iodine, as demonstrated by nuclear imaging. From one of the tumors a new cell line was isolated (FRTL-5/T) that, like the parental FRTL-5 cell line, was TSH dependent for growth. In a control group of six euthyroid nude mice FRTL-5 tumor growth could not be obtained with one exception. After 3 months one animal developed a small tumor that grew rapidly thereafter. This tumor was easily transplantable in other euthyroid nude mice, showed an undifferentiated histology, and was nonfunctional, as it could not concentrate (131)iodine. From this tumor two cell lines were derived: one cultured in the presence of TSH (FRTL-5/TP) and one in the absence of TSH (FRTL-5/TA). The cell lines were analyzed for TSH responsive functions and TSH receptor expression. Responsiveness to TSH in FRTL-5/T and the parental FRTL-5 cell line were similar for most thyroid specific functions tested. However, FRTL-5/T was less sensitive than FRTL-5 for TSH induced (3H)thymidine incorporation. Both cell lines had two classes of TSH binding sites with high and low affinity respectively. FRTL-5/TP and FRTL-5/TA were both able to grow in TSH free medium and were nonresponsive to TSH in vitro, as tested for (3H)thymidine and (3H)uridine incorporation, iodine uptake, thyroglobulin iodination, and thyroglobulin secretion.

  14. In vivo imaging of human malignant mesothelioma grown orthotopically in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  15. In Vivo Imaging of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Grown Orthotopically in the Peritoneal Cavity of Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Mingqian; Zhang, Jingli; Anver, Miriam; Hassan, Raffit; Ho, Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) causes significant morbidity and mortality in patients. With increasing efforts devoted to developing therapeutics targeting mesothelioma, a xenograft mouse model with in vivo tumor imaging is especially desired for evaluating anti-tumor therapies. In the present study, we fluorescently labeled the NCI-H226 human mesothelioma cell line by a lentiviral vector harboring a luciferase-GFP (Luc/GFP) fusion gene driven by the RNA polymerase II promoter. After single-cell cloning by flow cytometry, a clone (named LMB-H226-GL) that stably expresses high levels of Luc/GFP was obtained. The in vivo tumorigenicity of Luc/GFP-labeled LMB-H226-GL was determined by using intraperitoneal injections of the cells in nude mice. LMB-H226-GL was found to be able to consistently form solid tumors in the peritoneum of mice. Tumor growth and aggressive progression could be quantitated via in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The model exhibited the pathological hallmarks consistent with the clinical progression of MM in terms of tumor growth and spread inside the peritoneal cavity. To evaluate the in vivo efficacy of drugs targeting mesothelioma, we treated mice with SS1P, a recombinant immunotoxin currently evaluated in Phase II clinical trials for treatment of mesothelioma. All the tumor-bearing mice had a significant response to SS1P treatment. Our results showed that this is a well-suited model for mesothelioma, and may be useful for evaluating other novel agents for mesothelioma treatment in vivo. PMID:21479131

  16. Immunofluorescence studies of a possible prethymic T-cell differentiation in congenitally athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed

    Loor, F; Roelants, G E

    1975-06-30

    A rabbit antimouse brain theta reagent was made specific for cells of the T lineage by absorption in vivo in nude mice. When used in double fluorescence together with an antimouse immunoglobulin reagent, four types of cells were found in spleen and lymph nodes of both normal and nude mice: Ig+thetaBr-, Ig-thetaBr+, Ig-thetaBr-, and Ig+thetaBr+. The data show that about 20% of nude mouse spleen lymphocytes are definitely of T lineage (Ig-thetaBr+). On these cells, the detection of the "thetaBr" determinant, which is identical or very close to the "theta" determinant, depends on the large amplification produced by indirect immunofluorescence, which suggests a low density of theta antigen. Similar experiments suggest the presence of cells that express some TL antigen in the spleen of nudes made congenic to a TL+ strain (BALB/c). It is proposed that the T-cell precursor that will further differentiate in the thymus already expresses a low density of theta and, in TL+ strains, TL antigen. PMID:1101770

  17. A nude mouse model of hypertrophic scar shows morphologic and histologic characteristics of human hypertrophic scar.

    PubMed

    Momtazi, Moein; Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Anderson, Colin C; Honardoust, Dariush; Goekjian, Serge; Tredget, Edward E

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HSc) is a fibroproliferative disorder that occurs following deep dermal injury. Lack of a relevant animal model is one barrier toward better understanding its pathophysiology. Our objective is to demonstrate that grafting split-thickness human skin onto nude mice results in survival of engrafted human skin and murine scars that are morphologically, histologically, and immunohistochemically consistent with human HSc. Twenty nude mice were xenografted with split-thickness human skin. Animals were euthanized at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days postoperatively. Eighteen controls were autografted with full-thickness nude mouse skin and euthanized at 30 and 60 days postoperatively. Scar biopsies were harvested at each time point. Blinded scar assessment was performed using a modified Manchester Scar Scale. Histologic analysis included hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, toluidine blue, and picrosirius red staining. Immunohistochemistry included anti-human human leukocyte antigen-ABC, α-smooth muscle actin, decorin, and biglycan staining. Xenografted mice developed red, shiny, elevated scars similar to human HSc and supported by blinded scar assessment. Autograft controls appeared morphologically and histologically similar to normal skin. Xenografts survived up to 180 days and showed increased thickness, loss of hair follicles, adnexal structures and rete pegs, hypercellularity, whorled collagen fibers parallel to the surface, myofibroblasts, decreased decorin and increased biglycan expression, and increased mast cell density. Grafting split-thickness human skin onto nude mice results in persistent scars that show morphologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical consistency with human HSc. Therefore, this model provides a promising technique to study HSc formation and to test novel treatment options. PMID:23126488

  18. Effect of ambient temperature on phenotype and functions of professional phagocytes of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vetvicka, V; Holub, M; Houstek, J

    1993-02-01

    Cytofluorometric analysis of surface marker expression was performed on myeloid cells isolated from bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes of nude mice and nu/+ and +/+ mice (haired controls) exposed for various time periods to ambient temperature of 22 degrees C or 28 degrees C. A rise in the proportion of cells bearing macrophage markers (MAC-1, MAC-3 and F4/80) in the spleen and of FcR+ cells in all tissues tested was found in 22 degrees C-exposed nudes with high nonshivering thermogenesis. Numbers of MAC-1+ macrophages and actively phagocytic cells increased also in peritoneal exudates. There was a conspicuous predominance of large macrophages in the exudates and the specific markers decreased in density on their surface. Ia expression declined in all tissues tested with the length of exposure to cold. In the granulocytic series (BP-2+ cells), there was a decrease in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and an increase in the spleen and circulation, which suggested an enhanced mobilization and increased production at extramedullary sites in cold-exposed nude mice. The changes in haired mice were negligible. PMID:8387799

  19. Immunity to Brugia pahangi in athymic nude and normal mice: eosinophilia, antibody and hypersensitivity responses.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Vincent, A L

    1984-11-01

    Congenitally athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, immunologically reconstituted by thymus grafting before inoculation with infective larvae, and mice heterozygous for the nu gene (nu/+), mounted potent protective humoral and cellular immune responses to Brugia pahangi. Although responses were not identical, both groups of mice produced IgM, IgG and IgE antibodies specific for adult worm antigen (S-Ag) present in a crude aqueous extract, made immediate and delayed hypersensitivity footpad swelling responses when challenged with S-Ag and eliminated their infection in the early larval stages. Heterozygotes also exhibited a marked eosinophilia which peaked coincident with larval killing. In contrast, thymus grafting of patent nudes had no effect upon microfilaraemias or adult worm burdens and did not completely protect against a challenge larval inoculum although antibodies specific for S-Ag were produced. With the occasional exceptions of moderate immediate footpad swelling and very low titres of IgM specific for S-Ag, no specific immune responses to B. pahangi were found in ungrafted nude mice which allowed full development of adult worms and supported patent infections. PMID:6522098

  20. Interleukin 1-induced augmentation of experimental metastases from a human melanoma in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Bani, M.R.; Abbate, M.; Ghezzi, P.; Boraschi, D.; Mantovani, A.; Dejana, E. )

    1990-08-01

    This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1 beta (a single injection greater than 0.01 micrograms per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1 alpha and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-(125I)odo-2'-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells at inflammatory sites and suggest that modulation of secondary spread should be carefully considered when assessing the ability of this cytokine to complement cytoreductive therapies.

  1. Natural killer cells inhibit pulmonary metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    HONG, ZAI-FA; ZHAO, WEN-XIU; YIN, ZHEN-YU; XIE, CHENG-RONG; XU, YA-PING; CHI, XIAO-QIN; ZHANG, SHENG; WANG, XIAO-MIN

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have been demonstrated to inhibit tumor growth. However, the role of NK cells in the inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis is not well understood. The present study aimed to investigate the roles that NK cells may serve in inhibiting hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. The role of isolated NK cells in the inhibition, proliferation, migration and invasion of the hepatoma cell line, MHCC97-H, was examined in vitro. Additionally, the survival rate of NK cells labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate-succinimidyl ester was assessed in vivo. An orthotopic implantation model was used to evaluate the role of NK cells in suppressing MHCC97-H cells in vivo. The effect of interleukin (IL)-2 stimulation on the tumor-inhibitory role of the NK cells was measured indirectly by analyzing the expression of various NK cell receptors and activated NK cell markers. It was observed that the NK cells inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of the MHCC97-H cells in vitro. Furthermore, the NK cells demonstrated long-term survival in the livers of the nude mice, and inhibited lung metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma in vivo. However, liver tumor growth was not inhibited by the NK cells. IL-2 was identified to enhance the tumor-inhibitory effect of NK cells. The present study concludes that IL-2 may enhance the antitumor activity of the NK cells, and thereby inhibit the metastases of hepatocellular carcinoma in mice. PMID:26998115

  2. Dietary Stearate Reduces Human Breast Cancer Metastasis Burden in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Lynda M.; Toline, Eric C.; Desmond, Renee; Siegal, Gene P.; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Hardy, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Stearate is an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid found in many foods in the western diet, including beef and chocolate. Stearate has been shown to have anti-cancer properties during early stages of neoplastic progression. However, previous studies have not investigated the effect of dietary stearate on breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we present evidence that exogenously supplied dietary stearate dramatically reduces the size of tumors that formed from injected human breast cancer cells within the mammary fat pads of athymic nude mice by approximately 50% and partially inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis burden in the lungs in this mouse model system. This metastatic inhibition appears to be independent of primary tumor size, as stearate fed animals that had primary tumors comparable in size to littermates fed either a safflower oil enriched diet or a low fat diet had reduced lung metastasis. Also stearate fed mice sub-groups had different primary tumor sizes but no difference in metastasis. This anti-metastasis effect may be due, at least in part, to the ability of stearate to induce apoptosis in these human breast cancer cells. Overall, this study suggests the possibility of dietary manipulation with selected long-chain saturated fatty acids such as stearate as a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients wishing to maximize the suppression of metastatic disease. PMID:19267249

  3. Dietary stearate reduces human breast cancer metastasis burden in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Evans, Lynda M; Toline, Eric C; Desmond, Renee; Siegal, Gene P; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Hardy, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Stearate is an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid found in many foods in the western diet, including beef and chocolate. Stearate has been shown to have anti-cancer properties during early stages of neoplastic progression. However, previous studies have not investigated the effect of dietary stearate on breast cancer metastasis. In this study, we present evidence that exogenously supplied dietary stearate dramatically reduces the size of tumors that formed from injected human breast cancer cells within the mammary fat pads of athymic nude mice by approximately 50% and partially inhibits breast cancer cell metastasis burden in the lungs in this mouse model system. This metastatic inhibition appears to be independent of primary tumor size, as stearate fed animals that had primary tumors comparable in size to littermates fed either a safflower oil enriched diet or a low fat diet had reduced lung metastasis. Also stearate fed mice sub-groups had different primary tumor sizes but no difference in metastasis. This anti-metastasis effect may be due, at least in part, to the ability of stearate to induce apoptosis in these human breast cancer cells. Overall, this study suggests the possibility of dietary manipulation with selected long-chain saturated fatty acids such as stearate as a potential adjuvant therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients wishing to maximize the suppression of metastatic disease. PMID:19267249

  4. Effect of cyclosporin on hair-existing area of nude mice.

    PubMed

    Hozumi, Y; Imaizumi, T; Kondo, S

    1994-07-01

    We investigated the effect of cyclosporin, as well as minoxidil, testosterone, estradiol and corticosteroid on the hair growth on the hairy part of nude mice. Aliquots of solutions of cyclosporin and other agents were applied once per every day topically on the tails and the lower backs of 5 week-old BALB/c nude mice, for as long as 6 weeks. Cyclosporin prolonged the hair-existing phase of the hair cycle, but did not change the term of the hair cycle, i.e., the resting phase was not affected. Minoxidil, testosterone and estradiol did not influence the hair growth cycle. Combination of cyclosporin and other agents demonstrated that there was neither additive nor synergistic effect, but a high dose of corticosteroid inhibit the cyclosporin effect, as well as suppressing completely the reappearance of the growing phase. PMID:7999675

  5. DCA promotes progression of neuroblastoma tumors in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Feuerecker, Benedikt; Seidl, Christof; Pirsig, Sabine; Bruchelt, Gernot; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2015-01-01

    Even in the presence of oxygen most cancer cells convert glucose to lactate via pyruvate instead of performing oxidative phosphorylation (aerobic glycolysis-Warburg effect). Thus, it has been considered to shift pyruvate - the metabolite of aerobic glycolysis - to acetylCoA by activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). AcetylCoA will then be metabolized by oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to shift tumor cells from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation using dichloroacetate (DCA), an inhibitor of PDH-kinase. The effects of DCA were assayed in vitro in Neuro-2a (murine neuroblastoma), Kelly and SK-N-SH (human neuroblastoma) as well as SkBr3 (human breast carcinoma) cell lines. The effects of DCA on tumor development were investigated in vivo using NMRI nu/nu mice bearing subcutaneous Neuro-2a xenografts. For that purpose animals were treated continuously with DCA in the drinking water. Tumor volumes were monitored using caliper measurements and via [18F]-FDG-positron emission tomography. DCA treatment increased viability/proliferation in Neuro-2a and SkBr3 cells, but did not cause significant alterations of PDH activity. However, no significant effects of DCA could be observed in Kelly and SK-N-SH cells. Accordingly, in mice bearing Neuro-2a xenografts, DCA significantly increased tumor proliferation compared to mock-treated mice. Thus, we could demonstrate that DCA - an indicated inhibitor of tumor growth - efficiently promotes tumor growth in Neuro-2a cells in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25973318

  6. Relationship between age of allogeneic thymus donor and immunological restoration of athymic ('nude") mice.

    PubMed

    Radov, L A; Sussdorf, D H; McCann, R L

    1975-12-01

    In nude mice back-crossed a minimum of five times to BALB/c, solid thymus grafts from C57Bl donors 3 days of age or younger restored both the humoral immune response against sheep erythrocytes and cellular immunity as tested by rejection of CBA skin grafts. Donor thymus placed under the renal capsule at a dose of 0-5 mg/g of recipient resulted in normal humoral immunity, while a minimum dose of 1-5 mg/g was required to reconstitute cellular competence. None of the various amounts of allogeneic thymus tissue transplanted affected the immunological status of nude recipients when grafts were obtained from donors 4 days of age or older. Histological findings correlated with the humoral and cellular responses observed. In nudes grafted with neonatal tissue, the thymus implant proliferated and developed normal architecture. The density of lymphocytes in thymus-dependent regions of peripheral lymphoid organs was near normal. On the other hand, most grafts from older (3-week-old) donors were resorbed by 90 days after implantation. In a number of cases, however, Russell bodies and numerous blast and plasma cells were seen in the graft site. Our observations suggest a possible cytotoxic rejection of implants from older allogeneic donors, while the survival and restorative capacity of transplants from 3-day-old or younger donors may have been due to a tolerogenic effect of the graft on the nude recipient. PMID:1193689

  7. Angiostatin up-regulation in gastric cancer cell SGC7901 inhibits tumorigenesis in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Shi, Yong-Quan; Wu, Kai-Chun; Zhang, De-Xin; Yang, Jing-Hua; Fan, Dai-Ming

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the influence of angiostatin up-regulation on the biologic behavior of gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and the potential of angiostatin gene therapy in the treatment of human gastric cancer. METHODS: Mouse angiostatin cDNA was subcloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) and identified by restriction endonucleases digestion and sequencing. The recombinant vector pcDNA3.1(+)-angio was transfected into human gastric cancer cells SGC7901 with liposome and paralleled with the vector control and the mock control. Angiostatin transcription and protein expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot in the stable cell lines selected by G418. Cell proliferation and growth in vitro of the three groups were observed respectively under microscope, cell number counting and FACS. The cells overexpressing angiostatin, vector transfected and untreated were respectively implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 30 days the size of tumors formed was measured, and microvessel density count (MVD) in the tumor tissues was assessed by immunohistochemistry with the primary anti-vWF antibody. RESULTS: The recombinant vector pcDNA3.1(+)-angio was confirmed with the correct sequence of mouse angiostatin under the promoter CMV. After 30 d of transfection and selection with G418, macroscopic resistant cell clones were formed in the experimental group transfected with pcDNA 3.1(+)-angio and the vector control. But no untreated cells survived in the mock control. Angiostatin mRNA transcription and protein expression were detected in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed among the three groups in cell morphology, cell growth curves and cell cycle phase distributions in vitro. However, in nude mice model, markedly inhibited tumorigenesis and slowed tumor expansion were observed in the experimental group as compared with the controls, which was paralleled with decreased microvessel density in and around tumor tissues (P

  8. Inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; He, X J; Xu, H Q; Chen, Z W; Fan, H H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the inhibition of subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumor cells in nude mice by LRIG1 and its mechanism. For this study, athymic nude mice were injected with either normal pituitary tumor RC-4B/C cells or LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells. We then calculated the volume inhibition rate of the tumors, as well as the apoptosis index of tumor cells and the expression of Ras, Raf, AKt, and ERK mRNA in tumor cells. Tumor cell morphological and structural changes were also observed under electron microscope. Our data showed that subcutaneous tumor growth was slowed or even halted in LRIG1-transfected tumors. The tumor volumes were significantly different between the two groups of mice (χ2 = 2.14, P < 0.05). The tumor apoptosis index was found to be 8.72% in the control group and 39.7% in LRIG1-transfected mice (χ2 = 7.59, P < 0.05). The levels of Ras, Raf, and AKt mRNA in LRIG1-transfected RC-4B/C cells were significantly reduced after transfection (P < 0.01). Transfected subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be in early or late apoptosis under an electron microscope, while only a few subcutaneous tumor cells appeared to be undergoing apoptosis in the control group. In conclusion, the LRIG1 gene is able to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in subcutaneously implanted human pituitary tumors in nude mice. The mechanism of LRIG1 may involve the inhibition of the PI3K/ Akt and Ras/Raf/ERK signal transduction pathways. PMID:27173312

  9. Immunotherapy with dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Cui, Xiao-Xu; Liang, Pei-Fen; Dou, Jin-Xia; Liu, Zi-Yan; Sun, Wen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects and safety of immunotherapy using different methods to load DC-CIK cells for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells. Methods: A breast cancer model was established in BALB/c nude mice using breast cancer stem cells. All mice were randomly divided into six groups, and each group had three nude mice: the blank control group, the DC-CIK group (group D), the MDA-MB-231 CSC whole-cell lysate DC-CIK group (group L-D), the MDA-MB-231 CSC RNA DC-CIK group (group R-D), the THP DC-CIK group (group T-D) and group THP. Nude mice in groups D, L-D, R-D and T-D were injected with CSCs; 4 days later, the mice were inoculated with 1 × 106 DC-CIK cells via the tail vein. This injection was repeated 2 times a week for three weeks. The mice in groups THP and T-D were injected with a 5 mg/Kg dose of THP chemotherapeutic agents via the tail vein the day before DC-CIK injection, which was repeated one time a week for three weeks. Nude mice in the blank control group were injected with normal saline. The weights and sizes of the tumors were measured after the mice were euthanized. The expression of c-Myc, a key proto-oncogene associated with the Akt signaling pathway, was detected with RT-PCR. Results: The tumor growth rates in each group were as follows: group L-D < group R-D < group D < group T-D < blank control group < group THP. The nude mice in groups L-D, R-D and D were normal, active and had a healthy appetite. The mice in groups T-D and THP were lethargic, less active and showed loss of appetite, and their caudal vein was easy to stimulate. The mice in the blank control group were sacrificed during the third week or when their tumors developed ulceration. Compared with the blank control group, c-Myc gene expression was reduced in the tumors of the five experimental groups. Conclusion: The results showed that DC-CIK cells stimulated by different methods were highly effect against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells in nude mice in all groups

  10. Experimental evaluation of boron neutron capture therapy of human breast carcinoma implanted on nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Satya Ranjan

    2000-06-01

    An in-pool small animal irradiation neutron tube (SAINT) facility was designed, constructed and installed at the University of Virginia Nuclear Research Reactor (UVAR). Thermal neutron flux profiles were measured by foil activation analysis (gold) and verified with DORT and MCNP computer code models. The gamma-ray absorbed dose in the neutron-gamma mixed field was determined from TLD measurements. The SAINT thermal neutron flux was used to investigate the well characterized human breast cancer cell line MCF-7B on both in-vitro samples and in- vivo animal subjects. Boronophenylalanine (BPA enriched in 95% 10B) was used as a neutron capturing agent. The in-vitro response of MCF-7B human breast carcinoma cells to BPA in a mixed field of neutron-gamma radiation or pure 60Co gamma radiation was investigated. The best result (lowest surviving fraction) was observed in cell cultures pre-incubated with BPA and given the neutron irradiation. The least effective treatment consisted of 60Co irradiation only. Immunologically deficient nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with human breast cancer MCF-7B cells and estradiol pellets (to support tumor growth). The tumor volume in the mouse control group increased over time, as expected. The group of mice exposed only to neutron treatment exhibited initial tumor volume reduction lasting until 35 days following the treatment, followed by renewed tumor growth. Both groups given BPA plus neutron treatment showed continuous reduction in tumor volume over the 55-day observation period. The group given the higher BPA concentration showed the best tumor reduction response. The results on both in-vitro and in-vivo studies showed increased cell killing with BPA, substantiating the incorporation of BPA into the tumor or cell line. Therefore, BNCT may be a possible choice for the treatment of human breast carcinoma. However, prior to the initiation of any clinical studies, it is necessary to determine the therapeutic efficacy in a large

  11. Photodynamic activity of BAM-SiPc, an unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine, in tumour-bearing nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Leung, S C H; Lo, P-C; Ng, D K P; Liu, W-K; Fung, K-P; Fong, W-P

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose Ever since the discovery of photodynamic therapy, there has been a continuous search for more potent photosensitizers. Towards that end, we have synthesized a number of novel phthalocyanine derivatives. The unsymmetrical bisamino silicon(IV) phthalocyanine BAM-SiPc is one of the most potent compounds. In in vitro cell culture, it exhibits high phototoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines. Experimental approach In the present investigation, the in vivo effect of BAM-SiPc was studied in the tumour-bearing nude mice model. The biodistribution of BAM-SiPc was followed to evaluate its tumour selectivity and rate of clearance. The tumour volume in the hepatocarcinoma HepG2- and the colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29-bearing nude mice was measured after photodynamic therapy. The level of intrinsic toxicity induced was also investigated. Finally, the metabolism of BAM-SiPc in the ‘normal' WRL68 liver cells and the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells was compared. Key results The results not only showed significant tumour regression of HepG2 and growth inhibition of HT29 in the tumour-bearing nude mice, but also no apparent hepatic or cardiac injury with the protocol used. Histological analyses showed that apoptosis was induced in the solid tumour. BAM-SiPc could be metabolized by WRL68 liver cells but not by the hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Unfortunately, BAM-SiPc did not show any specific targeting towards the tumour tissue. Conclusions and implications The efficiency of BAM-SiPc in inhibiting tumour growth makes it a good candidate for further evaluation. Enhancement of its uptake in tumour tissue by conjugation with biomolecules is currently under investigation. PMID:18332853

  12. Dietary Stearic Acid Leads to a Reduction of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Athymic Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, Gene P.; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  13. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ming-Che; Zhao, Xiangmin; Siegal, Gene P; Desmond, Renee; Hardy, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Stearic acid (C18:0) is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil), or oleic acid (corn oil) enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death) and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2) and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes. PMID:25222131

  14. Inhibition of the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma by indomethacin in conventional, nude, and beige mice.

    PubMed

    Maca, R D

    1988-12-01

    The effects of a prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin (Indo), on the growth of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) growing as primary subcutaneous tumors in either conventional C57BL/6 mice, T cell deficient nude mice, or natural killer (NK) cell deficient beige mice were studied. In conventional mice, Indo, when continuously administered in the drinking water, consistently and significantly inhibited, in a dose-related fashion, the growth of LLC implanted either subcutaneously in the footpad or in the inguinal region; however, the degree of inhibition of footpad tumor appeared to be greater than that of inguinal tumor. Maximum inhibition was found when Indo was initiated before detectable or measurable tumor developed. If Indo treatment was initiated after tumor growth was evident, then Indo was found to be less effective, although significant inhibition was still observed. Indo also effectively inhibited LLC growing either in the footpad or in the inguinal region of nude or beige mice. The degree of inhibition of both footpad and inguinal tumors in both these mice was comparable to that seen in conventional C57BL/6 mice, indicating that mature T cells, NK cells, or soluble products produced only by these cells are not involved in mediating or modulating the inhibitory effects of Indo on LLC growth. Although Indo treatment significantly inhibited LLC growth in vivo, continuous treatment of cultured LLC cells with Indo in vitro did not decrease the growth of cultured cells. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of Indo in vivo is not the result of a direct inhibitory effect of Indo on these tumor cells. Lastly, this inhibitory effect of Indo in vivo could not be reversed or negated, not even in part, by the simultaneous, daily i.p. administration of 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2. This finding suggests that the inhibitory effect of Indo involves a mechanism other than the inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. PMID:3216222

  15. Extensive Hair Shaft Growth after Mouse Whisker Follicle Isolation, Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenluo; Li, Lingna; Tran, Benjamin; Kajiura, Satoshi; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Liu, Fang; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that whole hair follicles could be cryopreserved to maintain their stem-cells differentation potential. In the present study, we demonstrated that cryopreserved mouse whisker hair follicles maintain their hair growth potential. DMSO better cryopreserved mouse whisker follicles compared to glycerol. Cryopreserved hair follicles also maintained the hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells, evidenced by P75NTR expression. Subcutaneous transplantation of DMSO-cryopreserved hair follicles in nude mice resulted in extensive hair fiber growth over 8 weeks, indicating the functional recovery of hair shaft growth of cryopreserved hair follicles. PMID:26716690

  16. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy in nude mice: Effects on the morphology of the pituitary corticotrope population.

    PubMed

    Martines, Eliana; Reggiani, Paula C; Schwerdt, José I; Goya, Rodolfo G; Cónsole, Gloria

    2011-04-01

    The integrity of the thymus during early life is necessary for a proper maturation of the neuroendocrine system, including the adrenal axis. The thymic metallopeptide thymulin seems to be a central physiologic mediator of thymus-pituitary communication. Furthermore, neonatal thymulin gene therapy has been shown to prevent the typical alterations of gonadotrophic cell number and morphology and serum gonadotropin levels in nude female mice. In the present study we assessed the impact of athymia and the effect of neonatal thymulin gene therapy on the corticotropic cell population in nude mice. The effect of thymulin administration to adult nudes on their hypothalamic content of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and the adrenal content of corticosterone was also determined. We used an adenoviral vector expressing a synthetic gene for the thymic peptide thymulin (metFTS) termed RAd-FTS. On postnatal day 1 or 2, heterozygous (nu/+) and homozygous (nu/nu) pups of both sexes received a single bilateral i.m. injection of RAd-FTS or RAd-GFP, a control vector. On postnatal day 71, mice were bled and sacrificed, and their pituitaries were immediately dissected, fixed and immunostained for corticotropin. Morphometry was performed by means of an image-analysis system. The following parameters were calculated: volume density (VD: Σ cell area/reference area), cell density (CD: number of cells/reference area), and cell surface (CS: expressed in μm²). Serum thymulin levels were measured by a bioassay, and CRH as well as corticosterone were determined by IRMA and RIA, respectively. Neonatal thymulin gene therapy in the athymic mice restored their serum thymulin levels and increased corticotrope CD, VD and CS in both control and athymic mice. Athymic mice showed only a marginal reduction in corticotrope CD, VD and CS. In these mutants hypothalamic CRH content was slightly increased, whereas adrenal corticosterone tended to be lower. Thymulin administration to adult mice tended

  17. Inhibition of human breast cancer metastasis in nude mice by synthetic glycoamines.

    PubMed

    Glinsky, G V; Price, J E; Glinsky, V V; Mossine, V V; Kiriakova, G; Metcalf, J B

    1996-12-01

    We have examined the effect of synthetic low molecular weight glycoamine analogues on the metastasis of MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma xenografts growing in the mammary fat pads of nude mice. Initial in vitro screening of a panel of synthetic glycoamines was performed using a clonogenic growth assay in 0.9% agarose. Eight of nine compounds manifested a significant dose-dependent inhibition of colony formation by MDA-MB-435 cells in 0.9% agarose. The relative activity ranks of the compounds, based on ID50S independently determined for each synthetic glycoamine analogue, identified N-(1-deoxy-D-lactulos-1-yl)-L-leucine (Lac-L-Leu), N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-D-leucine (Fru-D-Leu), N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-phenylalanine, and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-leucine as the most effective inhibitors of colony formation. Two separate experimental treatment protocols were used to examine the effect of selected synthetic glycoamines on human breast cancer growth and metastasis in athymic nude mice. Group A mice were treated intraperitoneally daily from day 2 after injection of the breast cancer cells until the end of the experiment (17 weeks). In group B, the mice were untreated until the mean tumor diameter was 10 mm, at which time daily i.p. treatment began. After 7 days, the primary tumors were resected, and the mice were treated for an additional 4 weeks (a total of 5 weeks of treatment). The synthetic glycoamines did not have significant antitumor effects, and there was no difference in the tumor incidence or tumor growth rates in mice treated continuously with synthetic glycoamines or PBS. The significant antimetastatic activity of synthetic glycoamines was detected in both experimental treatment protocols. In mice continuously treated with synthetic glycoamines according to protocol A, the incidence of metastasis was decreased 4.6-fold (P = 0.014) and 2.7-fold (P = 0.031) in mice treated with Fru-D-Leu and Lac-L-Leu, respectively. In mice in protocol B, the

  18. Highly specific expression of luciferase gene in lungs of naive nude mice directed by prostate-specific antigen promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hongwei; Li Jinzhong; Helm, Gregory A.; Pan Dongfeng . E-mail: Dongfeng_pan@yahoo.com

    2005-09-09

    PSA promoter has been demonstrated the utility for tissue-specific toxic gene therapy in prostate cancer models. Characterization of foreign gene overexpression in normal animals elicited by PSA promoter should help evaluate therapy safety. Here we constructed an adenovirus vector (AdPSA-Luc), containing firefly luciferase gene under the control of the 5837 bp long prostate-specific antigen promoter. A charge coupled device video camera was used to non-invasively image expression of firefly luciferase in nude mice on days 3, 7, 11 after injection of 2 x 10{sup 9} PFU of AdPSA-Luc virus via tail vein. The result showed highly specific expression of the luciferase gene in lungs of mice from day 7. The finding indicates the potential limitations of the suicide gene therapy of prostate cancer based on selectivity of PSA promoter. By contrary, it has encouraging implications for further development of vectors via PSA promoter to enable gene therapy for pulmonary diseases.

  19. Compact whole-body fluorescent imaging of nude mice bearing EGFP expressing tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Xiong, Tao; Chu, Jun; Yu, Li; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2005-01-01

    Issue of tumor has been a hotspot of current medicine. It is important for tumor research to detect tumors bearing in animal models easily, fast, repetitively and noninvasivly. Many researchers have paid their increasing interests on the detecting. Some contrast agents, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Discosoma red fluorescent protein (Dsred) were applied to enhance image quality. Three main kinds of imaging scheme were adopted to visualize fluorescent protein expressing tumors in vivo. These schemes based on fluorescence stereo microscope, cooled charge-coupled-device (CCD) or camera as imaging set, and laser or mercury lamp as excitation light source. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes. The authors set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a Kodak digital camera (model DC290), fluorescence filters(B and G2;HB Optical, Shenyang, Liaoning, P.R. China) and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply (U-LH50HG;Olympus Optical, Japan) as excitation light source. The EGFP was excited directly by mercury lamp with D455/70 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with 520nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For half a year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible. Whole-body fluorescence optical imaging for fluorescent expressing tumors in nude mouse is an ideal tool for antitumor, antimetastatic, and antiangiogenesis drug screening.

  20. Morphological restoration of gonadotrope population by thymulin gene therapy in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Reggiani, Paula; Martines, Eliana; Ferese, Celia; Goya, Rodolfo; Cónsole, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Summary The integrity of the thymus during the first week of life is necessary for a proper maturation of the pituitary-gonadal axis as revealed by the significantly reduced levels of circulating gonadotropins in congenitally athymic (nude) mice. In the present work we studied the impact of athymia and the effect of neonatal thymulin gene therapy on the pituitaries of adult nude mice. Also circulating thymulin and gonadotropin levels were evaluated. We used an adenoviral vector expressing a synthetic gene for the thymic peptide thymulin (metFTS) termed RAd-FTS. On postnatal day 1, each experimental heterozygous (nu/+) and homozygous (nu/nu) pup of both sexes received a single bilateral i.m. injection of RAd-FTS or RAd-GFP/TK, a control vector expressing green fluorescent protein. On postnatal days 51-52, mice were bled and sacrificed, their pituitaries were immediately dissected, fixed and immunostained. Morphometry was performed by means of an image analysis system. The following parameters were calculated: volume density (VD: cell area/reference area), cell density (CD: number of cells/reference area), and cell size (expressed in μm2). Serum thymulin levels were measured by a bioassay and gonadotropin levels were assayed by RIA. It was observed that neonatal thymulin gene therapy in the athymic mice restored their serum thymulin levels and prevented the reduction in circulating gonadotropin levels. The histometrical analysis revealed that the treatment prevented the reduction in gonadotrope CD and the VD in athymic mice. Our data suggest that thymulin gene therapy may be an effective strategy to approach reproductive deficits associated with endocrine thymus dysfunction. PMID:19337971

  1. Partial prevention of hepatic lipid alterations in nude mice by neonatal thymulin gene therapy.

    PubMed

    García de Bravo, Margarita M; Polo, Mónica P; Reggiani, Paula C; Rimoldi, Omar J; Dardenne, Mireille; Goya, Rodolfo G

    2006-08-01

    During adult life athymic (nude) male mice display not only a severe T-cell-related immunodeficiency but also endocrine imbalances and a moderate hyperglycemia. We studied the impact of congenital athymia on hepatic lipid composition and also assessed the ability of neonatal thymulin gene therapy to prevent the effects of athymia. We constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector, RAd-metFTS, expressing a synthetic DNA sequence encoding met-FTS, an analog of the thymic peptide facteur thymique sérique (FTS), whose Zn-bound biologically active form is known as thymulin. On postnatal day 1-2 homozygous (nu/nu) nude and heterozygous (nu/+) mice were injected with 10(8) pfu of RAd-metFTS or RAd-betagal (control vector) intramuscularly. The animals were processed at 52 d of age. Serum thymulin, glycemia, hepatic phospholipid FA composition and free and esterified cholesterol were determined. Adult homozygous male nudes were significantly (P < 0.01) hyperglycemic when compared with their heterozygous counterparts (2.04 vs. 1.40 g/L, respectively). The relative percentage of 16:0, 18:1 n-9, and 18:1n-7 FA was lower, whereas that of 18:0, 20:4n-6, and 22:6n-3 FA was higher, in hepatic phospholipid (PL) of nu/nu animals as compared with their nu/+ counterparts. Some of these alterations, such as that in the relative content of 22:6n-3 in liver PL and the unsaturation index, were completely or partially prevented by neonatal thymulin gene therapy. We conclude that the thymus influences lipid metabolism and that thymulin is involved in this modulatory activity. PMID:17120928

  2. Syzygium campanulatum korth methanolic extract inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract. Methods Betulinic acid was isolated from methanolic extract by crystallization and chromatography techniques. S.C. methanolic extract was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, LC-MS, and HPLC. Antiangiogenic effect was studied on rat aortic rings, matrigel tube formation, cell proliferation and migration, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Antitumor effect was studied using a subcutaneous tumor model of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells established in nude mice. Results Analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and FTIR confirm presence of betulinic acid in S.C. methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis by HPLC indicates presence of betulinic acid in S.C. extract at 5.42 ± 0.09% (w/w). Antiangiogenesis study showed potent inhibition of microvessels outgrowth in rat aortic rings, and studies on normal and cancer cells did not show any significant cytotoxic effect. Antiangiogenic effect was further confirmed by inhibition of tube formation on matrigel matrix that involves human endothelial cells (IC50 = 17.6 ± 2.9 μg/ml). S.C. extract also inhibited migration of endothelial cells and suppressed expression of VEGF. In vivo antiangiogenic study showed inhibition of new blood vessels in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and in vivo antitumor study showed significant inhibition of tumor growth due to reduction of intratumor blood vessels and induction of cell death. Conclusion Collectively, our results indicate S. campanulatum as antiangiogenic and antitumor candidate, and a new source of betulinic acid. PMID:23842450

  3. Erythropoietin Improves the Survival of Fat Tissue after Its Transplantation in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Saher; Egozi, Dana; Kruchevsky, Danny; Teot, Luc; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2010-01-01

    Background Autologous transplanted fat has a high resorption rate, providing a clinical challenge for the means to reduce it. Erythropoietin (EPO) has non-hematopoietic targets, and we hypothesized that EPO may improve long-term fat graft survival because it has both pro-angiogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. We aimed to determine the effect of EPO on the survival of human fat tissue after its transplantation in nude mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Human fat tissue was injected subcutaneously into immunologically-compromised nude mice, and the grafts were then treated with either 20 IU or 100 IU EPO. At the end of the 15-week study period, the extent of angiogenesis, apoptosis, and histology were assessed in the fat grafts. The results were compared to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-treated and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated fat grafts. The weight and volume of the EPO-treated grafts were higher than those of the PBS-treated grafts, whose weights and volumes were not different from those of the VEGF-treated grafts. EPO treatment also increased the expression of angiogenic factors and microvascular density, and reduced inflammation and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in the fat grafts. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggest that stimulation of angiogenesis by a cluster of angiogenic factors and decreased fat cell apoptosis account for potential mechanisms that underlie the improved long-term survival of fat transplants following EPO treatment. PMID:21085572

  4. Effects of tetrahydrocurcumin on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in cervical cancer cell-induced angiogenesis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yoysungnoen, Bhornprom; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Changtam, Chatchawan

    2015-01-01

    Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), one of the important in vivo metabolites of curcumin, inhibits tumor angiogenesis. Its effects on angiogenesis in cervical cancer- (CaSki-) implanted nude mice and its mechanisms on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor expression were investigated. Female BALB/c nude mice were divided into control (CON) and CaSki-implanted groups (CaSki group). One month after the injection with cervical cancer cells, mice were orally administered vehicle or 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg of THC daily for 30 consecutive days. The microvascular density (MVD) was evaluated using the CD31 expression. VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expression were also detected by immunohistochemistry. The MVD in CaSki + vehicle group was significantly increased compared to the CON + vehicle group. Interestingly, when treated with THC at all doses, the CaSki group showed a significant smaller number of the MVD. The CaSki + vehicle group also showed significantly increased VEGF, VEGFR-2, and HIF-1α expressions, but they were downregulated when mice were treated with THC at all doses. THC demonstrated an inhibitory effect against tumor angiogenesis in CaSki-implanted nude mice model. This effect is likely to be mediated by the downregulation of HIF-1-α, VEGF expression, and its receptor. THC could be developed into a promising agent for cancer therapy in the future. PMID:25789317

  5. Activity of host-derived T cells which differentiate in nude mice grafted with co-isogenic or allogeneic thymuses.

    PubMed

    Kindred, B; Loor, F

    1974-05-01

    If nude mice are grafted with a neonatal thymus, host type precursor cells develop within the graft thymus and after about 6 wk the T-cell population of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes is of host type. However, immunological responsiveness produced in nude mice in this manner is incomplete: (a) the ability to react to T-cell mitogens in vitro is greater than in untreated nudes but lower than in normal mice; (b) the response to T-cell dependent antigens is less than normal; and (c) the rejection of skin grafts is slower than in normal animals. Whether host precursor cells which differentiate in an allogeneic thymus are able to reject skin grafts from thymus donor strain appears to depend on the strain combination used. PMID:4596513

  6. Adoptive transfer of the generalized lymphoproliferative disease (gld) syndrome in nude beige mice.

    PubMed Central

    Froidevaux, S; Rosenblatt, N; Loor, F

    1992-01-01

    C57BL/6 nude beige mice (B6 nubg) were used as recipients for the transfer of haematopoietic cells from either B6 wild as control mice, or systemic lupus erythematous B6 mice homozygous for the recessive generalized lymphadenopathy disease (gld) locus. Both gld and wild cell grafts prolonged survival of the short-living B6 nubg recipients and restored some T-cell functions, as monitored by the presence of T-dependent Ig isotypes in the serum and responsiveness of spleen cells to a T-cell mitogen. Moreover, the [gld----nubg] chimeras but not the [wild----nubg] chimeras showed several similarities with gld control mice, particularly, a spleen and lymph node hyperplasia, elevated anti-single-stranded DNA antibody titres and a hyperglobulinaemia. This hyperglobulinaemia was however qualitatively different from the gld-type hyperglobulinaemia with an important contribution of the IgG1 isotype; the lymph node hyperplasia was also less marked than in B6 gld mice. PMID:1592442

  7. A Novel Nude Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Scarring Using Scratched Full Thickness Human Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Alrobaiea, Saad M.; Ding, Jie; Ma, Zengshuan; Tredget, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypertrophic scar (HTS) is a dermal form of fibroproliferative disorder that develops following deep skin injury. HTS can cause deformities, functional disabilities, and aesthetic disfigurements. The pathophysiology of HTS is not understood due to, in part, the lack of an ideal animal model. We hypothesize that human skin with deep dermal wounds grafted onto athymic nude mice will develop a scar similar to HTS. Our aim is to develop a representative animal model of human HTS. Approach: Thirty-six nude mice were grafted with full thickness human skin with deep dermal scratch wound before or 2 weeks after grafting or without scratch. The scratch on the human skin grafts was made using a specially designed jig that creates a wound >0.6 mm in depth. The xenografts were morphologically analyzed by digital photography. Mice were euthanized at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results: The mice developed raised and firm scars in the scratched xenografts with more contraction, increased infiltration of macrophage, and myofibroblasts compared to the xenografts without deep dermal scratch wound. Scar thickness and collagen bundle orientation and morphology resembled HTS. The fibrotic scars in the wounded human skin were morphologically and histologically similar to HTS, and human skin epithelial cells persisted in the remodeling tissues for 1 year postengraftment. Innovation and Conclusions: Deep dermal injury in human skin retains its profibrotic nature after transplantation, affording a novel model for the assessment of therapies for the treatment of human fibroproliferative disorders of the skin. PMID:27366591

  8. Establishment of a colorectal cancer nude mouse visualization model of HIF-1α overexpression

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHE; WANG, JIYE; ZHOU, TIANBAO; YE, XIAOLEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a model of tumor cell growth and visualize HIF-1α overexpression in a nude mouse xenograft model of colorectal cancer (CRC). In the study, HIF-1α lentiviral vector and helper plasmid were co-transfected into 293T packaging cells using a liposome method, and the virus was collected following transfection and used to infect CRC SW480, SW620, LoVo and HCT116 cells. Puromycin was used for the selection and large-scale amplification of the stable HIF-1α expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive cells. HIF-1α-expressing cells were injected intraperitoneally into a nude mouse xenograft model, and resulting tumor nodules was separated and confirmed using an inverted fluorescence microscope. The results demonstrated that HIF-1α was not expressed in CRC cells in normoxic conditions. When treated with CoCl2, the expression of HIF-1α could be induced in all the cancer cell lines, except SW480. HIF-1α was highly expressed following infection with lentiviral particles. Stable expression of HIF-1α promoted migration in the SW480 cells. Following intraperitoneal injection of nude mice with SW480-HIF-1α, a significant number of tumor nodules formed in the intestinal wall compared with the controls (P<0.05). The successful construction of the dual expression HIF-1α and GFP visualization xenograft model provides a good foundation for the screening of HIF-1α-related functions and for investigating the therapeutic potential of drugs that target HIF-1α. PMID:27073543

  9. Utilizing nonlinear optical microscopy to investigate the development of early cancer in nude mice in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chun-Chin; Li, Feng-Chieh; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lo, Wen; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2007-07-01

    In this investigation, we used in vivo nonlinear optical microscopy to image normal and carcinogen DMBA treated skin tissues of nude mice. We acquired two-photon autofluroescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of the skin tissue, and applied the ASI (Autofluorescence versus SHG Index) to the resulting image. This allows us to visualize and quantify the interaction between mouse skin cells and the surrounding connective tissue. We found that as the imaging depth increases, ASI has a different distribution in the normal and the treated skin tissues. Since the DMBA treated skin eventually became squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), our results show that the physiological changes to mouse skin en route to become cancer can be effectively tracked by multiphoton microscopy. We envision this approach to be effective in studying tumor biology and tumor treatment procedures.

  10. [Establishment and characterization of cell lines derived from nude mice transplanted squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Imanishi, K; Kato, Y; Karasaki, S; Yoshida, R; Kawana, T; Mizuno, M

    1990-06-01

    Two human cell lines, KIMI-1 and -2 were established from nude mice transplanted tumor originated from a human squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. These two cell lines have different shapes, chromosome numbers and tumor markers, respectively. PMID:2085478

  11. Nutritional and supranutritional levels of selenate differentially suppress prostate tumor growth in adult but not young nude mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) is known to regulate carcinogenesis and immunity at nutritional and 26 supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides critical defenses against 27 cancer and the athymic, immune-deficient NU/J nude mice are known to gradually develop 28 CD8+ and CD4+ T cells extrathymicall...

  12. Effect of dietary selenium and cancer cell xenograft on peripheral T and B lymphocytes in adult nude mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selenium (Se) is known to regulate tumorigenesis and immunity at nutritional and supranutritional levels. Because the immune system provides critical defenses against cancer and the athymic, immune-deficient NU/J nude mice are known to gradually develop CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, we asked whether B and ...

  13. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment.

  14. Self-recognition specificity expressed by T cells from nude mice. Absence of detectable Ia-restricted T cells in nude mice that do exhibit self-K/D-restricted T cell responses

    SciTech Connect

    Kruisbeek, A.M.; Davis, M.L.; Matis, L.A.; Longo, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    The presence in athymic nude mice of precursor T cells with self-recognition specificity for either H-2 K/D or H-2 I region determinants was investigated. Chimeras were constructed of lethally irradiated parental mice receiving a mixture of F1 nude mouse (6-8 wk old) spleen and bone marrow cells. The donor inoculum was deliberately not subjected to any T cell depletion procedure, so that any potential major histocompatibility complex-committed precursor T cells were allowed to differentiate and expand in the normal parental recipients. 3 mo after reconstitution, the chimeras were immunized with several protein antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant in the footpads and their purified draining lymph node T cells tested 10 d later for ability to recognize antigen on antigen-presenting cells of either parental haplotype. Also, their spleen and lymph node cells were tested for ability to generate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. It was demonstrated that T cell proliferative responses of these F1(nude)----parent chimeras were restricted solely to recognizing parental host I region determinants as self and expressed the Ir gene phenotype of the host. In contrast, CTL responses could be generated (in the presence of interleukin 2) to TNP-modified stimulator cells of either parental haplotype. Thus these results indicate that nude mice which do have CTL with self-specificity for K/D region determinants lack proliferating T cells with self-specificity for I region determinants. These results provide evidence for the concepts that development of the I region-restricted T cell repertoire is strictly an intrathymically determined event and that young nude mice lack the unique thymic elements responsible for edu

  15. Human non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphomas serially transplanted in nude mice conditioned with whole-body irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, T.; Oka, K.; Miyamoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    Direct transplantation of non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma into athymic nude mice was successfully achieved after whole-body irradiation (5 Gy). Twenty-seven per cent (6/22) of transplanted lymphomas were established as nude mouse lines. The successful lines were derived solely from the patients with diffuse lymphoma who showed advanced clinical stage, high LDH value, large mass and poor prognosis. The histological, immunophenotypic and chromosomal characteristics of the nude mouse lines were compared with those of the original lymphomas, and the proliferative characteristics of the lines were examined. The transplanted lymphomas substantially retained the characteristics of the original lymphomas, and could be useful in biological, oncological and therapeutic studies of human malignant lymphoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2649134

  16. Antiproliferative effect of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin in vitro and in human tumour xenografted athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, P. Y.; Bressolle, F.; Pinguet, F.

    1998-01-01

    The anti-tumour activity of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MEBCD), a cyclic oligosaccharide known for its interaction with the plasma membrane, was investigated in vitro and in vivo and compared with that of doxorubicin (DOX) in the human tumour models MCF7 breast carcinoma and A2780 ovarian carcinoma. In vitro proliferation was assessed using the MTT assay. In vivo studies were carried out using xenografted Swiss nude mice injected weekly i.p. with MEBCD at 300 or 800 mg kg(-1) or DOX at 2 mg kg(-1), during 2 months. Under these conditions, MEBCD was active against MCF7 and A2780 cell lines and tumour xenografts. For each tumour model, the tumoral volume of the xenografted mice treated with MEBCD was at least twofold reduced compared with the control group. In the MCF7 model, MEBCD (800 mg kg(-1)) was more active than DOX (2 mg kg(-1)). After 56 days of treatment with MEBCD, no toxicologically meaningful differences were observed in macroscopic and microscopic parameters compared with controls. The accumulation of MEBCD in normal and tumour tissues was also assessed using a chromatographic method. Results indicated that after a single injection of MEBCD, tumour, liver and kidneys accumulated the highest concentrations of MEBCD. These results provided a basis for the potential therapeutic application of MEBCD in cancer therapy. PMID:9820174

  17. In vivo optical imaging of bacterial infection and antibiotic response in intact nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tao; Chen, Yanping; Chu, Jun; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    We describe imaging the luminance of red fluorescent protein (DsRed2)-expressing bacteria from outside intact infected animals. This simple, nonintrusive technique can show in great detail the temporal behavior of the infectious process. Fluorescence stereo microscope, laser and cooled CCD are expensive to many institutes, we set up an inexpensive compact whole-body fluorescent imaging tool, which consisted of a digital camera, fluorescence filters and a mercury 50-W lamp power supply as excitation light source. The bacteria, expressing the DsRed2, are sufficiently bright as to be clearly visible from outside the infected animal and recorded with simple equipment. Introduced bacteria were observed in the abdomen. Instantaneous real-time images of the infectious process were acquired by using a digital camera by simply illuminating nude mice with mercury lamp. The development of infection over 48 hours and its regression after kanamycin treatment were visualized by whole-body imaging. The DsRed2 was excited directly by mercury lamp with EF500/50 nm band-pass filter and fluorescence was recorded by digital camera with CB580 nm long-pass filter. By this easy operation tool, the authors imaged, in real time, fluorescent tumors growing in live mice. The imaging system is external and noninvasive. For one year our experiments suggested the imaging scheme was feasible, which affords a powerful approach to visualizing the infection process.

  18. Inhibition of human pancreatic cancer growth in nude mice by boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagië, H.; Tomita, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujii, Y.; Nonaka, Y.; Saegusa, Y.; Hasumi, K.; Eriguchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Ono, K.

    1997-01-01

    Immunoliposomes were prepared by conjugating anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody with liposomes containing [10B]compound. These immunoliposomes were shown to bind selectively to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) bearing CEA on their surface. The cytotoxic effects of locally injected [10B]compound, multilamellar liposomes containing [10B]compound or [10B]immunoliposomes (anti-CEA) on human pancreatic carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were evaluated with thermal neutron irradiation. After thermal neutron irradiation of mice injected with [10B]solution, 10B-containing liposomes or [10B]immunoliposomes, AsPC-1 tumour growth was suppressed relative to controls. Injection of [10B]immunoliposomes caused the greatest tumour suppression with thermal neutron irradiation in vivo. Histopathologically, hyalinization and necrosis were found in 10B-treated tumours, while tumour tissue injected with saline or saline-containing immunoliposomes showed neither destruction nor necrosis. These results suggest that intratumoral injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10B atoms by tumour cells, causing tumour growth suppression in vivo upon thermal neutron irradiation. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) with intratumoral injection of immunoliposomes is able to destroy malignant cells in the marginal portion between normal tissues and cancer tissues from the side of 4He generation. Images Figure 2 PMID:9043021

  19. Effects and mechanism of recombinant human erythropoietin on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wen; Lin, Zhiwu; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kong, Lingying; Yang, Li

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on the growth of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice, and investigate its functions in regulating tumor growth, angiogenesis and apoptosis. A tumor-bearing nude mice model was established by subcutaneous injection of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Two weeks later, the mice were randomly divided into four groups (n=6 for each group): negative control group, rhEPO group, EPO antibody group and EPO+EPO antibody group. Drugs were administered to the corresponding mice once every 3 days for five times. The size and weight of tumors were measured after the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The expression levels of EPO/EPOR, TNF-α, IL-10, and Bcl-2 in the tumor tissues were determined using RT-PCR and Western blot. The microvessel density (MVD) and expression of VEGF in the tumors were detected using immunohistochemistry. TUNEL assay was used to determine apoptosis in tumors. Results show that rhEPO significantly promoted the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice (P<0.05). Compared with the negative control group, the expression levels of EPO, EPOR, TNF-α, IL-10, and VEGF, as well as the MVD values, were significantly elevated in the rhEPO group. However, the apoptotic index was significantly reduced (P<0.05). The ability of rhEPO to promote tumor growth may be associated with its functions in promoting microvessel formation and inhibiting tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:26008780

  20. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. IV. The effect of PMSG and oestradiol on the growth of the oocyte and follicle.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    Retarded follicular and oocyte nucleolar growth rates in ovaries of 1 month old congenitally athymic nude mice are restored by pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG). By contrast oestradiol-17beta depresses follicular growth rate in phenotypically normal (control) mice to levels found in nude littermates. Paradoxically, oestradiol-17beta stimulates nucleolar growth rate in control mice, but not nudes, to levels found in PMSG treated groups. These results are discussed in relation to the position of the thymus gland in the pituitary/ovarian axis and the mode of action gonadotrophin upon oocyte and follicular growth in the pre-puberal mouse ovary. PMID:933562

  1. Imaging the microenvironment of pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) growing in transgenic nude mice expressing GFP, RFP, or CFP.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2016-09-28

    We have developed a multi-color, imageable, orthotopic mouse model for individual patients with pancreatic cancer. The tumors are labeled by first passaging them orthotopically through transgenic nude mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), red fluorescent protein (RFP), or cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). Passage of the tumors in these colored transgenic mice labels the stromal cells of the tumor. The cancer cells in the PDOX are labeled in situ with GFP by telomerase-dependent adenovirus OBP-401. The models are termed imageable patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (iPDOX). The tumors acquired brightly-fluorescent stromal cells from the transgenic host mice, which were stably associated with the tumors through multiple passages. The colored fluorescent protein-expressing stromal cells included cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). This model enables powerful color-coded imaging of the interaction of cancer and stromal cells during tumor progression and treatment. PMID:26742463

  2. Myxoma virus therapy for human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kinn, Veronica G; Hilgenberg, Valerie A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a devastating tumor of young people that is difficult to cure. To determine if oncolytic virus therapy can improve outcomes in individuals with RMS, myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein (MYXV-red) was evaluated for antitumoral effects using a murine model of RMS. Fluorescent protein was expressed in four RMS cell lines inoculated with MYXV-red, indicating that these cells were semipermissive to MYXV infection. MYXV-red replication and cytopathic effects were further evaluated using human embryonal RMS (CCL-136) cells. Logarithmic growth of MYXV-red and significant cell death were observed 72 hours after inoculation with MYXV. The oncolytic effects of MYXV-red were then studied in nude mice that were injected subcutaneously with CCL-136 cells to establish RMS xenografts. Once tumors measured 5 mm in diameter, mice were treated with multiple intratumoral injections of MXYV-red or saline. The average final tumor volume and rate of tumor growth were significantly decreased, and median survival time was significantly increased in MYXV-red-treated mice (P-values =0.0416, 0.0037, and 0.0004, respectively). Histologic sections of MYXV-red-treated tumors showed increased inflammation compared to saline-treated tumors (P-value =0.0002). In conclusion, MXYV-red treatment of RMS tumors was successful in individual mice as it resulted in decreased tumor burden in eight of eleven mice with nearly complete tumor remission in five of eleven mice. These data hold promise that MYXV-red treatment may be beneficial for people suffering from RMS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of RMS tumors using an oncolytic poxvirus. PMID:27579297

  3. Myxoma virus therapy for human embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kinn, Veronica G; Hilgenberg, Valerie A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a devastating tumor of young people that is difficult to cure. To determine if oncolytic virus therapy can improve outcomes in individuals with RMS, myxoma virus expressing a red fluorescent protein (MYXV-red) was evaluated for antitumoral effects using a murine model of RMS. Fluorescent protein was expressed in four RMS cell lines inoculated with MYXV-red, indicating that these cells were semipermissive to MYXV infection. MYXV-red replication and cytopathic effects were further evaluated using human embryonal RMS (CCL-136) cells. Logarithmic growth of MYXV-red and significant cell death were observed 72 hours after inoculation with MYXV. The oncolytic effects of MYXV-red were then studied in nude mice that were injected subcutaneously with CCL-136 cells to establish RMS xenografts. Once tumors measured 5 mm in diameter, mice were treated with multiple intratumoral injections of MXYV-red or saline. The average final tumor volume and rate of tumor growth were significantly decreased, and median survival time was significantly increased in MYXV-red-treated mice (P-values =0.0416, 0.0037, and 0.0004, respectively). Histologic sections of MYXV-red-treated tumors showed increased inflammation compared to saline-treated tumors (P-value =0.0002). In conclusion, MXYV-red treatment of RMS tumors was successful in individual mice as it resulted in decreased tumor burden in eight of eleven mice with nearly complete tumor remission in five of eleven mice. These data hold promise that MYXV-red treatment may be beneficial for people suffering from RMS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of RMS tumors using an oncolytic poxvirus. PMID:27579297

  4. [Effects of cytokines on somatostatin in nude mice bearing human renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, G; Cao, G; Huo, J

    1997-06-01

    We studied the relationship between the production of SS and treatment with cytokines and a new method for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. 4.4 x 10(6)RCC94616 cells were injected subcutaneously into the back of nude mice. Five groups with TNF, IL-2, rIFN, TNF + IL-2, TNF + rIFN and controls were randomly divided according to the mean diameter of experimental tumor. After the last injection of cytokines, 0.5-0.8 ml blood, 1g tumor tissue, para-tissue and normal tissue were havested respectively. Contents of SS were tested by radioimmunoassay. In the treatment groups with cytokines, the concentration of SS was changed, siginificantly increased in the TNF + IL-2 group (P < 0.01). The effect on distribution of SS by cytokines may also be mediated by the regulation of human immunity and antitumor activity. It may be suggested that the method of TNF + IL-2 + SS is best to treat renal cell carcinoma. PMID:10374465

  5. Novel immunocytokine IL12-SS1 (Fv) inhibits mesothelioma tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heungnam; Gao, Wei; Ho, Mitchell

    2013-01-01

    Mesothelin is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein that is highly expressed on the cell surface of malignant mesothelioma. Monoclonal antibodies against mesothelin are being evaluated for the treatment of mesothelioma. Immunocytokines represent a novel class of armed antibodies. To provide an alternative approach to current mesothelin-targeted antibody therapies, we have developed a novel immunocytokine based on interleukin-12 (IL12) and the SS1 Fv specific for mesothelin. IL12 possesses potent anti-tumor activity in a wide variety of solid tumors. The newly-developed recombinant immunocytokine, IL12-SS1 (Fv), was produced in insect cells using a baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The SS1 single-chain Fv was fused to the C terminus of the p35 subunit of IL12 through a short linker (GSADGG). The single-chain IL12-SS1 (Fv) immunocytokine bound native mesothelin proteins on malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) and ovarian (OVCAR-3) cells as well as recombinant mesothelin on A431/H9 cells. The immunocytokine retained sufficient bioactivity of IL12 and significantly inhibited human malignant mesothelioma (NCI-H226) grown in the peritoneal cavity of nude mice and showed comparable anti-tumor activity to that of the SS1P immunotoxin. IL12-SS1 (Fv) is the first reported immunocytokine to mesothelin-positive tumors and may be an attractive addition to mesothelin-targeted cancer therapies. PMID:24260587

  6. Split tolerance in nude mice transplanted with 2'-deoxyguanosine-treated allogeneic thymus lobes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, G.; Moriyama, T.; Takeuchi, Y.; Kawase, Y.; Habu, S.

    1989-03-01

    To elucidate the acquisition of self tolerance in the thymus, full-allogeneic thymic chimeras were constructed. Athymic C3H and BALB/c nude mice were reconstituted with the thymic lobes of BALB/c and B10.BR fetuses, respectively, that were organ cultured for 5 days in the presence of 2'-deoxyguanosine. T cells in these chimeras were tolerized to the host MHC in both MLR and CTL assays. In contrast, T cells in the chimeras exhibited split tolerance for the thymic MHC haplotype. CTL specific for class I MHC of the thymic haplotype were generated not only from the peripheral T cells of the chimeras but also from thymocytes re-populated in the engrafted thymic lobes. However, T cells in these chimeras responded poorly to the class II MHC of the thymic haplotype in a standard MLR assay. In a syngeneic MLR culture upon stimulation with enriched APC of the thymic haplotype, only 22 to 48% of the responses were mediated by CD4+ cells, and proliferations of CD4- cells were prominent. There were no haplotype-specific suppressor cells detected which would cause the unresponsiveness to the thymic class II MHC. These results indicated that the thymic lobes treated with 2'-deoxyguanosine were defective in the ability to induce the transplantation tolerance for the class I MHC expressed on the thymus, although the same thymic lobes were able to induce the transplantation tolerance for the thymic class II MHC.

  7. Establishment and characterization of a new human oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor-positive mammary carcinoma serially transplantable in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, H; Fichtner, I; Büttner, B; Frege, J

    1992-01-01

    A human mammary carcinoma originating from a postmenopausal patient was successfully transplanted into nude mice. According to the adopted criteria the tumour proved to be oestradiol- and progesterone-receptor-positive. Histological studies of the patient tumour revealed a ductal invasive mammary carcinoma with 80% tubular growth pattern. Following transplantation the adenoid structures decreased to 30%; the mitosis rate and grade of malignancy increased. Treatment of the nude mice with 20 micrograms oestradiol benzoate/mouse caused a loss of the oestradiol receptor of the mammary carcinoma. The mammary carcinoma 3366 can be used for testing of antineoplastic substances, antihormones and for studies in regard to down-regulation or blocking of hormone receptors and possible consequences for therapies. PMID:1400563

  8. Modulation of cell cycle regulatory protein expression and suppression of tumor growth by mimosine in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, H C; Weng, C F; Yen, M H; Chuang, L Y; Hung, W C

    2000-10-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the plant amino acid mimosine blocked cell cycle progression and suppressed proliferation of human lung cancer cells in vitro by multiple mechanisms. Inhibition of cyclin D1 expression or induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 expression was found in mimosine-treated lung cancer cells. However, whether mimosine may modulate the expression of these cell cycle regulatory proteins and suppress tumor growth in vivo is unknown. In this study, we examined the anti-cancer effect of mimosine on human H226 lung cancer cells grown in nude mice. Our results demonstrated that mimosine inhibits cyclin D1 and induces p21WAF1 expression in vivo. Furthermore, results of TUNEL analysis indicated that mimosine may induce apoptosis to suppress tumor growth in nude mice. Collectively, these results suggest that mimosine exerts anti-cancer effect in vivo and might be useful in the therapy of lung cancer. PMID:10995875

  9. Investigation of gastric cancers in nude mice using X-ray in-line phase contrast imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper is to report the new imaging of gastric cancers without the use of imaging agents. Both gastric normal regions and gastric cancer regions can be distinguished by using the principal component analysis (PCA) based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Methods Human gastric cancer BGC823 cells were implanted into the stomachs of nude mice. Then, 3, 5, 7, 9 or 11 days after cancer cells implantation, the nude mice were sacrificed and their stomachs were removed. X-ray in-line phase contrast imaging (XILPCI), an X-ray phase contrast imaging method, has greater soft tissue contrast than traditional absorption radiography and generates higher-resolution images. The gastric specimens were imaged by an XILPCIs’ charge coupled device (CCD) of 9 μm image resolution. The PCA of the projective images’ region of interests (ROIs) based on GLCM were extracted to discriminate gastric normal regions and gastric cancer regions. Different stages of gastric cancers were classified by using support vector machines (SVMs). Results The X-ray in-line phase contrast images of nude mice gastric specimens clearly show the gastric architectures and the details of the early gastric cancers. The phase contrast computed tomography (CT) images of nude mice gastric cancer specimens are better than the traditional absorption CT images without the use of imaging agents. The results of the PCA of the texture parameters based on GLCM of normal regions is (F1 + F2) > 8.5, but those of cancer regions is (F1 + F2) < 8.5. The classification accuracy is 83.3% that classifying gastric specimens into different stages using SVMs. Conclusions This is a very preliminary feasibility study. With further researches, XILPCI could become a noninvasive method for future the early detection of gastric cancers or medical researches. PMID:25060352

  10. The effect of Setarud (IMODTM) on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue to nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Hormozi, Maryam; Talebi, Saeed; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan; Kamali, Koorosh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Soltangoraee, Haleh; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the promising methods in fertility preservation among women with cancer is cryopreservation of ovarian cortex but there are many drawbacks such as apoptosis and considerable reduction of follicular density in the transplanted ovary. One solution to reduce ischemic damage is enhancing angiogenesis after transplantation of ovarian cortex tissue. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Setarud, on angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissue. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, twenty four nude mice were implanted subcutaneously, with human ovarian tissues, from four women. The mice were randomly divided into two groups (n=12): the experimental group was treated with Setarud, while control group received only vehicle. Each group was divided into three subgroups (n=4) based on the graft recovery days post transplantation (PT). The transplanted fragments were removed on days 2, 7, and 30 PT and the expression of Angiopoietin-1, Angiopoietin-2, and Vascular endothelial growth factor at both gene and protein levels and vascular density were studied in the grafted ovarian tissues. Results: On the 2nd and 7th day PT, the level of Angiopoietin-1 gene expression in case group was significantly lower than that in control group, while the opposite results were obtained for Angiopoietin-2 and Vascular endothelial growth factor. These results were also confirmed at the protein level. The density of vessels in Setarud group elevated significantly on day 7 PT compared to pre-treatment state. Conclusion: Our results showed that administration of Setarud may stimulates angiogenesis in transplanted human ovarian tissues, although further researches are needed before a clear judgment is made. PMID:26644788

  11. Preclinical evaluation of new radioligand of cholecystokinin/gastrin receptors in endocrine tumors xenograft nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Dierickx, L. O.; Mestre, B.; Nalis, J.; Picard, C.; Favre, G.; Poirot, M.; Silvente-Poirot, S.; Courbon, F.

    2007-02-01

    The cholecystokinin(CCK)/gastrin 2 receptors (R-CCK2) are overexpressed in 90% of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) and in 60% of small cell lung cancers but not or poorly in corresponding healthy tissues. They represent a relevant target for the diagnosis and internal targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. Although previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin to target CCK-2 receptor-expressing tissues in animals and patients, some problems remained unsolved to identify an optimum candidate for in vivo targeting of R-CCK2-expressing tumors. By a rational approach and " in silico" drug design, we synthesized a new CCK-derivative with high affinity for the R-CCK2. The aim of this study was to achieve the radiolabeling of a new radioligand, to assess its efficacy using a published CCK radioligand ( 111In-DTPA-CCK8) as a control for the R-CCK2 targeting. This new CCK-derivative was radiolabeled with 111In. Nude mice, bearing the human MTC TT tumors and NIH-3T3 cell line expressing a tumorigenic mutant of the R-CCK2, were injected with this radiolabeled peptide. In vivo planar scintigraphies were acquired. Thereafter, biodistribution studies (%ID/g tissue) were done. The conditions of radiolabelling were optimized to obtain a radiochemical purity >90%. Scintigraphic images of xenograft mice showed significant tumor uptake with a target to nontarget ratio higher than two. These results were confirmed by the biodistribution studies which showed as expected a significant activity in the spleen, the liver and the kidneys. Therefore, this new radiolabeled compound is a promised new candidate for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy for R-CCK2 tumor targeting.

  12. Adipose stem cells' antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiying; Wei, Shuyue; Xue, Xinxin; You, Yuntian; Ma, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to discuss adipose stem cells' (ASCs) antagonism in glycosylation of D-galactose-induced skin aging of nude mice and its skin recovery function; the study also aims to explore a new mechanism of anti-aging to provide clinical anti-aging therapy with new thoughts and methods. We selected 40 healthy specific pathogen-free (SPF) nude mice and divided them randomly into four groups which were: blank control group; D-galactose + phosphate buffer saline (PBS) group; D-galactose + ASCs treatment group; and D-galactose + aminoguanidine (AG) group. Results showed that the superoxide dismutase (SOD) level of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group (87.15 ± 4.95 U/g) decreased significantly compared with that of control group (146.21 ± 4.76 U/g), while malonaldehyde (MDA) level of mice in D-galactose induced model group (11.12 ± 2.08 nmol/mg) increased significantly compared with that of control group (5.46 ± 2.05 nmol/mg) (P <0.05); thus D-galactose induced sub-acutely aging mice models were duplicated successfully. Results also indicated that transplantation of ASCs could reverse expression of aging-related biomarkers such as MDA, SOD, and advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs); hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed that thickness of the dermis layer as well as the collagen content of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In addition, immunohistochemical assay showed that expression quantity of CD31 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of mice in the D-galactose-induced model group increased significantly after ASC transplantation compared with that of control group. In conclusion, ASCs can trace cell distribution successfully through bioluminescence, and they survive for a short time in the skin after transplantation, which provides a basis for the application of ASC transplantation in clinical practices. Moreover, ASCs can control

  13. Tumor Grafting Induces Changes of Gut Microbiota in Athymic Nude Mice in the Presence and Absence of Medicinal Gynostemma Saponins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Tai, William C. S.; Brar, Manreetpal S.; Leung, Frederick C. C.; Hsiao, W. L. Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have revealed that gut microbiota plays a substantial role in modulating diseases such as autism, rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, and cancer that occur at sites distant to the gut. Athymic nude mice have been employed for tumorigenic research for decades; however, the relationships between the gut microbiome and host’s response in drug treatment to the grafted tumors have not been explored. In this study, we analyzed the fecal microbiome of nonxenograft and xenograft nude mice treated with phytosaponins from a popular medicinal plant, Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Gp). Analysis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR data showed that the microbiota profile of xenograft mice departed from that of the nonxenograft mice. After ten days of treatment with Gp saponins (GpS), the microbiota of the treated mice was closer to the microbiota at Day 0 before the implantation of the tumor. Data obtained from 16S pyrosequencing of fecal samples reiterates the differences in microbiome between the nonxenograft and xenograft mice. GpS markedly increased the relative abundance of Clostridium cocleatum and Bacteroides acidifaciens, for which the beneficial effects on the host have been well documented. This study, for the first time, characterizes the properties of gut microbiome in nude mice responding to tumor implant and drug treatment. We also demonstrate that dietary saponins such as GpS can potentially regulate the gut microbial ecosystem by increasing the number of symbionts. Interestingly, this regulation of the gut ecosystem might, at least in part, be responsible for or contribute to the anticancer effect of GpS. PMID:25992551

  14. Effects of endogenous nitric oxide induced by 5-fluorouracil and L-Arg on liver carcinoma in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao-Yan; Jiang, Jun-Mei; Liu, Ji-Yong; Zhu, Ju-Ren

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of endogeous nitric oxide induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and L-arginine (L-Arg) on the human liver carcinoma model in nude mice. METHODS: The human liver carcinoma model in nude mice was established with BEL-7402 cells and normal saline (NS), 5-FU and 5-FU + L-Arg injected intraperitoneally. The tumor size was measured. The necrotic degree and range were observed under microscope. The apoptosis of cancer cell was detected by turmina deoxynucleotidyl transferanse mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Immunohistochemical method was performed to determine the expression of iNOS, P16, BAX. The chemical colorimetry was used to test the activity and nitrate reductase method was adopted to test the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in the tumor tissue. The BI2000 pathological image analyzer was used to analyze the result of immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: 5-FU combined with L-Arg could inhibit the tumor growth apparently. In NS, 5-FU and 5-FU+L-Arg groups, the changes of tumor volumes were 257.978 ± 59.0, 172.232 ± 66.0 and 91.523 ± 26.7 mm3, respectively (P < 0.05 5-FU vs 5-FU + L-Arg group; P < 0.05 NS vs 5-FU + L-Arg group; P < 0.05, NS vs 5-FU group). The necrotic range and apoptosis index were significantly increased after the drug injection. The necrotic range was biggest in 5-FU + L-Arg group (χ2 = 15.963, P < 0.05). The apoptosis indexes were as follows: NS, 17.4% ± 6.19%; 5-FU, 31.3% ± 12.3%; and 5-FU + L-Arg, 46% ± 15.24% (P < 0.05, 5-FU vs 5-FU + L-Arg; P < 0.05, NS vs 5-FU + L-Arg; P < 0.05, NS vs 5-FU). The expression and activity of iNOS were increased in the tumor tissue. The concentration of NO was also increased. F of optical density of iNOS, iNOS activity and NO concentration are 31.693, 21.949, and 33.909, respectively, P < 0.05. The concentration of NO was related to the expression of P16 and BAX. The correlation coefficient was 0.764 and 0.554. CONCLUSION: 5-FU combined with L-Arg can inhibit the growth of

  15. Brugia pahangi in nude mice: protective immunity to infective larvae is Thy 1.2+ cell dependent and cyclosporin A resistant.

    PubMed

    Vickery, A C; Nayar, J K

    1987-03-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to larvae of Brugia pahangi were studied in congenitally athymic nude C3H/HeN mice and their syngeneic heterozygous littermates. An average 11% of subcutaneous larval inocula was recovered from control nudes 28 days after inoculation. No worms were recovered from nude recipients of viable splenic Thy 1.2+ T lymphocytes from heterozygotes which had killed a priming dose of B. pahangi larvae. Primed T lymphocytes, depleted of either Lyt 1.1+ or Lyt 2.1+ cells or incubated with anti-Thy 1.2 monoclonal antibody and complement, failed to protect nude mice against a larval challenge. Nor were primed B lymphocytes depleted by Thy 1.2+ T cell contaminants protective. Treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) did not increase the numbers of worms recovered from heterozygotes nor did CsA treatment of heterozygous cell donors abolish the ability of primed Thy 1.2+ T lymphocytes to transfer protection to nude mice. IgG but not IgM antibody titres to B. pahangi antigens were depressed in all CsA-treated mice. CsA treatment of nude mice had no direct effect upon development of B. pahangi larvae. These results show that protective immunity to larvae of B. pahangi in mice depends upon small numbers of Thy 1.2+ T cells which are CsA-resistant. PMID:3494759

  16. Bone Regeneration by Nanohydroxyapatite/Chitosan/Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Scaffolds Seeded with Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Calvarial Defects of the Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Su, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Yu-Cheng; Li, Ang; Zhang, Yin-Cheng; Zhou, Hong; Qiao, Hu; Guan, Li-Min; Zou, Min; Si, Xin-Qin

    2015-01-01

    In the preliminary study, we have found an excellent osteogenic property of nanohydroxyapatite/chitosan/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (nHA/CS/PLGA) scaffolds seeded with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in vitro and subcutaneously in the nude mice. The aim of this study was to further evaluate the osteogenic capacity of nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs in the calvarial defects of the nude mice. Totally 108 nude mice were included and divided into 6 groups: PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; CS/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds + hUCMSCs; nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds without seeding; the control group (no scaffolds) (n = 18). The scaffolds were implanted into the calvarial defects of nude mice. The amount of new bones was evaluated by fluorescence labeling, H&E staining, and Van Gieson staining at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The results demonstrated that the amount of new bones was significantly increased in the group of nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs (p < 0.01). On the basis of previous studies in vitro and in subcutaneous implantation of the nude mice, the results revealed that the nHA and CS also enhanced the bone regeneration by nHA/CS/PLGA scaffolds seeded with hUCMSCs in the calvarial defects of the nude mice at early stage. PMID:26550565

  17. Effect of combined misonidazole and d(50)-Be neutrons on a human melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Guichard, M.; Gueulette, J.; Octave-Prignot, M.; Wambersie, A.; Malaise, E.P.

    1980-08-01

    This paper reports the effect of two different doses (0.1 and 1 mg/g) of misonidazole on the radiosensitivity of human Na 11 melanoma transplanted into athymic nude mice. The mice were irradiated with 50-MeV neutrons. The end point was the in vitro colony-forming assay. Repair of potentially lethal damage following neutron irradiation was comparable to that observed after ..gamma.. irradiation. This repair was no longer detectable when 1 mg/g of misonidazole was used. No toxic effect of the drug itself could be detected.

  18. The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on the viability of human fat injected into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, O; Shupak, A; Ullmann, Y; Ramon, Y; Gilhar, A; Kehat, I; Peled, I J

    2000-11-01

    Autologous free-fat injection for the correction of soft-tissue defects has become a common procedure in plastic surgery. The main shortcoming of this method for achieving permanent soft-tissue augmentation is the partial absorption of the injected fat, an occurrence that leads to the need for both overcorrection and repeated fat reinjection. Improving the oxygenation of the injected fat has been suggested as a means of helping to overcome the initial critical phase that occurs postinjection (when the fat cells are nourished by osmosis), increasing phagocyte activity, accelerating fibroblast activity and collagen formation, and enhancing angiogenesis. In addition, the hyperbaric oxygen-mediated decrement in endothelial leukocyte adhesion will decrease cytokine release, thereby reducing edema and inflammatory responses. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on improving the viability of injected fat. Adipose tissue obtained from human breasts by suction-assisted lipectomy was injected into the subcuticular nuchal region in nude mice. The mice were then exposed to daily hyperbaric oxygen treatments, breathing 100% oxygen at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 90 minutes. The duration of the administered hyperbaric oxygen therapy was 5, 10, or 15 days, according to the study group. Mice exposed to normobaric air alone served as the control group, and each group included 10 animals. The rats were killed 15 weeks after fat injection. The grafts were dissected out, weight and volume were measured, and histologic evaluation was performed. In all of the study groups, at least part of the injected fat survived, giving the desired clinical outcome. No significant differences could be found between the groups regarding fat weight and volume. Histopathologic examination of the dissected grafts demonstrated a significantly better integrity of the fat tissue in the group that received hyperbaric oxygen for 5 days (p = 0.047). This

  19. Normal breast tissue implanted into athymic nude mice identifies biomarkers of the effects of human pregnancy levels of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Blance, Rognvald N; Sims, Andrew H; Anderson, Elizabeth; Howell, Anthony; Clarke, Robert B

    2009-03-01

    We have generated a novel model system for the study of estrogen intervention in normal breast tissue. Nulliparous human breast tissue was implanted into immunocompromised nude mice and treated with high-dose estrogen to simulate the effects of pregnancy. Treatment of mice with human mid-pregnancy levels of 17beta-estradiol for a period of 4 weeks was followed by 4 weeks of withdrawal to mimic involution. Gene expression in the xenograft tissue was then analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR to identify differences between treated and control tissues. Ten genes previously identified as altered by pregnancy in rodent models were found to be differentially expressed in human breast tissue with a > or =1.8-fold up-regulation of CDC42, TGFbeta3, DCN, KRT14, LTF, and AREG and a > or =0.7-fold down-regulation of STAT1, CTGF, IGF1, and VAMP1. Immunohistochemical analysis of archival paraffin-embedded adult premenopausal human breast tissue specimens identified a significantly lower level of expression of STAT1 (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test) in parous compared with age-matched nulliparous tissue (median of 24% compared with 42% epithelial cells positive). We conclude that many of the pregnancy-induced breast cancer-protective changes observed in rodent models also occur in human breast tissue following intervention using human pregnancy levels of estrogen and that STAT1 expression is a potential biomarker of parity-induced breast cancer protection in the human breast. PMID:19258541

  20. Prediction of tumor response to experimental radioimmunotherapy with {sup 90}Y in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dillehay, L.E.; Mayer, R.; Zhang, Y.G.

    1995-09-30

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify those factors that predict variability in tumor response to {sup 90}Y-radioimmunotherapy based on measurement of incorporated activity and physical dimensions of individual tumors and to apply the concept of effective dose to radioimmunotherapy. Human colon carcinoma xenografts growing in nude mice were treated with anti-CEA antibodies labeled with {sup 90}Y directly or through a bispecific antibody/labeled hapten system. Tumor response was measured as the delay in growth to eight times the treatment volume. Noninvasive activity (based on bremsstrahlung radiation) and dimension measurements were made in these animals at several times after label injection. The following parameters were compared for their ability to predict individual tumor response: (a) injected activity, (b) injected activity times a factor based on average uptake as a function of volume, (c) in vivo activity per volume measured in each animal at a single time, (d) the integral over time of in vivo activity per volume in each animal, and (e) the minimum dose for each animal in a uniformly active ellipsoid whose total activity and dimensions varied over time the same as the tumor. After correcting for differences in injected activity, two parameters account for much of the variability in tumor response. One of these is the general trend of larger tumors to take up less activity per volume. Additional variability can be accounted for by the in vivo activity per volume measurements. The minimum dose as introduced here is likely to be useful in estimating the biologically effective dose delivered by each treatment. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Eliminating established tumor in nu/nu nude mice by a TRAIL-armed oncolytic adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Fengqin; Wang, Li; Davis, John J.; Hu, Wenxian; Zhang, Lidong; Guo, Wei; Teraishi, Fuminori; Ji, Lin; Fang, Bingliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and oncolytic viruses have recently been investigated extensively for cancer therapy. However, preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that their clinical application is hampered by either weak anticancer activity or systemic toxicity. We examined whether the weaknesses of the two strategies can be overcome by integrating the TRAIL gene into an oncolytic vector. Experimental Design We constructed a TRAIL-expressing oncolytic adenovector designated Ad/TRAIL-E1. The expression of both the TRAIL and viral E1A genes is under the control of a synthetic promoter consisting of sequences from the human telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter and a minimal cytomegalovirus early promoter. The transgene expression, apoptosis induction, viral replication, antitumor activity and toxicity of Ad/TRAIL-E1 were determined in vitro and in vivo in comparison with control vectors. Results Ad/TRAIL-E1 elicited enhanced viral replication and/or stronger oncolytic effect in vitro in various human cancer cell lines than a TRAIL-expressing replication-defective adenovector or an oncolytic adenovector expressing green fluorescent protein. Intralesional administration of Ad/TRAIL-E1 eliminated all subcutaneous xenograft tumors established from a human non-small cell lung cancer cell line, H1299, on nu/nu nude mice, resulting in long-term tumor-free survival. Furthermore, we found no treatment-related toxicity. Conclusions Viral replication and antitumor activity of oncolytic adenovirus can be enhanced by the TRAIL gene and Ad/TRAIL-E1 could become a potent therapeutic agent for cancer therapy. PMID:16951242

  2. Dendrotoxin-κ suppresses tumor growth induced by human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels have been considered to be a regulator of membrane potential and neuronal excitability. Recently, accumulated evidence has indicated that several Kv channel subtypes contribute to the control of cell proliferation in various types of cells and are worth noting as potential emerging molecular targets of cancer therapy. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the Kv1.1-specific blocker, dendrotoxin-κ (DTX-κ), on tumor formation induced by the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 in a xenograft model. Kv1.1 mRNA and protein was expressed in A549 cells and the blockade of Kv1.1 by DTX-κ, reduced tumor formation in nude mice. Furthermore, treatment with DTX-κ significantly increased protein expression of p21Waf1/Cip1, p27Kip1, and p15INK4B and significantly decreased protein expression of cyclin D3 in tumor tissues compared to the control. These results suggest that DTX-κ has anti-tumor effects in A549 cells through the pathway governing G1-S transition. PMID:21368561

  3. Effect of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on human renal cell carcinoma proliferation and metastasis in an orthotropic xenograft nude mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuan-Zhuo; Xu, Yun-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to explore the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum on tumor proliferation and metastasis in an orthotropic xenograft nude mice model of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and evaluate the safety of CO2 pneumoperitoneum laparoscopy for treating RCC. Material and methods RCC 786-0 cells were injected to establish an orthotropic xenograft model. Fifty nude mice were given orthotropic inoculations and randomized to five groups: group A (control); group B (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 2 h); group C (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 4 h); group D (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 4 h and 24 h after waking); group E (CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 4 h and 48 h after waking). The proliferation status was observed in RCC specimens by immunohistochemical staining for Ki67. The protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined by western blotting. Results All groups showed similar Ki67-positive staining in RCC samples (p > 0.05). The relative expression of HIF-1α and VEGF gradually increased in both group B and group C, as compared with group A, but only the difference between group C and group A reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The protein levels of HIF-1α and VEGF decreased in both group D and group E, as compared with group B and group C; however, the differences between group D, group E, and group A did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Conclusions In an orthotropic xenograft nude mice model of RCC, CO2 pneumoperitoneum has no effect on expression of the cellular proliferation marker Ki67. However, CO2 pneumoperitoneum rapidly induces transient expression of HIF-1α and VEGF. Thus, CO2 pneumoperitoneum laparoscopy may be a safe method for treating RCC. PMID:25395958

  4. The Rac Inhibitor EHop-016 Inhibits Mammary Tumor Growth and Metastasis in a Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Pichardo, Linette; Humphries-Bickley, Tessa; De La Parra, Columba; Forestier-Roman, Ingrid; Martinez-Ferrer, Magaly; Hernandez, Eliud; Vlaar, Cornelis; Ferrer-Acosta, Yancy; Washington, Anthony V.; Cubano, Luis A.; Rodriguez-Orengo, Jose; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic disease still lacks effective treatments, and remains the primary cause of cancer mortality. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop better strategies to inhibit metastatic cancer. The Rho family GTPase Rac is an ideal target for anti-metastatic cancer therapy, because Rac is a key molecular switch that is activated by a myriad of cell surface receptors to promote cancer cell migration/invasion and survival. Previously, we reported the design and development of EHop-016, a small molecule compound, which inhibits Rac activity of metastatic cancer cells with an IC50 of 1 μM. EHop-016 also inhibits the activity of the Rac downstream effector p21-activated kinase (PAK), lamellipodia extension, and cell migration in metastatic cancer cells. Herein, we tested the efficacy of EHop-016 in a nude mouse model of experimental metastasis, where EHop-016 administration at 25 mg/kg body weight (BW) significantly reduced mammary fat pad tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. As quantified by UPLC MS/MS, EHop-016 was detectable in the plasma of nude mice at 17 to 23 ng/ml levels at 12 h following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 10 to 25 mg/kg BW EHop-016. The EHop-016 mediated inhibition of angiogenesis In Vivo was confirmed by immunohistochemistry of excised tumors and by In Vitro tube formation assays of endothelial cells. Moreover, EHop-016 affected cell viability by down-regulating Akt and Jun kinase activities and c-Myc and Cyclin D expression, as well as increasing caspase 3/7 activities in metastatic cancer cells. In conclusion, EHop-016 has potential as an anticancer compound to block cancer progression via multiple Rac-directed mechanisms. PMID:25389450

  5. Influence of Anti-Mouse Interferon Serum on the Growth and Metastasis of Tumor Cells Persistently Infected with Virus and of Human Prostatic Tumors in Athymic Nude Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lola M.; Minato, Nagahiro; Gresser, Ion; Holland, John; Kadish, Anna; Bloom, Barry R.

    1981-02-01

    Baby hamster kidney or HeLa cells form tumors in 100% of athymic nude mice. When such cells are persistently infected (PI) with RNA viruses, such as mumps or measles virus, the tumor cells either fail to grow or form circumscribed benign nodules. Neither the parental nor the virus PI tumor cells form invasive or metastatic lesions in nude mice. Previous studies have indicated a correlation between the susceptibility of virus-PI tumor cells in vitro and the cytolytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and their failure to grow in vivo. Because interferon (IF) is the principal regulatory molecule governing the differentiation of NK cells, it was possible to test the relevance of the IF--NK cell system in vivo to restriction of tumor growth by treatment of nude mice with anti-IF globulin. This treatment was shown to reduce both IF production and NK activity in spleen cells. Both parental and virus-PI tumor cells grew and formed larger tumors in nude mice treated with anti-IF globulin than in control nude mice. The viral-PI tumor cells and the uninfected parental cells formed tumors in treated mice that were highly invasive and often metastatic. Some human tumor types have been notoriously difficult to establish as tumor lines in nude mice (e.g., primary human prostatic carcinomas). When transplanted into nude mice treated either with anti-IF globulin or anti-lymphocyte serum, two prostatic carcinomas grew and produced neoplasms with local invasiveness and some metastases. The results are consistent with the view that interferon may be important in restricting the growth, invasiveness, and metastases of tumor cells by acting indirectly through components of the immune system, such as NK cells.

  6. Epidermal growth factor inhibits radioiodine uptake but stimulates deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in newborn rat thyroids grown in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, S.; Spaulding, S.W. )

    1990-08-01

    We have studied the effect of altering the level of circulating epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the function and growth of newborn rat thyroids transplanted into nude mice. Preliminary studies confirmed that sialoadenectomy reduced circulating EGF levels in nude mice (from 0.17 +/- 0.02 to 0.09 +/- 0.02 ng/ml), and that ip injection of 5 micrograms EGF raised EGF levels (the peak level of 91.7 +/- 3.3 ng/ml was achieved at 30 min, with a subsequent half-life of about 1 h). The radioiodine uptake by newborn rat thyroid transplants in the sialoadenectomized and sham-operated animals correlated inversely with the circulating EGF levels determined when the mice were killed (r = -0.99). Low-dose TSH treatment (0.1 microU/day) generally stimulated the radioiodine uptake, but high-dose TSH groups (100 microU/day) were not significantly different from the control group. The 5-day nuclear (3H)thymidine labeling index was 6.8 +/- 0.5% IN newborn rat thyroid transplants grown in sialoadenectomized animals, 13.1 +/- 0.3% in sham-operated animals, and 16.8 +/- 0.5% in nude mice receiving 5 micrograms EGF ip daily. In general, both low-dose and high-dose TSH promoted DNA synthesis under low EGF conditions but were ineffective in the presence of higher levels of EGF. Adult rat thyroid transplants showed no significant responses. Although sialoadenectomy may alter other factors besides EGF, it appears that changes in the levels of circulating EGF within the physiological range affect the function and growth of newborn rat thyroid transplants. Circulating EGF may play a role in thyroid maturation and may also be involved in the regulation of thyroid function throughout life.

  7. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    PubMed

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases. PMID:24209967

  8. Failure-to-Thrive Syndrome Associated with Tumor Formation by Madin–Darby Canine Kidney Cells in Newborn Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-01-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 107 Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 102.8 to 107.5); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor–derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases. PMID:24209967

  9. Activity of a new vascular targeting agent, ZD6126, in pulmonary metastases by human lung adenocarcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hisatsugu; Yano, Seiji; Zhang, Helong; Matsumori, Yuka; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Blakey, David C; Sone, Saburo

    2002-07-01

    ZD6126 (ANG453) is a novel vascular targeting agent that selectively disrupts the cytoskeleton of endothelial cells in tumor. In mouse s.c. xenograft models, ZD6126 was found to induce selective occlusion of tumor blood vessels, cessation of tumor blood flow, and death of tumor cells because of the starvation of oxygen and nutrition. Here, we investigated whether ZD6126 inhibited the metastatic formation of human non-small cell lung cancer cells. PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) and H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells were injected into the tail vein of nude mice, and lung metastases were estimated. ZD6126 treatment involved either a single dose on 24 h before killing or daily doses from day 14 until the end of the experiment. Single treatment with i.p. injection of 200 mg/kg ZD6126 caused bleeding and necrotic changes in the tumor by 24 h. Histological analysis revealed that apoptotic tumor cells were markedly increased in the ZD6126-treated group. Moreover, ZD6126 induced the apoptosis of CD31-positive vascular endothelial cells in tumors but not in the normal lung parenchyma. When mice were treated daily with 100 mg/kg ZD6126 from day 14 until the end of the experiment, the lung weight was significantly less in the ZD6126-treated group than that of the control group, despite no difference in the number of metastatic nodules. These data suggest that ZD6126 could demonstrate its antitumor activity against both already established and early phase of lung cancer metastasis by causing the selective apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and destruction of the tumor vasculature. PMID:12097279

  10. Association of Chromosomal Alterations with Arsenite-Induced Tumorigenicity of Human HaCaT Keratinocytes in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chia-Wen; Chiang, Ming-Chang; Ho, I-Ching; Lee, Te-Chang

    2004-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a well-documented human carcinogen. Chronic low-dose exposure to inorganic arsenic is associated with an increased incidence of a variety of cancers, including skin, lung, bladder, and liver cancer. Because genetic alterations often occur during cancer development, the objective of this study was to explore what types of genetic alterations were induced by chronic exposure of human HaCaT cells to arsenic. After 20 passages in the presence of inorganic trivalent arsenite at concentrations of 0.5 or 1 μM, HaCaT cells had higher intracellular levels of glutathione, became more resistance to arsenite, and showed an increased frequency of micronuclei. Furthermore, the previously nontumorigenic HaCaT cells became tumorigenic, as shown by subcutaneous injection into Balb/c nude mice. Cell lines derived from the tumors formed by injection of arsenite-exposed HaCaT cells into nude mice expressed higher levels of keratin 6, a proliferation marker of keratinocytes, than did parental HaCaT cells, whereas the expression of keratins 5, 8, and 10 was significantly decreased. Comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated chromosomal alterations in the 11 cell lines derived from these tumors; all 11 showed significant loss of chromosome 9q, and seven showed significant gain of chromosome 4q. The present results show that long-term exposure to low doses of arsenite transformed nontumorigenic human keratinocytes to cells that were tumorigenic in nude mice and that chromosomal alterations were observed in all cell lines established from the tumors. PMID:15579417

  11. Rearrangements of T-cell antigen receptor gamma and delta chain genes are detected in the long-term cultured bone marrow cells of athymic nude mice but not in those of euthymic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikai, Y; Takeda, Y; Ohga, S; Kishihara, K; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that extrathymic rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TcR) gamma and delta chain genes occur in the peripheral lymphoid tissues of athymic nude mice. To further determine where the TcR gene rearrangements occur in nude mice, we investigated the rearrangement and expression of the TcR genes in the long-term cultured bone marrow (LTBM) cells which were homogenous in developments without mature T cells as assessed by FACS analysis. The LTBM derived from euthymic mice contained TcR gamma and delta chain genes in germline configuration, while gene rearrangements of both locus were detected in the LTBM cells from nude mice. These results suggested that gamma and delta gene rearrangements do occur in the bone marrow cells of nude mice and that the T-cell precursors in bone marrow may be increased in frequency in such animals. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2541071

  12. Anti-angiogenic therapy for normalization of tumor vasculature: A potential effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction on nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with high metastatic potential

    PubMed Central

    MIN, LIANG; LING, WEI; HUA, RONG; QI, HONG; CHEN, SHENXU; WANG, HAIQIAO; TANG, LUMEN; SHANGGUAN, WENJI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Buyang Huanwu decoction (BYHWD) on tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) HCCLM3 xenografts. A total of 96 nude mice bearing HCCLM3 xenografts were randomly divided into four groups: BYHWD group (LB), Yi-qi decoction group (LY), Huo-xue decoction group (LH) and model group (LM). Each of these groups was divided into three subgroups (n=8), which were observed on days 21, 25, 38 following treatment, respectively. The tumor weights, volumes and pulmonary metastases were recorded. The expression of CD105 and the microvessel density (MVD) were assessed, and the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), and regulator of G protein signaling 5 (RGS-5) were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining. Compared with the LM group, no significant decrease in tumor weight or volume were observed in the herbal medicine treatment groups, the number of the metastases in the lungs decreased, whereas the expression levels of RGS-5 and HIF-1α decreased in the LB group on day 35. However, the expression levels of VEGF increased in the LB group on days 28 and 35 post-treatment. The results of the present study suggested that BYHWD may inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis by affecting the expression levels of VEGF, RGS-5 and HIF-1α, and suggested that BYHWD may contribute to the tumor microenvironment and vasculature normalization in HCC. PMID:26846752

  13. A third-generation matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor (ONO-4817) combined with docetaxel suppresses progression of lung micrometastasis of MMP-expressing tumor cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akihiko; Yano, Seiji; Shiraga, Minoru; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Goto, Hisatsugu; Miki, Toyokazu; Zhang, Helong; Sone, Saburo

    2003-03-01

    The lung is the common target organ of hematogenous metastasis that restricts the prognosis of cancer patients. MMPs play a pivotal role in metastasis by promoting tumor invasion and angiogenesis; therefore, a large number of MMPIs have been developed. Our purpose was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of a selective-spectrum MMPI, ONO-4817 (inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9 but not MMP-1), against established lung micrometastasis in combination with a cytotoxic anticancer drug, DOC, in a nude mouse model. Human non-small cell lung cancer PC14PE6 (adenocarcinoma) or H226 (squamous cell carcinoma) cells, expressing MMP-2, MMP-9 and/or MMP-1, were injected i.v. into nude mice on day 0. Mice received a single injection of DOC on day 7 (after establishment of micrometastasis) and/or ONO-4817 mixed with food from day 7 to the end of experiments. Monotherapy with ONO-4817 or DOC inhibited formation of lung metastasis by PC14PE6 and H226 cells. In addition, combined use of ONO-4817 with DOC significantly suppressed the tumor burden of H226 and PC14PE6 cells in the lung and prolonged the survival of PC14PE6-bearing mice compared to ONO-4817 or DOC alone. These therapies did not affect the body weight or food intake of tumor-bearing mice. FIZ revealed that lung lesions, but not nontumor parenchyma of the lung, expressed gelatinolytic activity and that treatment with ONO-4817 abrogated the gelatinolytic activity in lung lesions. These results suggest that the combined use of MMPIs with cytotoxic anticancer drugs may be helpful in the control of established lung micrometastasis by tumor cells expressing MMPs. PMID:12516105

  14. Different metastasis patterns of a human melanoma cell line in nude mice and rats: Influence of microenvironment

    SciTech Connect

    Kjonniksen, I.; Hoifodt, H.K.; Pihl, A.; Fodstad, O. )

    1991-07-17

    The metastatic capacity of intravenously injected human FEMX-I melanoma cells in athymic nude mice and rats was compared. Young rats given 1 {times} 10(6) ascites tumor cells all died of lung tumors with a life span of 50 {plus minus} 10 days (mean{plus minus} SD). In contrast, in accordance with previous findings, only extrapulmonary metastases developed in mice. This host-dependent difference in metastasis pattern permitted studies on the role of factors that may influence the organ specificity of metastases. The tissue distribution of 125I-labeled FEMX-I cells did not differ in the two nude species during the first 12 hours after cell injection. The plating efficiency of FEMX-I cells in soft agar was increased by the addition of conditioned medium prepared from rat lungs, resulting also in a significant increase in colony size. In contrast, conditioned medium prepared from mouse lungs reduced the clonogenic capacity of the FEMX-I cells in a dose-dependent manner. Conditioned media prepared from rat and mouse liver, kidney, and spleen tissues either inhibited or had no effect on colony formation. The results suggest that the unexpected differential metastatic patterns observed in vivo may reflect differences in the presence of growth-modulating paracrine factors in the host lungs.

  15. Immunoscintigraphy of human tumors transplanted in nude mice with radiolabeled anti-ras p21 monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nakata, K.; Kohno, K.; Shima, M.; Satoh, A.; Kusumoto, Y.; Ishii, N.; Kohji, T.; Shiku, H.; Nagataki, S. )

    1990-09-01

    Anti-ras p21 monoclonal antibody (RASK-3) was used for immunoscintigraphy of human cancer cell lines in nude mice. Iodine-125-labeled RASK-3 was injected into nude mice with either human colon cancers (FCC-1 or BM-314) or lung cancer (KNS-62). Clear images were obtained in all three cancers 7 days after the injection of antibody. No localization of {sup 125}I-labeled control monoclonal antibody was observed. The ratio of tissue/blood radioactivity and % ID/g in the tumor were significantly higher than other organs by Day 8. The specific localization index examined by {sup 131}I-RASK-3 and {sup 125}I-control monoclonal antibody was also higher in the tumor than in other tissues. In the in vitro study, binding of RASK-3 to tumor cells increased significantly by treatment of cells with either lysolecithin or periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde, which confirmed the intracellular localization of ras p21. The mechanism by which anti-ras p21 antibodies accumulate in tumor sites could be the necrotic changes in tumor cells or changes in membrane permeability of non-necrotic cells. These results provide a strong rationale for the utilization of ras p21 as a target antigen in the imaging of a variety of human cancers.

  16. Cilengitide inhibits metastatic bone colonization in a nude rat model.

    PubMed

    Bretschi, Maren; Merz, Maximilian; Komljenovic, Dorde; Berger, Martin R; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bäuerle, Tobias

    2011-10-01

    Integrins αvβ3 and αvβ5 are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer bone metastases. This study investigates the effects of the αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin-specific inhibitor cilengitide during early metastatic bone colonization. The impact of cilengitide on the migration, invasion and proliferation of MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells as well as on bone resorption by osteoclasts was investigated in vitro. For in vivo experiments, nude rats were treated with cilengitide for 30 days starting one day after site-specific tumor cell inoculation in the hind leg, and the course of metastatic changes in bone was followed using flat-panel volumetric computed tomography (VCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Vascular changes in bone metastases were investigated using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-) MRI-derived parameters amplitude A and exchange rate coefficient kep. In vitro, cilengitide treatment resulted in a decrease in proliferation, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells, as well as of osteoclast activity. In vivo, the development of bone metastasis in the hind leg of rats was not prevented by adjuvant cilengitide treatment, but cilengitide reduced the volumes of osteolytic lesions and respective soft tissue tumors of developing bone metastases as assessed with VCT and MRI, respectively. DCE-MRI revealed significant changes in the A and kep parameters including decreased relative blood volume and increased vessel permeability after cilengitide treatment indicating vessel remodeling. In conclusion, during early pathogenic processes of bone colonization, cilengitide treatment exerted effects on tumor cells, osteoclasts and vasculature reducing the skeletal lesion size of experimental skeletal metastases. PMID:21725616

  17. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice. III. The effect of PMSG and oestradiol upon the size and composition of the ovarian follicle population.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    The response of 1 month old congenitally athymic nude mice and their phenotypically normal littermates to exogenous pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and oestradiol-17beta has been tested. An equal increase in the number of growing follicles was detected in both nudes and controls in response to PMSG. A specific increase occurred in the number of unilaminar follicles in the initial growth stages in addition to the increase in the number of multilaminar and vesicular follicles. Oestradiol depressed follicular growth equally in both nudes and controls. The contracted appearance of growing follicles in nudes disappeared under the influence of PMSG and was induced in ovaries of control mice treated with oestradiol. We conclude that the ability of the mouse ovary to respond to exogenous PMSG and the oestradiol is not impaired by congenital athymia as expressed in the nude genotype. The data suggest that the retardation of follicular growth already reported in 1 month old nudes arises from a deficiency of gonadotrophin. PMID:1263607

  18. Outcome of xenografted fetal porcine pancreatic tissue is superior in inbred scid (C.B-17/Icr-scid/scid) compared to outbred nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice.

    PubMed

    Tuch, B E; Casamento, F M

    1999-01-01

    Nude mice are used as recipients of foreign tissue because of their inability to reject these grafts. Our experience has been that there is variable rejection of fetal porcine insulin-producing tissue transplanted into CD-1 (athymic) outbred nude mice. To examine the suitability of this line of nude mouse as a recipient of the tissue, fetal porcine pancreas was grafted either into these outbred animals or into an inbred mutant strain of mice, the more immunocompromised severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. Eight weeks after transplantation grafts were recovered from recipients and assayed for insulin content. Mean insulin levels were not significantly different between the two groups of mice, but a wider range of values was obtained from grafts recovered from nude (CD-1-nu/nu) mice. Reversal of diabetes in hyperglycemic recipients was achieved in 4 of 8 nude mice and 8 of 8 scid (C.B-17/lcr-scid/scid) mice. The time taken to achieve this was longer in the nudes than the scid mice, 121 +/- 12 vs. 44 +/- 2 days, the grafts increasing in size at a slower rate in the nude mice. Time taken for the weight of the grafts to double in size was 94 +/- 17 vs. 32 +/- 1 days, respectively. Histologically the grafts in the scid mice contained mostly epithelial cell clusters, a majority of which were insulin containing. In the nude mice that achieved normoglycemia, a similar pattern was observed and, as well, there was a localized lymphoid infiltrate. In those nude mice that remained diabetic fibrous tissue predominated together with a lymphoid infiltrate. In summary, fetal porcine pancreatic tissue grows and develops more efficiently when xenografted into scid rather than outbred nude mice. PMID:10442738

  19. Nude mice produce a T cell-derived antigen-binding factor that mediates the early component of delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Herzog, W R; Meade, R; Pettinicchi, A; Ptak, W; Askenase, P W

    1989-03-15

    The elicitation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in mice is caused by the sequential action of two different T cells. An early-acting, DTH-initiating T cell produces an Ag-specific T cell factor, that is analogous to IgE antibody and initiates DTH by sensitizing the local tissues for release of the vasoactive amine serotonin. In picryl chloride or oxazolone contact sensitivity, this T cell factor is Ag-specific, but MHC unrestricted. We, therefore, hypothesized that DTH-initiating T cells are primitive T cells with Ag receptors that can bind Ag without MHC restriction. In order to characterize the origin of this DTH-initiating T cell and the conditions that are necessary for its development, we contact-sensitized various strains of immunodeficient mice. Surprisingly, we found that the early phase of DTH was present in athymic nude mice. In contrast, the early component of DTH was absent in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. These mice lack T and B cells, but have NK cells. These findings suggested that the early component of DTH was not caused by NK cells, and was caused by cells belonging to a lineage from a rearranging gene family. The early component of DTH in nude mice was Ag specific, was caused by MHC unrestricted Thy-1+ T cells, and was mediated by Ag-binding, Ag-specific T cell factors. We found that DTH-initiating, T cell-derived, Ag-binding molecules from nude mice and normal CBA/J mice had the same functional properties. The early component of DTH was elicited in two different systems (contact sensitivity and SRBC-specific DTH) in two strains of nude mice (BALB/c athymic nudes and CByB6F1/J-nu) from two different suppliers, but not in BALB/c and athymic nudes from a third supplier. From these findings we concluded that DTH-initiating T cells, which produce IgE-like Ag-specific T cell factors, are present in some strains of athymic nude mice and thus are relatively thymic independent T cells. PMID:2466077

  20. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  1. Chidamide and 5-flurouracil show a synergistic antitumor effect on human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Qiu, S; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Zheng, Y; Su, X; Chen, B; Chen, H

    2016-01-01

    Chidamide is a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that increases the acetylation of histone H3 by inhibiting the activity of HDAC1 and HDAC2. We previously found that treatment of human colon cancer cells with chidamide led to cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/1 phase in vitro. The present study extended the observations in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. In nude mice bearing human colon cancer LoVo cell xenografts, chidamide alone or in combination with 5-flurouracil (5-Fu) reduced the expression of HDAC1 and HDAC2, accompanied with increased acetylation of histone H3. Chidamide alone inhibited the tumor growth and induce cell apoptosis in tumor-bearing mice. Combined treatment of chidamide with 5-Fu enhanced the anti-tumor activity of 5-Fu. Western blotting analysis showed that chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu upregulated the expressions of cleaved Caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase (PARP). In addition, chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu increased the p53, phosphorylated-p53 (p-p53), p21 and γH2AX levels, but suppressed cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) expression in tumor cells. Chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu down regulated the expressions of p-AKT, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-p70S6K, p-Raf, and p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (Erk1/2), indicating the blockage of these signaling pathways. The results demonstrated that chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu exerted anti-tumor activity in nude mice bearing human colon cancer LoVo cell xenografts, and several signaling pathways might be involved in the chidamide-induced tumor growth inhibition and tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:26774139

  2. Effects of Zeaxanthin on Growth and Invasion of Human Uveal Melanoma in Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaoliang L.; Iacob, Codrin; Jordan, Adrienne; Gandhi, Sandipkumar; Gierhart, Dennis L.; Rosen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma cells were inoculated into the choroid of nude mice and treated with or without intraocular injection of zeaxanthin. After 21 days, mice were sacrificed and the eyes enucleated. Histopathological analysis was performed in hematoxylin and eosin stained frozen sections. Melanoma developed rapidly in the control group (without treatment of zeaxanthin). Tumor-bearing eye mass and tumor mass in the control group were significantly greater than those in zeaxanthin treated group. Melanoma in the controlled eyes occupied a large part of the eye, was epithelioid in morphology, and was with numerous mitotic figures. Scleral perforation and extraocular extension were observed in half of the eyes. Melanomas in zeaxanthin treated eyes were significantly smaller with many necrosis and apoptosis areas and no extraocular extension could be found. Quantitative image analysis revealed that the tumor size was reduced by 56% in eyes treated with low dosages of zeaxanthin and 92% in eyes treatment with high dosages of zeaxanthin, as compared to the controls. This study demonstrated that zeaxanthin significantly inhibits the growth and invasion of human uveal melanoma in nude mice, suggesting that zeaxanthin may be a promising agent to be explored for the prevention and treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:26682063

  3. Establishment and characteristics of two new human mammary carcinoma lines in nude mice with special reference to the estradiol receptor status and the importance of stroma for in vivo and in vitro growth.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, H; Fichtner, I; Elbe, B; Saul, G J; Haensch, W; Zschiesche, W; Reinecke, S

    1994-01-01

    Two new human mammary carcinoma lines originating from surgical material were established in nude mice. According to the adopted criteria, the tumor 4049 has been classified as estradiol receptor positive and mammary carcinoma 4296 as estradiol receptor negative. Both tumors proved to be c-erbB-2 protein positive and EGF-receptor negative. In contrast to carcinoma 4296, the in vitro growth and the take rate of mammary carcinoma 4049 in nude mice seems to be dependent on stromal components. Pretreatment of mice with estradiol/peanut oil before tumor engraftment was an essential precondition for the growth of the primary tumor in nude mice. After successful establishment the tumor growth was significantly stimulated by estradiol. The growth rate of mammary carcinoma 4296 was independent of any supplementation of estradiol. The two breast tumors were characterized with regard to their growth behaviour, histology, and sensitivity to cytostatics and antihormones. They are considered suitable tumor models for the testing of antineoplastic substances and for biological experiments. PMID:7865848

  4. Growth of diploid, Epstein-Barr virus-carrying human lymphoblastoid cell lines heterotransplanted into nude mice under immunologically privileged conditions.

    PubMed

    Giovanella, B; Nilsson, K; Zech, L; Yim, O; Klein, G; Stehlin, J S

    1979-07-15

    Human Epstein-Barr virus-carrying lymphoid cell lines which have been classified on the basis of studies on clonality and morphological, chromosomal and functional parameters as lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) of presumed non-neoplastic origin were inoculated intracerebrally into nude mice. All eighteen of them grew, killing the host mice within 7 to 25 days, except for 2 which grew more slowly. At autopsy, the brain of the nudes was found to be invaded by infiltrating lymphomas. Sixteen of these lymphomas, when recultured in vitro, gave rise to cell lines with growth properties and morphology indistinguishable from those of the inoculated LCL. Chromosomal examinations showed that 3/7 cell lines injected, which grew as lymphomas in the brain, were still normal diploid on reexplantation whereas the remaining four had become aneuploid. Four lines derived from intracerebral lymphomas (2 diploid, 1 aneuploid and 1 untested) were inoculated subcutaneously into adult nude mice. None of them grew. When the corresponding four original LCL lines were inoculated subcutaneously into newborn nude mice, they grew rapidly, but failed to do so in newborn normal mice or intracerebrally in adult normal mice. One such line, U-1450, was treated with anti-lymphocyte serum (ALS). Small nodules developed at the site of inoculation. From one nodule a cell line was cultured, 1450 ALSAD. It was morphologically indistinguishable from the line of origin. The lines obtained from nude mice inoculated with polyclonal LCL seem to have a restricted clonal representation, but were not monoclonal, as evidenced by analyses of their pattern of immunoglobulin synthesis. PMID:225282

  5. Inhibition of atherosclerosis in CD4 T-cell-ablated and nude (nu/nu) C57BL/6 hyperlipidemic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Emeson, E. E.; Shen, M. L.; Bell, C. G.; Qureshi, A.

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages are prominent components of atherosclerotic lesions, and many of these cells are activated and secreting cytokines. To determine the role of these cells in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, we studied its development in T-cell-deficient mice fed a high fat atherogenic diet. Depleting euthymic mice of their CD4+ lymphocytes by 20 weekly injections of CD4 monoclonal antibodies reduced the mean area of their aortic lesions by approximately 70%. Similarly, the mean lesion area of T-cell-deficient nude (nu/nu) mice was 10% of the size of that of their heterozygote (nu/+) litter mates. Flow cytometric studies of splenic T cells and analyses of serum total and HDL cholesterol of these mice indicated that the differences in mean lesion areas among the experimental groups were most closely correlated with differences in splenic T cells content. These studies suggest that in these two models T lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of early atherosclerotic lesions and that a further understanding of this phenomenon may provide future approaches toward the prevention and treatment of the disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8702005

  6. Dermal penetration and systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled vitamin E human skin grafted athymic nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Klain, G.J.

    1989-03-13

    In vivo percutaneous penetration and tissue distribution of 14C-labeled vitamin E applied to human skin grafted onto athymic nude mice were determined. At 1 hr, mouse skin contained the highest level of radioactivity, followed by the muscle, blood, liver, lung, adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, and eyes. A linear increase with time in tissue radioactivity was observed throughout the 24 hr experimental period. At 4 and 24 hrs skin grafts were highly radioactive. At 4 hrs the epidermis and the upper portion of the dermis contained more radioactivity than the remaining portion of the dermis. In contrast, at 24 hrs the highest level of radioactivity was detected in the lower dermis. No radioactivity was detected in expired air while 0.2% of the dose was found in the urine. The data show that vitamin E does penetrate skin and that the dermis acts as a barrier or reservoir for this highly lipophilic compound.

  7. Improvement of epidermal differentiation and barrier function in reconstructed human skin after grafting onto athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Higounenc, I; Démarchez, M; Régnier, M; Schmidt, R; Ponec, M; Shroot, B

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether epidermis reconstructed in vitro at the air-liquid interface on de-epidermized dermis has the capacity to normalize the expression of differentiation-specific markers, its lipid composition and stratum corneum barrier properties, human skin equivalents were transplanted onto athymic nude mice and investigated at different stages ranging from 1 to 4 months after grafting. Indirect immunofluorescence with species- or non-species-specific antibodies revealed that as early as 1 month after transplantation keratinization, and involucrin, loricrin and transglutaminase patterns were normalized. Human melanocytes were observed in the basal layer of the pigmented graft. As revealed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and transmission electron microscopy after ruthenium tetroxide fixation, the lipid profile and the intracellular lamellar organization were similar to those found in natural epidermis. Transepidermal water loss measurements and penetration studies showed that the barrier properties of the reconstructed epidermis after transplantation were comparable to those of normal human skin. PMID:8154923

  8. Post-acute response of 9L gliosarcoma to Photofrin-mediated PDT in athymic nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuepeng; Jiang, Feng; Kalkanis, Steven N; Zhang, ZhengGang; Hong, Xin; Yang, Hongyan; Chopp, Michael

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the chronic responses of 9L glioma and normal brain to photodynamic therapy (PDT). Tumor size, proliferation activity of glioma cells, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in both the tumor area and the brain adjacent to tumor (BAT) were observed 7 days after clinically relevant doses of PDT treatment. 9L Gliosarcoma cells were implanted into the brain of 20 athymic nude mice. Fifteen mice were injected intraperitoneally with Photofrin at a dose of 2 mg/kg on day 6 after tumor implantation and were treated with laser at different optical doses of 40 J/cm(2) (n = 5), 80 J/cm(2) (n = 5), and 120 J/cm(2) (n = 5) at 24 h after Photofrin injection, respectively. The remaining five tumor-bearing mice served as a tumor-only control. All animals were killed 14 days after tumor implantation. Hematoxylin and eosin and immunostaining were performed to assess tumor volume, VEGF expression in the tumor and the BAT, as well as Ki67 expression in the tumor area. The tumor volume of the mice receiving 80 or 120 J/cm(2) group was significantly smaller than the control group (p < 0.01). VEGF immunoreactivity in the BAT was significantly increased in the 120 J/cm(2) PDT-treated mice (p < 0.001), compared with the immunoreactivity seen in untreated mice and those receiving Photofrin and lower optical doses. No significant differences were detected in the proliferation of glioma cells and VEGF expression in the tumor area between these groups. These data indicate that PDT can shrink tumor, especially at the high light dose, and that PDT induces expression of VEGF in the BAT, which is associated with tumor recurrence. Therefore, PDT combined with anti-angiogenic agents may be an effective treatment strategy for glioma. PMID:17505777

  9. Enhancement by N-methylformamide of the effect of ionizing radiation on a human colon tumor xenografted in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Dexter, D.L.; Lee, E.S.; Bliven, S.F.; Glicksman, A.S.; Leith, J.T.

    1984-11-01

    Polar solvents, which induce differentiation in murine and human tumor cells, enhance the effect of ionizing radiation on cultured mouse mammary and human colon cancer cells. To determine whether this enhancement occurs in vivo, DLD-2 human colon carcinoma xenografts in nude mice were treated with combinations of 6 MV photon irradiation, the polar solvent N-methylformamide (NMF), or combinations of the two agents. Nude mice bearing 300-mg s.c. implants of DLD-2 tumors were treated i.p. with 150 mg NMF/kg daily for 19 days. Local tumor irradiations were administered as graded single doses or as fractionated doses, daily for 4 days, following the third NMF injection. The growth-inhibiting effect of the radiation treatment for both single dose and fractionation protocols was enhanced by the polar solvent. NMF alone increased the time required for a doubling of initial tumor volume by 1.7 days, compared to control tumors. Initial tumor volume doubling times compared to untreated controls were increased by 3.6 and 7.6 days by photon doses of 10.0 and 13.75 Gy, respectively, whereas NMF plus 10.0 or 13.75 Gy increased the DLD-2 regrowth delay time by 7.5 or 12.9 days. NMF caused essentially equivalent enhancements, whether split-dose schedules of 2.5 Gy daily for 4 days, and 3.44 Gy daily for 4 days, or single doses of 10.0 and 13.75 Gy were used; therefore, radiation enhancement was not due to effects on sublethal damage repair. The results support the use of NMF, currently in Phase 1-Phase 2 clinical trials, with radiation in the therapy of selected human neoplasms.

  10. Exogenous stimulation with Eclipta alba promotes hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and downregulates TGF-β1 expression in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahnaz; Lee, Mi Ra; Gu, Li Juan; Hossain, Jamil; Sung, Chang Keun

    2015-02-01

    Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk (E. alba) is a traditionally acclaimed medicinal herb used for the promotion of hair growth. However, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued to date on its effects on genetically distorted hair follicles (HFs). In this study, we aimed to identify an agent (stimuli) that may be beneficial for the restoration of human hair loss and which may be used as an alternative to synthetic drugs. We investigated the effects of petroleum ether extract (PEE) and different solvent fractions of E. alba on HFs of nude mice. Treatment was performed by topical application on the backs of nude mice and the changes in hair growth patterns were evaluated. Histological analysis was carried out to evaluate the HF morphology and the structural differences. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed to visualize follicular keratinocyte proliferation. The histological assessments revealed that the PEE-treated skin specimens exhibited prominent follicular hypertrophy. Subsequently, IHC staining revealed a significant increase (p<0.001) in the number of follicular keratinocytes in basal epidermal and matrix cells. Our results also demonstrated that PEE significantly (p<0.001) reduced the levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression during early anagen and anagen-catagen transition. Our results suggest that PEE of E. alba acts as an important exogenous mediator that stimulates follicular keratinocyte proliferation and delays terminal differentiation by downregulating TGF-β1 expression. Thus, this study highlights the potential use of PEE of E. alba in the treatment of certain types of alopecia. PMID:25484129

  11. Quantitative in vivo islet potency assay in normoglycemic nude mice correlates with primary graft function after clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Robert; Gmyr, Valery; Kremer, Bertrand; Hubert, Thomas; Soudan, Benoit; Lukowiak, Bruno; Vandewalle, Brigitte; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Pattou, Francois; Kerr-Conte, Julie

    2008-07-27

    Reliable assays are critically needed to monitor graft potency in islet transplantation (IT). We tested a quantitative in vivo islet potency assay (QIVIPA) based on human C-peptide (hCP) measurements in normoglycemic nude mice after IT under the kidney capsule. QIVIPA was initially tested by transplanting incremental doses of human islets. hCP levels in mice were correlated with the number of transplanted islet equivalents (r(2) = 0.6, P<0.01). We subsequently evaluated QIVIPA in eight islet preparations transplanted in type 1 diabetic patients. Conversely to standard criteria including islet mass, viability, purity, adenosine triphosphate content, or glucose stimulated insulin secretion, hCP in mice receiving 1% of the final islet product was correlated to primary graft function (hCP increase) after IT (r(2)=0.85, P<0.01). QIVIPA appears as a reliable test to monitor islet graft potency, applicable to validate new methods to produce primary islets or other human insulin secreting cells. PMID:18645503

  12. Aromatase in the human choriocarcinoma JEG-3: inhibition by R 76 713 in cultured cells and in tumors grown in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Krekels, M D; Wouters, W; De Coster, R; Van Ginckel, R; Leonaers, A; Janssen, P A

    1991-04-01

    The aromatase enzyme and its inhibition by R 76 713 were characterized in the JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cell line in culture and in JEG-3 tumors grown in nude mice. Optimal cell culture parameters and enzyme reaction conditions for the determination of aromatase activity were established. Under these conditions, in vitro JEG-3 aromatase was inhibited by R 76 713 with IC50-values of 7.6 +/- 0.5 nM and 2.7 +/- 1.1 nM using 500 nM of androstenedione and testosterone as substrate respectively. The Km-value of the aromatase enzyme with androstenedione as substrate was 62 +/- 19 nM; with testosterone as substrate, a value of 166 +/- 27 nM was found. In the presence of increasing concentrations of R 76 713, the Km-values increased while the Vmax remained unchanged. Using androstenedione and testosterone as substrate Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the data showed Ki-values for R 76 713 of 0.43 +/- 0.06 nM and 0.47 +/- 0.39 nM respectively. R 76 713 appeared to competitively inhibit the JEG-3 aromatase. Aromatase could easily be measured in homogenates of JEG-3 tumors grown in nude mice and showed Km-values similar to those found for JEG-3 cells in vitro. IC50-values for inhibition of tumor aromatase by R 76 713 were also similar to those found in cultured cells. Tumor aromatase measured ex vivo, 2 h after a single oral administration of R 76 713 was dose-dependently inhibited. An ED50-value of 0.05 mg/kg was calculated. The JEG-3 choriocarcinoma proved to be a useful aromatase model enabling the comparative study of aromatase inhibition in vitro and in vivo. PMID:2031856

  13. Cetuximab intensifies the ADCC activity of adoptive NK cells in a nude mouse colorectal cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shanshan; Li, Xuechun; Chen, Rongming; Yin, Mingang; Zheng, Qiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, discovered ~40 years ago, are believed to be the most effective cytotoxic lymphocytes to counteract cancer; however, adoptive NK cell therapy in vivo has encountered certain limitations, including a lack of specificity. The drug cetuximab can mediate antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity through NK cells in vivo, and has been approved for the first-line treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the ADCC activity of adoptive NK cells, induced by cetuximab in a nude mouse CRC xenograft model, has not been previously reported. The aim of the present study was to explore the ADCC activity of cetuximab combined with adoptive NK cells in CRC xenograft models with various EGFR expressions. The nude mouse xenograft models were established by subcutaneously injecting LOVO or SW620 cells. The mice were then randomly divided into 6 groups: Phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), NK cells, hIgG plus NK cells and cetuximab plus NK cells. The ADCC antitumor activity was evaluated in these CRC models. The results indicated that the cetuximab plus NK cells group showed the greatest tumor inhibition effect compared with the NK cells group in LOVO xenograft tumor models with positive EGFR expression. However, the combination of cetuximab and NK cells did not show a stronger tumor inhibitory effect against the SW620 xenograft tumor models compared with the efficiency of NK cells. In conclusion, cetuximab could intensify the ADCC antitumor activity of adoptive NK cells towards CRC with an increased EGFR expression. The combination of cetuximab and NK cells may be a potential immunotherapy for metastatic CRC patients with positive EGFR expression. PMID:27602116

  14. Inhibition of lung tumor growth in nude mice by siRNACD31 targeting PECAM-1

    PubMed Central

    OUYANG, JIN-SHENG; LI, YU-PING; CHEN, CHENG-SHUI; CHEN, JUN-JIE; CHEN, TONG-KE; CAI, CHANG; YANG, LI

    2014-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a promising therapeutic approach in the silencing of disease-causing genes. In the present study, the use of 2′-O-methyl-modified siRNA-cluster of differentiation 31 (siRNACD31), with cationic liposome RNA interference (RNAi)-mate as a carrier, effectively silenced the platelet endothelial cell molecule 1 (PECAM-1) gene of murine hemangioendothelioma cells in vitro. In vivo, 2′-O-methyl-modified siRNACD31 carried by RNAi-mate was successfully delivered, targeting the PECAM-1 gene in the vasculature of nude mouse lung carcinoma xenografts. The growth of the lung carcinoma xenografts was inhibited by the 2′-O-methyl-modified siRNACD31 and RNAi-mate complexes, and the expression of the PECAM-1 protein was downregulated, with a simultaneous decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein in the lung carcinoma xenografts. 2′-O-methyl-modified siRNACD31-RNAi-mate complexes may provide a potential therapeutic strategy in lung carcinoma treatment. The effect of PECAM-1 on VEGF expression may possibly be attributed to the function of PECAM-1 signal transduction. PMID:24959215

  15. Therapeutic effect against human xenograft tumors in nude mice by the third generation microtubule stabilizing epothilones.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Chao; Zhang, Xiuguo; Zhong, Zi-Yang; Li, Yong; Feng, Li; Eng, Sara; Myles, David R; Johnson, Robert; Wu, Nian; Yin, Ye Ingrid; Wilson, Rebecca M; Danishefsky, Samuel J

    2008-09-01

    The epothilones represent a promising class of natural product-based antitumor drug candidates. Although these compounds operate through a microtubule stabilization mechanism similar to that of taxol, the epothilones offer a major potential therapeutic advantage in that they retain their activity against multidrug-resistant cell lines. We have been systematically synthesizing and evaluating synthetic epothilone congeners that are not accessible through modification of the natural product itself. We report herein the results of biological investigations directed at two epothilone congeners: iso-fludelone and iso-dehydelone. Iso-fludelone, in particular, exhibits a number of properties that render it an excellent candidate for preclinical development, including biological stability, excellent solubility in water, and remarkable potency relative to other epothilones. In nude mouse xenograft settings, iso-fludelone was able to achieve therapeutic cures against a number of human cancer cell lines, including mammarian-MX-1, ovarian-SK-OV-3, and the fast-growing, refractory, subcutaneous neuroblastoma-SK-NAS. Strong therapeutic effect was observed against drug-resistant lung-A549/taxol and mammary-MCF-7/Adr xenografts. In addition, iso-fludelone was shown to exhibit a significant therapeutic effect against an intracranially implanted SK-NAS tumor. PMID:18755900

  16. Anti-tumour activity of photodynamic therapy in combination with mitomycin C in nude mice with human colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L. W.; Moan, J.; Steen, H. B.; Iani, V.

    1995-01-01

    The interaction of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and a chemotherapeutic drug, mitomycin C (MMC), was investigated using WiDr human colon adenocarcinoma tumours implanted on Balb/c athymic nude mice. The WiDr tumours were treated with PDT alone, MMC alone or with both. It was found that the combined treatment produced a greater retardation in the growth of the WiDr tumour than monotherapy with MMC or PDT. The synergistic effect was especially prominent when PDT was used in combination with a low dose of MMC (1 mg kg-1), since treatment of 1 mg kg-1 MMC alone had no effect on the tumour. The anti-tumour activity of PDT was found to be increased with MMC of 5 mg kg-1. The response of normal skin on mice feet to PDT slightly greater when PDT was combined with 5 mg kg-1 MMC than when PDT was applied alone, while no detectable additional effect on skin photosensitivity was observed when PDT was combined with 1 mg kg-1 MMC. An enhanced uptake of Photofrin in tumours was found 12 h and 24 h after administration of MMC. The effect of MMC on the cell cycle distribution of cell dissociated directly from the tumours was studied. The results suggest that the increased susceptibility to photoinactivation of Photofrin-sensitised tumours may be due to MMC-induced accumulation of the tumour cells in S-phase. PMID:7734319

  17. Ovarian development in athymic nude mice V. The effects of PMSG upon the numbers and growth of follicles in the early juvenile ovary.

    PubMed

    Lintern-Moore, S; Pantelouris, E M

    1976-01-01

    The composition and growth patterns of the ovarian follicle population have been determined in early juvenile athymic nude mice and their phenotypically normal littermates. Nude ovaries contained significantly more primordial follicles and fewer trilaminar follicles at 10 days of age. The rate of growth of the oocyte nucleolus was significantly less than in control ovaries. Treatment with PMSG from days 7 to 9 restored the rate of oocyte nucleolar growth in nudes to control levels. PMSG also increased the number of follicles commencing growth in both nudes and controls and the differences in the numbers of primordial and trilaminar follicles were no longer detectable. The data demonstrate that abnormalities in the ovarian follicle population of the nude are detectable as early as the 10th day of life and can be reversed by treatment with exogenous gonadotrophin. These results are discussed in relation to the role of the thymus gland in ovarian development and the competence of the early juvenile ovary to respond to gonadotrophin. PMID:957803

  18. Micro-Computed Tomography Evaluation of Human Fat Grafts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Michael T.; Hyun, Jeong S.; Lo, David D.; Montoro, Daniel T.; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Levi, Benjamin; Januszyk, Michael; Longaker, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis. Methods Human fat grafts were prepared from lipoaspirate samples using the Coleman technique. Fat was injected subcutaneously into the scalp of 10 adult Crl:NU-Foxn1nu CD-1 male mice. Micro-computed tomography (CT) was performed immediately following injection and then weekly thereafter. Fat volume was rendered by reconstructing a three-dimensional (3D) surface through cubic-spline interpolation. Specimens were also harvested at various time points and sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), for macrophages using CD68 and for the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). Finally, samples were explanted at 8- and 12-week time points to validate calculated micro-CT volumes. Results Weekly CT scanning demonstrated progressive volume loss over the time course. However, volumetric analysis at the 8- and 12-week time points stabilized, showing an average of 62.2% and 60.9% survival, respectively. Gross analysis showed the fat graft to be healthy and vascularized. H&E analysis and staining for CD68 showed minimal inflammatory reaction with viable adipocytes. Immunohistochemical staining with anti-human CB1 antibodies confirmed human origin of the adipocytes. Conclusions Studies assessing the fate of autologous fat grafts in animals have focused on nonimaging modalities, including histological and biochemical analyses, which require euthanasia of the animals. In this study, we have demonstrated the ability to employ micro-CT for 3D reconstruction and volumetric analysis of human fat grafts in a mouse model. Importantly

  19. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingkai; Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs-scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 10(6) cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. PMID:26253192

  20. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  1. Optoacoustic 3D whole-body tomography: experiments in nude mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Fronheiser, Matt; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Conjusteau, André; Liopo, Anton; Motamedi, Massoud; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2009-02-01

    We developed a 3D whole-body optoacoustic tomography system for applications in preclinical research on mice. The system is capable of generating images with resolution better than 0.6 mm. Two pulsed lasers, an Alexandrite laser operating at 755 nm and a Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm and 1064nm were used for light delivery. The tomographic images were obtained while the objects of study (phantoms or mice) were rotated within a sphere outlined by a concave arc-shaped array of 64 piezo-composite transducers. During the scan, the mouse was illuminated orthogonally to the array with two wide beams of light from a bifurcated fiber bundle. Illumination at 532 nm showed superficial vasculature, but limited penetration depth at this wavelength prevented the detection of deeper structures. Illumination at 755 and 1064 nm showed organs and blood vessels, respectively. Filtering of the optoacoustic signals using high frequency enhancing wavelets further emphasized the smaller blood vessels.

  2. The effect of tou nong san on transplanted tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang-Hua; Wang, Rui-Ping; Hu, Shou-You; Teng, Yu-Hao; Xie, Wei-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Tou Nong San (TNS) is a traditional Chinese medicinal decoction used to treat sores and carbuncles. It contains four herbal drugs and one animal medicine: Radix Astragaliseu Seu Hedysari, Angelica sinensis, Ligustici Chuanxiong, Spina Gleditsiae, and stir-baked Squama Manis. Previous studies have shown that it has anticancer effects. This report validates in vivo antitumor properties of TNS. The compounds contained in TNSE were confirmed by liquid chromatographmass spectrometer (LC-MS) analysis. The in vivo antitumor activity of TNS extract (TNSE) was tested by feeding it to athymic mice harboring a human colonic tumor subcutaneous xenograft. Toxicity was monitored by recording behavior and weight parameters. Seven compounds were detected in TNSE by LC-MS. TNSE was fed to athymic mice for 2 weeks. No adverse reactions were reported. Compared to the control group, administration of TNSE to tumor bearing mice significantly reduced both tumor weight and volume. The expressions of p-PI3K, p-AKT, p-mTOR, p-p70s6k1, VEGF, and CD31 were significantly reduced, the expression levels of cleaved Caspase-9 and cleaved Caspase-3 were significantly increased in the TNSE groups compared to the control group as determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. TNSE produced anticolonic cancer effects and the underlying mechanisms involved inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signal transduction pathway, inhibition of angiogenesis, and promotion of apoptotic proteins. PMID:25788964

  3. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric proteins of human immunodeficiency virus and gamma interferon are attenuated for nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Giavedoni, L D; Jones, L; Gardner, M B; Gibson, H L; Ng, C T; Barr, P J; Yilma, T

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for attenuating vaccinia virus recombinants by expressing a fusion protein of a lymphokine and an immunogen. Chimeric genes were constructed that coded for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we describe the biological and immunological properties of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric genes of murine or human IFN-gamma with glycoprotein gp120, gag, and a fragment of gp41. All fusion proteins retained the antigenic characteristics of both IFN-gamma and HIV as shown by immunoblot analysis. However, the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma could be demonstrated only for the IFN-gamma-gag fusion protein. In contrast, the attenuating activity of IFN-gamma for nude mice was retained by all of the recombinants, albeit at various rates. Unlike the antiviral activity, the attenuating activity of IFN-gamma was not species specific. Implications for the development of attenuated live recombinant vaccines for AIDS are discussed. Images PMID:1565633

  4. Targeted therapy against human lung cancer in nude mice by high-affinity recombinant antimesothelin single-chain Fv immunotoxin.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dominic; Yano, Seiji; Shinohara, Hisashi; Solorzano, Carmen; Van Arsdall, Melissa; Bucana, Corazon D; Pathak, Sen; Kruzel, Ewa; Herbst, Roy S; Onn, Amir; Roach, Jennifer S; Onda, Masanori; Wang, Qing-cheng; Pastan, Ira; Fidler, Isaiah J

    2002-06-01

    Several tumors, including mesothelioma and ovarian cancer, can overexpress mesothelin, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked differentiation glycoprotein. The membrane-bound type of mesothelin is found in the blood of cancer patients at a very low level, which makes mesothelin a good candidate for targeted therapy of certain cancers. An antimesothelin disulfide-linked Fv (SS1 Fv) was fused to a truncated mutant of Pseudomonas exotoxin A to produce the recombinant immunotoxin SS1(dsFv)-PE38, which has a high binding affinity to mesothelin (Kd = 0.7 nM). Our studies in vitro showed that SS1(dsFv)-PE38 is significantly more cytotoxic to the high-mesothelin-producing NCI-H226 human non-small cell lung cancer cells than to human lung adenocarcinoma PC14PE6 cells, which do not express mesothelin. When administered at a nontoxic dose of 500 microg/kg on days 7, 9, and 11 to nude mice injected i.v. with the two human lung cancer cell lines, SS1(dsFv)-PE38 selectively inhibited experimental lung metastases produced by the mesothelin-producing NCI-H226 cells. Our data indicate that mesothelin-producing squamous cell carcinoma of the lung may be a good target for this immunotoxin. PMID:12479219

  5. The effect of multidrug resistance modulator HZ08 on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in xenograft-nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Feng, Yidong; Darshika, Kodithuwakku Nandani; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yahui; Fang, Weirong; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-01-23

    To overcome MDR (multidrug resistance) of cancer mediated by P-gp (P-glycoprotein) has become a key strategy to improve the survival rate in clinic. Therefore, it is imperative to develop advanced modulators that have no side effects or interactions with cytotoxic drugs. HZ08, which acts as a P-gp inhibitor, shows a notable reverse effect with low cytotoxicity in vitro. Based on the previous results, the goal of this experiment is to elucidate the effect of HZ08 on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in tumor-bearing nude mice. Several criterions and methods, such as tumor weight and volume, in vivo imaging, western blot, immunohistochemistry as well as ATPase hydrolysis assay were selected to evaluate the reversing activity and mechanism of HZ08 on MDR; Furthermore, fluorescence detection assay was applied to determine the distribution of adriamycin in the blood and tissues. This study revealed that HZ08 potentiated the anti-tumor activity of adriamycin but with little effect on the expression of P-gp in vivo. Adriamycin accumulation in tumor was enhanced by HZ08 via ATPase activity inhibition. In addition, HZ08 did not alter the pharmacokinetic characteristic of adriamycin in plasma or tissues. In conclusion, HZ08 showed dramatic MDR reversing activity and had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of adriamycin. PMID:25459530

  6. [Microvascular architecture of human tumors transplanted in nude mice--its relationship to sensitivity to antineoplastic agents].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, M; Kubota, T; Hanatani, Y; Maruyama, K; Tsuyuki, K; Nakada, M; Asanuma, F; Ishibiki, K; Abe, O

    1982-08-01

    Microangiographic study was performed with ten human tumors serially transplanted into nude mice to clarify the role of tumor vessels on the chemosensitivity of the human tumors. Five gastric carcinomas, two colon carcinomas, one breast carcinoma, one cholangiocarcinoma, and one hemangiopericytoma were used for the experiments. Seven tumors revealed hypervascular network of vessels, whereas hypovascular patterns of tumor vessels were observed in the other three tumors. It was found that the histologically differentiated tumors were hypervascular and undifferentiated tumors were hypovascular, with statistically significant differences (p less than 0.05). Each tumor possessed the vascular network similar to human tumors originated from the same organs. No discernible changes of microangiographic features were noticed by serial transfers. As the chemosensitivities of these tumors depended mainly on their original tissues, these chemosensitivities could not be explained only by tumor vascularities or drug transferences. However, in the tumors with similar chemosensitive spectra, less susceptible tumors were observed to possess the irregular vascular networks in comparison with sensitive strains. From these considerations, tumor vessels were thought to have some role on vascular flow and drug transference which affected chemosensitivity of human tumors. PMID:7184456

  7. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of nude mice vasculature using a photoacoustic imaging system based on a commercial ultrasound scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Shahzad, Khalid; Wang, Yao; Burcher, Michael; Scholle, Frank-Detlef; Hauff, Peter; Mofina, Sabine; Skobe, Mihaela

    2008-02-01

    In-vivo photoacoustic/ultrasound (PA/US) imaging of nude mice was investigated using a photoacoustic imaging system based on a commercial ultrasound scanner HDI-5000. Raw per-channel data was captured and beamformed to generate each individual photoacoustic image with a single laser shot. An ultra-broadband CL15-7 linear array with a center frequency of 8 MHz, combined with a Schott Glass fiber bundle, was used as a compact high resolution imaging probe, with lateral and axial PA resolutions of about 300µm and 200µm, respectively. The imaging system worked in a dual PA-US mode, with the ultrasound outlining the tissue structure and the photoacoustic image showing the blood vessels. PA signals were generated by exposing mice to ultra-short optical pulses from a Nd:YAG-pumped OPO laser operating in a wavelength range of 700-950nm. The corresponding ultrasound images were generated in the regular B-mode with standard delay-and-sum beamforming algorithm. The system resolution was sufficiently high to identify and clearly distinguish the dorsal artery and the two lateral veins in the mouse tail. Both the saphena artery and the ischiatic vein on the cross-section of the mouse leg were clearly outlined in the PA images and correctly overlaid on the ultrasound image of the tissue structure. Similarly, cross-section PA images of the mouse abdomen revealed mesenteric vasculatures located below the abdominal wall. Finally, a successful PA imaging of the mouse thoracic cavity unveiled the ascending and descending aorta. These initial results demonstrate a great potential for a dual photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging modality implemented on a commercial ultrasound imaging scanner.

  8. Undifferentiated Human Adipose-derived Stromal/Stem Cells loaded onto Wet-Spun Starch-polycaprolactone Scaffolds Enhance Bone Regeneration: Nude Mice Calvarial Defect in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Pedro P.; Leonor, Isabel B.; Smith, Brenda J.; Dias, Isabel R.; Reis, Rui L.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Gomes, Manuela E.

    2014-01-01

    The repair of large bony defects remains challenging in the clinical setting. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have been reported to differentiate along different cell lineages, including the osteogenic. The objective of the present study was to assess the bone regeneration potential of undifferentiated hASCs loaded in starch-polycaprolactone (SPCL) scaffolds, in a critical-sized nude mice calvarial defect. Human ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate of five female donors, cryopreserved and pooled together. Critical-sized (4 mm) calvarial defects were created in the parietal bone of adult male nude mice. Defects were either left empty, treated with an SPCL scaffold alone, or SPCL scaffold with human ASCs. Histological analysis and Micro-CT imaging of the retrieved implants were performed. Improved new bone deposition and osseointegration was observed in SPCL loaded with hASC engrafted calvarial defects as compared to control groups that showed little healing. Non differentiated human ASCs enhance ossification of non-healing nude mice calvarial defects, and wet-spun SPCL confirmed its suitability for bone tissue engineering. This study supports the potential translation for ASC use in the treatment of human skeletal defects. PMID:24123913

  9. Undifferentiated human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells loaded onto wet-spun starch-polycaprolactone scaffolds enhance bone regeneration: nude mice calvarial defect in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Pedro P; Leonor, Isabel B; Smith, Brenda J; Dias, Isabel R; Reis, Rui L; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Gomes, Manuela E

    2014-09-01

    The repair of large bony defects remains challenging in the clinical setting. Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (hASCs) have been reported to differentiate along different cell lineages, including the osteogenic. The objective of the present study was to assess the bone regeneration potential of undifferentiated hASCs loaded in starch-polycaprolactone (SPCL) scaffolds, in a critical-sized nude mice calvarial defect. Human ASCs were isolated from lipoaspirate of five female donors, cryopreserved, and pooled together. Critical-sized (4 mm) calvarial defects were created in the parietal bone of adult male nude mice. Defects were either left empty, treated with an SPCL scaffold alone, or SPCL scaffold with human ASCs. Histological analysis and Micro-CT imaging of the retrieved implants were performed. Improved new bone deposition and osseointegration was observed in SPCL loaded with hASC engrafted calvarial defects as compared to control groups that showed little healing. Nondifferentiated human ASCs enhance ossification of nonhealing nude mice calvarial defects, and wet-spun SPCL confirmed its suitability for bone tissue engineering. This study supports the potential translation for ASC use in the treatment of human skeletal defects. PMID:24123913

  10. Comparison of Dermal Substitutes in Wound Healing Utilizing a Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Anh-Tuan N.; Kowal-Vern, Areta; Latenser, Barbara A.; Wiley, Dorion E.; Walter, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dermal skin substitutes have become a standard of care in burn treatment. Objective: To compare and assess wound contracture reduction and histologic incorporation into the wound, dermal substitutes were implanted into full-thickness skin wounds in nude mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven mice received a full-thickness 2 × 2 cm dorsal skin wound, and were either implanted with an acellular dermal matrix, Alloderm, Dermagraft-TC, Dermalogen, or Integra or assigned to the control group (with no dermal substitute). At 28 days postsurgery, the wounds were assessed for contraction, epithelialization, and other histological characteristics. Results: Each dermal substitute decreased wound contracture, but Alloderm and the acellular dermal matrix did so significantly compared to the control (P < .01 and P < .03, respectively). Within-group and control comparisons showed no significant differences with respect to the presence of dystrophic calcification, squamous hyperplasia, infiltration of neutrophils, fibroblasts, and macrophages, epidermal keratinocyte stratification, or collagen fiber configuration. Conclusions: Integra elicited the greatest foreign body response. Although the Dermalogen group had the thickest elastin fiber fragments, Dermagraft may have initiated the earliest elastin fiber formation in the wounds. While all dermal substitutes were incorporated into the wound bed and wound contracture was decreased, acellular dermal matrix and Alloderm, both human skin–derived products, produced less contraction and the thickest new “dermis” in the healed wounds compared to the control or synthetic dermal substitutes. PMID:16921409

  11. Comparison of the selective targeting efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and VNP20009 on the Lewis lung carcinoma in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-06-10

    Salmonella typhimurium A1-R is auxotrophic for arg and leu, which attenuates growth in normal tissue but allows high tumor targeting and virulence. A1-R is effective against metastatic human prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer as well as osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, and glioma in clinically-relevant mouse models. VNP20009 is also a genetically-modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium that has been tested in Phase I clinical trials, but is more attenuated than S. typhimurium A1-R and in addition of multiple amino-acid auxotrophs, is purine auxotropic with the purI mutation. In the present study, mouse Lewis lung carcinoma-bearing nude mouse models were treated with S. typhimurium A1-R or VNP20009. S. typhimurium A1-R and VNP20009 were both eliminated from the liver and spleen approximately 3-5 days after administration via the tail vein. However, A1-R showed higher tumor targeting and inhibited the Lewis lung carcinoma to a greater extent than VNP20009, with less body weight loss. The mice tolerated S. typhimurium A1-R to at a least 2-fold higher dose than VNP20009 when the bacteria were administered iv. The results of the present study suggest that S. typhimurium A1-R has greater clinical potential than VNP20009. PMID:25714030

  12. Effect of a nutrient mixture on the localization of extracellular matrix proteins in HeLa human cervical cancer xenografts in female nude mice

    PubMed Central

    ROOMI, M. WAHEED; CHA, JOHN; KALINOVSKY, TATIANA; ROOMI, NUSRATH; NIEDZWIECKI, ALEKSANDRA; RATH, MATTHIAS

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers and a significant cause of mortality in women worldwide. Although cervical cancer is fully treatable in the early stages, once it has metastasized, patient outcome is poor. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with a nutrient mixture (NM) containing lysine, ascorbic acid, proline, green tea extract and other micronutrients on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in HeLa cell xenografts in nude female mice. After housing for 1 week, female athymic nude mice between 5 and 6 weeks of age (n=12) were inoculated subcutaneously with 3×106 HeLa cells in phosphate-buffered saline and Matrigel and randomly divided into two groups. These were the control group, in which the mice were fed with regular mouse chow, and the NM group, in which the mice were fed with the regular diet supplemented with 0.5% NM (w/w). After 4 weeks, the tumors were excised and processed for histology. Tumor growth was evaluated and the tumors were stained for the ECM proteins collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, laminin, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) and elastin. NM strongly inhibited (by 59%, P=0.001) the growth of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. Tumors from control mice exhibited little to no collagen I expression either internally or in the fibrous capsule, while tumors from the NM group expressed collagen I in the fibrous capsule and within the tumor. Tumors from the control group showed diffuse cytoplasmic and capsular collagen IV with abundant nucleated cells. NM treatment substantially increased collagen IV production and induced a dense fibrous network of collagen IV with chambers that surrounded live nucleated cells and large amounts of necrotic cell debris. Tumors from the mice fed with the NM exhibited a well-defined border of fibronectin in the capsule and intense areas of staining internally whereas control group tumors showed less overall fibronectin with

  13. Uptake of a nido-carboranylporphyrin by human glioma xenografts in athymic nude mice and by syngeneic ovarian carcinomas in immunocompetent mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kahl, S.B. ); Joel, D.D.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Micca, P.L.; Tran, K.P.; Finkel, G.C.; Slatkin, D.N. )

    1990-09-01

    A tetraphenylporphyrin bearing four dicarbollide ((B{sub 9}C{sub 2}H{sub 11}){sup {minus}}) cages linked to the o-phenyl ring positions by anilide bonds, known as boronated tetraphenylporphyrin (BTPP), has been synthesized in excellent yield from tetra-(o-aminophenyl)porphyrin and carborane carbonyl chloride followed by base-assisted cage opening and ion exchange to give the highly water-soluble potassium salt. Preliminary studies showed that BTPP accumulates in liver and in a syngeneic ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal brain parenchyma, of mice infused with BTPP subcutaneously for 6 or 7 days via surgically implanted osmotic minipumps. In this study, the uptake of boron was measured in human gliomas xenografted subcutaneously to athymic nude mice in which BTPP was infused intraperitoneally or subcutaneously or both for 3 or 7 days by using similar minipumps. Immunocompetent mice bearing a syngeneic ovarian carcinoma were similarly infused to provide comparative data. Bulk concentrations of boron up to 18 {mu}g/g of glioma and up to 45 {mu}g/g of carcinoma were observed when up to 102 {mu}g/g of tissue was present in the liver after 7 days of BTPP infusion. Glioma boron concentrations were increased by {approx}80% on the average correspondingly greater amounts of BTPP were infused in only 3 days. Cell counts and chemical tests on blood samples from individual mice indicate that BTPP causes moderate hepatotoxicity and thromboxytopenia. This hepatohematic toxicity syndrome should be taken into account if BTPP or a similar agent is used for boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) of human malignancies.

  14. Rasfonin, a novel 2-pyrone derivative, induces ras-mutated Panc-1 pancreatic tumor cell death in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Z; Li, L; Li, Y; Zhou, W; Cheng, J; Liu, F; Zheng, P; Zhang, Y; Che, Y

    2014-01-01

    Rasfonin is a novel 2-pyrone derivative reported to induce apoptosis in ras-dependent cells. In this study, its effects on ras-mutated pancreatic cancer cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Two human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 (mutated K-ras) and BxPC-3 (wild-type K-ras) were selected to test the effects of rasfonin on cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion in vitro. Immunoblotting was used to detect the expressions of EGFR–Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK signaling pathway proteins. Ras activity was measured using a pull-down ELISA kit and guanine exchange factor (GEF)/GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) activity was measured by [3H]-GDP radiometric ligand binding. For an in vivo study, CD1 nude mice bearing Panc-1 cells were treated with rasfonin or Salirasib (FTS). We found that rasfonin suppressed proliferation more strongly in Panc-1 cells (IC50=5.5 μM) than BxPC-3 cells (IC50=10 μM) in vitro. Clone formation, migration and invasion by Panc-1 cells were also reduced by rasfonin. Rasfonin had little effect on the farnesylation of Ras, but it strongly downregulated Ras activity and consequently phosphorylation of c-Raf/MEK/ERK. Further experiments indicated that rasfonin reduced Son of sevenless (Sos1) expression but did not alter GEF and GAP activities. The in vivo experiments also revealed that rasfonin (30 mg/kg) delayed the growth of xenograft tumors originating from Panc-1 cells. Tumor weight was ultimately decreased after 20 days of treatment of rasfonin. Rasfonin is a robust inhibitor of pancreatic cancers with the K-ras mutation. The reduction of Sos1 expression and the consequently depressed Ras–MAPK activity could be important in its anticancer activity. PMID:24853419

  15. Rasfonin, a novel 2-pyrone derivative, induces ras-mutated Panc-1 pancreatic tumor cell death in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Z; Li, L; Li, Y; Zhou, W; Cheng, J; Liu, F; Zheng, P; Zhang, Y; Che, Y

    2014-01-01

    Rasfonin is a novel 2-pyrone derivative reported to induce apoptosis in ras-dependent cells. In this study, its effects on ras-mutated pancreatic cancer cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Two human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc-1 (mutated K-ras) and BxPC-3 (wild-type K-ras) were selected to test the effects of rasfonin on cell proliferation, clone formation, migration and invasion in vitro. Immunoblotting was used to detect the expressions of EGFR-Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway proteins. Ras activity was measured using a pull-down ELISA kit and guanine exchange factor (GEF)/GTPase-activating proteins (GAP) activity was measured by [(3)H]-GDP radiometric ligand binding. For an in vivo study, CD1 nude mice bearing Panc-1 cells were treated with rasfonin or Salirasib (FTS). We found that rasfonin suppressed proliferation more strongly in Panc-1 cells (IC50=5.5 μM) than BxPC-3 cells (IC50=10 μM) in vitro. Clone formation, migration and invasion by Panc-1 cells were also reduced by rasfonin. Rasfonin had little effect on the farnesylation of Ras, but it strongly downregulated Ras activity and consequently phosphorylation of c-Raf/MEK/ERK. Further experiments indicated that rasfonin reduced Son of sevenless (Sos1) expression but did not alter GEF and GAP activities. The in vivo experiments also revealed that rasfonin (30 mg/kg) delayed the growth of xenograft tumors originating from Panc-1 cells. Tumor weight was ultimately decreased after 20 days of treatment of rasfonin. Rasfonin is a robust inhibitor of pancreatic cancers with the K-ras mutation. The reduction of Sos1 expression and the consequently depressed Ras-MAPK activity could be important in its anticancer activity. PMID:24853419

  16. Effects of Medicated Diet to Eradicate Helicobacter spp. on Growth, Pathology, and Infection Status in Rag1–/– and Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Caroline M; Muth, Dillon; Watson, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The use of a commercial 4-drug diet has been shown to eradicate Helicobacter spp. from immunocompetent mice and those with innate immunodeficiencies. However the efficacy of this diet has not been confirmed in mice with altered adaptive immunity. We hypothesized that an 8-wk treatment with medicated diet would eradicate H. hepaticus and H. typhlonius from young naturally infected nude and Rag1 mice lacking functional T cells (Foxn1nu) or T and B cells (B6.129S7-Rag1tm1Mom/J), respectively. We evaluated helicobacter status, body weight, and gross and histologic changes between medicated and control diet in groups of infected and uninfected mice throughout treatment and at 8 wk after treatment completion. Initial infection status was confirmed by fecal PCR at weaning and 3 wk later, with study initiation in 7-wk-old mice. PCR testing demonstrated that independent of strain and sex, all treated mice tested negative for Helicobacter spp. after 4 wk of treatment and remained negative for the duration of the study. Irrespective of infection status, nude and Rag1 mice fed 8 wk of medicated diet gained less weight than did their untreated controls. Both strains normalized body weight while on control diet for the 8 wk after treatment. Mice fed medicated diet developed severe gastroesophageal hyperkeratosis, suggestive of reduced feed consumption, and enlarged ceca. These conditions improved or resolved after the return to control diet. This report is the first to demonstrate the efficacy and physical effects of providing medicated diet for the eradication of Helicobacter spp. from mice with adaptive immune deficiencies. PMID:24827565

  17. Monoclonal antibody-targeted radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma using a nude mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, R.K.; Vessella, R.L.; Limas, C.; Shafer, R.B.; Elson, M.K.; Arfman, E.W.; Lange, P.H.

    1988-05-01

    Radiation dosimetry and monoclonal antibody (MAB)-targeted radiotherapy studies were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using tumor-preferential MAB as targeting agents for internal radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Two human RCC xenograft lines, TK-177G and TK-82, were established in nude mice and studied using MAB A6H as a targeting agent. This MAB has previously demonstrated excellent in vivo localization to RCC xenografts. Two doses of A6H (13 to 19 micrograms) labeled with iodine 131 (110 to 130 microCi) caused the tumor to regress or arrested the tumor growth in both xenografts. Similar doses (18 to 43 micrograms; 120 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled control MAB AFP-22 or of unlabeled A6H did not inhibit tumor growth. While most mice in the control groups had tumors greater than 250 mg in weight by day 43, none of the tumors in mice treated with /sup 131/I-labeled A6H grew to that size during the 3-month observation period. Sequential computerized scintigraphy was used to calculate the amount of radioisotope localized in tumor versus normal mouse tissue. Therapeutic doses of /sup 131/I-labeled A6H delivered a median calculated radiation dose of 38 cGy/microCi (range, 28 to 57) injected dose to RCC xenografts, and a median of 0.9 cGy/microCi to normal mouse tissues. These findings suggest that A6H is able to target radioisotopes highly specifically to RCC and achieve a therapeutic effect in the experimental setting.

  18. ABCG2-overexpressing S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice keep original biochemistry and cell biological properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Yong-Ju; Wu, Xing-Ping; Su, Xiao-Dong; Fu, Li-Wu

    2012-01-01

    S1-M1-80 cells, derived from human colon carcinoma S1 cells, are mitoxantrone-selected ABCG2-overexpressing cells and are widely used in in vitro studies of multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, S1-M1-80 cell xenografts were established to investigate whether the MDR phenotype and cell biological properties were maintained in vivo. Our results showed that the proliferation, cell cycle, and ABCG2 expression level in S1-M1-80 cells were similar to those in cells isolated from S1-M1-80 cell xenografts (named xS1-M1-80 cells). Consistently, xS1-M1-80 cells exhibited high levels of resistance to ABCG2 substrates such as mitoxantrone and topotecan, but remained sensitive to the non-ABCG2 substrate cisplatin. Furthermore, the specific ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143 potently sensitized xS1-M1-80 cells to mitoxantrone and topotecan. These results suggest that S1-M1-80 cell xenografts in nude mice retain their original cytological characteristics at 9 weeks. Thus, this model could serve as a good system for further investigation of ABCG2-mediated MDR. PMID:22360854

  19. Potent therapeutic activity of irinotecan (CPT-11) and its schedule dependency in medulloblastoma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Vassal, G; Boland, I; Santos, A; Bissery, M C; Terrier-Lacombe, M J; Morizet, J; Sainte-Rose, C; Lellouch-Tubiana, A; Kalifa, C; Gouyette, A

    1997-09-26

    The anti-tumor activity of irinotecan (CPT-11), a DNA-topoisomerase 1 inhibitor, was evaluated in 5 advanced stage subcutaneous medulloblastoma xenografts in nude mice, using different schedules of administration. With a 5-day schedule, the highest i.v. dose tested (40 mg kg-1 day-1) induced complete regressions in all xenografts but 1, and delays in tumor growth always exceeded 30 days. Two xenografts, IGRM11 and IGRM33, were highly sensitive, and animals survived tumor-free beyond 120 days after treatment. CPT-11 clearly retained its anti-tumor activity at a lower dosage (27 mg kg-1 day-1). CPT-11 was significantly more active than cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and etoposide against the 3 xenografts evaluated. To study the schedule dependency of its anti-tumor activity, CPT-11 was given i.v. at the same total doses over the same period (33 days) using either a protracted or a sequential schedule in IGRM34-bearing mice. With a dose of 10 mg kg-1 day-1 given on days 0-4, days 7-11, days 21-25 and days 28-32 (total dose, 200 mg kg-1), 3 of 6 animals were tumor free on day 378. The same total dose given with a sequential schedule, i.e., 20 mg kg-1 day-1 on days 0-4 and days 28-32, failed to induce complete regression. The plasma pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and SN-38 were studied in IGRM34-bearing animals after a single i.v. dose of 10 and 40 mg kg-1. The plasma clearance rate of CPT-11 was dose dependent. The ratio between the SN-38 and CPT-11 area under the curve in plasma was 0.4-0.65, i.e., significantly higher than that observed in humans at the maximum tolerated dose (0.01-0.05). Conversely, this ratio was 10-fold lower in tumor than in plasma. Clinical development of irinotecan is warranted in pediatric malignancies. PMID:9334824

  20. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of benzo(a)pyrene-transformed 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Fu, Juanling; Yao, Biyun; Jia, Yongrui; Zhang, Hongtao; Li, Xuehui; Dong, Lisha; Gao, Ya; Liu, Wenli; Chen, Wen; Zhou, Zongcan

    2016-02-01

    To screen potential biomarkers of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer, the proteomic profiles of BaP-transformed 16HBE cell line T-16HBE-C1 cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera were compared with those of 16HBE group by utilizing label-free quantitative proteomic strategy. By employing nano-LC-MS/MS technology followed by MaxQuant and Perseus processing, 489 differentially expressed proteins were identified between T-16HBE-C1 and 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant, and 49 significantly up-regulated proteins were identified in T-16HBE-C1 xenografted nude mice sera. Three proteins neuropilin-2 (NRP2), clusterin (CLU) and A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) were up-regulated in the serum-free culture supernatant of T-16HBE-C1 cells. These 3 human proteins were present in the sera of nude mice xenografted with T-16HBE-C1 cells, but were undetectable in mice xenografted with 16HBE cells. The proteomic results of NRP2 and AKAP12 were confirmed by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Moreover, the serum NRP2 levels were significantly elevated at the 4th day after tumor cell implantation and showed good positive correlation with tumor growth characterized by tumor volume. In conclusion, serum NRP2, CLU and AKAP12 could be potential biomarkers of BaP-induced lung cancer. The proteomic results will gain deeper insights into the mechanisms of BaP-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26748308

  1. Growth suppression of MCF-7 cancer cell-derived xenografts in nude mice by caveolin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Ping; Wang Xiaohui; Li Fei; Qi Baoju; Zhu Hua; Liu Shuang; Cui Yeqing; Chen Jianwen

    2008-11-07

    Caveolin-1 is an essential structural constituent of caveolae membrane domains that has been implicated in mitogenic signaling and oncogenesis. However, the exact functional role of caveolin-1 still remains controversial. In this report, utilizing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with caveolin-1 (MCF-7/cav-1 cells), we demonstrate that caveolin-1 expression dramatically inhibits invasion and migration of these cells. Importantly, in vivo experiments employing xenograft tumor models demonstrated that expression of caveolin-1 results in significant growth inhibition of breast tumors. Moreover, a dramatic delay in tumor progression was observed in MCF-7/cav-1 cells as compared with MCF-7 cells. Histological analysis of tumor sections demonstrated a marked decrease in the percentage of proliferating tumor cells (Ki-67 assay) along with an increase in apoptotic tumor cells (TUNEL assay) in MCF-7/cav-1-treated animals. Our current findings provide for the first time in vivo evidence that caveolin-1 can indeed function as a tumor suppressor in human breast adenocarcinoma derived from MCF-7 cells rather than as a tumor promoter.

  2. Simultaneous Inhibition of EGFR, VEGFR and PDGFR Signaling Combined with Gemcitabine Produces Therapy of Human Pancreatic Carcinoma and Prolongs Survival in an Orthotopic Nude Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Bucana, Corazon D.; Fan, Dominic; Baker, Cheryl H.; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Kuwai, Toshio; Abbruzzese, James L.; Fidler, Isaiah J.

    2006-01-01

    Although gemcitabine has been approved as the first-line chemotherapeutic reagent for pancreatic cancer, its response rate is low and average survival duration is still only marginal. Because epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) modulate tumor progression, we hypothesized that inhibition of phosphorylation of all three on tumor cells, tumor-associated endothelial cells, and stroma cells would improve the treatment efficacy of gemcitabine in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor model in nude mice and prolong survival. We implanted L3.6pl, a human pancreatic cancer cell, in the pancreas of nude mice. We found that tumor-associated endothelial cells in this model highly expressed phosphorylated EGFR, VEGFR, and PDGFR. Oral administration of AEE788, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor against EGFR and VEGFR, decreased phosphorylation of EGFR and VEGFR. PDGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by STI571. Although intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of gemcitabine did not inhibit tumor growth, its combination with AEE788 and STI571 produced >80% inhibition of tumor growth and prolonged survival in parallel with increases in number of tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelial cell apoptosis, decreased microvascular density, decreased proliferation rate, and prolonged survival. STI571 treatment also decreased pericyte coverage on tumor-associated endothelial cells. Thus, inhibiting phosphorylation of EGFR, VEGFR, and PDGFR in combination with gemcitabine enhanced the efficacy of gemcitabine, resulting in inhibition of experimental human pancreatic cancer growth and significant prolongation of survival. PMID:16288027

  3. Lentivirus-Mediated RNAi Silencing of VEGF Inhibits Angiogenesis and Growth of Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Nude Mouse Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiahua; Pang, Hailin; Guo, Xiaojian; Ding, Yunfei; Geng, Jiaxu; Zhang, Jingmeng; Min, Jie

    2015-12-01

    To construct and screen short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and investigate potential values of VEGF-shRNA on angiogenesis and growth in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a xenograft tumor model. VEGF-shRNA fragment was designed to connect plasmid vector, and RCC cells were transfected with shRNA. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTFQ-PCR) was used to detect interference efficiency of VEGF gene. The xenograft tumor model was established in nude mice, and mice were randomly divided into blank control (BC) group, negative control (NC) group, and experimental group. RNA interference (RNAi) effect was detected by immunohistochemistry, and tumor volume changes were observed. Tumor-bearing nude mice model was established and mice were randomly divided into BC group, NC group, and treatment group. The tumor volume changes and tumor inhibition rate were recorded, and angiogenesis status was observed. The apoptosis of tumor cells and genetic toxicity of VEGF-shRNA were detected. VEGF-shRNA can inhibit VEGF mRNA expression with an inhibition ratio of 72.3%. Compared with NC group and BC group, experimental group presents smaller tumor volume, weight, and poor growth (all p < 0.05). Positive VEGF rate in experimental group is significantly lower than that in NC group and BC group (all p < 0.05). Significantly lower tumor volume, less microvessel density (MVD) value, and higher apoptotic index (AI) are found in treatment group compared with BC group and NC group (all p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in AI between treatment group and BC group regarding adjacent normal tissues (p > 0.05). VEGF plays an important role in the occurrence and development of RCC, chemical synthesis of VEGF small interfering RNA (siRNA) can specifically inhibit VEGF expression, angiogenesis and growth in RCC, and can promote cell apoptosis without genetic toxicity to normal tissues. PMID:26465082

  4. PP2A mediates diosmin p53 activation to block HA22T cell proliferation and tumor growth in xenografted nude mice through PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling suppression.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Duc; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Binh, Truong Viet; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Su, Cheng-Chuan; Lin, Yueh-Min; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Chen, Li-Mien; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2012-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common type of cancer with poor prognosis. This study examines the in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of diosmin on human hepato-cellular carcinoma HA22T cell proliferation inhibition. HA22T cells were treated with different diosmin concentrations and analyzed with Western blot analysis, MTT assay, wound healing, flow cytometry, siRNA transfection assays and co-immuno-precipitation assay. The HA22T-implanted xeno-graft nude mice model was applied to confirm the cellular effects. Diosmin showed strong HA22T cell viability inhibition in a dose dependent manner and significantly reduced the cell proliferative proteins as well as inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase through p53 activation and PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway inhibition. However, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) siRNA or PP2A inhibitor totally reversed the diosmin effects. The HA22T-implanted nude mice model further confirmed that diosmin inhibited HA22T tumor cell growth and down regulated the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling and cell cycle regulating proteins, as well as activating PP2A and p53 proteins. Our findings indicate that HA22T cell proliferation inhibition and tumor growth suppression by diosmin are mediated through PP2A activation. PMID:22289577

  5. Maintenance of donor phenotype after full-thickness skin transplantation from mice with chronic proliferative dermatitis (cpdm/cpdm) to C57BL/Ka and nude mice and vice versa.

    PubMed

    Gijbels, M J; HogenEsch, H; Bruijnzeel, P L; Elliott, G R; Zurcher, C

    1995-12-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice (cpdm/cpdm) and is characterized by epithelial hyperproliferation, infiltration by eosinophils and macrophages, and vascular dilatation. To elucidate whether these pathologic features are the result of a local (skin) process or a consequence of a systemic disorder, transplantations were performed of full-thickness grafts of affected skin from cpdm/cpdm mice and normal skin from control (C57BL/Ka) mice on the back of cpdm/cpdm, C57BL/Ka and athymic nude mice. After 3 months, the grafts maintained the histologic phenotype of the donor animal. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 continued to be expressed by basal keratinocytes of the cpdm/cpdm grafts after transplantation. In contrast, the basal keratinocytes of the C57BL/Ka grafts onto cpdm/cpdm mice remained negative for intercellular adhesion molecule-1 3 months after transplantation. An increased number of proliferating keratinocytes was present in the cpdm/cpdm skin-graft transplanted to nudes or to C57BL/Ka mice based on short-term bromodeoxyuridine labeling. The bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in the keratinocytes of the control C57BL/Ka skin grafts transplanted to cpdm/cpdm, nude, or C57BL/Ka mice was the same as in the keratinocytes of normal C57BL/Ka mice. This study demonstrates that the pathologic features found in the cpdm/cpdm mice are the result of a disorder in the epidermis or dermis and not due to a systemic defect. PMID:7490470

  6. Distinct courses of infection with Leishmania (L.) amazonensis are observed in BALB/c, BALB/c nude and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Leonardo G; Galuppo, Mariana K; DE Rezende, Eloiza; Brandão, Wesley N; Peron, Jean Pierre; Uliana, Silvia R B; Duarte, Maria Irma; Stolf, Beatriz S

    2016-05-01

    Leishmania (L.) amazonensis [L. (L.) amazonensis] is widely distributed in Brazil and its symptomatic infections usually lead to few localized lesions and sometimes to diffuse cutaneous form, with nodules throughout the body, anergy to parasite antigens and poor therapeutic response. The variability of these manifestations draws attention to the need for studies on the pathophysiology of infection by this species. In this study, we analysed the course and immunological aspects of L. (L.) amazonensis infection in BALB/c and C57BL/6 strains, both susceptible, but displaying different clinical courses, and athymic BALB/c nude, to illustrate the role of T cell dependent responses. We analysed footpad thickness and parasite burden by in vivo imaging. Furthermore, we evaluated the cellular profile and cytokine production in lymph nodes and the inflammatory infiltrates of lesions. Nude mice showed delayed lesion development and less inflammatory cells in lesions, but higher parasite burden than BALB/c and C57BL/6. BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice had similar parasite burdens, lesion sizes and infiltrates until 6 weeks after infection, and after that C57BL/6 mice controlled the infection. Small differences in parasite numbers were observed in C57BL/6 macrophages in vitro, indicating that in vivo milieu accounts for most differences in infection. We believe our results shed light on the role of host immune system in the course of L. (L.) amazonensis infection by comparing three mouse strains that differ in parasitaemia and inflammatory cells. PMID:26892342

  7. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) Suppresses the Growth of Human Colon Cancer Xenografts in Balb/C Nude Mice by the Wnt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Shu; Zhang, Shu-Jing; Li, Qian; Liu, Ying-Hua; He, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Peng-Hui; Li, Min; Guan, Tong; Liu, Jia-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been shown many biologic functions such as antioxidant, anti-cancer, maintaining fertility and regulating the immune system and so on. In this study, after feeding with tocotrienol-rich fraction from palm oil (TRF) for 2 weeks, Balb/c nude mice were inoculated human colon SW620 cancer cell and then continued to feed TRF for 4 weeks. At termination of experiments, xenografts were removed and determined the expression of Wnt-pathways related protein by immunohistochemistry or western blotting. Liver tissues were homogenated for determining the levels of antioxidative enzymes activity or malondialdehyde (MDA). The results showed that TRF significantly inhibited the growth of xenografts in nude mice. TRF also affected the activity of antioxidative enzymes in the liver tissue of mice. These changes were partly contributed to activation of wnt pathways or affecting their related protein. Thus, these finding suggested that the potent anticancer effect of TRF is associated with the regulation of Wnt signal pathways. PMID:25807493

  8. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells or their conditioned medium prevents bone loss in ovariectomized nude mice.

    PubMed

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, OVX mice treated with UCB-MSC CM (OVX-CM), zoledronate (OVX-Zol), or vehicle (OVX-Vehicle). Although the OVX-Vehicle group exhibited significantly less bone mineral density (BMD) gain compared with the Sham-Vehicle group, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC group) has effectively prevented OVX-induced bone mass attenuation. Notably, the OVX-CM group also showed BMD preservation comparable to the OVX-MSC group. In addition, microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated improved trabecular parameters in both the OVX-MSC and OVX-CM groups compared to the OVX-Vehicle or OVX-DFB group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation parameters, accompanied by increased serum procollagen type-I N-telopeptide levels in OVX-MSC and OVX-CM mice. However, cell-trafficking analysis failed to demonstrate engraftment of MSCs in bone tissue 48 h after cell infusion. In vitro, hUCB-MSC CM increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human bone marrow-derived MSCs and mRNA expression of collagen type 1, Runx2, osterix, and ALP in C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC CM significantly increased survival of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, while it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. To summarize, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs could effectively prevent OVX-mediated bone loss in nude mice, which appears to be mediated by a paracrine mechanism rather than direct engraftment of the MSCs. PMID:23215868

  9. Low Dose, Low Cost Estradiol Pellets Can Support MCF-7 Tumour Growth in Nude Mice without Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dall, Genevieve; Vieusseux, Jessica; Unsworth, Ashleigh; Anderson, Robin; Britt, Kara

    2015-01-01

    MCF-7 cells are a slow growing estrogen receptor (ER) positive human breast cancer cell line that is commonly used to model estrogen responsive breast cancer cell growth in-vitro and tumour growth in-vivo. These tumours require estrogen supplementation, and in-vivo doses of between 0.72mg and 2mg estradiol pellets are commonly implanted in the dorsal flank of ovariectomised, immunocompromised mice. We wanted to grow MCF-7 tumours in immunocompromised mice without the need to be ovariectomised. When we treated immunocompromised mice with 0.72mg pellets to induce MCF7 tumour growth, the mice developed urosepsis. We have now shown that lower doses of estradiol pellets, 0.3mg and 0.5mg, induce elevated serum estrogen levels and maintain tumour growth, without causing urosepsis. Supplementation for only one week did not support sustained MCF7 tumour growth. In conclusion, 0.3mg and 0.5mg silastic pellets can be used to stimulate ER+ breast cancer growth in ovary-intact, immune compromised mice. PMID:26640593

  10. Whole Blueberry Powder Modulates the Growth and Metastasis of MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Tumors in Nude Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Lynn S.; Kanaya, Noriko; Phung, Sheryl; Liu, Zheng; Chen, Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that blueberry (BB) extract exhibited antitumor activity against MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and decreased metastatic potential in vitro. The current study tested 2 doses of whole BB powder, 5 and 10% (wt:wt) in the diet, against MDA-MB-231 tumor growth in female nude mice. In this study, tumor volume was 75% lower in mice fed the 5% BB diet and 60% lower in mice fed the 10% BB diet than in control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) was lower in the 5 and 10% BB-fed mice and cell death (Caspase 3) was greater in the 10% BB-fed mice compared to control mice (P ≤ 0.05). Gene analysis of tumor tissues from the 5% BB-fed mice revealed significantly altered expression of genes important to inflammation, cancer, and metastasis, specifically, Wnt signaling, thrombospondin-2, IL-13, and IFNγ. To confirm effects on Wnt signaling, analysis of tumor tissues from 5% BB-fed mice revealed lower β-catenin expression and glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation with greater expression of the β-catenin inhibitory protein adenomatous polyposis coli compared to controls. A second study tested the ability of the 5% BB diet to inhibit MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN metastasis in vivo. In this study, 5% BB-fed mice developed 70% fewer liver metastases (P = 0.04) and 25% fewer lymph node metastases (P = 0.09) compared to control mice. This study demonstrates the oral antitumor and metastasis activity of whole BB powder against TNBC in mice. PMID:21880954

  11. Chronic stress promoted the growth of ovarian carcinoma via increasing serum levels of norepinephrine and interleukin-10 and altering nm23 and NDRG1 expression in tumor tissues in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guolan; Sun, Jianling; Gao, Jun; Xiong, Lijuan; Yu, Liqun; Gao, Yulian

    2013-02-01

    The current study aimed to examine the effects and underlying mechanisms of chronic psychological stress on the growth of ovarian carcinoma. Human ovarian carcinoma cells SKOV-3 were subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice to establish an ectopic mouse model. The animals were experimentally stressed 6 h daily for a total of 42 days with a physical restraint system. We examined the effects of stress on the growth of tumor cells that were inoculated 7 days after the initiation of stress. The growth of SKOV-3 xenografts in the stress group showed a more rapid trend than that in the control. The mean weight of tumors that were removed at the end of the experiment increased by 71.7% in the stress group as compared to the control. In order to explore the underlying mechanisms, we first determined the serum levels of norepinephrine (NE) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in the mice using an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) and then analyzed protein expression profiles of SKOV-3 xenografts using a proteomics-based approach combining two-dimensional electrophoresis with ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (nanoUPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Results demonstrated that serum levels of NE and IL-10 were obviously increased in the mice receiving 6 h of immobilization daily for 42 days. In xenografts exposed to stress, a tumor promoting protein nm23 was significantly upregulated while a tumor suppressing protein NDRG1 was obviously downregulated, which were confirmed by subsequent Western blot analysis. Results obtained in the current study suggested that chronic stress promoted the growth of ovarian carcinoma in nude mice through increasing serum levels of NE and IL-10 and altering nm23 and NDRG1 expression in tumor tissues. PMID:23524894

  12. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  13. Real-Time GFP Intravital Imaging of the Differences in Cellular and Angiogenic Behavior of Subcutaneous and Orthotopic Nude-Mouse Models of Human PC-3 Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Toneri, Makoto; Ma, Huaiyu; Yang, Zhijian; Bouvet, Michael; Goto, Yusuke; Seki, Naohiko; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    There are two major types of mouse xenograft models of cancer: subcutaneous implantation and orthotopic implantation. Subcutaneous transplant models are widely used with both cancer cell lines and human-tumor specimens. Recently, subcutaneous models of patient tumors, termed patient-derived xenographs (PDX) have become highly popular and have acquired such names as "Avatar" and "Xenopatients." However, such s.c. models rarely metastasize and are therefore not patient-like. In contrast, orthotopic models have the capability to metastasize. If intact fragments of tumor tissue are implanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI), the metastatic potential can match that of the donor patient. The present study images in real time, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression, the very different tumor behavior at the orthotopic and subcutaneous sites of human prostate cancer PC-3 in athymic nude mice. By day-2 after tumor implantation, the orthotopic tumor is already highly vascularized and the cancer cells have begun to migrate out of the tumor. In contrast, the subcutaneous tumor only begins to be vascularized by day-3 and cells do not migrate from the tumor. Angiogenesis is much more extensive in the orthotopic tumor throughout the 2-week observation period. The orthotopic PC-3-GFP tumor progresses very rapidly and distinct metastasis have appeared in lymph nodes by day-3 which rapidly appear in many areas of the abdominal cavity including portal lymph nodes by day-7. At day-14, no invasion or metastasis was observed with the s.c. tumor even when the animal was extensively explored. These results explain why orthotopic tumors mimimc clinical metastatic tumors in nude mice and why subcutaneous tumors do not. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27012365

  14. G3139 and other CpG-containing immunostimulatory phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides are potent suppressors of the growth of human tumor xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Gekeler, Volker; Gimmnich, Petra; Hofmann, Hans-Peter; Grebe, Carola; Römmele, Michaela; Leja, Astrid; Baudler, Monika; Benimetskaya, Luba; Gonser, Barbara; Pieles, Uwe; Maier, Thomas; Wagner, Thomas; Sanders, Karl; Beck, James F; Hanauer, Guido; Stein, C A

    2006-01-01

    dose of 12 mg/kg, alone induced extensive enlargement of the spleen. Immunostimulation was evaluated in vitro by flow cytometric measurements of the CD80 and CD86 activation markers found on CD19+ murine splenocytes. The CpG-ODN producing strong antitumor effects in vivo also induced these activation markers in vitro, in contrast to the in vivo inactive G3139-mC. Our data indicate a significant contribution of the immunostimulatory properties of CpG-ODN (including G3139) to the antitumor effects observed in nude mouse xenograft models. This is in contrast to previous data presented by other authors indicating that the activity of G3139 in human tumor xenografts was Bcl-2 specific. Furthermore, as nude mice are devoid of T cells, a T cell-mediated immune response apparently is not required for the potent antitumor responses observed here; innate immune responses are sufficient. PMID:16584297

  15. A transgenic red fluorescent protein-expressing nude mouse for color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Reynoso, Jose; Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M

    2009-02-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical for tumor growth and progression. We have previously developed color-coded imaging of the TME using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic nude mouse as a host. However, most donor sources of cell types appropriate for study in the TME are from mice expressing GFP. Therefore, a nude mouse expressing red fluorescent protein (RFP) would be an appropriate host for transplantation of GFP-expressing stromal cells as well as double-labeled cancer cells expressing GFP in the nucleus and RFP in the cytoplasm, thereby creating a three-color imaging model of the TME. The RFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing non-transgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives RFP (DsRed2) expression in essentially all tissues. In crosses between nu/nu RFP male mice and nu/+ RFP female mice, the embryos fluoresced red. Approximately 50% of the offspring of these mice were RFP nude mice. In the RFP nude mouse, the organs all brightly expressed RFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart, and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed RFP. The bone marrow and spleen cells were also RFP positive. GFP-expressing human cancer cell lines, including HCT-116-GFP colon cancer and MDA-MB-435-GFP breast cancer were orthotopically transplanted to the transgenic RFP nude mice. These human tumors grew extensively in the transgenic RFP nude mouse. Dual-color fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of human tumor-host interaction. The RFP nude mouse model should greatly expand our knowledge of the TME. PMID:19097136

  16. Comparison of the therapeutic efficacy of 211At- and 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody MOv18 in nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Palm, S; Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-emitter Astatine-211 with the beta-emitter Iodine-131 bound to the specific monoclonal antibody MOv18. The measurements were performed in an ovarian cancer cell line (NIH:OVCAR 3) growing intraperitoneally in nude mice. Two weeks after the intraperitoneal inoculation of 1 x 10(7) cells of the human ovarian cancer cell line NIH:OVCAR-3 twenty mice were treated intraperitoneally with the specific monoclonal antibody MOv-18 labelled with either 211At (310-400 kBq) or 131I (5100-6200 kBq). The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of labelled antibody in tumour-free animals were studied and the resulting bone marrow dose was estimated. When the mice were treated with 211At-labelled antibody 9 out of 10 mice were free of macro- and microscopic tumour compared to 3 out of 10 when Iodine-131 was used. The equivalent dose to the bone marrow was 2.4-3.1 Sv from 211At- and 3.4-4.1 Sv from 131I-irradiation. The therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled specific antibody is very good and, at approximately equivalent bone marrow doses, better than that of 131I. PMID:11299770

  17. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  18. [Effect of irradiation with dental polymerized lamps on human Langerhans cells: a study made on human skin transplanted to nude mice].

    PubMed

    Bonding, N

    1992-04-01

    Light polymerized composite resin materials are now widely used in dentistry. Most resins are polymerized by light sources which have a powerful emission of visible light and a small emission in the ultraviolet light A spectrum (UV-A 320-400 mm). Possible eye damage, induced by such light, has been investigated, but the effects on the oral mucosa, which is directly exposed to the light, have been examined in only one animal study. Langerhans cells (LC) are dendritic non-epithelial cells which form a network within stratified epithelia. LC have features of macrophages, functions as antigen-presenting cells, and play an important role in the immune system associated with skin and oral mucosa. Pilot studies on human skin transplanted to nude mice showed that radiation with small therapeutic doses from a dental light curing unit (DLU) having only a small fraction of UV-light can reduce or deplete the OKT6 surface marker of LC in human epithelium. Further investigation of the photobiologic mechanisms involved spectral analyses of the emmission from the lamps and construction of a suitable light source for establishing an action spectrum for LC in the UV-A range. The action spectrum for LC in the UV-A range was obtained by exposing human skin, grafted to nude mice, to monochromatic light with a band pass of 5-10 nm. Criterion for threshold doses was total depletion of LC, visualized by staining with known LC-markers, monoclonal antibodies OKT6, DAKO-Vimentin, DAKO-HLA-DR and DAKO-S-100. The action spectrum for LC consisted of a biphasic curve, with a non-linear, strong wave-length dependency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1412043

  19. Doxorubicin conjugated with a monoclonal antibody directed to a human melanoma-associated proteoglycan suppresses the growth of established tumor xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H M; Reisfeld, R A

    1988-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) was covalently conjugated to a monoclonal antibody (mAb), 9.2.27 (IgG2a), which recognizes a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed preferentially on the surface of human melanoma cells. Immunoconjugates with a molar ratio of DXR to mAb ranging from 2:1 to 10:1 were obtained by coupling the drug via an acid-sensitive linker, cis-aconitic anhydride. The immunoreactivity of mAb 9.2.27 was well retained after conjugation. DXR-mAb 9.2.27 conjugates were found to be 2 orders of magnitude more potent in killing tumor cells in vitro (IC50 = 0.1 microM) than free drug targeted to drug receptor(s). Most significantly, DXR-mAb 9.2.27 immunoconjugates specifically suppressed the growth of established tumors in vivo and prolonged the life-span of tumor-bearing nude mice. This suppression of melanoma growth achieved by the immunoconjugate was both tumor and antibody specific. A biodistribution study indicated that DXR-mAb 9.2.27 conjugates delivered at least 4 times more DXR (3.7% total injected dose per g of tumor) as compared to free DXR alone (0.8% total injected dose per g of tumor) in tumor-bearing nude mice 48 hr postinjection. The tumor-suppressive effects of DXR-mAb 9.2.27 conjugates are even more remarkable since free DXR did not suppress tumor growth in vivo and also because this drug per se is known to be quite ineffective for the treatment of human melanoma. Images PMID:3422487

  20. Epidermal changes following application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate to human skin transplanted to nude mice studied with histological species markers

    SciTech Connect

    Graem, N.

    1986-01-01

    Effects of the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and of the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on epidermis of human fetal and adult skin were studied in the nude mouse/human skin model. Human skin grafts on NC nude mice were exposed to two topical applications of 1 mg of DMBA in 50 microliter of acetone with an interval of 3 days and/or to applications of 10 micrograms of TPA in 50 microliter of acetone twice weekly. In some animals, it was attempted to augment the susceptibility of the grafts to the tumor-initiating effect of DMBA by pretreatment with TPA or ultraviolet light. The mice were sacrificed 8-32 wk after the initial treatment. Tumors did not appear in the central portions of any of the grafts, but epidermal tumors were seen at the graft border in 34.9% of the DMBA-treated animals. To identify human epidermis on the grafts and to determine the species origin of the induced tumors, two independently working histological marker methods were applied. (a) The first is detection of a human Blood Group B-like antigen present in mouse epidermis and in chemically induced murine epidermal tumors. This antigen cannot be demonstrated in human epidermis and in epidermal tumors of human patients. (b) The second is histological staining with the DNA-specific fluorochrome, bisbenzimide, displaying a characteristic pattern of 5-10 intranuclear fluorescent bodies in murine nonneoplastic epidermal cells and in murine epidermal tumor cells. Such a pattern is not seen in human epidermis and in epidermal tumors of human patients. The studies showed that TPA treatment resulted in epidermal hyperplasia in both the human epidermis and the adjacent mouse epidermis and that the induced tumors were derived from murine tissue.

  1. Sensing vascularization of ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalent (EVPOME) skin grafts in nude mice using optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Gurjar, Rajan; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Fasi, Anthony; Kim, Roderick; Riccardi, Suzannah; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Wolf, David E.

    2014-03-01

    Repair of soft tissue defects of the lips as seen in complex maxillofacial injuries, requires pre-vascularized multi-tissue composite grafts. Protocols for fabrication of human ex-vivo produced oral mucosal equivalents (EVPOME) composed of epithelial cells and a dermal equivalent are available to create prelaminated flaps for grafting in patients. However, invivo assessment of neovascularization of the buried prelaminated flaps remains clinically challenging. Here, we use diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to non-invasively quantify longitudinal changes in the vessel density and blood-flow within EVPOME grafts implanted in the backs of SCID mice and subsequently to determine the utility of these optical techniques for assessing vascularization of implanted grafts. 20 animals were implanted with EVPOME grafts (1x1x0.05 cm3) in their backs. DRS and DCS measurements were obtained from each animal both atop the graft site and far away from the graft site, at one week post-implantation, each week, for four consecutive weeks. DRS spectra were analyzed using an inverse Monte Carlo model to extract tissue absorption and scattering coefficients, which were then used to extract blood flow information by fitting the experimental DCS traces. There were clear differences in the mean optical parameters (averaged across all mice) at the graft site vs. the off-site measurements. Both the total hemoglobin concentration (from DRS) and the relative blood flow (from DCS) peaked at week 3 at the graft site and declined to the off-site values by week 4. The optical parameters remained relatively constant throughout 4 weeks for the off-site measurements.

  2. Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC).

  3. Transgenic nude mouse with ubiquitous green fluorescent protein expression as a host for human tumors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Reynoso, Jose; Jiang, Ping; Li, Lingna; Moossa, Abdool R; Hoffman, Robert M

    2004-12-01

    We report here the development of the transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) nude mouse with ubiquitous GFP expression. The GFP nude mouse was obtained by crossing nontransgenic nude mice with the transgenic C57/B6 mouse in which the beta-actin promoter drives GFP expression in essentially all tissues. In crosses between nu/nu GFP male mice and nu/+ GFP female mice, the embryos fluoresced green. Approximately 50% of the offspring of these mice were GFP nude mice. Newborn mice and adult mice fluoresced very bright green and could be detected with a simple blue-light-emitting diode flashlight with a central peak of 470 nm and a bypass emission filter. In the adult mice, the organs all brightly expressed GFP, including the heart, lungs, spleen, pancreas, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. The following systems were dissected out and shown to have brilliant GFP fluorescence: the entire digestive system from tongue to anus; the male and female reproductive systems; brain and spinal cord; and the circulatory system, including the heart and major arteries and veins. The skinned skeleton highly expressed GFP. Pancreatic islets showed GFP fluorescence. The spleen cells were also GFP positive. Red fluorescent protein (RFP)-expressing human cancer cell lines, including PC-3-RFP prostate cancer, HCT-116-RFP colon cancer, MDA-MB-435-RFP breast cancer, and HT1080-RFP fibrosarcoma were transplanted to the transgenic GFP nude mice. All of these human tumors grew extensively in the transgenic GFP nude mouse. Dual-color fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of human tumor-host interaction by whole-body imaging and at the cellular level in fresh and frozen tissues. The GFP mouse model should greatly expand our knowledge of human tumor-host interaction. PMID:15574773

  4. 177Lu-DOTA-HH1, a Novel Anti-CD37 Radio-Immunoconjugate: A Study of Toxicity in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Repetto-Llamazares, Ada H. V.; Larsen, Roy H.; Giusti, Anna Maria; Riccardi, Elena; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Selbo, Pål Kristian; Dahle, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Background CD37 is an internalizing B-cell antigen expressed on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL). The anti-CD37 monoclonal antibody HH1 was conjugated to the bifunctional chelator p-SCN-Bn-DOTA and labelled with the beta-particle emitting radionuclide 177Lu creating the radio-immunoconjugate (RIC) 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 (177Lu-HH1, trade name Betalutin). The present toxicity study was performed prior to initiation of clinical studieswith 177Lu-HH1. Methodology/Principal Findings Nude mice with or without tumor xenografts were treated with 50 to 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu- HH1 and followed for clinical signs of toxicity up to ten months. Acute, life threatening bone marrow toxicity was observed in animals receiving 800 and 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Significant changes in serum concentrations of liver enzymes were evident for treatment with 1000 MBq/kg 177Lu-HH1. Lymphoid depletion, liver necrosis and atrophy, and interstitial cell hyperplasia of the ovaries were also observed for mice in this dose group. Conclusions/Significance 177Lu-DOTA-HH1 was well tolerated at dosages about 10 times above those considered relevant for radioimmunotherapy in patients with B-cell derived malignancies.The toxicity profile was as expected for RICs. Our experimental results have paved the way for clinical evaluation of 177Lu-HH1 in NHL patients. PMID:25068508

  5. Regulation of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis Protein Expression by Host T Cell Dependent Responses: Differential Expression of Oligopeptidase B, Tryparedoxin Peroxidase and HSP70 Isoforms in Amastigotes Isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Velasquez, Leonardo Garcia; Lepique, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Eloiza; Bonatto, José Matheus Camargo; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Stolf, Beatriz Simonsen

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important disease that affects 12 million people in 88 countries, with 2 million new cases every year. Leishmania amazonensis is an important agent in Brazil, leading to clinical forms varying from localized (LCL) to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). One interesting issue rarely analyzed is how host immune response affects Leishmania phenotype and virulence. Aiming to study the effect of host immune system on Leishmania proteins we compared proteomes of amastigotes isolated from BALB/c and BALB/c nude mice. The athymic nude mice may resemble patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, considered T-cell hyposensitive or anergic to Leishmania´s antigens. This work is the first to compare modifications in amastigotes’ proteomes driven by host immune response. Among the 44 differentially expressed spots, there were proteins related to oxidative/nitrosative stress and proteases. Some correspond to known Leishmania virulence factors such as OPB and tryparedoxin peroxidase. Specific isoforms of these two proteins were increased in parasites from nude mice, suggesting that T cells probably restrain their posttranslational modifications in BALB/c mice. On the other hand, an isoform of HSP70 was increased in amastigotes from BALB/c mice. We believe our study may allow identification of potential virulence factors and ways of regulating their expression. PMID:25692783

  6. Stability, characterization, and kinetics of /sup 111/In-labeled monoclonal antitumor antibodies in normal animals and nude mouse-human tumor models

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, S.E.; Hagan, P.L.; Garver, P.R.; Koziol, J.A.; Chen, A.W.; Frincke, J.M.; Bartholomew, R.M.; David, G.S.; Adams, T.H.

    1983-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against carcinoembryonic antigen were successfully radiolabeled with /sup 111/In, and the radiopharmaceutical was characterized in vitro and in normal and tumor-bearing mice. The /sup 111/In-MoAb proved to be stable in vitro and in vivo under normal conditions, although instability could be induced in vitro with large quantities of iron-free transferrin. Animal distribution studies with /sup 111/In-MoAb demonstrated tumor localization superior to /sup 67/Ga and pharmacokinetics that were highly similar to those of endogenously labeled /sup 75/Se-MoAb. The /sup 111/In-MoAb followed first-order kinetics and fit a two-compartmental model when studied in nude mice bearing human colon tumors known to express carcinoembryonic antigen. Significant quantities of radiolabel appeared in tissues other than tumor, with liver and skin having the highest concentrations. Sufficient tumor/background ratios were formed for scanning purposes. The data indicate that /sup 111/In-MoAb may prove to be effective as a radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging.

  7. Fractionated intravesical radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb is effective without toxic side-effects in a nude mouse model of advanced human bladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Julia; Rötzer, Silvia; Seidl, Christof; Feuerecker, Benedikt; Autenrieth, Michael; Weirich, Gregor; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2015-01-01

    Gold standard in therapy of superficial, non-muscle invasive urothelial tumors is transurethral resection followed by intravesical instillation therapies. However, relapse is commonly observed and therefore new therapeutic approaches are needed. Application of 213Bi-immunoconjugates targeting EGFR had shown promising results in early tumor stages. The aim of this study was the evaluation of fractionated application of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb in advanced tumor stages in a nude mouse model. Luciferase-transfected EJ28 human bladder carcinoma cells were instilled intravesically into nude mice following electrocautery. Tumor development was monitored via bioluminescence imaging. One day after tumor detection mice were treated intravesically either 2 times with 0.93 MBq or 3 times with 0.46 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated via overall survival and toxicity toward normal urothelium by histopathological analysis. Mice without treatment and those treated with the native anti-EGFR-MAb showed mean survivals of 65.4 and 57.6 d, respectively. After fractionated treatment with 0.93 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb animals reached a mean survival of 141.5 d and 33% of the animals survived at least 268 d. Fractionated treatment with 0.46 MBq 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb resulted in a mean survival of 131.8 d and 30% of the animals survived longer than 300 d. Significant differences were only observed between the control groups and the group treated twice with 0.93 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb. No toxic side-effects on the normal urothelium were observed even after treatment with 3.7 MBq of 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb. The study demonstrates that the fractionated intravesical radioimmunotherapy with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb is a promising approach in advanced bladder carcinoma. PMID:26177233

  8. Glomerular filtration rate after alpha-radioimmunotherapy with 211At-MX35-F(ab')2: a long-term study of renal function in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Bäck, Tom; Haraldsson, Börje; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Martin E; Lindegren, Sture; Jacobsson, Lars

    2009-12-01

    Besides bone marrow, the kidneys are often dose-limiting organs in internal radiotherapy. The effects of high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the kidneys after alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) with the alpha-particle emitter, (211)At, were studied in nude mice by serial measurements of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The renal toxicity was evaluated at levels close to the dose limit for the bone marrow and well within the range for therapeutic efficacy on tumors. Astatinated MX35-F(ab')(2) monoclonal antibodies were administered intravenously to nude mice. Both non-tumor-bearing animals and animals bearing subcutaneous xenografts of the human ovarian cancer cell line, OVCAR-3, were used. The animals received approximately 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 MBq in one, two, or three fractions. The mean absorbed doses to the kidneys ranged from 1.5 to 15 Gy. The renal function was studied by serial GFR measurements, using plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA, up to 67 weeks after the first astatine injection. A dose-dependent effect on GFR was found and at the time interval 8-30 weeks after the first administration of astatine, the absorbed doses causing a 50% decrease in GFR were 16.4 +/- 3.3 and 14.0 +/- 4.1 Gy (mean +/- SEM), tumor- and non-tumor-bearing animals, respectively. The reduction in GFR progressed with time, and at the later time interval, (31-67 weeks) the corresponding absorbed doses were 7.5 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 2.3 Gy, respectively, suggesting that the effects of radiation on the kidneys were manifested late. Examination of the kidney sections showed histologic changes that were overall subdued. Following alpha-RIT with (211)At-MX35-F(ab')(2) at levels close to the dose limit of severe myelotoxicity, the effects found on renal function were relatively small, with only minor to moderate reductions in GFR. These results suggest that a mean absorbed dose to the kidneys of approximately 10 Gy is acceptable, and that the kidneys would not be the primary

  9. Vulnerable but aloof versus naughty and nice: contrasting the presentation of male and female nude models in Viva and Playboy.

    PubMed

    Beggan, James K; Vencill, Jennifer A; Garos, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    The current research examined contested meanings of nudity by comparing images of nude men and women that appeared in Viva, a 1970s women's magazine founded with the intention of foregrounding male nudity, to corresponding issues of Playboy. A major difference was obtained between male models and Playboy Playmates regarding direction of gaze and nudity. Although gaze aversion is often interpreted as a sign of submission and direct gaze is seen as a dominance cue, men in Viva displayed a high level of gaze aversion and women in Playboy often gazed directly at the camera, especially when their pubic area was exposed. Additional content analysis examined the personality characteristics attributed to male models in Viva and Playmates in Playboy in their biographical sketches. In Viva, men were presented as possessing "bad boy" traits that may have been intended to compensate for the loss of power associated with male nudity. Playmates could be viewed as being naughty (by virtue of posing nude) and nice in the characterization of their personalities. PMID:23829482

  10. A nude rat model for neutron capture therapy of human intracerebral melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, R.F.; Matalka, K.Z.; Bailey, M.Q.; Staubus, A.E.; Soloway, A.H.; Moeschberger, M.L. ); Coderre, J.A. ); Rofstad, E.K. )

    1994-03-30

    The present study was carried out to determine the efficacy of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for intracerebral melanoma using nude rats, the human melanoma cell line MRA 27, and boronophenylalanine as the capture agent. MRA 27 cells (2 [times] 10[sup 5]) were implanted intracerebrally, and 30 days later, 120 mg of [sup 10]B-L-BPA were injected intraperitoneally into nude rats. Thirty days following implantation, tumor bearing rats were irradiated at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor. Six hours following administration of BPA, tumor, blood, and normal brain boron-10 levels were 23.7, 9.4, and 8.4 [mu]g/g respectively. Median survival time of untreated rats was 44 days compared to 76 days and 93 days for those receiving physical doses of 2.73 Gy and 3.64 Gy, respectively. Rats that have received both [sup 10]B-BPA and physical doses of 1.82, 2.73, or 3.64 Gy had median survival times of 170, 182, and 262 days, respectively. Forty percent of rats that had received the highest tumor dose (10.1 Gy) survived for > 300 days and in a replicate experiment 21% of the rats were longterm survivors (>220 days). Animals that received 12 Gy in a single dose or 18 Gy fractionated (2 Gy [times] 9) of gamma photons from a [sup 137]Cs source had median survival times of 86 and 79 days, respectively, compared to 47 days for untreated animals. Histopathologic examination of the brains of longterm surviving rats, euthanized at 8 or 16 months following BNCT, showed no residual tumor, but dense accumulations of melanin laden macrophages and minimal gliosis were observed. Significant prolongations in median survival time were noted in nude rats with intracerebral human melanoma that had received BNCT, thereby suggesting therapeutic efficacy. Large animal studies should be carried out to further assess BNCT of intracerebral melanoma before any human trials are contemplated. 49 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Transfer of a CD4+ Th1 cell line to nude mice effects clearance of Rhodococcus equi from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, S T; Hines, S A; Palmer, G H

    1996-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi, and intracellular respiratory pathogen, causes sever e granulomatous pneumonia in humans with AIDS and in young horses. Pulmonary clearance of R. equi requires functional CD4+ T cells and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) expression from bronchial lymph node cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether R. equi-specific CD4+ Th1 cells could effect clearance of R. equi from the lung. Adoptive transfer of a clearance of R. equi from the lungs. In contrast, mice transfused with a R. equi-specific CD4+ Th2 cell line expressed interleukin-4 but not IFN-gamma mRNA, failed to clear pulmonary infection, and developed granulomas in the lung. Control mice, which did not receive cells, did not produce IFN-gamma or interleukin-4 and developed small pulmonary granulomas. These results clearly show that a Th1 response is sufficient to effect pulmonary clearance of R. equi. PMID:8606068

  12. Three-dimensional cultures of normal human osteoblasts: proliferation and differentiation potential in vitro and upon ectopic implantation in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, D; Poggi, S; Biassoni, C; Dickson, G R; Astigiano, S; Barbieri, O; Favre, A; Franzi, A T; Strangio, A; Federici, A; Manduca, P

    2002-05-01

    We report the establishment in vitro of three-dimensional (3D) cultures of human osteoblasts (hOB) derived from normal adults and supported uniquely by the extracellular matrix (ECM) they deposit. Osteoblasts were cultured in 3D cultures in vitro for up to 120 days. The 3D cultures, examined at 25, 31, and 48 days, expressed protein markers of osteoblastic cells, namely osteonectin, collagen type I, fibronectin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, biglycan, and decorin. Sequentially, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and then Ca incorporation, mineralization of matrix (monitored by histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy), and finally osteocalcin expression, were detected in the 3D cultures. Ultrastructurally, morphology progressed from early to mature osteoblast and to osteocyte-like. Cells were embedded in a matrix with organized collagen type I fibers containing, increasingly with time of culture, needle-shaped crystals, often associated with matrix vesicles, characteristic of those in bone. During the culture (up to 120 days) there was an outgrowth of proliferating osteogenic cells from the 3D structure. Subcutaneous implantation in nude mice for 20 days of osteoblasts cultured in 3D culture for different lengths of time in vitro, showed progression of mineralization from the inner region of the implant outward, with peripheral cells being embedded in nonmineralized, collagen-rich matrix. The 3D implants were invaded by vessels derived from the host. PMID:11996910

  13. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Agnes Shuk-Yee; Xu, Chen; Murakami, Akikazu; Marasco, Wayne A

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA) domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36) as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells) expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX+ RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX+ RCC. PMID:27119093

  14. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Lo, Agnes Shuk-Yee; Xu, Chen; Murakami, Akikazu; Marasco, Wayne A

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA) domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36) as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells) expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX(+) RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX(+) RCC. PMID:27119093

  15. Cell and tissue distribution of synthetic oligonucleotides in healthy and tumor-bearing nude mice. An autoradiographic, immunohistological, and direct fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Plenat, F.; Klein-Monhoven, N.; Marie, B.; Vignaud, J. M.; Duprez, A.

    1995-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have the ability to inhibit individual gene expression in the potential treatment of cancer and viral diseases. However, the way parenterally administered oligonucleotides distribute themselves into healthy tissues or tumors is poorly understood. In this study, the cell and tissue distribution of two modified or unmodified phosphodiester pentadeca-beta-oligonucleotides intravenously administered to healthy or tumor-bearing nude mice was assessed by autoradiography as well as by direct fluorescence and immunoenzymatic histological methods. Resistance of oligonucleotides to degradation by nuclease activity was previously studied in vitro. Using these methods we were able to show the following: 1) within minutes, oligonucleotides permeate all cells and tissues with the exceptions of erythrocytes and intervertebral discs; 2) cell and tissue distribution does not depend on the sequence of the given oligonucleotide; 3) concentration of oligonucleotides is higher within the connective tissue cells than in the interstitial matrix; 4) after uptake, oligomers partition throughout all of the cellular compartments, including at the highest intracellular concentrations in the nuclei; 5) oligonucleotides penetrate easily the tumor cell compartments, oligonucleotide diffusion being unimpeded by the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7604874

  16. In vivo (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and morphometric analysis of the perfused vascular architecture of human glioma xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sanden, B. P.; Rijken, P. F.; Heerschap, A.; Bernsen, H. J.; van der Kogel, A. J.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between the bioenergetic status of human glioma xenografts in nude mice and morphometric parameters of the perfused vascular architecture was studied using (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), fluorescence microscopy and two-dimensional digital image analysis. Two tumour lines with a different vascular architecture were used for this study. Intervascular distances and non-perfused area fractions varied greatly between tumours of the same line and tumours of different lines. The inorganic phosphate-nucleoside triphosphate (P(i)/NTP) ratio increased rapidly as mean intervascular distances increased from 100 microm to 300 microm. Two morphometric parameters - the percentage of intervascular distances larger than 200 microm (ivd200) and the non-perfused area fraction at a distance larger than 100 microm from a nearest perfused vessel (area100), - were deduced from these experiments and related to the P(i)/NTP ratio of the whole tumour. It is assumed that an aerobic to anaerobic transition influences the bioenergetic status, i.e. the P(i)/NTP ratio increased linearly with the percentage of ivd200 and the area100. PMID:9166934

  17. Xerophilusin B induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells and does not cause toxicity in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ran; Chen, Zhaoli; Zhou, Chengcheng; Luo, Mei; Shi, Xuejiao; Li, Jiagen; Gao, Yibo; Zhou, Fang; Pu, Jianxin; Sun, Handong; He, Jie

    2015-01-23

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer in the world and ranks as the sixth leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis partially due to its low sensitivity to chemotherapy agents, and the development of new therapeutic agents is urgently needed. Here, the antitumor activity of a natural ent-kaurane diterpenoid, xerophilusin B (1), which was isolated from Isodon xerophilus, a perennial herb frequently used in Chinese folk medicine for tumor treatment, was investigated. Compound 1 exhibited antiproliferative effects against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner with lower toxicity against normal human and murine cell lines. In vivo studies demonstrated that 1 inhibited tumor growth of a human esophageal tumor xenograft in BALB/c nude mice without significant secondary adverse effects, indicating its safety in treating ESCC. Furthermore, 1 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis through mitochondrial cytochrome c-dependent activation of the caspase-9 and caspase-3 cascade pathway in ESCC cell lines. In conclusion, the observations herein reported showed that 1 is a potential chemotherapeutic agent for ESCC and merits further preclinical and clinical investigation for cancer drug development. PMID:25555195

  18. Correlation of histology and drug response of human tumors grown in native-state three-dimensional histoculture and in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Vescio, R.A.; Connors, K.M. ); Kubota, Tetsuro. ); Hoffman, R.M. Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA )

    1991-06-15

    An in vitro histoculture system in which a native-state collagen-sponge gel supports the three-dimensional growth of tumor tissue has been recently developed that allows the culture and drug response assay for most every tumor type. Important features of the histoculture system include the maintenance of three-dimensional tissue architecture and the use of histological autoradiography to measure nuclear incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine as an endpoint. The authors describe in this report in vitro-in vivo correlations for drug response and tumor histology by using human tumor xenografts grown in the native-state three-dimensional histoculture system and as xenografts in nude mice. This comparison eliminates many of the confounding variables seen in most correlative clinical trials. Results demonstrate (1) a very high preservation of in vivo tissue architecture in vitro, (2) an 86% accuracy in vitro of predicting drug resistance in vivo, and (3) an overall predictive frequency of drug resistance and sensitivity ranging from 53% for 5-fluorouracil to 78% for doxorubicin.

  19. Inhibition of human tumor xenograft growth in nude mice by a conjugate of monoclonal antibody LA22 to epidermal growth factor receptor with anti-tumor antibiotics mitomycin C

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Wei; Zhao Shan; Liu Zhaofei; Zhang Jianzhong; Ma Shujun; Sato, J. Denry; Zhang Peng; Tong Mei; Han Jiping; Wang Yan; Bai Dongmei; Wang Fan . E-mail: wangfan@bjmu.edu.cn; Sun Le . E-mail: lsun@welsonpharma.com

    2006-10-20

    Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies LA22 and Erbitux bind to different epitopes of EGFR. The chemimmunoconjugates of MMC with LA22 or Erbitux were prepared, and in vitro cytotoxicity assays with A549 cells showed that LA22-MMC was much more potent than Erbitux or Erbitux-MMC. Viabilities of A549 cells treated with LA22-MMC, Erbitux or Erbitux-MMC were 35%, 94%, and 81%, respectively. Immunoscintigraphy of xenografts of human A431 and A549 cells in nude mice both showed that {sup 125}I-labeled-LA22-MMC enriched in tumor sites prominently. Most importantly, in vivo assays showed LA22-MMC was significantly more effective than free drug MMC in the treatment of subcutaneous xenografts of human A431 cells in nude mice (83% inhibition for LA22-MMC and 30% for MMC). We concluded that LA22-MMC could be a very potent drug for treatment of solid tumors.

  20. Lack of transfer of lpr-type abnormalities (lymphoproliferation or lymphoid aplasia) in double congenic nude beige mice engrafted with lpr haematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tiberghien, F; Pflumio, F; Kuntz, L; Loor, F

    1993-01-01

    The aetiology of the autoimmune and lymphoproliferative syndrome caused by the murine lpr (lymphoproliferation) mutation was studied by the adoptive transfer methodology using non-irradiated athymic and natural killer (NK)-deficient C57BL/6 nude beige mice (B6 nubg) as recipients. The [lpr-->nubg] chimeras did not display the severe lymphoid organ aplasia shown by irradiated non-lpr recipients of lpr haematopoietic cells. However, nor did they either express the typical lpr phenotype features (hyperglobulinaemia, autoimmunity and lymphoid hyperplasia). Nevertheless, engraftment of lpr cells in the nubg recipients was shown by their much increased survival, the recovery of T-cell mitogen responsiveness in the spleen, and the presence of T-dependent immunoglobulin isotypes in their serum. The host of donor origin of serum immunoglobulin was studied by measuring IgG2a allotypes in the serum of [lpr-->nubg] chimeras made with different lgh-congenic mice. Interestingly, several months after grafting, the serum IgG2a was found to be mainly of lpr graft origin, suggesting that only lpr B cells could function in such chimeras. In conclusion, a lpr spleen cell graft reconstituted non-irradiated nubg recipients and induced neither a typical lpr syndrome nor a lpr-type graft-versus-host (GVH)-like disease. These features of the lpr syndrome are at variance with those of the phenotypically similar gld syndrome, since this mutation allows the transfer of a generalized lymphadenopathy disease by grafting gld spleen cells in nubg or irradiated recipients. Unlike the gld syndrome, the lpr gene might not only affect haematopoietic cells but also cells of the environment, which would interact in the same impaired process. PMID:8099566

  1. Imaging of human leukemic T-cell xenografts in nude mice by radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, A.; Buchegger, F.; Carrel, S.; Mach, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) that react with the T-lymphocyte markers called cluster of differentiation CD5 and CD2 were labeled with iodine 131 (/sup 131/I) and were injected intravenously in nude mice bearing solid subcutaneous xenografts derived from the human T-cell leukemia line Ichikawa. Both MoAb anti-CD5 and anti-CD2 yielded favorable mean tumor to whole-body ratios of 3.8 and 5.1, respectively. These ratios were further increased up to 10.0 for MoAb anti-CD5 and 15.5 for MoAb anti-CD2 by using their F(ab')2 fragments. The tumors could be imaged clearly by external scanning after injection of F(ab')2 fragments from both MoAb. F(ab')2 fragments from MoAb anti-CD2 and of a third MoAb recognizing the clonotypic determinant (Ti) of the antigen receptor expressed by the human T-cell line Jurkat were injected in mice bearing intrasplenic Jurkat xenografts. A selective localization of both fragments in tumor tissue was demonstrated with mean tumor to whole-body ratios of 7.5 and 4.1 for MoAb anti-CD2 and anti-Ti, respectively. These in vivo experimental results may provide useful information for the potential use of radiolabeled MoAb and fragments in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with T-cell lymphoma and different other forms of T-cell malignancies.

  2. Suppression of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastasis by Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle V in a Nude Mouse Model through the Induction of Apoptosis in Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Hyung; Yu, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Hong, Soon Won; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients is the primary cause of patient death. Current therapies directed at liver metastasis from colorectal cancer have had minimal impact on patient outcomes. Therefore, the development of alternative treatment strategies for liver metastasis is needed. In the present study, we demonstrated that recombinant human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V, also known as rhLK8, induced the apoptotic turnover of endothelial cells in vitro through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The interaction of rhLK8 with glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) may be involved in the induction of apoptosis because the inhibition of GRP78 by GRP78-specific antibodies or siRNA knockdown inhibited the rhLK8-mediated apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Next, to evaluate the effects of rhLK8 on angiogenesis and metastasis, an experimental model of liver metastasis was established by injecting a human colorectal cancer cell line, LS174T, into the spleens of BALB/c nude mice. The systemic administration of rhLK8 significantly suppressed liver metastasis from human colorectal cancer cells and improved host survival compared with controls. The combination of rhLK8 and 5-fluorouracil substantially increased these survival benefits compared with either therapy alone. Histological observation showed significant induction of apoptosis among tumor-associated endothelial cells in liver metastases from rhLK8-treated mice compared with control mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the combination of rhLK8 with conventional chemotherapy may be a promising approach for the treatment of patients with life-threatening colorectal cancer liver metastases. PMID:24699568

  3. Fetal pig pancreas. Preparation and assessment of tissue for transplantation, and its in vivo development and function in athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S C; Mandel, T E

    1990-03-01

    The possibility of using xenogeneic islets for transplantation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) necessitates characterization of their potential for growth and functional differentiation. Fetal pig pancreas (FPP) of various gestational ages was examined with respect to morphology, ability to produce insulin before and during culture, and development and function in nude mice. Insulin-containing beta cells were present, but distinct islets were not apparent in FPP even in late gestation, and did not develop during culture. FPP remained viable and produced insulin for up to 30 days in vitro. Mitotic figures were seen in cultured tissue. Culture on a gelfoam raft resulted in more viable tissue than free-floating culture. Culture in a high concentration of O2 (90% O2/10% CO2) was detrimental compared with culture in 10% CO2 in air. Responses to static incubation in secretagogues showed that IMBX, theophylline, and tolbutamide all stimulated insulin secretion, but high glucose concentration (5 g/L), arginine, and leucine did not. The potential of this tissue for growth and its ability to regulate blood glucose levels appropriately were tested in athymic (nu/nu) mice. Pancreatic tissue from fetuses as young as 4 weeks gestation showed growth after transplantation into athymic mice, with representation of the major pancreatic endocrine cells demonstrated by selective immunochemical staining. The increase in the size of the grafts showed an impressive proliferative capacity, and histology confirmed mitotic activity and islet structure in the graft. The amount of endocrine tissue in grafts reflected the condition of the explants at the time of grafting, and prolonged culture times were detrimental to eventual graft size. Functional capability of the grafted FPP to release insulin in response to hyperglycemia was tested by transplantation into mice made diabetic with streptozotocin. Blood glucose levels, animal weights and survival, and the histological

  4. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Cysts from UV Light-Disinfected Wastewater Effluent Using a Nude BALB/c Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Luciana Urbano; Alves, Delma Pegolo; Guaraldo, Ana Maria Aparecida; Cantusio Neto, Romeu; Durigan, Mauricio; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a protozoan of public health interest that causes gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. In the city of Campinas in southeast Brazil, giardiasis is endemic, and this pathogen is detected at high concentrations in wastewater effluents, which are potential reservoirs for transmission. The Samambaia wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Campinas employs an activated sludge system for sewage treatment and ultraviolet (UV) light for disinfection of effluents. To evaluate this disinfection process with respect to inactivating G. duodenalis cysts, two sample types were investigated: (i) effluent without UV disinfection (EFL) and (ii) effluent with UV disinfection (EFL+UV). Nude immunodeficient BALB/c mice were intragastrically inoculated with a mean dose of 14 cysts of G. duodenalis recovered from effluent from this WWTP, EFL, or EFL+UV. All animals inoculated with G. duodenalis cysts developed the infection, but animals inoculated with UV-exposed cysts released a lower average concentration of cysts in their faeces than animals inoculated with cysts that were not UV disinfected. Trophozoites were also observed in both groups of animals. These findings suggest that G. duodenalis cysts exposed to UV light were damaged but were still able to cause infection. PMID:27335858

  5. Vitrified canine testicular cells allow the formation of spermatogonial stem cells and seminiferous tubules following their xenotransplantation into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Do, Jung Tae; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Jae Hwan; Choi, Young Suk; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Malinois (BM), one of the excellent military dog breeds in South Korea, is usually castrated before sexual maturation. Therefore, the transfer of their genetic features to the next generation is difficult. To overcome this, testicular cells from 4-month-old BMs were frozen. Testicular cells were thawed after 3 months and cultured in StemPro-34 medium. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) characteristics were determined by the transplantation of the cultured germ cell-derived colonies (GDCs) into empty testes, containing only several endogenous SSCs and Sertoli cells, of immunodeficient mice, 4 weeks after busulfan treatment. Following the implantation, the transplanted cells localized in the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules, and ultimately colonized the recipient testes. Xenotransplantation of GDCs together with testicular somatic cells conjugated with extracellular matrix (ECM), led to the formation of de novo seminiferous tubules. These seminiferous tubules were mostly composed of Sertoli cells. Some germ cells were localized in the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. This study revealed that BM-derived SSCs, obtained from the castrated testes, might be a valuable tool for the transfer of BM genetic features to the next generation. PMID:26907750

  6. Vitrified canine testicular cells allow the formation of spermatogonial stem cells and seminiferous tubules following their xenotransplantation into nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Seung Hoon; Do, Jung Tae; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Jae Hwan; Choi, Young Suk; Song, Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    Belgian Malinois (BM), one of the excellent military dog breeds in South Korea, is usually castrated before sexual maturation. Therefore, the transfer of their genetic features to the next generation is difficult. To overcome this, testicular cells from 4-month-old BMs were frozen. Testicular cells were thawed after 3 months and cultured in StemPro-34 medium. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) characteristics were determined by the transplantation of the cultured germ cell-derived colonies (GDCs) into empty testes, containing only several endogenous SSCs and Sertoli cells, of immunodeficient mice, 4 weeks after busulfan treatment. Following the implantation, the transplanted cells localized in the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules, and ultimately colonized the recipient testes. Xenotransplantation of GDCs together with testicular somatic cells conjugated with extracellular matrix (ECM), led to the formation of de novo seminiferous tubules. These seminiferous tubules were mostly composed of Sertoli cells. Some germ cells were localized in the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules. This study revealed that BM-derived SSCs, obtained from the castrated testes, might be a valuable tool for the transfer of BM genetic features to the next generation. PMID:26907750

  7. A deimmunized bispecific ligand directed toxin that shows an impressive anti-pancreatic cancer effect in a systemic nude mouse orthotopic model

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seunguk; Todhunter, Deborah A.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; Buchsbaum, Donald J.; Toma, Shoko; Vallera, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to test a bispecific ligand directed toxin (BLT), with reduced immunogenicity for enhanced efficacy in targeting orthotopic pancreatic cancer in vivo. Method A new BLT was created in which both human EGF and IL-4 cytokines were cloned onto the same single chain molecule with deimmunized pseudomonas exotoxin (dEGF4KDEL). Key amino acids dictating B cell generation of neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies were mutated. Bioassays were used to determine whether mutation reduced potency, and ELISA studies were performed to determine whether anti-toxin antibodies were reduced. A genetically altered luciferase MIA PaCa-2 xenograft model was used to image in real time and determine affects on systemic malignant human cancer. BLTs targeting B cells were used as specificity controls. Results dEGF4KDEL was significantly effective following systemic injection against established orthotopic MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer and selectively prevented metastasis. Mutagenesis significantly reduced anti-toxin levels in vivo with no apparent activity loss in vitro. The drug was effective against three human pancreatic cancer lines in vitro, MIA PaCa-2, SW1990, and S2VP10. Conclusions Despite the metastatic nature of the MIA PaCa-2 orthotopic tumor xenografted in nude mice, high percentages of tumors responded to extended dEGFKDEL treatment resulting in significant anti-cancer effects and disease-free survivors. PMID:22258068

  8. A new platelet cryoprecipitate glue promoting bone formation after ectopic mesenchymal stromal cell-loaded biomaterial implantation in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the promising effect of a new Platelet Glue obtained from Cryoprecipitation of Apheresis Platelet products (PGCAP) used in combination with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) loaded on ceramic biomaterials to provide novel strategies enhancing bone repair. Methods PGCAP growth factor content was analyzed by ELISA and compared to other platelet and plasma-derived products. MSC loaded on biomaterials (65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP or 100% beta-TCP) were embedded in PGCAP and grown in presence or not of osteogenic induction medium for 21 days. Biomaterials were then implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Effect of PGCAP on MSC was evaluated in vitro by proliferation and osteoblastic gene expression analysis and in vivo by histology and immunohistochemistry. Results We showed that PGCAP, compared to other platelet-derived products, allowed concentrating large amount of growth factors and cytokines which promoted MSC and osteoprogenitor proliferation. Next, we found that PGCAP improves the proliferation of MSC and osteogenic-induced MSC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PGCAP up-regulates the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers (Collagen type I, Osteonectin, Osteopontin and Runx2). In vivo, type I collagen expressed in ectopic bone-like tissue was highly enhanced in biomaterials embedded in PGCAP in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. Better results were obtained with 65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP biomaterials as compared to 100% beta-TCP. Conclusions We have demonstrated that PGCAP is able to enhance in vitro MSC proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation and in vivo bone formation in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. This clinically adaptable platelet glue could be of interest for improving bone repair. PMID:23290259

  9. Specific tumor labeling enhanced by polyethylene glycol linkage of near infrared dyes conjugated to a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody in a nude mouse model of human pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Labeling of metastatic tumors can aid in their staging and resection of cancer. Near infrared (NIR) dyes have been used in the clinic for tumor labeling. However, there can be a nonspecific uptake of dye by the liver, lungs, and lymph nodes, which hinders detection of metastasis. In order to overcome these problems, we have used two NIR dyes (DyLight 650 and 750) conjugated to a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody to evaluate how polyethylene glycol linkage (PEGylation) can improve specific tumor labeling in a nude mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. The conjugated PEGylated and non-PEGylated DyLight 650 and 750 dyes were injected intravenously into non-tumor-bearing nude mice. Serum samples were collected at various time points in order to determine serum concentrations and elimination kinetics. Conjugated PEGylated dyes had significantly higher serum dye concentrations than non-PEGylated dyes (p=0.005 for the 650 dyes and p<0.001 for the 750 dyes). Human pancreatic tumors subcutaneously implanted into nude mice were labeled with antibody-dye conjugates and serially imaged. Labeling with conjugated PEGylated dyes resulted in significantly brighter tumors compared to the non-PEGylated dyes (p<0.001 for the 650 dyes; p=0.01 for 750 dyes). PEGylation of the NIR dyes also decreased their accumulation in lymph nodes, liver, and lung. These results demonstrate enhanced selective tumor labeling by PEGylation of dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific antibody, suggesting their future clinical use in fluorescence-guided surgery.

  10. A modified commercial ultrasound scanner used for in vivo photoacoustic imaging of nude mice injected with non-targeted contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankovic, Ladislav; Shahzad, Khalid; Wang, Yao; Burcher, Michael; Scholle, Frank-Detlef; Hauff, Peter; Mofina, Sabine; Skobe, Mihaela

    2008-02-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) experiments were performed using a modified commercial ultrasound scanner equipped with an array transducer and a Nd:YAG pumped OPO laser. The contrast agent SIDAG (Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Germany), used to enhance the optical absorption, demonstrated an expected pharmacokinetic behavior of the dye in the tumor and in the bladder of the nude mice. A typical behavior in the tumor consisted of an initial linear increase in PA signal followed by an exponential decay. PA signal approached the pre-injection level after about one hour following the dye injection, which was consistent with the behavior for such contrast agents when used in other imaging modalities, such as fluorescence imaging. The in-vivo spectral PA data from the mouse bladder, conducted 1.5 hours after the dye injection, clearly demonstrated presence of the dye. The multi-spectral PA data was obtained at 760nm, 784nm and 850nm laser excitations. The PA intensities obtained at these three wavelengths accurately matched the dye absorption spectrum. In addition, in the kidney, a clearance organ for this contrast agent, both in-vivo and ex-vivo results demonstrated a significant increase (~ 40%) in the ratio of PA signal at 760nm (the peak of the dye absorption) relative to the signal at 850nm (<1% absorption), indicating significant amounts of the dye in this organ. Our initial results confirm the desired photoacoustic properties of the contrast agent, indicating its great potential to be used for imaging with a commercial array-based ultrasound scanner.

  11. Fisetin, a phytochemical, potentiates sorafenib-induced apoptosis and abrogates tumor growth in athymic nude mice implanted with BRAF-mutated melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Harish Chandra; Baxter, Ronald D.; Hunt, Katherine M.; Agarwal, Jyoti; Elmets, Craig A.; Athar, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of cutaneous malignancy, and its incidence rates are rising worldwide. In melanoma, constitutive activation of the BRAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PI3K) signaling pathways plays a pivotal role in cell proliferation, survival and tumorigenesis. A combination of compounds that lead to an optimal blockade of these critical signaling pathways may provide an effective strategy for prevention and treatment of melanoma. The phytochemical fisetin is known to possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. We found that fisetin treatment inhibited PI3K signaling pathway in melanoma cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of fisetin and sorafenib (an RAF inhibitor) alone and in combination on cell proliferation, apoptosis and tumor growth. Combination treatment (fisetin + sorafenib) more effectively reduced the growth of BRAF-mutated human melanoma cells at lower doses when compared to individual agents. In addition, combination treatment resulted in enhanced (i) apoptosis, (ii) cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP, (iii) expression of Bax and Bak, (iv) inhibition of Bcl2 and Mcl-1, and (v) inhibition of expression of PI3K, phosphorylation of MEK1/2, ERK1/2, AKT and mTOR. In athymic nude mice subcutaneously implanted with melanoma cells (A375 and SK-MEL-28), we found that combination therapy resulted in greater reduction of tumor growth when compared to individual agents. Furthermore, combination therapy was more effective than monotherapy in: (i) inhibition of proliferation and angiogenesis, (ii) induction of apoptosis, and (iii) inhibition of the MAPK and PI3K pathways in xenograft tumors. These data suggest that simultaneous inhibition of both these signaling pathways using combination of fisetin and sorafenib may serve as a therapeutic option for the management of melanoma. PMID:26299806

  12. Inhomogeneous activity distribution of 177Lu-DOTA0-Tyr3-octreotate and effects on somatostatin receptor expression in human carcinoid GOT1 tumors in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Oddstig, Jenny; Bernhardt, Peter; Lizana, Helena; Nilsson, Ola; Ahlman, Håkan; Kölby, Lars; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity distribution in neouroendocrine tumors after diagnostic, or therapeutic, amounts of [(177)Lu-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotate and to investigate how the activity distribution influences the absorbed dose. Furthermore, the activity distribution of a second administration of radiolabeled octreotate was studied. Nude mice with subcutaneously grown human midgut carcinoid (GOT1) were injected intravenously with different amounts of (177)Lu-octreotate. At different time points thereafter (4 h to 13 days), a second injection of [(111)In-DOTA(0)-Tyr(3)]-octreotate was given to estimate the somatostatin receptor (sstr) expression. The activity distribution in the tumors was then determined. Monte Carlo simulations with PENELOPE were performed for dosimetry. Fifty-one out of 58 investigated tumors showed a lower activity concentration in the peripheral part than in the central part of the tumor. The amount of activity injected, or time after administration, did neither influence the relative activity nor the sstr distribution in the tumor. After an initial down-regulation (at 4-24 h), there was an up-regulation of sstr (1.5-2 times, at 7-14 days). Monte Carlo simulations demonstrated an inhomogeneous absorbed dose distribution in the tumor using (177)Lu, with twice as high absorbed dose centrally than peripherally. The high activity concentration centrally and the up-regulation of sstr demonstrated will facilitate fractionated therapy using radiolabeled somatostatin analogues if similar results will be obtained also in patients. The inhomogeneous activity distribution in the tumor has to be taken into account when the absorbed dose distribution in tumor is calculated. PMID:22108870

  13. Conversion of adipose-derived stem cells into natural killer-like cells with anti-tumor activities in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ning, Hongxiu; Lei, Hong-En; Xu, Yong-De; Guan, Rui-Li; Venstrom, Jeffrey M; Lin, Guiting; Lue, Tom F; Xin, Zhongcheng; Lin, Ching-Shwun

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to develop peripheral blood-derived nature killer (NK) cells into therapeutic products have been hampered by these cells' low abundance and histoincompatibility. On the other hand, derivation of NK-like cells from more abundant cell sources such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) requires the selection of rare CD34+ cells. Thus, we sought to convert adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are abundant and natively CD34+, into NK-like cells. When grown in hematopoietic induction medium, ADSCs formed sphere clusters and expressed hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and KDR. Further induction in NK cell-specific medium resulted in a population of cells that expressed NK cell marker CD56, and thus termed ADSC-NK. Alternatively, the hematopoietically induced ADSCs were transduced with NK cell-specific transcription factor E4BP4 prior to induction in NK cell-specific medium. This latter population of cells, termed ADSC-NKE, expressed CD56 and additional NK cell markers such as CD16, CD94, CD158, CD314, FasL, and NKp46. ADSC-NKE was as potent as NK leukemia cell NKL in killing breast cancer cell MCF7 and prostate cancer cells DU145, PC3, LnCap, DuPro, C4-2 and CWR22, but exhibited no killing activity toward normal endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In nude mice test ADSC-NKE was able to significantly delay the progression of tumors formed by MCF7 and PC3. When injected into immunocompetent rats, ADSC-NKE was detectable in bone marrow and spleen for at least 5 weeks. Together, these results suggest that ADSCs can be converted into NK-like cells with anti-tumor activities. PMID:25162225

  14. Husbandry of the "nude" mouse in conventional and germfree environments.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J; Outzen, H C; Custer, R P; Johnson, F N

    1975-06-01

    The "nude" mouse is a unique tool for immunologic studies. Its relatively short life span dictates the application of rigid environmental controls to increase longevity if the mouse is to assume the role of a practical experimental animal. In this paper we discussed the husbandry procedures employed to raise "nude" mice in our facilities under conventional, defined flora, and germfree conditions. Conventional and defined flora mice were raised on laminar flow stay-clean rocks, and germfree "nudes" were housed in self-contained germfree isolators. The major cause of morbidity and mortality among conventional and defined flora "nude" mice was fulminating hepatitis. We presented evidence that the etiologic agent of the disease was mouse hepatitis virus (MHV). Germfree "nude" mice were completely free from viral and bacterial diseases. PMID:167230

  15. Neuromuscular transmission in the athymic nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Schofield, G G; Marshall, I G

    1980-10-01

    No major differences were observed in the mechanical properties of diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles from athymic nude and control mice. Denervated soleus muscles from nudes and controls showed no significant differences in their sensitivities to the cholinoceptor agonists acetylcholine and carbachol, either in the absence or presence of the anticholinesterase, physostigmine, suggesting that postjunctional receptor function is essentially normal. Phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations from nudes were less sensitive to the twitch-augmenting effects of neostigmine. No difference in the time course of endplate potentials (epps) between nudes and controls was seen either in the absence or presence of neostigmine. Hence the observed differences in twitch augmentation are unlikely to be due to differences in acetylcholinesterase activity in the two muscles. In normal mice miniature endplate potential (mepp) amplitude decreased and mepp frequency increased with age. These changes were associated with an increase in muscle fibre diameter and a concomitant decrease in membrane resistance. Such changes did not occur in nude mice; thus mepp amplitude remained, high as in young normal muscle. It is suggested that the thymus may play a role in muscle development and that the effects on neuromuscular transmission are secondary to changes in development. In cut diaphragm muscles transmitter reversal potentials in nudes and controls were not different. Although there was no difference in the amplitude of the first epp of a train, or in the immediately releasable acetylcholine store, the quantal content of the first epp, the probability of transmitter release, the total nerve terminal acetylcholine store and the transmitter mobilization rate were all reduced. It is considered probable that all the measurable differences in transmitter release can be explained in terms of the nude muscle fibre diameter being small and being associated with a small nerve terminal

  16. Enhancement of bone marrow allografts from nude mice into mismatched recipients by T cells void of graft-versus-host activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidot, T.; Lubin, I.; Terenzi, A.; Faktorowich, Y.; Erlich, P.; Reisner, Y. )

    1990-06-01

    Transplantation of 8 x 10(6) C57BL/6-Nu+/Nu+ (nude) bone marrow cells into C3H/HeJ recipients after conditioning with 8 Gy of total body irradiation has resulted in a markedly higher rate of graft rejection or graft failure compared to that found in recipients of normal C57BL/6 or C57BL/6-Bg+/Bg+ (beige) T-cell-depleted bone marrow. Mixing experiments using different numbers of nude bone marrow cells with or without mature thymocytes (unagglutinated by peanut agglutinin) revealed that engraftment of allogeneic T-cell-depleted bone marrow is T-cell dependent. To ensure engraftment, a large inoculum of nude bone marrow must be supplemented with a trace number of donor T cells, whereas a small bone marrow dose from nude donors requires a much larger number of T cells for engraftment. Marked enhancement of donor type chimerism was also found when F1 thymocytes were added to nude bone marrow cells, indicating that the enhancement of bone marrow engraftment by T cells is not only mediated by alloreactivity against residual host cells but may rather be generated by growth factors, the release of which may require specific interactions between T cells and stem cells or between T cells and bone marrow stroma cells.

  17. The curative and palliative potential of the monoclonal antibody MOv18 labelled with 211At in nude mice with intraperitoneally growing ovarian cancer xenografts--a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, H; Lindegren, S; Bäck, T; Jacobsson, L; Leser, G; Horvath, G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of 211At-labelled specific monoclonal antibody MOv18 in nude mice with intraperitoneal growth of the human ovarian cancer cell line OVCAR3. In the first part of the study the antibody was injected intraperitoneally when the cancer growth was microscopic. The injected activity was 485-555 kBq. The median survival for treated mice was 213 days compared to 138 days for untreated mice (p < 0.014, log-rank test). No obvious toxicity was seen. Thirty-three percent of the mice were apparently free of cancer after 7 months and were probably cured. In the second part of the study mice with macroscopic cancer and signs of ascites were injected intraperitoneally with the same 211At-labelled antibody (377-389 kBq). This treatment possibly delayed the production of ascites. Hopefully radioimmunotherapy with regionally administered 211At-labelled antibody will be of value in women with ovarian cancer as well. PMID:11130014

  18. In Vivo Biodistribution, PET Imaging, and Tumor Accumulation of 86Y- and 111In-Antimindin/RG-1, Engineered Antibody Fragments in LNCaP Tumor–Bearing Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Douglas W.; Heitner, Tara; Alicke, Bruno; Light, David R.; McLean, Kirk; Satozawa, Noboru; Parry, Gordon; Yoo, Jeongsoo; Lewis, Jason S.; Parry, Renate

    2016-01-01

    To optimize in vivo tissue uptake kinetics and clearance of engineered monoclonal antibody (mAb) fragments for radiotherapeutic and radiodiagnostic applications, we compared the biodistribution and tumor localization of four 111In- and 86Y-labeled antibody formats, derived from a single antimindin/RG-1 mAb, in a prostate tumor model. The IgG, diabody, single-chain variable domain (scFv), and novel miniantibody formats, composed of the human IgE-CH4 and a modified IgG1 hinge linked to scFv domains, were compared. Methods Antibodies were first derivatized with the bifunctional chelator CHX-A″-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and then bound to the radiometal to create radiolabeled immunoconjugates. Human LNCaP xenografts were grown in nude mice, and 111In- or 86Y-labeled antibodies were administered intravenously. Tissues were harvested at different times, and the level of antibody deposition was determined by measuring radioactivity. Whole-body small-animal PET of mice receiving 86Y-labeled antibodies was performed at 6 time points and colocalized with simultaneous micro-CT imaging. Results The biodistributions of 111In and 86Y antibodies were quite similar. The blood, tumor, kidney, and liver tissues contained varying levels of radioactivity. The antibody accumulation in the tumor correlated with molecular size. The IgG steadily increased with time to 24.1 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 48 h. The miniantibody accumulated at a similar rate to reach a lower level (14.2 %ID/g) at 48 h but with a higher tumor-to-blood ratio than the IgG. Tumor accumulation of the diabody peaked at 3 h, reaching a much lower level (3.7 %ID/g). A combination of rapid clearance and lower relative affinity of the scFv precluded deposition in the tumor. Small-animal PET results correlated well with the biodistribution results, with similar tumor localization patterns. Conclusion The larger antibody formats (IgG and miniantibody) gave higher tumor uptake levels than did the

  19. The Study of the Effect of Hedyotis diffusa on the Proliferation and the Apoptosis of the Cervical Tumor in Nude Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiying; Zhang, Bei; Gu, Juan; Hao, Lin; Hu, Fangfang; Han, Conghui

    2015-07-01

    To study the inhibitory effect of Hedyotis diffusa on cervical cancer and its underlining biomolecular mechanism. Human cervical carcinoma nude mice xenograft was established and the mice were treated by intra-gastric administration of boiled and concentrated Hedyotis diffusa. When the tumor grew to 10 mm in diameter, the mice were randomly divided into Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (HDW) group and control group. The tumor inhibitory rate, survival time, and the expression rate of Ki-67 protein in Hela cells as well as tumor cell apoptosis were compared between these two groups. Hedyotis diffusa had inhibitory effect on cervical cancer cells and induced apoptosis of Hela cells. The expression of Ki-67 protein significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in HDW group, and the mean survival time of the mice was significantly extended (P < 0.05). Hedyotis diffusa directly inhibited the proliferation of cervical cancer cells and induced apoptosis of the tumor cells. It has a positive effect for the treatment of cervical cancer to achieve the goal of clearing the heat, removing the toxins, eliminating the stasis, and dissolving the masses. PMID:25677988

  20. Interim report on intrathoracic radiotherapy of human small-cell lung carcinoma in nude mice with Re-188-RC-160, a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, P.O. |; Bender, H.; Biersack, H.J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Re-188-RC-160 in experimental models of human small cell lung carcinomas which mimic the clinical presentation. In the experimental model, cells from the human small cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H69 cells were inoculated into the thoracic cavity of athymic mice and rats. Subsequently, the biodistribution of Re-188-RC-160 after injection into the pleural cavity, a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue, was monitored as was the effect on the subsequent growth of tumors. The results presented here, and which are a part of a larger series of studies, suggest that Re-188-RC-160 can be effectively used in this animal model to restrict the growth of small cell lung carcinoma in the thoracic cavity.

  1. Combination therapy of anti-cancer bioactive peptide with Cisplatin decreases chemotherapy dosing and toxicity to improve the quality of life in xenograft nude mice bearing human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A great challenge of cancer chemotherapy is to eliminate cancer cells and concurrently maintain the quality of life (QOL) for cancer patients. Previously, we identified a novel anti-cancer bioactive peptide (ACBP), a peptide induced in goat spleen or liver following immunization with human gastric cancer protein extract. ACBP alone exhibited anti-tumor activity without measurable side effects. Thus, we hypothesize that ACBP and combined chemotherapy could improve the efficacy of treatment and lead to a better QOL. Results In this study, ACBP was isolated and purified from immunized goat liver, and designated as ACBP-L. The anti-tumor activity was investigated in a previously untested human gastric cancer MGC-803 cell line and tumor model. ACBP-L inhibited cell proliferation in vitro in a dose and time dependent manner, titrated by MTT assay. The effect of ACBP-L on cell morphology was observed through light and scanning electron microscopy. In vivo ACBP-L alone significantly inhibited MGC-803 tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse model without measurable side effects. Treatment with the full dosage of Cisplatin alone (5 mg/kg every 5 days) strongly suppressed tumor growth. However, the QOL in these mice had been significantly affected when measured by food intakes and body weight. The combinatory regiment of ACBP-L with a fewer doses of Cisplatin (5 mg/kg every 10 days) resulted in a similar anti-tumor activity with improved QOL. 18F-FDG PET/CT scan was used to examine the biological activity in tumors of live animals and indicated the consistent treatment effects. The tumor tissues were harvested after treatment, and ACBP-L and Cisplatin treatment suppressed Bcl-2, and induced Bax, Caspase 3, and Caspase 8 molecules as detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The combinatory regiment induced stronger Bax and Caspase 8 protein expression. Conclusion Our current finding in this gastric cancer xenograft animal model demonstrated that ACBP-L could

  2. Biological comparison of 149Pm-, 166Ho-, and 177Lu-DOTA-biotin pretargeted by CC49 scFv-streptavidin fusion protein in xenograft-bearing nude mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael R; Zhang, Jiuli; Jia, Fang; Owen, Nellie K; Cutler, Cathy S; Embree, Mary F; Schultz, Jody; Theodore, Louis J; Ketring, Alan R; Jurisson, Silvia S; Axworthy, Donald B

    2004-02-01

    The radiolanthanides (149)Pm, (166)Ho, and (177)Lu possess a range of half-lives and alpha(-) beta(-) energies for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. (149)Pm-, (166)Ho-, and (177)Lu-DOTA-biotin were pretargeted to LS174T colorectal tumors in nude mice with CC49 scFvSA antibody-streptavidin fusion protein. Tumor uptakes of (149)Pm (22.9% ID/g), (166)Ho (30.2% ID/g), and (177)Lu (35.4% ID/g) peaked at 1-4 h. Rapid blood disappearance was accompanied by urinary excretion of 59-66% ID within 1 h. Biodistributions of these agents show promise for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy of cancer. PMID:15013487

  3. Efficacy of Tumor-Targeting Salmonella A1-R on a Melanoma Patient-Derived Orthotopic Xenograft (PDOX) Nude-Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Mako; Zhao, Ming; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Shurell, Elizabeth; Eilber, Fritz C.; Bouvet, Michael; Noda, Makoto; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-targeting Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium A1-R (Salmonella A1-R) had strong efficacy on a melanoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model. GFP-expressing Salmonella A1-R highly and selectively colonized the PDOX melanoma and significantly suppressed tumor growth (p = 0.021). The combination of Salmonella A1-R and cisplatinum (CDDP), both at low-dose, also significantly suppressed the growth of the melanoma PDOX (P = 0.001). Salmonella A1-R has future clinical potential for combination chemotherapy with CDDP of melanoma, a highly-recalcitrant cancer. PMID:27500926

  4. Effect of pretreatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin on the course of a Listeria monocytogenes infection in normal and congenitally athymic (nude) mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ruitenberg, E. J.; Van Noorle Jansen, L. M.; Kruizinga, W.; Steerenberg, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with BCG on the course of a Listeria monomcytogenes infection was studied in nu/nu mice and in their heterozygous littermates (+/nu). First, evidence was presented that the nu/nu mice used lacked functional T cells, since BCG treatment resulted only in skin reactivity to tuberculin in +/nu mice and not in nu/nu mice. Acquired resistance to Listeria (based on lower spleen counts) was only obtained in BCG pretreated +/nu mice. Evidence was presented that BCG pretreatment in nu/nu mice failed to increase non-specific resistance, both in terms of spleen counts and survival rate. These results seem to imply that functional T cells are required for this type of non-specific resistance to heterologous antigens. In this connection attention has been drawn to the possible implication of BCG treatment in man. PMID:821508

  5. Hand-Held High-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging System for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Patient and Cell-Line Pancreatic Tumors Growing Orthotopically in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Sato, Sho; Murakami, Takashi; Uehara, Fuminari; Miwa, Shinji; Yano, Shuya; Momiyama, Masashi; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the advantages for fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) in mice of a portable hand-sized imaging system compared to a large chamber fluorescing imaging system or a long-working-distance fluorescence microscope. Methods Mouse models of human pancreatic cancer for FGS included (1) MiaPaCa-2-expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), (2) BxPC3 labeled with anti-CEA antibody conjugated with Alexa 488, (3) patient-derived orhotopic xenograft (PDOX)™ labeled with anti-CA19-9 antibody conjugated with Alexa 488. Results Each device could clearly detect the primary MiaPaCa-2-GFP. tumor and any residual tumor after FGS. In the BxPC3 model labeled with Alexa 488-conjugated anti-CEA, each device could detect the primary tumor, but the MVX10 could not clearly detect the residual tumor remaining after FGS while the other devices could. In the PDOX™ model labeled with Alexa 488 conjugated with anti CA19-9, only the portable hand-held device could distinguish the residual tumor from the background, and complete resection of the residual tumor was achieved under fluorescence navigation. Conclusions The results described in the present report suggest the hand-held mobile imaging system can be able to be applied to the clinic for FGS due to its convenient size and high sensitivity and help make FGS widely-used. PMID:24373959

  6. Stress inoculation modeled in mice

    PubMed Central

    Brockhurst, J; Cheleuitte-Nieves, C; Buckmaster, C L; Schatzberg, A F; Lyons, D M

    2015-01-01

    Stress inoculation entails intermittent exposure to mildly stressful situations that present opportunities to learn, practice and improve coping in the context of exposure psychotherapies and resiliency training. Here we investigate behavioral and hormonal aspects of stress inoculation modeled in mice. Mice randomized to stress inoculation or a control treatment condition were assessed for corticosterone stress hormone responses and behavior during open-field, object-exploration and tail-suspension tests. Stress inoculation training sessions that acutely increased plasma levels of corticosterone diminished subsequent immobility as a measure of behavioral despair on tail-suspension tests. Stress inoculation also decreased subsequent freezing in the open field despite comparable levels of thigmotaxis in mice from both treatment conditions. Stress inoculation subsequently decreased novel-object exploration latencies and reduced corticosterone responses to repeated restraint. These results demonstrate that stress inoculation acutely stimulates glucocorticoid signaling and then enhances subsequent indications of active coping behavior in mice. Unlike mouse models that screen for the absence of vulnerability to stress or presence of traits that occur in resilient individuals, stress inoculation training reflects an experience-dependent learning-like process that resembles interventions designed to build resilience in humans. Mouse models of stress inoculation may provide novel insights for new preventive strategies or therapeutic treatments of human psychiatric disorders that are triggered and exacerbated by stressful life events. PMID:25826112

  7. Increased invasion and tumorigenicity capacity of CD44+/CD24- breast cancer MCF7 cells in vitro and in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and their behaviors will provide insightful information for the future control of human cancers. This study investigated CD44 and CD24 cell surface markers as breast cancer CSC markers in vitro and in vivo. Methods Flow cytometry with CD44 and CD24 markers was used to sort breast cancer MCF7 cells for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tumor cell invasion assay, and nude mouse xenograft assay. Results Flow cytometry assay using CD44 and CD24 markers sorted MCF7 cells into four subsets, i.e., CD44+/CD24-/low, CD44-/CD24+, CD44+/CD24+, and CD44-/CD24-. The SEM data showed that there were many protrusions on the surface of CD44+/CD24-/low cells. CD44+/CD24-/low cells had many microvilli and pseudopodia. The CD44+/CD24-/low cells had a higher migration and invasion abilities than that of the other three subsets of the cells. The in vivo tumor formation assay revealed that CD44+/CD24- cells had the highest tumorigenic capacity compared to the other three subsets. Conclusion CD44 and CD24 could be useful markers for identification of breast CSCs because CD44+/CD24-/low cells had unique surface ultrastructures and the highest tumorigenicity and invasive abilities. PMID:23799994

  8. Rhabdomyosarcoma-induced hypercalcemia in a nude mouse.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Takeuchi, H; Hoshino, R; Ohmi, K

    1982-07-01

    Hypercalcemia in nude mice with a rhabdomyosarcoma transplanted from a hypercalcemic patient is reported. The tumor had been transplanted to nude mice from a 15-year-old girl with hypercalcemia which appeared as the rhabdomyosarcoma developed and metastasized to the peritoneal and pleural cavities. The tumor was successfully transplanted to nude mice, which presented an elevated serum calcium level. No remarkable elevation of serum parathyroid hormone or 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D was found in the mouse with rhabdomyosarcoma. Injection of indomethacin restored the elevated serum calcium level to the normal range. The prostaglandin E2 level was approximately 15 times higher in the tumor-bearing mouse serum than in the control mouse serum. These data indicate that hypercalcemia in this patient can be ascribed to prostaglandin E2 produced by the rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:6952956

  9. Administered activity and metastatic cure probability during radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in nude mice with {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Elgqvist, Joergen . E-mail: jorgen.elgqvist@radfys.gu.se; Andersson, Hakan; Bernhardt, Peter; Baeck, Tom; Claesson, Ingela; Hultborn, Ragnar; Jensen, Holger; Johansson, Bengt R.; Lindegren, Sture; Olsson, Marita; Palm, Stig; Warnhammar, Elisabet; Jacobsson, Lars

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of {alpha}-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice. This study: (i) estimated the minimum required activity (MRA), giving a reasonable high therapeutic efficacy; and (ii) calculated the specific energy to tumor cell nuclei and the metastatic cure probability (MCP) using various assumptions regarding monoclonal-antibody (mAb) distribution in measured tumors. The study was performed using the {alpha}-particle emitter Astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) labeled to the mAb MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}. Methods and Materials: Animals were inoculated intraperitoneally with {approx}1 x 10{sup 7} cells of the cell line NIH:OVCAR-3. Four weeks later animals were treated with 25, 50, 100, or 200 kBq {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2} (n = 74). Another group of animals was treated with a nonspecific mAb: 100 kBq {sup 211}At-Rituximab F(ab'){sub 2} (n = 18). Eight weeks after treatment the animals were sacrificed and presence of macro- and microscopic tumors and ascites was determined. An MCP model was developed and compared with the experimentally determined tumor-free fraction (TFF). Results: When treatment was given 4 weeks after cell inoculation, the TFFs were 25%, 22%, 50%, and 61% after treatment with 25, 50, 100, or 200 kBq {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}, respectively, the specific energy to irradiated cell nuclei varying between {approx}2 and {approx}400 Gy. Conclusion: As a significant increase in the therapeutic efficacy was observed between the activity levels of 50 and 100 kBq (TFF increase from 22% to 50%), the conclusion was that the MRA is {approx}100 kBq {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}. MCP was most consistent with the TFF when assuming a diffusion depth of 30 {mu}m of the mAbs in the tumors.

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Calcitriol on the Growth of MCF-7 Breast Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice: Selective Modulation of Aromatase Expression in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Srilatha; Krishnan, Aruna V.; Wang, Jennifer Y.; Jensen, Kristin; Peng, Lihong; Albertelli, Megan A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts many anticancer effects in breast cancer (BCa) cells. We have previously shown using cell culture models that calcitriol acts as a selective aromatase modulator (SAM) and inhibits estrogen synthesis and signaling in BCa cells. We have now examined calcitriol effects in vivo on aromatase expression, estrogen signaling, and tumor growth when used alone and in combination with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). In immunocompromised mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts, increasing doses of calcitriol exhibited significant tumor inhibitory effects (~50% to 70% decrease in tumor volume). At the suboptimal doses tested, anastrozole and letrozole also caused significant tumor shrinkage when used individually. Although the combinations of calcitriol and the AIs caused a statistically significant increase in tumor inhibition in comparison to the single agents, the cooperative interaction between these agents appeared to be minimal at the doses tested. Calcitriol decreased aromatase expression in the xenograft tumors. Importantly, calcitriol also acted as a SAM in the mouse, decreasing aromatase expression in the mammary adipose tissue, while increasing it in bone marrow cells and not altering it in the ovaries and uteri. As a result, calcitriol significantly reduced estrogen levels in the xenograft tumors and surrounding breast adipose tissue. In addition, calcitriol inhibited estrogen signaling by decreasing tumor ERα levels. Changes in tumor gene expression revealed the suppressive effects of calcitriol on inflammatory and growth signaling pathways and demonstrated cooperative interactions between calcitriol and AIs to modulate gene expression. We hypothesize that cumulatively these calcitriol actions would contribute to a beneficial effect when calcitriol is combined with an AI in the treatment of BCa. PMID:21686077