Science.gov

Sample records for nuetele vastavus cross

  1. False Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The asterism formed by the four stars δ and κ Velorum, and ɛ and ι Carinae, all of the second magnitude, which make up a cross of about 10°×6°. It is so named because it is sometimes mistaken for the Southern Cross (Crux) by observers unfamiliar with the southern sky. There is a superficial resemblance, but Crux is more compact (about 7°×5°) and comprises rather brighter stars. The two crosses ca...

  2. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  3. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  4. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  5. Cross-Generational Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Thurston, Judy Kay

    2007-01-01

    What happens when you combine senior citizens, pre-service art teachers, and elementary students? Cross-generational connections based on sharing memories, ideas, skills, laughter, tears, and creativity. The authors describe the cross-generational book exchange project. This project was initiated when a group of Central Michigan University (CMU)…

  6. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…

  7. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  8. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress. PMID:26747520

  9. Corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Randleman, J Bradley; Khandelwal, Sumitra S; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the late 1990s, corneal cross-linking has grown from an interesting concept to a primary treatment for corneal ectatic disease worldwide. Using a combination of ultraviolet-A light and a chromophore (vitamin B2, riboflavin), the cornea can be stiffened, usually with a single application, and progressive thinning diseases such as keratoconus arrested. Despite being in clinical use for many years, some of the underlying processes, such as the role of oxygen and the optimal treatment times, are still being worked out. More than a treatment technique, corneal cross-links represent a physiological principle of connective tissue, which may explain the enormous versatility of the method. We highlight the history of corneal cross-linking, the scientific underpinnings of current techniques, evolving clinical treatment parameters, and the use of cross-linking in combination with refractive surgery and for the treatment of infectious keratitis. PMID:25980780

  10. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  11. Anticrossproducts and cross divisions.

    PubMed

    de Leva, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines, in the context of conventional vector algebra, the concept of anticrossproduct and a family of simple operations called cross or vector divisions. It is impossible to solve for a or b the equation axb=c, where a and b are three-dimensional space vectors, and axb is their cross product. However, the problem becomes solvable if some "knowledge about the unknown" (a or b) is available, consisting of one of its components, or the angle it forms with the other operand of the cross product. Independently of the selected reference frame orientation, the known component of a may be parallel to b, or vice versa. The cross divisions provide a compact and insightful symbolic representation of a family of algorithms specifically designed to solve problems of such kind. A generalized algorithm was also defined, incorporating the rules for selecting the appropriate kind of cross division, based on the type of input data. Four examples of practical application were provided, including the computation of the point of application of a force and the angular velocity of a rigid body. The definition and geometrical interpretation of the cross divisions stemmed from the concept of anticrossproduct. The "anticrossproducts of axb" were defined as the infinitely many vectors x(i) such that x(i)xb=axb. PMID:18423647

  12. Cross-linked informofers.

    PubMed Central

    Prosvirnin, V V; Ruzidic, S; Samarina, O P

    1979-01-01

    The proteins of 30S RNP particles containing pre-mRNA (hnRNA) were cross-linked with bifunctional reagents (dimethyl-suberimidate and dimethyl-3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate). Further treatment with 1 or 2 M NaCl dissociates all RNA from protein. However, a significant part of protein particles--informofers being cross-linked survived high salt treatment. Their sedimentation coefficients were close to those of original particles. No RNA could be detected in the informofers even after labeling the cells with a precursor for a long period of time. Sodium dodecylsulfate or urea dissociated cross-linked informofers into oligomeric polypeptides. They could be dissociated by beta-mercaptoethanol treatment if a reversible cross-linked reagent had been used. The resulting polypeptides were represented by informatin. RNP particles (30S RNP or poly-particles) were reconstituted upon mixing of cross-linked informofers with pre-mRNA and removal of 2 M NaCl. PMID:503864

  13. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  14. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  15. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  16. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  17. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  18. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  19. Analyzing crossings under roads

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraffea, A.R.; Barry, A. )

    1989-10-01

    Current design procedures for cased and uncased crossings under highways and railroads are generated from semi-empirical methods. The authors describe the results of a GRI/Cornell University study to develop a three-dimensional finite element modeling to address some of the previous design shortcomings.

  20. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  1. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  2. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  3. CRESS-CROSS, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

    Three issues of the "CRESS-CROSS" newsletter published during 1976 are compiled in this publication. These issues include information on: how to contribute to the ERIC system, the computer search services at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, the Rural/Regional Education Association's research award for meritorious…

  4. Universal enveloping crossed module of Leibniz crossed modules and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Rafael F.; García-Martínez, Xabier; Ladra, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The universal enveloping algebra functor UL: Lb → Alg, defined by Loday and Pirashvili [1], is extended to crossed modules. Then we construct an isomorphism between the category of representations of a Leibniz crossed module and the category of left modules over its universal enveloping crossed module of algebras. Note that the procedure followed in the proof for the Lie case cannot be adapted, since the actor in the category of Leibniz crossed modules does not always exist.

  5. Crossing the Next Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R.; Menard, J.; Brooks, J.; Doerner, R.; Gates, D.; Fu, G.-Y.; Gorelenkov, N.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Skinner, C.; Strachan, J.; Harris, J.; Maingi, R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P.; Nygren, R.; Ulrickson, M.; Ruzic, D.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2007-11-01

    The plasma-material interface is the next frontier in fusion science. ITER's approaches to heat flux and tritium retention do not extrapolate to Demo. Defining questions at this frontier include: Can extremely high radiated-power fraction be consistent with high confinement and low Zeff? Can magnetic flux expansion or edge ergodization reduce heat loads sufficiently? Can tungsten survive with acceptable core radiation and tritium retention? Can liquid metals more effectively handle high heat flux, off-normal loads and tritium exhaust? Answers must be integrated with high-performance, fully steady state plasma operation, avoiding ELMs and eliminating disruptions. The vehicle to cross this frontier is a high-power-density plasma with long pulses, excellent diagnostic access, flexible first wall, divertor, heating, current drive and plasma control systems, extensive deuterium and trace tritium operation, and the ability to test a range of plasma-facing materials at reactor-relevant temperature.

  6. Caution -- Beam Crossing Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-02

    There are times when a laser beam needs to cross between tables or even go from one room to another. This presents an interesting traffic-flow and safety challenge to both the laser safety officer and laser user. Fortunately it is a challenge that has several solutions But the simplest solution may not be the best one. For example, the simplest way to get a beam from one optical table to another is just to put a sturdy tube around it. That's a permanent solution, and it completely contains the laser beam. While this is laser safe, there can be egress issues if it blocks a walkway. One comment this author often hears is, 'We can just duck under the tube.' The fire marshal, as well as the laser safety officer, might have issues with this. Especially in the case of a darkened lab, a blocked walkway can present a hazard of its own. One good solution is to transport the beam from Point A to Point B through a fiberoptic cable, when that is possible. One should easily be able to run the fiber up and over any walkway or down through a conduit on the floor. An important concern often overlooked with fibers is a label at the termination end indicating disconnection may expose one to laser radiation. Suppose there's an experiment that is usually confined to a single optical table, but sometimes needs to expand to a second table. It's inconvenient to install a permanent tube between the tables, so some sort of temporary arrangement is desirable. I have often seen people casually lay a beam tube across support arms, and remove it when it's not needed. The problem with this approach is that there's no mechanism to prevent the beam from crossing if somebody's forgotten the tube, or if the tube gets knocked out of place. A better solution is a mechanism that only allows the beam to cross when the beam protection is in place. A swing shutter, or a guillotine and swing arm, are examples (Figures 1 and 2). Another alternative is a sensor, maybe a little microswitch, that activates a

  7. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  8. Chao Formalism & Kondratenko Crossing Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; Kondratenko, A. M.

    2007-06-01

    We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance; this seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. The Chao matrix formalism allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. While the Froissart-Stora formula can make no prediction in this case, the data seem to support the Chao formalism. We also started investigating the new Kondratenko method to preserve beam polarization during a spin resonance crossing; the method uses 3 rapid changes of the crossing rate near the resonance. With a proper choice of crossing parameters, Kondratenko Crossing may better preserve the polarization than simple fast crossing. We tested Kondratenko's idea using 2.1 GeV/c polarized protons stored in COSY; the frequency of a ferrite rf dipole was swept though an rf-induced spin resonance using Kondratenko's crossing shape. We have not yet observed a significant advantage of Kondratenko Crossing over simple fast crossing. We plan to study it further by choosing better crossing parameters and a smaller momentum spread.

  9. (abstract) Cross with Your Spectra? Cross-Correlate Instead!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    The use of cross-correlation for certain types of spectral analysis is discussed. Under certain circumstances, the use of cross-correlation between a real spectrum and either a model or another spectrum can provide a very powerful tool for spectral analysis. The method (and its limitations) will be described with concrete examples using ATMOS data.

  10. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  11. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  12. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  13. Housatonic crossing tests the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, L.D. )

    1992-06-01

    One of the early problems facing engineers planning the construction of the Iroquois Gas Transmission System, from the Canadian border through six Northeastern states, was how and where to cross the major rivers and Long Island Sound. The Housatonic River, a major waterway near Shelton, Conn., had been crossed earlier during a previous pipeline project. The earlier crossing had been installed by conventional open cutting. However, the state of Connecticut and its environmental agencies insisted that the Iroquois crossing must be installed by horizontal directional drilling. This paper reports that prior to completing the design of the Housatonic River crossing, Iroquois Gas engineers took several deep soil borings at three possible crossing sites. Each site showed the same thing: a hard schist rock with compression strengths from 2,760 psi to 16,500 psi, overlain by either recent fill or alluvial till. Although most of the river crossing would be drilled through the hard rock formation, the drilled path would certainly have to cross the transition zones of fill or till on both sides of the river.

  14. Evaluating Cross-Lingual Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Joel; Allalouf, Avi

    This study examined the cross-lingual equating process adopted by a large scale testing system in which target language (TL) forms are equated to the source language (SL) forms using a set of translated items. The focus was on evaluating the degree of error inherent in the routine cross-lingual equating of the Verbal Reasoning subtest of the…

  15. Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Bakker, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and mobility in education and work present a paramount challenge that needs better conceptualization in educational theory. This challenge has been addressed by educational scholars with the notion of "boundaries", particularly by the concepts of "boundary crossing" and "boundary objects". Although studies on boundary crossing and…

  16. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  17. To Cross or Not to Cross: Objective Timing Methods of Assessing Street Crossings without Traffic Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents methods for visually impaired pedestrians assessing safety of street crossings in the absence of traffic controls, considering both limited detection ability and the difficulty of judging when approaching traffic is distant or slow enough to allow crossing. Alternatives for "uncrossable" streets and teaching methods are…

  18. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  19. Oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome (Cross syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ozkan, H; Unsal, E; Köse, G

    1991-01-01

    A typical case of Cross syndrome with hypopigmentation, mental and psychomotor retardation, spasticity, bilateral optic atrophy and dental defects in a three-year-old boy is presented. The clinical features of this rare syndrome are discussed. PMID:1814043

  20. Cross-Referencing Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to ascertain student involvement in physical education programs, a cross-referencing participation scale was conducted to determine which activities were most popular, the extent of participation, and budget justifications. (JN)

  1. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  2. Cross-Validated Bagged Learning

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Sinisi, Sandra E.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications aim to learn a high dimensional parameter of a data generating distribution based on a sample of independent and identically distributed observations. For example, the goal might be to estimate the conditional mean of an outcome given a list of input variables. In this prediction context, bootstrap aggregating (bagging) has been introduced as a method to reduce the variance of a given estimator at little cost to bias. Bagging involves applying an estimator to multiple bootstrap samples, and averaging the result across bootstrap samples. In order to address the curse of dimensionality, a common practice has been to apply bagging to estimators which themselves use cross-validation, thereby using cross-validation within a bootstrap sample to select fine-tuning parameters trading off bias and variance of the bootstrap sample-specific candidate estimators. In this article we point out that in order to achieve the correct bias variance trade-off for the parameter of interest, one should apply the cross-validation selector externally to candidate bagged estimators indexed by these fine-tuning parameters. We use three simulations to compare the new cross-validated bagging method with bagging of cross-validated estimators and bagging of non-cross-validated estimators. PMID:19255599

  3. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  4. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces. PMID:17044797

  5. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  6. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  7. Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Fisher, R. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-sector infrastructure interdependencies and key risk considerations, analysis approaches, research and development needs, and the range of interdisciplinary skills required for comprehensive cross-sector analysis. Traditional analysis of interdependencies involves characterization of infrastructure-to-infrastructure linkages to identify the key infrastructure components that, if lost or degraded, could adversely affect the performance of other infrastructures. Such analysis is motivated by the recognition that a series of incidents could interact (cascade) across critical infrastructures to degrade the service upon which all depend. From a risk perspective, cross-sector analysis also must involve identifying and characterizing a wide range of threats (natural and accidental, systems related, and intentional), vulnerabilities (physical and cyber), and consequences of loss (e.g., health and safety, economic, national security, environmental, sociopolitical). Such information provides a foundation for making defensible, cost-effective infrastructure protection and operation decisions to ensure the security and reliability of our interdependent systems.

  8. Cross-Cultural Interpretations of Curricular Contextual Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlein, Candace; Garii, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Teachers--who are generally representatives of the cultural mainstream--are expected to use global experiences to become culturally enhanced and to bring these enhancements back to their classrooms. In this article, the authors discuss a cross-cultural exploration of investigations into the experiences of Canadian and U.S. educators with…

  9. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  12. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  13. Redressing Cross-Dressed Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas L.; Pesta, Duke

    2003-01-01

    Gender critics obsess over the boy actors who played female roles on the Elizabethan stage. But, in their far-fetched interpretation of Shakespearean drama as a spectacle of cross dressing, these new historicists lose sight of a fundamental principle of theater. Thomas Martin and Duke Pesta argue that with their prurient chatter of "the…

  14. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  15. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  16. Crossing Thresholds in Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the conceptual thresholds in relation to academic reading which might be crossed by undergraduate English Literature students. It is part of a wider study following 16 students through three years of undergraduate study. It uses theoretical ideas from Bakhtin and Foucault to analyse interviews with English lecturers. It…

  17. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population. PMID:23494491

  18. Cross-Cultural HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The first of three papers from this symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD), "Determinants of Supply of Technical Training Opportunities for Human Capital Development in Kenya" (Moses Waithanji Ngware, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho) reports findings from interviews of technical training institute department heads in Kenya who…

  19. Improved Zero-Crossing Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved zero-crossing-detector circuit designed for precisely measuring difference between frequencies of two frequency-standard signal sources. Contains low-bandwidth first-stage amplifier and three limiting amplifiers, each "squares" signal bit more. Crosstalk eliminated and jitter reduced to about 10 to the negative 7th power microseconds.

  20. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization.

    PubMed

    Sakes, Aimée; Regar, Evelyn; Dankelman, Jenny; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the "last frontier" of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the inability to actively navigate through the CTO. To improve the success rate and to identify future research pathways, this study systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of all existing and invented devices for crossing occlusions. The literature search was executed in the databases of Scopus and Espacenet using medical and instrument-related keyword combinations. The search yielded over 840 patents and 69 articles. After scanning for relevancy, 45 patents and 16 articles were included. The identified crossing devices were subdivided based on the determinant for the crossing path through the occlusion, which is either the device (straight and angled crossing), the environment (least resistance, tissue selective, centerline, and subintimal crossing) or the user (directly steered and sensor enhanced crossing). It was found that each crossing path is characterized by specific advantages and disadvantages. For a future crossing device, a combination of crossing paths is suggested were the interventionist is able to exert high forces on the CTO (as seen in the device approach) and actively steer through the CTO (user: directly steered crossing) aided by intravascular imaging (user: sensor enhanced crossing) or an intrinsically safe device following the centerline or path of least resistance (environment: centerline crossing or least resistance crossing) to reach the distal true lumen. PMID:26831298

  1. Planet-crossing asteroid survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The planet-crossing asteroid survey was begun in 1973 in order to study those asteroids which may intersect the orbits of the inner planets. Throughout the history of the survey, many of the various classes of asteroids were investigated. The near-Earth objects including the Apollo, Amor, and Aten families were studied in addition to asteroids whose orbits cross that of Mars, and some objects which are generally confined to the main belt. Observing was done on the 18 inch Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Mtn. Observatory. Typically, two consecutive photographs of a favorable field are taken. The exposure times of the films are usually twenty minutes and ten minutes, respectively. The telescope is guided at sidereal rate, so that asteroids will leave short trailed images. The films are then scanned for trails. By comparing the two films, the direction and approximate rate of motion of an asteroid may be determined.

  2. Cross well seismic reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, H.E.

    1995-08-01

    A striking example of how Cross Well Seismic reflection data can help characterize a reservoir, has resulted from an ongoing Multi-Discipline study of the carbonate Mishrif reservoir offshore Dubai, U.A.E. Because the study objectives include a more detailed description of intra reservoir structure and layering, Dubai Petroleum Company (DPC) analyzed the feasibility of Cross Well Seismic (CWS) and decided to acquire two surveys between three wells 337 to 523 feet apart. DPC has concluded that CWS can be cost effectively acquired offshore, in a Carbonate reservoir; as well as processed and interpreted. However, generally it is not often easy to acquire cross well seismic when and where it will be most useful. A CWS survey can provide multiple images such as a velocity Tomogram, P-wave reflections, and S-wave reflections. To date, Tomograms and P-wave reflections have been produced, and the reflection data has proven to be the most useful for reservoir characterization. Cross Well Seismic Reflection data have provided a level of vertical seismic reflection resolution of around 2 feet, which is more than 10 times better than surface seismic data (2D or 3D). The increase in vertical resolution has provided important detailed information about the reservoir, it`s continuity/heterogeneity; it`s detailed structure, stratigraphy and layering; and definition of any faults with more than 2 feet of offset. The CWS has shown detailed intra Mishrif reflectors. These reflectors have verified or changed detailed correlations between well bores, and show significant intra Mishrif thinning. These reflectors imply time stratigraphic layering which is consistent with tracer study results and regional sequence stratigraphy. This new data will be used to improve the reservoir model description.

  3. Geometry of operator cross ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikin, M I

    2006-02-28

    The operator cross ratio, which is meaningful, in particular, for the infinite-dimensional Sato Grassmannian is defined and investigated. Its homological interpretation is presented. A matrix and operator analogue of the Schwartzian differential operator is introduced and its relation to linear Hamiltonian systems and Riccati's equation is established. The aim of these constructions is application to the KP-hierarchy (the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy)

  4. Transmission through crossed polaroid filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    2001-04-01

    A modification to a digital lux meter is described. A Malus' law experiment performed with the meter gives unexpected results. The modified meter is used to show that the unexpected findings result from the inability of Polaroid filters to polarize radiation that is outside the range of visible light. With the use of a diffraction grating and the modified meter crossed Polaroids are shown to transmit infrared radiation.

  5. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  6. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. PMID:24798608

  7. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  8. A Study of Cross-Referencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochen, Manfred; Tagliacozzo, Renata

    The problem of determining the optimal cross-reference structure for a given index and for a given community of users is discussed. A cross-reference structure is represented as a graph in which the nodes are index terms and the links are relations between index terms. In order to clarify the concept of 'level of cross-referencing' the…

  9. Geneticists and the Biology of Race Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provine, William B.

    1973-01-01

    Examines historically the attitudes of United States and British geneticists on the topic of race crossing. Between 1930 and 1950 the attitudes changed from a condemnation of wide race crosses because of deleterious effects to a belief that such inter-racial crosses were at worst biologically harmless. (JR)

  10. Laser cross-flow gas system

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A method and laser apparatus are disclosed which provide for a cross-flow of gas near one end of a laser discharge tube. The cross-flow of gas causes a concentration gradient which affects diffusion of contaminants in the discharge tube towards the cross-flow of the gas, which contaminants are then withdrawn from the discharge tube.

  11. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  14. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  17. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  18. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  20. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  1. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  2. Deimos Crosses Face of Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the passing, or transit, of the martian moon Deimos over the Sun. This event is similar solar eclipse seen on Earth in which our Moon crosses in front of the Sun. The animation is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 39 of its mission. Deimos passed slightly closer to the center of the Sun than expected, and arrived about 30 seconds early. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Deimos.

  3. Petascale cross correlation in software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsdell, Benjamin R.; Clark, M. A.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2014-04-01

    The exascale computational demands of back-end processing in the era of the SKA and HERA, headlined by the needs of cross-correlation, are likely to require solutions that differ significantly from traditional approaches on smaller arrays. The rapid growth of massively-parallel general-purpose computing hardware presents an alternative to ASIC- or FPGA-based designs and promises several advantages. In this talk we present strong scaling results for an FX correlator that runs entirely in software on GPU-based off-the-shelf HPC clusters.

  4. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  5. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  6. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  7. The CrossGrid project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, M.; CrossGrid Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    There are many large-scale problems that require new approaches to computing, such as earth observation, environmental management, biomedicine, industrial and scientific modeling. The CrossGrid project addresses realistic problems in medicine, environmental protection, flood prediction, and physics analysis and is oriented towards specific end-users: Medical doctors, who could obtain new tools to help them to obtain correct diagnoses and to guide them during operations; industries, that could be advised on the best timing for some critical operations involving risk of pollution; flood crisis teams, that could predict the risk of a flood on the basis of historical records and actual hydrological and meteorological data; physicists, who could optimize the analysis of massive volumes of data distributed across countries and continents. Corresponding applications will be based on Grid technology and could be complex and difficult to use: the CrossGrid project aims at developing several tools that will make the Grid more friendly for average users. Portals for specific applications will be designed, that should allow for easy connection to the Grid, create a customized work environment, and provide users with all necessary information to get their job done.

  8. Modeling jets in cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches to the modeling of jets in cross flow are reviewed. These are grouped into four classes, namely: empirical models, integral models, perturbation models, and numerical models. Empirical models depend largely on the correlation of experimental data and are mostly useful for first-order estimates of global properties such as jet trajectory and velocity and temperature decay rates. Integral models are based on some ordinary-differential form of the conservation laws, but require substantial empirical calibration. They allow more details of the flow field to be obtained; simpler versions have to assume similarity of velocity and temperature profiles, but more sophisticated ones can actually calculate these profiles. Perturbation models require little empirical input, but the need for small parameters to ensure convergent expansions limits their application to either the near-field or the far-field. Therefore, they are mostly useful for the study of flow physics. Numerical models are based on conservation laws in partial-differential form. They require little empirical input and have the widest range of applicability. They also require the most computational resources. Although many qualitative and quantitative features of jets in cross flow have been predicted with numerical models, many issues affecting accuracy such as grid resolution and turbulence model are not completely resolved.

  9. Dentists and cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S

    1997-03-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of general dental practitioners in Natal, South Africa in 1994, to ascertain the precautions they use against cross-infection and to gauge the attitudes and behaviour towards the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. An interview was conducted covering 5 broad topics: demographic details, personal barrier protection, instrument sterilization and disinfection, sharps disposal and incidence of needlestick injuries and the extent of the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the practitioners toward the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. The key findings were: routine glove wearing, for all patients, was practised by 87 per cent. The most common heat sterilization method was by autoclave (68 per cent), although a dry heat sterilizer and water boiler were used by 22 per cent of the respondents. Of the 18 respondents reporting a needlestick injury in the past 6 months only one sought after-care. 42 per cent of the respondents would continue to treat carriers of HIV in their practices. This survey shows that a significant number of dentists are using unacceptable cross-infection control procedures. Educational efforts should be made to improve their knowledge and to alleviate anxiety of health workers to treat HIV-infected patients. PMID:9461908

  10. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Israel J.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Tiee, Joe J.; Buck, Steven E.; Whittemore, Stephen R.; Thompson, David C.; Shirey, Robert

    2010-04-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 106 ) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.ÿ

  11. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  13. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). 35.3575 Section 35.3575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....3575 Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). (a) General. A number of...

  14. Deionization shocks in cross flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ali

    2011-11-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have shown that surface conduction in supported electrolytes, such as in micro/nanochannels or porous media, can lead to nonlinear modes of transport and formation of sharp concentration fronts analogous to shock waves in gas dynamics. Propagation of these shocks leaves behind a region of ultra pure fluid, acting to deionize the bulk solution. In this work we present the analysis of salt transport in a porous medium next to a membrane with an electric field applied normal to the interface and cross flow in tangential direction. We show that two distinct boundary layers grow near the membrane: an inner (shocked) region with almost deionized solution dominated by surface conduction, and an outer layer with diffuse dynamics. Under certain conditions both regions collapse into a similarity solution with the same scaling. We will discuss advantages of such systems for desalination and water purification. Research performed in collaboration with Martin Bazant (MIT).

  15. Cross polarization compatible dialysis chip.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Beck, Roy

    2014-10-01

    We visualize birefringence in microliter sample volumes using a microfluidic dialysis chip optimized for cross polarization microscopy. The chip is composed of two overlapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channels separated by a commercial cellulose ester membrane. Buffer exchange in the sample chamber is achieved within minutes by dialyzing under continuous reservoir flow. Using fd virus as a birefringent model system, we monitor the fd virus isotropic to liquid crystal phase transition as a function of ionic strength. We show that the reorientation of the fd virus spans a few tens of seconds, indicative of fast ion exchange across the membrane. Complete phase separation reorganization takes minutes to hours as it involves diffusive virus mass transport within the storage chamber. PMID:25105977

  16. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  17. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  19. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  20. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  1. Cross-Correlations and Joint Gaussianity in Multivariate Level Crossing Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A variety of phenomena in physical and biological sciences can be mathematically understood by considering the statistical properties of level crossings of random Gaussian processes. Notably, a growing number of these phenomena demand a consideration of correlated level crossings emerging from multiple correlated processes. While many theoretical results have been obtained in the last decades for individual Gaussian level-crossing processes, few results are available for multivariate, jointly correlated threshold crossings. Here, we address bivariate upward crossing processes and derive the corresponding bivariate Central Limit Theorem as well as provide closed-form expressions for their joint level-crossing correlations. PMID:24742344

  2. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  3. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Jankov II, Mirko R.; Jovanovic, Vesna; Nikolic, Ljubisa; Lake, Jonathan C.; Kymionis, Georgos; Coskunseven, Efekan

    2010-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA) is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening by using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and UVA to increase the formation of intra and interfibrillar covalent bonds by photosensitized oxidation. Keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior segment of the corneal stroma all the way down to a depth of about 300 microns has been described and a demarcation line between the treated and untreated cornea has been clearly shown. It is important to ensure that the cytotoxic threshold for the endothelium has not been exceeded by strictly respecting the minimal corneal thickness. Confocal microscopy studies show that repopulation of keratocytes is already visible 1 month after the treatment, reaching its pre-operative quantity and quality in terms of functional morphology within 6 months after the treatment. The major indication for the use of CXL is to inhibit the progression of corneal ectasias, such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. CXL may also be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of iatrogenic keratectasia, resulting from excessively aggressive photoablation. This treatment has also been used to treat infectious corneal ulcers with apparent favorable results. Combination with other treatments, such as intracorneal ring segment implantation, limited topography-guided photoablation and conductive keratoplasty have been used with different levels of success. PMID:20543933

  4. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  5. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  6. Cross-Connections of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-02-01

    We are in desperate need of qualified chemistry teachers. Are the teachers who have biology, physics, or some psychology degrees qualified to teach chemistry? Have they taken enough chemistry to be prepared to teach outside their degree field? If remediation is necessary, what courses should be required? Attracting pre-service science teachers to the study of pure chemistry is not an easy task when more attractive course offerings are available. Maybe we should concentrate on cross-training in-service teachers by providing appropriate graduate courses to encourage them and bring them into the family. Many teachers with degrees outside the traditional discipline of chemistry have adequate backgrounds in the applications of chemistry. Requiring hours of undergraduate education before they enter the hallowed halls of the chemistry building as graduate students only serves to discourage a large segment of in-service teachers who wish to broaden their perspective. The National Science Education Standards make a compelling argument for connecting and integrating science courses for practicing teachers (3). We are at the crossroads. At a time when we so desperately need qualified chemistry teachers, shouldn't we be more open in our graduate teaching programs, inviting those with degrees in other disciplines to start on a graduate degree without insisting on undergraduate or survey coursework first? Many potential chemical education graduate students have a background in chemistry--it is just known by another name.

  7. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  8. Pedestrian Crossings. USMES Teacher Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Ray, Jr., Ed.; Arbetter, Carolyn Clinton, Ed.

    This USMES unit challenges students to recommend and try to have a change made which would improve the safety and convenience of a pedestrian crossing near the school. The teacher resource book for the Pedestrian Crossings unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real…

  9. "Moving On": Learning to Cross Streets Independently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattavina, Sylvia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with severe disabilities was taught street-crossing skills through the use of photographs with verbal rehearsal of appropriate street crossing, followed by community-based instruction. The skills were acquired, maintained at follow up, and generalized to new streets. (JDD)

  10. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  11. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  12. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  13. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  14. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  15. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  16. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... item in Red Cross disaster relief. It will urge disaster victims displaced from their homes to...

  17. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  18. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  19. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  20. Bridge over Troubled Water: Guidance Crosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norm

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation at an international conference where the focus was cross-over career guidance. Simon and Garfunkel's popular song, "Bridge over troubled water", was used as a metaphor for exploring the cross-over theme. Some of the concepts under consideration included the working alliance, the importance of a…

  1. Cross-National Invariance of Children's Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas; Shermis, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of temperament is an important endeavor with international appeal; however, cross-national invariance (i.e., equivalence of test scores across countries as established by empirical comparisons) of temperament tests has not been established in published research. This study examines the cross-national invariance of school-aged…

  2. 47 CFR 15.705 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.705 Section 15.705 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Television Band Devices § 15.705 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply to TVBDs, except...

  3. CrossRef: A Collaborative Linking Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Ed

    2001-01-01

    CrossRef was created to make broad-based linking efficient and scalable across a wide range of primary publishers, secondary publishers, abstracting and indexing services, and libraries. CrossRef runs a system that enables publishers to assign Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to articles and collects standardized metadata so the identifiers can…

  4. Cross-Cultural Psychotherapy and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Shaun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to cross-cultural psychotherapy, with reference to historical theories of art, symbols and myth, and to the therapist working with the client--both individual and groups. Cross-cultural dimensions of art therapy are delineated with a support for further research and cooperation between cultures, with attention…

  5. Curriculum Integration and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    While many undergraduate disciplines are revising curricula to address issues of diversity more effectively, it is commonly assumed that courses in cross-cultural psychology are less in need of revision due to their inherent multi-cultural focus. The field of cross-cultural psychology, however, is not immune to Eurocentric and androcentric biases.…

  6. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  7. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  8. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  10. Women in Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bystydzienski, Jill M., Ed.; Resnik, Estelle P., Ed.

    This series of 14 essays focuses on experiences of women who have made cross-cultural transitions. Cross-cultural transitions refer to moving across cultures, usually from one country to another or across subcultures within one society. The essays document what individual women perceived, how they felt when in the process of moving from one…

  11. 43 CFR 1840.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 1840.1 Section 1840.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPEALS PROCEDURES § 1840.1 Cross reference. For special procedural rules applicable to appeals...

  12. 43 CFR 1850.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 1850.1 Section 1850.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) HEARINGS PROCEDURES Hearing Procedures; General § 1850.1 Cross reference. For special...

  13. Test Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized.…

  14. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  15. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  16. Is Cross-Race Mentoring a Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses cross-race mentoring and examines whether this is necessarily a negative. Here, he presents the opinions of one African-American female Ph.D., two Hispanic female Ph.D.s, and one Hispanic male graduate student, who offer varied perspectives. Ten points are presented: (1) 1. Cross-race mentoring requires extra sensitivity; (2)…

  17. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  18. The "No Crossing Constraint" in Autosegmental Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John; Local, John

    A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After an…

  19. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, S; Lundemose, A G; Christiansen, G

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which were reacted with monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was shown that in EBs, MOMP was cross-linked to the LPS component of the outer membrane. Migration analysis of the cross-linked components showed that with extensive cross-linking, most of the MOMP became cross-linked to LPS, changing the migration rate from 40 to 42.5 kilodaltons. A small fraction of MOMP associated with LPS was shown to be present in bands with migration rates of 100 and 110 kilodaltons. No association of MOMP or LPS to other proteins, or to dimer or multimer forms of MOMP without LPS, was observed. A totally different membrane structure must be present in reticulate bodies, since there, MOMP was so heavily cross-linked that it did not enter the polyacrylamide gel and thus became impossible to analyze. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody, which reacted with LPS associated with MOMP in the cross-linked EBs, did not react with reticulate bodies. Images PMID:2449399

  20. The Impacts of Ignoring a Crossed Factor in Analyzing Cross-Classified Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-01-01

    Cross-classified random-effects models (CCREMs) are used for modeling nonhierarchical multilevel data. Misspecifying CCREMs as hierarchical linear models (i.e., treating the cross-classified data as strictly hierarchical by ignoring one of the crossed factors) causes biases in the variance component estimates, which in turn, results in biased…

  1. Cross Calibration and Validation Using CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut; Gohlke, Jan; Ruzmaikin, Alex; Elliott, Denis

    2008-01-01

    The presentation focuses on study questions, effort, and result. Study questions include a focus on MW/LW, error sources and what can be expected, how validation will be performed and what resolution is required, and spatial resolution required for cross-calibration. Study effort includes empirical approach by examining AIRS ,IASI and MODIS cross-calibration methods already in place and estimate the number of clear and Dome C observations possible versus spatial resolution. Study results include 5000 sampler per cross-calibration recommended, insufficient cloud free and Dome C AWS observations for cross calibration and validation at 100km, and less than 20 km IFOV at 100 km swath needed to achieve sufficient samples for cross-calibration of CLARREO.

  2. The foundations of cross-modal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Cross-modal plasticity is a striking adaptive feature of the brain, whereby the loss of one sensory modality induces cortical reorganization that leads to enhanced sensory performance in remaining modalities. Much is known about the macroscopic modifications in the brain that underly cross-modal plasticity and the associated changes in sensory performance. In contrast there is relatively scant information about the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this mechanism. We hypothesized that cross-modal plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system. As such, it should be found in organisms with brains that are substantially less complex than our own. Indeed, we discovered a cross-modal plasticity mechanism in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, whose nervous system is composed of only 302 neurons. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the C. elegans nervous system, we were able to comprehensively study cross-modal plasticity from molecule through circuit to behavior. PMID:27195068

  3. The foundations of cross-modal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cross-modal plasticity is a striking adaptive feature of the brain, whereby the loss of one sensory modality induces cortical reorganization that leads to enhanced sensory performance in remaining modalities. Much is known about the macroscopic modifications in the brain that underly cross-modal plasticity and the associated changes in sensory performance. In contrast there is relatively scant information about the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this mechanism. We hypothesized that cross-modal plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system. As such, it should be found in organisms with brains that are substantially less complex than our own. Indeed, we discovered a cross-modal plasticity mechanism in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, whose nervous system is composed of only 302 neurons. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the C. elegans nervous system, we were able to comprehensively study cross-modal plasticity from molecule through circuit to behavior. PMID:27195068

  4. Two types of cross-gender identity.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Steiner, B W; Chan, S

    1982-02-01

    A revision of the typology of male cross-gender identity was carried out by means of formalized, easily replicable methods. The results suggest (1) that there are two discrete types of cross-gender identity, one heterosexual, the other homosexual; (2) that transvestism, and closely related conditions of cross-gender identity, occur exclusively or almost exclusively in heterosexuals; (3) that of the two types of transsexualism distinguished in this study, type A is, in heterosexuals, very rare or completely nonexistent; (4) that (in the course of time) transvestites or borderline transsexuals (defined below) may develop sustained cross-gender identity, as observed by Stoller (1971); (5) that although, according to Hoenig and Kenna (1974), transsexualism by itself is not an anomalous erotic preference, it is (virtually) always either preceded by transvestism or accompanied by homosexuality or cross-gender fetishism. PMID:7073469

  5. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-05-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small ({approximately}12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q{sub x}{plus_minus}Q{sub s}=integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle ({approximately}2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured.

  6. Robust optimisation of railway crossing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang; Markine, Valeri; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for improving the crossing (frog) geometry through the robust optimisation approach, wherein the variability of the design parameters within a prescribed tolerance is included in the optimisation problem. Here, the crossing geometry is defined by parameterising the B-spline represented cross-sectional shape and the longitudinal height profile of the nose rail. The dynamic performance of the crossing is evaluated considering the variation of wheel profiles and track alignment. A multipoint approximation method (MAM) is applied in solving the optimisation problem of minimising the contact pressure during the wheel-rail contact and constraining the location of wheel transition at the crossing. To clarify the difference between the robust optimisation and the normal deterministic optimisation approaches, the optimisation problems are solved in both approaches. The results show that the deterministic optimum fails under slight change of the design variables; the robust optimum, however, has improved and robust performance.

  7. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  8. Cross polarization caused by perturbed circular cross sections of waveguides and horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik

    1987-03-01

    The cross polarization caused by a perturbed cross section of the conical hybrid-mode horn is analyzed. The perturbed cross section is assumed to be slightly elliptical. The theory of Lier and Bergh (1986) for cross polarization in a smooth-walled waveguide supporting the TE11-mode is referred and applied to the HE11 mode as well. Simple analytical formulas which are sufficiently accurate for small ellipticites of the cross-section ellipse are presented. These show that the tolerances on the waveguide diameter are extremely strong, typically on the order of 0.02-0.04 mm in the horn throat for typical horn geometries at 12 GHz.

  9. Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Manfred; Olivier, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.

  10. Histone cross-linking by transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Nam, Kang Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Seok; Kim, In Gyu; Bustin, Michael; Choy, Hyon E; Park, Sang Chul

    2002-05-24

    Transglutaminases irreversibly catalyze covalent cross-linking of proteins by forming isopeptide bonds between peptide-bound glutamine and lysine residues. Among several transglutaminases, tissue-type transglutaminase (tTGase) is most ubiquitously found in every type of cells and tissues in animals, but its natural substrate has yet to be identified. In an attempt to identify the natural substrate for tTGase, we examined in vitro if core histones were subject to cross-linking by tTGase. We found core histone subunits, H2A and H2B, were specifically cross-linked by tTGase. The cross-linking was between either one or both glutamines at C-terminal end of H2A (-VTIAQ104 GGVLPNTQ112 SVLLPKKTESSKSK-C' end) and the first and/or third lysine from C-terminal end of H2B (-AVESEGK116 AVTKYTSSK125-C' end). The cross-linking occurred only when these subunits were released from nucleosome but not when these were organized in nucleosome. Most interestingly, in chicken erythrocyte the cross-linked H2A-H2B was present in a significant amount. From these results, it can be proposed that tTGase-mediated cross-linking is an another form of core histone modification and it may play a role of chromatin condensation during erythrocyte differentiation. PMID:12054678

  11. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Guo, Haiquan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide networks are provided. The networks comprise an anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer. The oligomer (i) comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and terminal anhydride groups, (ii) has an average degree of polymerization of 10 to 50, (iii) has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups, and (iv) has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide network. Also provided are porous cross-linked polyimide aerogels comprising a cross-linked and imidized anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer, wherein the oligomer comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine, and the aerogel has a density of 0.10 to 0.333 g/cm.sup.3 and a Young's modulus of 1.7 to 102 MPa. Also provided are thin films comprising aerogels, and methods of making porous cross-linked polyimide networks.

  12. Cross-spectrally pure light, cross-spectrally pure fields and statistical similarity in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingjing; Lu, RongSheng; Chen, Feinan; Li, Jia

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the concept of cross-spectrally pure light, implications of statistical similarity of an optical field on its cross-spectral purity and cross-spectrally pure fields. First, the concept of cross-spectral purity of light is analysed in the space-frequency domain by taking into account the vectorial nature of the radiation, and the conditions and reduction formula are obtained. Then, by utilizing statistical similarity, the relationship between cross-spectral purity and spatial coherence is explored in the electromagnetic field. Last, the conditions for cross-spectrally pure fields are discussed, the polychromatic plane wave and the far field produced by a planar, secondary, stochastic electromagnetic source are studied as examples, and moreover, the relationship between cross-spectral purity and spatial coherence, which we have drawn, is verified during the study.

  13. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  14. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Precautionary street crossing by elderly pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A

    1991-01-01

    Street crossing behavior of pedestrians was observed under varying roadway conditions and traffic volumes. The extent to which pedestrians checked for oncoming traffic before crossing signal controlled intersections on a dangerous downtown street was observed. Contrary to the stereotypical portrayal of older pedestrians as being less cognizant of the traffic environment, pedestrians in this study over the age of fifty years were the most cautious. Older pedestrians were also more cautious under the most potentially hazardous crossing conditions: when roadways were snow- or ice-covered and when traffic volumes were low or moderate, allowing vehicles to move rapidly through intersections. PMID:2022437

  16. Transition crossing simulation at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The demand in high intensity and low emittance of the beam extracted from the Booster requires a better control over the momentum spread growth and bunch length shortening at transition crossing, in order to prevent beam loss and coupled bunch instability. Since the transition crossing involves both longitudinal and transverse dynamics, the recently modified 3-D STRUCT code provides an opportunity to numerically investigate the different transition crossing schemes in the machine environment, and apply the results of simulation to minimize the beam loss and emittance growth operationally.

  17. Voyager 1 May Have Crossed Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA's intrepid Voyager 1, launched in 1977, may have recently become the first spacecraft to at least temporarily cross the termination shock of the solar system and enter into the heliosheath. Or maybe not. Different teams of scientists recently published conflicting papers about whether the spacecraft has entered this realm. Either way, the scientists agree that Voyager 1 is crossing through unexplored territory and likely will become the first human'made object to cross the termination shock and enter the heliosheath on its way toward the heliopause and interstellar space.

  18. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  19. Observations of Planet Crossing Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Whiteley, Robert J.; Lambert, Joy; Connelley, Michael; Salyk, Colette

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this research were the physical and dynamical characterization of planet crossing asteroids (Earth crossers, Mars crossers, Centaurs, and Pluto crossers, meaning trans-Neptunian objects), including colorimetry, rotational studies, and astrometry. Highlights are listed as follows: 1) Produced one doctoral dissertation (R. J. Whiteley, A Compositional and Dynamical Survey of the Near-Earth Asteroids). A key result is the fraction of Q-type asteroids among the near-Earth population was found to be about one-third; 2) Had prediscovery image showing the binary nature of trans-Neptunian object 1998 WW31, which is the first TNO to have a satellite found in orbit around it; 3) Discovery of shortest known rotation period for any asteroid (2000 D08, rotation period 78 seconds); it is just one of several fast-rotating small asteroids observed during the course of this project; 4) Discovery of a Centaur asteroid (1998 QM107) with, at the time, the smallest known orbital eccentricity among the Centaurs (0.13) and nearly in a 1:1 resonance with Uranus (semimajor axis of 19.9 AU); 5) Discovery of Apollo-type asteroid 1999 OW3, with a surprisingly bright absolute magnitude of 14.6 (estimated diameter of 4.6 km), brightest Apollo found in that calendar year; 6) Discovery of Aten-type asteroid 2000 SG344, which has the highest cumulative Earth impact probability among the near-Earth asteroids and a very Earth-similar orbit; 7) Instrumental in repairing the orbit of a numbered near-Earth asteroid for which prediscovery observations had been mis-attributed to it (2000 VN2); 8) Second-opposition recovery of 30-meter diameter Apollo-type asteroid 1998 KY26 in early 2002 when it was at a favorable magnitude of 24.8; 9) Primary contributor of astrometric observations of the CONTOUR fragments to the CONTOUR project following the failure of the spacecraft s kick motor; and 10) Development of orbit and ephemeris computation code that handles short observational arcs

  20. Parents' Attitudes and Expectations about Children's Cross-Gender Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Ahlberg, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Assessed parents' attitudes toward cross-gender behavior of boys and girls. Responses of 224 white Finnish parents of 5-year olds reveal that cross-gender boys are regarded more negatively than cross-gender girls. Men perceived more societal acceptance of cross-gender boys than did women. It is thought that cross-gender boys were more likely to…

  1. Cross-Referencing the Lab Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a table cross-referencing 12 physics laboratory manuals by topics. Topic areas include measurement and techniques, mechanics, molecular physics, waves and optics, electricity and magnetism, and quantum physics. (JN)

  2. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  4. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  5. Cross-bispectrum computation and variance estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lii, K. S.; Helland, K. N.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the estimation of cross-bispectra of discrete real time series is developed. The asymptotic variance properties of the bispectrum are reviewed, and a method for the direct estimation of bispectral variance is given. The symmetry properties are described which minimize the computations necessary to obtain a complete estimate of the cross-bispectrum in the right-half-plane. A procedure is given for computing the cross-bispectrum by subdividing the domain into rectangular averaging regions which help reduce the variance of the estimates and allow easy application of the symmetry relationships to minimize the computational effort. As an example of the procedure, the cross-bispectrum of a numerically generated, exponentially distributed time series is computed and compared with theory.

  6. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  7. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  8. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  9. Cross-coupling: The final frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasspoole, Ben W.; Crudden, Cathleen M.

    2011-12-01

    Cross-coupling between a racemic secondary alkyl halide and an alkyl borane to produce an enantioenriched alkyl-alkyl product is one of the final substrate combinations to succumb to the synthetically powerful Suzuki-Miyaura methodology.

  10. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  11. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    1999-07-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches.

  12. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  13. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  14. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  15. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  16. The Junior Red Cross goes to Healthland.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J F

    1997-01-01

    An amusing reminder of earnest attempts to teach the principles of public health, Junior Red Cross Time brought plays and games about "Healthland" to schoolchildren in the 1920s. Explaining why health education became part of the mission of the Junior Red Cross raises larger issues, such as the ideology and practice of the American Red Cross in war and peace, the place of health in the moral education of children, and the transition from the activism of the Progressive Era to the markedly different social climate of the 1920s. The Junior Red Cross promoted Healthland largely because it was an innocuous concept that had been stripped of potentially controversial features to adapt it to the conservative mood of postwar America. This process of dilution mirrored the fate of the adult Red Cross, which briefly and unsuccessfully sought to reinvent itself as a national (and international) agency for the promotion of public health. The unreality of Healthland is no mere coincidence; its separation from the real world was a crucial part of its appeal to the Red Cross in the 1920s. PMID:9366639

  17. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  18. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  19. A fast SEQUEST cross correlation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Eng, Jimmy K; Fischer, Bernd; Grossmann, Jonas; Maccoss, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The SEQUEST program was the first and remains one of the most widely used tools for assigning a peptide sequence within a database to a tandem mass spectrum. The cross correlation score is the primary score function implemented within SEQUEST and it is this score that makes the tool particularly sensitive. Unfortunately, this score is computationally expensive to calculate, and thus, to make the score manageable, SEQUEST uses a less sensitive but fast preliminary score and restricts the cross correlation to just the top 500 peptides returned by the preliminary score. Classically, the cross correlation score has been calculated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to generate the full correlation function. We describe an alternate method of calculating the cross correlation score that does not require FFTs and can be computed efficiently in a fraction of the time. The fast calculation allows all candidate peptides to be scored by the cross correlation function, potentially mitigating the need for the preliminary score, and enables an E-value significance calculation based on the cross correlation score distribution calculated on all candidate peptide sequences obtained from a sequence database. PMID:18774840

  20. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  1. It does belong together: cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Lionel; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences. PMID:25914653

  2. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  3. Chris Christiansen and the Chris Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Mathewson, Don

    2009-03-01

    The Chris Cross was the world's first crossed-grating interferometer, and was the brainchild of orte of Australia's foremost radio astronomers, W.N. (Chris) Christiansen, from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney. Inspired by the innovative and highly-successful E-W and N-S solar grating arrays that he constructed at Potts Hill (Sydney) in the early 1950s, Christiansen sited the Chris Cross at the Division's Fleurs field station near Sydney, and from 1957 to 1988 it provided two-dimensional maps of solar radio emission at 1423 MHz. In 1960 an 18m parabolic antenna was installed adjacent to the Chris Cross array, and when used with the Chris Cross formed the Southern Hemisphere's first high-resolution compound interferometer. A survey of discrete radio sources was carried out with this radio telescope. The Division of Radiophysics handed the Fleurs field station over to the School of Engineering at the University of Sydney in 1963, and Christiansen and his colleagues from the Department of Electrical Engineering proceeded to develop the Chris Cross into the Fleurs Synthesis Telescope (FST) by adding six stand-alone 13.7m parabolic antennas. The FST was used for detailed studies of large radio galaxies, supernova remnants and emission nebulae. The FST was closed down in 1988, and antennas in the original Chris Cross array quickly began to deteriorate. A number of individual antennas in the central part of the array received a new lease of life in 1991 when they were refurbished by staff and students from the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Universityy of Western Sydney, but this only proved to be a temporary reprieve as even these aerials were bulldozed by the landowner in 2004, bringing to an untimely end one of the world's most remarkable radio telescopes.

  4. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  6. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  7. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  8. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  9. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  10. Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*

    PubMed Central

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  11. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  12. Molonglo Observatory: Building the Cross and MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    When Bernard Mills left the GSIRO in 1960 to establish a radio astronomy group in the School of Physics, University of Sydney, he had not only invented the principle of cross-type radio telescopes but proved their great efficiency at surveying the positions, intensity and structure of radio sources. He had ambitious plans for a second generation Cross - a radio telescope with arms one mile long. This paper describes the circumstances of Mills' appointment as Professor of Astrophysics and the recruitment of an international Department that achieved his vision with the Molonglo Cross: The construction involved interaction with many colleagues - engineers in other university departments and government agencies, and with the contracting firms. Formal links were set up with the Electrical Engineering Department through The Radio Astronomy Centre in the University of Sydney and then with Arecibo Observatory through the Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Center. When the Molonglo Cross completed its main survey in 1978 after eleven years, it was switched off and the EW arm was then converted to the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope. Many of the staff involved with the MOST are now challenged by SKAMP, testing systems for the Square Kilometre Array with cylindrical geometry in the Molonglo Prototype. These two later developments out of the original Cross telescope are described briefly.

  13. Cross-frequency Doppler sensitive signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2005-04-01

    When there is relative motion between an acoustic source and a receiver, a signal can be Doppler shifted in frequency and enter or leave the processing bins of the conventional signal processor. The amount of the shift is determined by the frequency and the rate of change in the distance between the source and the receiver. This frequency Doppler shifting can cause severe reductions in the processors performance. Special cross-frequency signal processing algorithms have recently been developed to mitigate the effects of Doppler. They do this by using calculation paths that cut across frequency bins in order to follow signals during frequency shifting. Cross-frequency spectral grams of a fast-flying sound source were compared to conventional grams, to evaluate the performance of this new signal processing method. The Doppler shifts in the data ranged up to 70 contiguous frequency bins. The resulting cross-frequency grams showed that three paths provided small to no improvement. Four paths showed improvements for either up-frequency or down-frequency shifting, but not for both. Two paths showed substantial improvement for both up-frequency and down-frequency shifting. The cross-frequency paths will be defined, and comparisons between conventional and cross-frequency grams will be presented. [Work supported by Miltec Corporation.

  14. Has Voyager 1 really crossed the heliopause?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft is currently in the vicinity of the heliopause, which separates the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. There has been a precipitous decrease in particles accelerated in the heliosphere, and a substantial increase in galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The evidence is unclear, however, as to whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause into the local interstellar medium, or remains within the heliosheath. In this paper we propose a test that will determine whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause: If Voyager 1 remains in the heliosheath, the high plasma densities must be due to compressed solar wind, with the consequence that Voyager 1 will encounter another current sheet, where the polarity of the magnetic field reverses. Voyager 1 observations can be used to predict that the next current sheet crossing is likely to occur during 2015. A prediction is also provided as to what the Voyager 2 plasma detector will measure in the next few years.

  15. Earth-crossing asteroids - New discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    An earth-crossing asteroid is an asteroid whose orbit will intersect the orbit of the earth as a result of secular perturbations. Astronomical observations have led to the discovery of 43 earth-crossing asteroids during the last fifty years. Nearly sixty percent of these were found in the decade 1971-1981. Noteworthy results of the last decade are discussed, taking into account the Aten asteroids, accidental rediscoveries, asteroids of possible cometary origin, candidates for rendezvous and sample return missions, and populations and collision rates with earth. The observed earth-crossing asteroids are listed in a table, and the orbits of earth, Mars, and four Atens projected on ecliptic plane are shown.

  16. Cross talk during the periconception period.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Alireza; Holt, William V

    2016-07-01

    The cross talk between gametes, embryos, and female reproductive tract plays a crucial role in fine tuning of different reproductive events as well as influencing the epigenetic profile of offspring and their health in adulthood. Here, we describe some background to the recent investigations leading to the discovery of this cross talk. We will also point to important requirements for understanding the maternal communication with gametes and embryos. Finally, we mention two probable hypotheses regarding how gametes and embryos are recognized by the female reproductive tract. It is clear that understanding this cross talk is leading to the production of new means for increasing fertility and potentials for affecting the epigenomic profile of an individual. PMID:27160448

  17. Alp Transit: Crossing Faults 44 and 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Tani, M.; Bremen, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the crossing of faults 44 and 49 when constructing the 57 km Gotthard base tunnel of the Alp Transit project. Fault 44 is a permeable fault that triggered significant surface deformations 1,400 m above the tunnel when it was reached by the advancing excavation. The fault runs parallel to the downstream face of the Nalps arch dam. Significant deformations were measured at the dam crown. Fault 49 is sub-vertical and permeable, and runs parallel at the upstream face of the dam. It was necessary to assess the risk when crossing fault 49, as a limit was put on the acceptable dam deformation for structural safety. The simulation model, forecasts and action decided when crossing over the faults are presented, with a brief description of the tunnel, the dam, and the monitoring system.

  18. Heat acclimation and cross tolerance to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Lovering, Andrew T; Horowitz, Michal; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a potential for some of the physiological and cellular responses to heat acclimation to carry over to improved tolerance of the novel stresses of another environment. This cross-tolerance is evident in heat-acclimated animals that exhibit enhanced tolerance to either hypoxic or ischemic stress, and is primarily attributed to shared cellular stress response pathways. These pathways include Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP). Whether these shared cellular stress response pathways translate to systemic cross-tolerance (improved exercise tolerance, reduced risk of environment-associated illness) has not been clearly shown, particularly in humans. This review highlights the HIF-1 and HSP pathways and their relationship with systemic acclimation responses, and further examines the potential cellular and systemic adaptations that may result in cross-tolerance between hot and hypoxic environments.

  19. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  20. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  1. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  2. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  3. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35... assistance makes them applicable. A few cross-cutters apply by their own terms only to the State as the grant..., cross-cutter requirements apply in the following manner: (1) All projects for which a State...

  4. Crossing the Border? Exploring the Cross-State Mobility of the Teacher Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian L.; Brown, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Due to data limitations, very little is known about patterns of cross-state teacher mobility. It is an important issue because barriers to cross-state mobility create labor market frictions that could lead both current and prospective teachers to opt out of the teaching profession. In this article, we match state-level administrative data sets…

  5. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant. PMID:8254116

  6. Cross Coursing in Mathematics: Physical Modelling in Differential Equations Crossing to Discrete Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We give an example of cross coursing in which a subject or approach in one course in undergraduate mathematics is used in a completely different course. This situation crosses falling body modelling in an upper level differential equations course into a modest discrete dynamical systems unit of a first-year mathematics course. (Contains 1 figure.)

  7. Crossing the Atlantic: Integrating Cross-Cultural Experiences into Undergraduate Business Courses Using Virtual Communities Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luethge, Denise J.; Raska, David; Greer, Bertie M.; O'Connor, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Today's business school academics are tasked with pedagogy that offers students an understanding of the globalization of markets and the cross-cultural communication skills needed in today's business environment. The authors describe how a virtual cross-cultural experience was integrated into an undergraduate business course and used as an…

  8. Effects of Student Teams and Individualized Instruction on Cross-Race and Cross-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Sabine; And Others

    A sample of 160 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students in a Baltimore City (Maryland) magnet school participated in an experimental study on the effects within cross-race and cross-sex friendships on a mathematics program that used Team Assisted Individualization (TAI). TAI is an instructional method that combines individualized instruction with…

  9. The primal scene in cross-species and cross-cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2011-10-01

    A review of cross-species and cross-cultural research suggests that, throughout most of human behavioral evolution, children may have been enlightened as to the facts of life by observing parental intercourse and then imitating it in sexual rehearsal play in the context of a continuously rising curve of sexual desire and sexual knowledge throughout childhood. Concealment of the primal scene and prohibition of cross-generational, bisexual, and 'polymorphously perverse' childhood sex play may be of relatively recent origin in human cultural evolution, buttressed by the instillation of culturally acquired sexual disgust in sexually conservative cultures. Looking at the primal scene in cross-species and cross-cultural perspectives utilizing the adaptationist framework of contemporary evolutionary biology can challenge normative assumptions that may still be embedded in psychoanalytic theories of species-wide psychosexual development. PMID:22014369

  10. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  11. Direct Cross-Couplings of Propargylic Diols.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicholas J; Willis, Anthony C; Sherburn, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    [Pd(PPh3 )4 ] catalyzes a Suzuki-Miyaura-like twofold cross-coupling sequence between underivatized propargylic diols and either aryl or alkenyl boronic acids to furnish highly substituted 1,3-dienes. Thus, 2,3-diaryl-1,3-butadienes and their dialkenic congeners ([4]dendralenes) are delivered in a (pseudo)halogen-free, single-step synthesis which supersedes existing methods. Allenols are also readily formed. Treatment of these single- and twofold cross-coupled products with acid leads to remarkably short syntheses of highly-substituted benzofulvenes and aryl indenes, respectively. PMID:27375221

  12. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  13. Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Advantages demonstrated by Thames River crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Lavieri, J.L. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that during a 9-day period in June 1991, Yankee Gas Services Co. installed a 1,600-ft. 20-in. steel gas pipeline across the Thames River using the horizontal drilling technique that demonstrated why trench-less construction plays an important part in subsurface pipeline crossing. The crossing was completed ahead of time, under budget and with no adverse affect on the environment. In addition, the project resulted in minimal inconvenience to the public. The pipeline enabled Yankee Gas to provide gas service to new customers.

  15. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  16. Crossing the endothelial barrier during metastasis.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; d'Água, Bárbara Borda; Ridley, Anne J

    2013-12-01

    During metastasis, cancer cells disseminate to other parts of the body by entering the bloodstream in a process that is called intravasation. They then extravasate at metastatic sites by attaching to endothelial cells that line blood vessels and crossing the vessel walls of tissues or organs. This Review describes how cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier during extravasation and how different receptors, signalling pathways and circulating cells such as leukocytes and platelets contribute to this process. Identification of the mechanisms that underlie cancer cell extravasation could lead to the development of new therapies to reduce metastasis. PMID:24263189

  17. Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

  18. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  19. Approximations for crossing two nearby spin resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Solutions to the Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin equation for spin 1 /2 particles have to date been confined to the single-resonance crossing. However, in reality, most cases of interest concern the overlapping of several resonances. While there have been several serious studies of this problem, a good analytical solution or even an approximation has eluded the community. We show that this system can be transformed into a Hill-like equation. In this representation, we show that, while the single-resonance crossing represents the solution to the parabolic cylinder equation, the overlapping case becomes a parametric type of resonance.

  20. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  1. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  2. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  3. Printed-Circuit Cross-Slot Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foy, Wong; Chung, Hsien-Hsien; Peng, Sheng Y.

    1990-01-01

    Coupling between perpendicular slots suppressed. Balanced feed configuration minimizes coupling between slots of printed-circuit cross-slot antenna unit. Unit and array have conventional cavity-backed-printed-circuit, crossed-slot antenna design. Strip-line feeders behind planar conductive antenna element deliver power to horizontal slot in opposite phase. As result, little or no power propagates into vertical slot. Similar considerations apply to strip lines that feed vertical slot. Units of this type elements of phased-array antennas for radar, mobile/satellite communications, and other applications requiring flush mounting and/or rapid steering of beams with circular polarization.

  4. Cross Flow Parameter Calculation for Aerodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system and method for determining a cross flow angle for a feature on a structure. A processor unit receives location information identifying a location of the feature on the structure, determines an angle of the feature, identifies flow information for the location, determines a flow angle using the flow information, and determines the cross flow angle for the feature using the flow angle and the angle of the feature. The flow information describes a flow of fluid across the structure. The flow angle comprises an angle of the flow of fluid across the structure for the location of the feature.

  5. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans. PMID:26809254

  6. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  7. Hybridization triggered cross-linking of deoxyoligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, T R; Matteucci, M D

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports details of the synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides containing the modified base 5-methyl-N4,N4-ethanocytosine (Ce). The 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl group is used as a protecting group for the exocyclic amines of dA and dC. This group can be removed rapidly under very mild conditions. Oligomers containing the Ce base form a cross-link when hybridized to their complementary deoxyoligonucleotides. Some of the scope and limitations of these cross-link forming oligonucleotides are reported. Images PMID:3774542

  8. 50 CFR 228.18 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-examination. 228.18 Section 228.18...-examination. (a) The presiding officer may: (1) Require the cross-examiner to outline the intended scope of the cross-examination; (2) Prohibit parties from cross-examining witnesses unless the...

  9. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  10. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  11. Difference of cross-spectral densities.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, M; Piquero, G; de Sande, J C G; Gori, F

    2014-04-01

    Generally speaking, the difference between two cross-spectral densities (CSDs) does not represent a correlation function. We will furnish a sufficient condition so that such difference be a valid CSD. Using such a condition, we will show through some examples how new classes of CSDs can be generated. PMID:24686586

  12. Cross-Cultural Adaptation: Current Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Yun, Ed.; Gudykunst, William B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting multidisciplinary and multisocietal approaches, this collection presents 14 theoretical or research-based essays dealing with cross-cultural adaptation of individuals who are born and raised in one culture and find themselves in need of modifying their customary life patterns in a foreign culture. Papers in the collection are:…

  13. Gender Differences in Cross-Generation Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    1987-01-01

    Members of cross-generational networks, which are primarily among kin, are likely to share basic values or to avoid issues that might cause conflict. Mother-daughter bonds are both the strongest through life and the most complex, linking household units into modified extended family networks. Critical conceptual methodological problems abound.…

  14. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2014-03-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  15. Perceptual crossing: the simplest online paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Auvray, Malika; Rohde, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in social cognition increasingly realize that many phenomena cannot be understood by investigating offline situations only, focusing on individual mechanisms and an observer perspective. There are processes of dynamic emergence specific to online situations, when two or more persons are engaged in a real-time interaction that are more than just the sum of the individual capacities or behaviors, and these require the study of online social interaction. Auvray et al.'s (2009) perceptual crossing paradigm offers possibly the simplest paradigm for studying such online interactions: two persons, a one-dimensional space, one bit of information, and a yes/no answer. This study has provoked a lot of resonance in different areas of research, including experimental psychology, computer/robot modeling, philosophy, psychopathology, and even in the field of design. In this article, we review and critically assess this body of literature. We give an overview of both behavioral experimental research and simulated agent modeling done using the perceptual crossing paradigm. We discuss different contexts in which work on perceptual crossing has been cited. This includes the controversy about the possible constitutive role of perceptual crossing for social cognition. We conclude with an outlook on future research possibilities, in particular those that could elucidate the link between online interaction dynamics and individual social cognition. PMID:22723776

  16. Web Crossing: A Context for Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Dee; Daugherty, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Explains Web Crossing, an Internet/intranet server application offering online conferencing solutions through discussion forums and chat rooms, that provided a context for the interaction of graduate and undergraduate students conducting educational research. Discusses knowledge acquisition, the metaphor of participation, and the impact of a…

  17. Validating the Cross Racial Identity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandiver, Beverly J.; Cross, William E., Jr.; Worrell, Frank C.; Fhagen-Smith, Peony E.

    2002-01-01

    Validation work on the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver et al., 2000) is described in 2 studies using African American college students. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis supported the presence of 6 CRIS subscales. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a 2-factor higher order model of the 6 CRIS…

  18. Self Concept: A Cross Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert K.; Weinland, Thomas P.

    This cross-cultural study investigates differences in self concept development in the United States and Denmark. The research is based on known societal and educational differences between Danish and American societies. These differences, from which hypotheses were drawn, involve (1) greater assignment of responsibility at early ages to Danish…

  19. Application of Fresnel Zone to Cross Talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javan, Hank

    1998-01-01

    Unintentional radiation results in cross coupling to nearby cables. As frequency increases, the amount of this coupling becomes significant especially in high speed data transmission and space lab experiments. There has been a considerable amount of research to model this radiation and design the electronic equipment accordingly so that operation of space lab instruments will be immune to unwanted radiation. Here at MSFC, the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environment Branch has the responsibility to analyze, test, and make the necessary recommendation as to the safe operation of instruments used in the space program. Rules, regulation, and limits as set by this group are published in Electromagnetic Compatibility Design and Interference Control (MEDIC) Handbook. This document contains both conducted and radiate emission rules and limits are set by NASA. However cross coupling have not been included. At the time of assigning the research task for the author, the Group decided that a more in-depth investigation of Near Field is needed before establishing a set of rules and limits for cross coupling. Thus this task was assigned to the author with hope that his work will be more beneficial to NASA's Space mission experiments. The model and the method which will be described shortly is intended to improve the present approach of this Group and suggests a method for measuring the cross field coupling capacitance.

  20. A Passage through Science: Crossing Disciplinary Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Henry

    1999-01-01

    Presents a methodology for creating pathways through the scientific literature following strong cocitation links. A path is described starting in economics and ending in astrophysics, traversing 331 documents. Attention is given to where the path crosses disciplinary boundaries and how analogy can be used to model the thought processes involved in…

  1. Cross-polarized excitons in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kilina, Svetlana; Tretiak, Sergei; Doorn, Stephen K; Luo, Zhengtang; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Piryatinski, Andrei; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, Alan R

    2008-05-13

    Polarization of low-lying excitonic bands in finite-size semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is studied by using quantum-chemical methodologies. Our calculations elucidate properties of cross-polarized excitons, which lead to the transverse optical absorption of nanotubes and presumably couple to intermediate-frequency modes recently observed in resonance Raman excitation spectroscopy. We identify up to 12 distinct excitonic transitions below the second fundamental band associated with the E(22) van Hove singularity. Calculations for several chiral SWNTs distinguish the optically active "bright" excitonic band polarized parallel to the tube axis and several optically "weak" cross-polarized excitons. The rest are optically (near) forbidden "dark" transitions. An analysis of the transition density matrices related to excitonic bands provides detailed information about delocalization of excitonic wavefunction along the tube. Utilization of the natural helical coordinate system accounting for the tube chirality allows one to disentangle longitudinal and circumferential components. The distribution of the transition density matrix along a tube axis is similar for all excitons. However, four parallel-polarized excitons associated with the E(11) transition are more localized along the circumference of a tube, compared with others related to the E(12) and E(21) cross-polarized transitions. Calculated splitting between optically active parallel- and cross-polarized transitions increases with tube diameter, which compares well with experimental spectroscopic data. PMID:18463293

  2. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families. PMID:24554241

  3. Development of Southern Cross University College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGillivray, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Southern Cross University (SCU) has established a pathways college to increase access to and widen participation in higher education for people in regional areas of Australia. While many Australian universities have preparatory colleges associated with them, SCU College has been designed to make it unique in the sector. SCU College will operate…

  4. The analgesic effect of crossing the arms.

    PubMed

    Gallace, A; Torta, D M E; Moseley, G L; Iannetti, G D

    2011-06-01

    The ability to determine precisely the location of sensory stimuli is fundamental to how we interact with the world; indeed, to our survival. Crossing the hands over the body midline impairs this ability to localize tactile stimuli. We hypothesized that crossing the arms would modulate the intensity of pain evoked by noxious stimulation of the hand. In two separate experiments, we show (1) that the intensity of both laser-evoked painful sensations and electrically-evoked nonpainful sensations were decreased when the arms were crossed over the midline, and (2) that these effects were associated with changes in the multimodal cortical processing of somatosensory information. Critically, there was no change in the somatosensory-specific cortical processing of somatosensory information. Besides studies showing relief of phantom limb pain using mirrors, this is the first evidence that impeding the processes by which the brain localises a noxious stimulus can reduce pain, and that this effect reflects modulation of multimodal neural activities. By showing that the neural mechanisms by which pain emerges from nociception represent a possible target for analgesia, we raise the possibility of novel approaches to the treatment of painful clinical conditions. Crossing the arms over the midline impairs multimodal processing of somatosensory stimuli and induces significant analgesia to noxious hand stimulation. PMID:21440992

  5. Behavioral Reputation: A Cross-Age Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Meg; Vannatta, Kathryn; Schafer, John; Noll, Robert B.

    2003-01-01

    Used the Revised Class Play measure to examine measurement of peer perceptions of behavioral reputation in elementary, middle, and high school environments. Found that data did not fit the original 3-factor structure; cross-loading of items and different patterns of association between subscales across age groups contributed to poor fit.…

  6. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  7. BAY DELTA CROSS CHANNEL OPERATIONAL STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Delta Cross Channel was constructed in 1953 to deliver low-salinity water from the Sacramento River in Northern California to the South Delta where it is pumped to the San Francisco Bay Area and other parts of the State for public consumption and to the San Joaquin Valley for...

  8. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  9. Cross-Registration and Joint Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandness, Jean T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cross-registration system and formation of joint academic programs between colleges create a variety of educational opportunities for students and provide both direct and indirect benefits to a consortium's member institutions and their faculty. The Tri-College University Consortium in North Dakota illustrates the advantages…

  10. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  11. Genetic Diversity in Cotton Out-Crossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose polle...

  12. Computing Determinants by Double-Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Deanna; Perry, John; Torrence, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Dodgson's method of computing determinants is attractive, but fails if an interior entry of an intermediate matrix is zero. This paper reviews Dodgson's method and introduces a generalization, the double-crossing method, that provides a workaround for many interesting cases.

  13. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  14. Cross-Language Effects in Biliteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of codes across languages, with particular reference to written language and to English in relation to Japanese and Chinese. Reviews language contact and language learning effects related to reading, writing, cognition and linguistic creativity as various types of cross-language effects in biliteracy. (42 references)…

  15. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  16. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

  17. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  18. Explaining the Cross-Multiplication Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    Many high-school mathematics teachers have likely been asked by a student, "Why does the cross-multiplication algorithm work?" It is a commonly used algorithm when dealing with proportion problems, conversion of units, or fractional linear equations. For most teachers, the explanation usually involves the idea of finding a common denominator--one…

  19. Cross-Cultural Training in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. L.; Venner, Kamilla; Bisono, Ani; Daugherty, Mikyta; Yahne, Carolina E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the cross-cultural transportability of motivational interviewing (MI), an evidence-based addiction treatment method. Free clinical training in MI was offered in separate targeted workshops for 86 African American, Native American, and Spanish-speaking addiction treatment providers. Audiotaped pre- and posttraining clinical…

  20. Nonvisual Cues for Aligning to Cross Streets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alan C.; Barlow, Janet M.; Guth, David A.; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Cunningham, Christopher M.; Long, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Accurately aligning to a crosswalk is an important component of safe street crossing for pedestrians who are blind. Six alignment cues were evaluated in a simulated crosswalk environment in which the angle of the crosswalk was not always in line with the slope of the ramp. The effectiveness of each cue is reported and implications are discussed.…

  1. On the Strategy of Cross Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirlin, Alan

    Cross examination has become a standard and important feature of contemporary debate and a great deal has been written concerning its tactical aspects. Very little, however, has been written about the fundamental strategic problem which is created by the three-minute time limit--specifically, how to use that limited period of time to its best…

  2. Cross-species transmission of TSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents or prions induce fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and in other mammalian species. They are transmissible among their species of origin, but they can also cross the species barrier and induce infection and/or disease in other...

  3. A cross-cultural mentoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Huang-Nissen, S.; Myers, R.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarized the results of the pilot Cross-Cultural Mentoring Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, from the inception of the program idea through its implementation and assessment. It discusses the benefits of mentoring, the origins of the program, program design and implementation, program assessment, and conclusions and recommendations.

  4. Guidelines for Cross-Cultural Orientation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    Native educators from around Alaska contributed to the development of guidelines for cross-cultural orientation programs for educators. The guidelines are organized around various roles related to culturally responsive schooling in Alaska. They encourage schools to strive to be reflections of their communities by incorporating and building upon…

  5. Cross-Modal Binding in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Parra, Mario A.; Logie, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn visual-phonological associations is a unique predictor of word reading, and individuals with developmental dyslexia show impaired ability in learning these associations. In this study, we compared developmentally dyslexic and nondyslexic adults on their ability to form cross-modal associations (or "bindings") based…

  6. Conceptualizing Cross-Cultural School Psychology Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Emilia C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2001-01-01

    This investigation extends the results of the Rogers and Lopez (in press) Delphi study by using a distinct panel of experts, different instrumentation, and a modified process to identify cross-cultural competencies for school psychologists. While similarities with the previous study were noted, the essential competencies identified in this study…

  7. Cross Cultural Task Cards: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jeanette; Carty, Elaine

    Twenty cross-cultural learning tasks focus on concepts developed through units on food, clothing, shelter, and natural resources. The tasks progress from simple to complex. They focus on concepts and vocabulary on culture, beginning with a discussion of housing and clothing and concluding with discussions on slavery and the Bill of Rights. Each…

  8. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  9. Teacher Stories of Cross-Cultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordahl, Angela A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A collection of three excerpted stories is provided in this paper about cross-cultural communication. The paper presents excerpts from papers written as assignments by teacher/students in a course about first and second language development. In the paper's first excerpt, Angela Jordahl tells about her involvement with Kurdish students in a…

  10. Cross platform development using Delphi and Kylix

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.L.; Nishimura, H.; Timossi, C.

    2002-10-08

    A cross platform component for EPICS Simple Channel Access (SCA) has been developed for the use with Delphi on Windows and Kylix on Linux. An EPICS controls GUI application developed on Windows runs on Linux by simply rebuilding it, and vice versa. This paper describes the technical details of the component.

  11. Cross-polarized excitons in carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Kilina, Svetlana; Tretiak, Sergei; Doorn, Stephen K.; Luo, Zhengtang; Papadimitrakopoulos, Fotios; Piryatinski, Andrei; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, Alan R.

    2008-01-01

    Polarization of low-lying excitonic bands in finite-size semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is studied by using quantum-chemical methodologies. Our calculations elucidate properties of cross-polarized excitons, which lead to the transverse optical absorption of nanotubes and presumably couple to intermediate-frequency modes recently observed in resonance Raman excitation spectroscopy. We identify up to 12 distinct excitonic transitions below the second fundamental band associated with the E22 van Hove singularity. Calculations for several chiral SWNTs distinguish the optically active “bright” excitonic band polarized parallel to the tube axis and several optically “weak” cross-polarized excitons. The rest are optically (near) forbidden “dark” transitions. An analysis of the transition density matrices related to excitonic bands provides detailed information about delocalization of excitonic wavefunction along the tube. Utilization of the natural helical coordinate system accounting for the tube chirality allows one to disentangle longitudinal and circumferential components. The distribution of the transition density matrix along a tube axis is similar for all excitons. However, four parallel-polarized excitons associated with the E11 transition are more localized along the circumference of a tube, compared with others related to the E12 and E21 cross-polarized transitions. Calculated splitting between optically active parallel- and cross-polarized transitions increases with tube diameter, which compares well with experimental spectroscopic data. PMID:18463293

  12. Cross Cultural Differences in Unconscious Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiyokawa, Sachiko; Dienes, Zoltan; Tanaka, Daisuke; Yamada, Ayumi; Crowe, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated cross cultural differences in conscious processes, such that Asians have a global preference and Westerners a more analytical one. We investigated whether these biases also apply to unconscious knowledge. In Experiment 1, Japanese and UK participants memorized strings of large (global) letters made out of small…

  13. Cross-Cultural Issues in Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocoy, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Examines the conditions under which art therapy might be a culturally appropriate intervention. Presents the aspects of art therapy and assessment that may be assimilationist or ethnocentric. Problems inherent in the cross-cultural interpretation of art are also discussed and methods that maximize interpretive validity and reliability are…

  14. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Apen, P.G.; Mitchell, M.A.

    1998-01-20

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes. 1 fig.

  15. Cedarwood: cross-over pressure research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the cross-over pressure for cedarwood oil in carbon dioxide. A closed stirrer reactor with an in-line loop connected to the injector of a GC was used to measure the concentration of cedarwood oil in the carbon dioxide. Both neat cedarwood oil as ...

  16. Deep Thoughts on the River Crossing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Dan; Goering, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Played in university classes for preservice teachers as well as in middle and high schools, the River Crossing Game depends on the sum of tosses of two fair dice. This paper describes the game as well as some lines of thinking about winning strategies, which are not obvious even with an understanding of the overall distribution for the sum of two…

  17. Cyberbullying: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baek, Jieun; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted in different countries have focused on empirical research and literature reviews on prevalence, consequences, and strategies relative to cyberbullying; however, there is a lack of research regarding cyberbullying from a cross-cultural perspective. This article reviews recent research on cyberbullying and presents…

  18. Traceless cross-linker for photocleavable bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Yan, Funing; Qiu, Dengli; Jeong, Jae-Sun; Jin, Qiaoling; Kim, Tae-Young; Chen, Liaohai

    2012-04-18

    Photoresponsive bioconjugation empowers the development of novel methods for drug discovery, disease diagnosis, and high-throughput screening, among others. In this paper, we report on the characteristics of a traceless photocleavable cross-linker, di-6-(3-succinimidyl carbonyloxymethyl-4-nitro-phenoxy)-hexanoic acid disulfide diethanol ester (SCNE). The traceless feature and the biocompatibility of this photocleavable cross-linking reagent were corroborated. Consequently, we demonstrated its application in reversible phage particle immobilization that could provide a platform for direct single-phage screening. We also applied it in protein-photoprinting, where SCNE acts as a "photo-eraser" to remove the cross-linked protein molecules at a desired region in a simple, clean, and light-controllable fashion. We further demonstrated the two-tier atomic force microscopic (AFM) method that uses SCNE to carry out two subsequent AFM tasks in situ. The approach allows guided protein delivery and subsequent high-resolution imaging at the same local area, thus opening up the possibility of monitoring protein functions in live cells. The results imply that SCNE is a versatile cross-linker that can be used for a wide range of applications where photocleavage ensures clean and remote-controllable release of biological molecules from a substrate. PMID:22432929

  19. 43 CFR 1850.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 1850.1 Section 1850.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) HEARINGS PROCEDURES Hearing Procedures; General §...

  20. 43 CFR 1840.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 1840.1 Section 1840.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... procedural rules applicable to appeals from decisions of Bureau of Land Management officers or...

  1. Research Trends with Cross Tabulation Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Nakatoh, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine (CTSE). Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1) conducting research surveys, 2) efficiently and effectively retrieving information (such as important researchers,…

  2. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.

    2014-03-15

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.

  3. Cross-Cultural Counseling: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Charles R.

    1978-01-01

    The complexity of the cross-cultural counseling and psychotherapy encounter is examined, with particular reference to four prominent variables: (1) views of mental health; (2) goals of counseling; (3) roles of counseling participants; and (4) counseling strategies. (Author/MJB)

  4. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  5. Nonadiabatic transitions at potential curve crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Zhu, Chaoyuan

    1996-12-31

    Recently, the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg problems have been completely solved in a form convenient for various applications. A summary of the results will be reported. Other related subjects such as multi-level curve crossing and conical intersection problems will also be briefly touched upon.

  6. Indochinese Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Liem Dang

    Information is given about the cultural and religious background of Indochinese refugees arriving in the United States since 1975, to be used as a basis for promoting cross-cultural adjustment and communication with and in this group. The Indochinese exodus since 1975 is briefly described, focusing on the journey undertaken and the spread of…

  7. A Microstrip Reflect Array Using Crossed Dipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozar, David M.; Targonski, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Microstrip reflect arrays offer a flat profile and light weight, combined with many of the electrical characteristics of reflector antennas. Previous work [1]-[7] has demonstrated a variety of microstrip reflect arrays, using different elements at a range of frequencies. In this paper we describe the use of crossed dipoles as reflecting elements in a microstrip reflectarray. Theory of the solution will be described, with experimental results for a 6" square reflectarray operating at 28 GHz. The performance of crossed dipoles will be directly compared with microstrip patches, in terms of bandwidth and loss. We also comment on the principle of operation of reflectarray elements, including crossed dipoles, patches of variable length, and patch elements with tuning stubs. This research was prompted by the proposed concept of overlaying a flat printed reflectarray on the surface of a spacecraft solar panel. Combining solar panel and antenna apertures in this way would lead to a reduction in weight and simpler deployment, with some loss of flexibility in independently pointing the solar panel and the antenna. Using crossed dipoles as reflectarray elements will minimize the aperture blockage of the solar cells, in contrast to the use of elements such as microstrip patches.

  8. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  9. CROSS-APPALACHIAN TRACER EXPERIMENT (CAPTEX '83)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists in the United States and Canada have collaborated on the Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX '83) using the perfluorocarbon tracer to simulate the long-range transport of pollutants in the atmosphere. The experiments, conducted in September and October of 1983 ...

  10. Cross-Border Higher Education, Who Profits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Graeme; Peim, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Emphasis on "the knowledge economy", the commodification of public services, the massification of HE and decreases in public funding of education are the context for new forms of educational provision. Some nations have led the demand for and provision of cross-national educational services. The largest exporters of Higher Education have been the…

  11. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  12. CrossFit athletes exhibit high symmetry of fundamental movement patterns. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Silvio; Notarnicola, Angela; Monno, Antonello; Ferretti, Francesco; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background even if CrossFit training programs accounted actually more than 7500 gyms affiliated in the USA and more than 2000 in Europe and involved today more than 1 million of people, actually there were not several studies about the effect of the CrossFit on the health and sport performance. The aim of these research was to evaluate the performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a standardized methods, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). Methods we enrolled three groups of athletes (age 17–40 years; >6 months of training programs): CrossFitters, body builders and professional weightlifters. FMS test was performed to all people enrolled. Scores of FMS test was examined comparing three groups. Results no differences in the three groups were showed in the mean score values of each test and in total score, except for shoulder mobility test (higher among CrossFitters) and trunk stability push-up test (higher among weightlifter). Agreement between the test performed on the two sides was higher in CrossFit groups for hurdle step (93.2%), in line lung (86%), rotary stability test (95.3%) and shoulder mobility (90.7%; p<0.001). Conclusions CrossFitters seem to have a high level of concordance in the scores achieved in bilateral test. CrossFit seems to produce marked symmetry in some fundamental movements compared to weightlifting and bodybuilding. PMID:27331045

  13. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  14. Cross-modal nonspatial repetition inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Yue, Zhenzhu; Chen, Qi

    2012-07-01

    Although it has been well documented that the spatial inhibitory effect induced by repetition of location (i.e., spatial inhibition of return, or IOR) occurs cross-modally, we do not yet know whether nonspatial (e.g., color-based) repetition-induced inhibition occurs in a cross-modal fashion as well. In the present study, a novel cross-modal paradigm with regard to color-based repetition was adopted. An intervening neutral cue, whose semantic identity was different from those of both the prime and the target, was introduced between the prime and the target in a repetition-priming task. The modalities of the prime, the neutral cue, and the target could be either visual or auditory, and the prime and the target could refer either to the same or to different semantic identities. By adopting this paradigm, we aimed to answer two questions: (1) What are the specific conditions under which cross-modal semantic-based repetition inhibition occurs? (2) Are the representations inhibited in the semantic-based repetition inhibition effect supramodal or modality-specific? Our results suggested that semantic-based repetition inhibition occurs only when the prime and the neutral cue are from the same sensory modality, and it occurs irrespective of whether the modality of the target is cued and irrespective of whether the modality of the target is auditory or visual. Taken together, our results suggest that the occurrence of cross-modal nonspatial repetition inhibition is conditional and that the nonspatial representations inhibited by the repetition inhibition are supramodal. PMID:22415447

  15. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  16. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  17. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  18. Cross-Linking Studies of Lysozyme Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth; Pusey, Marc

    2000-01-01

    Tetragonal chicken egg white crystals consist of 4(sub 3) helices running in alternating directions, the helix rows having a two fold symmetry with each other. The unit cell consists of one complete tetrameric turn from each of two adjacent helices (an octamer). PBC analysis indicates that the helix intermolecular bonds are the strongest in the crystal, therefore likely formed first. AFM analysis of the (110) surface shows only complete helices, no half steps or bisected helices being found, while AFM line scans to measure the growth step increments show that they are multiples of the 4(sub 3) helix tetramer dimensions. This supports our thesis that the growth units are in fact multiples of the four molecule 4(sub 3) helix unit, the "average" growth unit size for the (110) face being an octamer (two turns about the helix) and the (101) growth unit averaging about the size of a hexamer. In an effort to better understand the species involved in the crystal nucleation and growth process, we have initiated an experimental program to study the species formed in solution compared to what is found in the crystal through covalent cross-linking studies. These experiments use the heterobifunctional cross-linking agent aminoethyl-4-azidonitroanaline (AEANA). An aliphatic amine at one end is covalently attached to the protein by a carbodiimide-mediated reaction, and a photo reactive group at the other can be used to initiate crosslinking. Modifications to the parent structure can be used to alter the distance between the two reactive groups and thus the cross-linking agents "reach". In practice, the cross-linking agent is first coupled to the asp101 side chain through the amine group. Asp101 lies within the active site cleft, and previous work with fluorescent probes had shown that derivatives at this site still crystallize in the tetragonal space group. This was also found to be the case with the AEANA derivative, which gave red tetragonal crystals. The protein now has a

  19. Diallel crossing among doubled haploids of cucumber reveals significant reciprocal-cross differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber is an excellent plant for studying organellar effects on phenotypes because chloroplasts show maternal and mitochondria paternal transmission. We produced doubled haploids (DH) from divergent cucumber populations, generated reciprocal crosses in a diallel mating scheme, measured fresh and d...

  20. Positive tone cross-linked resists based on photoacid inhibition of cross linking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Richard A.; Chun, Jun Sung; Neisser, Mark; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2014-03-01

    A resist imaging design that utilizes photoacid inhibition of cationic polymerization and cross-linking during a postexposure bake step has been studied. The key to the design approach is the use of two different polymerization catalysts/initiators: (1) a photoacid produced from a photoacid generator (PAG) upon exposure of the resist that can result in polymerization and cross-linking of the resist matrix and (2) a thermal cross-linking catalyst (TCC) designed to thermally catalyze epoxide-phenol cross-linking. The TCC can be chosen from a variety of compounds such as triphenylphosphine (TPP) or imidazole. When only one of these catalysts (e.g TPP or photoacid) is present in an epoxide and phenol containing resist matrix, it will individually catalyze cross-linking. When they are present together, they effectively quench one another and little to no cross-linking occurs. This approach can be used to switch the tone of a resist from negative (photoacid catalyzed) to positive (TCC catalyzed and photoacid inhibited). The effect of the ratio of TCC:PAG was examined and the optimal ratio for positive tone behavior was determined. Resist contrast can be modified by optimization of epoxide:phenol ratio in the formulation. Dual tone behavior with positive tone at low dose and negative tone at higher doses can be observed in certain formulation conditions. Initial EUV patterning shows poor results, but the source of the poor imaging is not yet understood.

  1. Fast and accurate deflectometry with crossed fringes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuankun; Olesch, Evelyn; Yang, Zheng; Häusler, Gerd

    2014-08-01

    Phase measuring deflectometry (PMD) acquires the two components of the local surface gradient via a sequence of two orthogonal sinusoidal fringe patterns that have to be displayed and captured separately. We will demonstrate that the sequential process (different fringe directions, phase shifting) can be completely avoided by using a cross fringe pattern. With an optimized Fourier evaluation, high quality data of smooth optical surfaces can be acquired within one single shot. The cross fringe pattern allows for one more improvement of PMD: we will demonstrate a novel phase-shift technique, where a one-dimensional N-phase shift allows for the acquisition of the two orthogonal phases, with only N exposures instead of 2N exposures. Therefore, PMD can be implemented by a one-dimensional translation of the fringe pattern, instead of the common two-dimensional translation, which is quite useful for certain applications.

  2. Spreading of multiple epidemics with cross immunization.

    PubMed

    Uekermann, Florian; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-09-01

    Pathogen-host relationships are the result of an ongoing coevolutionary race where the immune system of the host attempts to eliminate the pathogen, while the successful pathogen mutates to become invisible for the host's immune system. We here propose a minimal pathogen-host evolution model that takes into account cross immunization and allows for evolution of a spatially heterogeneous immune status of a population of hosts. With only the mutation rate as a determining parameter, the model allows us to produce an evolutionary tree of diseases which is highly branched, but hardly ever splits into separate long-lived trunks. Side branches remain short lived and seldom diverge to the extent of losing all cross immunizations. PMID:23030981

  3. Defining cross presentation for a wider audience.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Christopher C

    2016-06-01

    Cross presentation is the process of production of peptide-MHC Class I complexes by cells in which the antigen that is the source of peptide is not translated. The majority of recent studies have described many facets of the classical TAP-dependent cross presentation pathway, but numerous pathways for transfer of antigenic material from a donor to a recipient cell followed by subsequent MHC-I-restricted presentation have been established, including transfer of protein antigen, peptide, RNA, DNA or even peptide-MHC-I complexes. The extent to which each of these pathways generates overlapping or unique peptide repertoires is unknown, as is the contribution of each of these pathways to generation of protective CD8+ T cells during infection or anti-tumor immune responses. PMID:27101579

  4. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  5. Cross Cultural Scientific Communication in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    An example of cross-cultural education is provided by the Aurora Alive curriculum. Aurora Alive communicates science to Alaska Native students through cross-cultural educational products used in Alaska schools for more than a decade, including (1) a CDROM that provides digital graphics, bilingual (English and Athabascan language) narration-over-text and interactive elements that help students visualize scientific concepts, and (2) Teacher's Manuals containing more than 150 hands-on activities aligned to national science standards, and to Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools. Created by Native Elders and teachers working together with University Alaska Fairbanks Geophysical Institute scientists, Aurora Alive blends Native "ways of knowing" with current "western" research to teach the physics and math of the aurora.

  6. Stream dynamics at pipeline river crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Beckstead, G.R.E.; Cavers, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Pipeline crossings of streams, whether large or small, must consider the ability of the stream channel to scour its bed and erode its banks. Case studies are presented to illustrate the kinds of dynamic environments which must be considered in designing pipeline stream crossings. These characteristics may be determined through the use of comparative historical aerial photography and site photographs and surveys. The case studies presented as examples in this paper include gullies, bedrock-lined channels, entrenched meandering streams, multi-channel wandering streams, degrading channels, alluvial fans, and major channels affected by regulation and man-made structures. Natural hazards such as debris jams and beaver dams are also discussed. For each case study, the characteristics of the channels are described, the design approach discussed and site-specific constraints presented which affected the final design.

  7. Horizon crossing and inflation with large {eta}

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, William H.

    2005-07-15

    I examine the standard formalism of calculating curvature perturbations in inflation at horizon crossing, and derive a general relation which must be satisfied for the horizon-crossing formalism to be valid. This relation is satisfied for the usual cases of power-law and slow-roll inflation. I then consider a model for which the relation is strongly violated, and the curvature perturbation evolves rapidly on superhorizon scales. This model has Hubble slow-roll parameter {eta}=3, but predicts a scale-invariant spectrum of density perturbations. I consider the case of hybrid inflation with large {eta}, and show that such solutions do not solve the '{eta} problem' in supergravity. These solutions correspond to field evolution which has not yet relaxed to the inflationary attractor solution, and may make possible new, more natural models on the string landscape.

  8. Background-free balanced optical cross correlator

    SciTech Connect

    Nejadmalayeri, Amir Hossein; Kaertner, Franz X

    2014-12-23

    A balanced optical cross correlator includes an optical waveguide, a first photodiode including a first n-type semiconductor and a first p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a first side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry, and a second photodiode including a second n-type semiconductor and a second p-type semiconductor positioned about the optical waveguide on a second side of the optical waveguide's point of symmetry. A balanced receiver including first and second inputs is configured to produce an output current or voltage that reflects a difference in currents or voltages, originating from the first and the second photodiodes of the balanced cross correlator and fed to the first input and to the second input of the balanced receiver.

  9. Psychological aftermath of the King's Cross fire.

    PubMed Central

    Rosser, R; Dewar, S; Thompson, J

    1991-01-01

    The King's Cross fire occurred at the end of the evening rush hour, on 18 November 1987. King's Cross station is within the department's health district and we felt a responsibility to respond to the psychological aftermath. The unique features of our intervention were the degree of inter agency coordination, the use of a systematic outreach and screening programme, the collection of psychotherapy outcome measures and the development of an ongoing clinic. The work represents a sustained attempt to assess the nature and prevalence of post-traumatic reactions and the most medically and economically effective form of intervention. In this paper we describe the way our team responded to the high level of psychological distress that we found, we present some preliminary results, outline two therapeutic trials, and refer to the longterm consequences for the work of our department. PMID:1994013

  10. The Kings Cross fire: psychological reactions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S W; Thompson, J; Rosser, R M

    1995-07-01

    The psychological reactions of 50 survivors of the King's Cross fire, which hit London's underground railway system on the 18th day of November 1987, are described. Results are presented for the Impact of Event scale, the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and a King's Cross Event Schedule. These are investigated in relation to (a) validity measures, (b) relationships between exposure and personality, and (c) spontaneous de-briefing. Two thirds of the sample had significant levels of psychological distress (meeting the "caseness" criterion on the GHQ). Both personality (neuroticism and L-scale) and degree of trauma exposure were related to subsequent reaction. Spontaneous debriefing was associated with subjective benefit. Transportation disasters present particular problems in relation to research and service delivery. PMID:7582607

  11. Calculation of improved spallation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C. H.; Silberberg, R.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several research groups have recently carried out highly precise measurements (to about 10 percent) of high-energy nuclear spallation cross sections. These measurements, above 5 GeV, cover a broad range of elements: V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta and Au. Even the small cross sections far off the peak of the isotopic distribution curves have been measured. The semiempirical calculations are compared with the measured values. Preliminary comparisons indicate that the parameters of our spallation relations (Silberberg and Tsao, 1973) for atomic numbers 20 to 83 need modifications, e.g. a reduced slope of the mass yield distribution, broader isotopic distributions, and a shift of the isotopic distribution toward the neutron-deficient side. The required modifications are negligible near Fe and Cu, but increase with increasing target mass.

  12. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  13. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  14. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  15. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  16. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  17. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  18. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  19. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  20. Benary's Cross: belongingness or coarse sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    2001-06-01

    Late 19th Century Gestalt psychologists rebelled against the tenants of traditional epistemology and newly defined psychophysics. They introduced powerful new ideas. These ideas were supported by a myriad of experiments showing that the whole is not the sum of the parts. These appearance experiments include Simultaneous Contrast, Gelb's doorway, and Benary's Cross. The traditional Gestalt explanations of these experiments call for cognitive top-down interferences, that are difficult to describe as detailed computer models.

  1. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  2. Delta wings with shock-free cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sritharan, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    In order to have a high level of maneuverability, supersonic delta wings should have a cross flow that is free of embedded shock waves. The conical cross flow sonic surface differs from that of plane transonic flow in many aspects. Well-known properties such as the monotone law are not true for conical cross flow sonic surfaces. By using a local analysis of the cross flow sonic line, relevant conditions for smooth cross flow are obtained. A technique to artificially construct a smooth sonic surface and an efficient numerical method to calculate the flow field are used to obtain cones with smooth cross flow.

  3. Seamless cross-scale modeling with SCHISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong J.; Ye, Fei; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    We present a new 3D unstructured-grid model (SCHISM) which is an upgrade from an existing model (SELFE). The new advection scheme for the momentum equation includes an iterative smoother to reduce excess mass produced by higher-order kriging method, and a new viscosity formulation is shown to work robustly for generic unstructured grids and effectively filter out spurious modes without introducing excessive dissipation. A new higher-order implicit advection scheme for transport (TVD2) is proposed to effectively handle a wide range of Courant numbers as commonly found in typical cross-scale applications. The addition of quadrangular elements into the model, together with a recently proposed, highly flexible vertical grid system (Zhang et al., A new vertical coordinate system for a 3D unstructured-grid model. Ocean Model. 85, 2015), leads to model polymorphism that unifies 1D/2DH/2DV/3D cells in a single model grid. Results from several test cases demonstrate the model's good performance in the eddying regime, which presents greater challenges for unstructured-grid models and represents the last missing link for our cross-scale model. The model can thus be used to simulate cross-scale processes in a seamless fashion (i.e. from deep ocean into shallow depths).

  4. Horizontally separated 1-in-1 crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1985-10-01

    Previous to this workshop, realistic lattices have been developed for vertically separated l-in-l (e.g., D.E. Johnson, A.A. Garren) and 2-in-1 (e.g., S. Heifets) magnets as well as for horizontally separated 2-in-l magnets (e.g., SSC RDS). Bringing together the widely separated ({approximately}60-70 cm) beams in a reasonable length of tunnel and keeping the dispersion zero at the interaction point has been difficult in the vertical l-in-l case. Most designs have required spacial 2-in-1 quadrupoles near the interaction point where the beams are separated by 15 cm or less. It is not clear that such magnets, as dictated by some of these lattice designs, can easily be built. The purpose of this exercise is to provide a crossing insertion for a realistic lattice which involves horizontally separated l-in-l magnets. The following horizontal crossing insertions, which incorporate the dispersion suppressors and phase trombones into the major arcs, need no special 2-in-1 magnets near the interaction point. The dispersion at the IP created by the horizontal crossing can be cancelled by the dispersion suppressor and one set of triplets.

  5. Automatic Classification of Kepler Threshold Crossing Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCauliff, Sean; Catanzarite, Joseph; Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2014-06-01

    Over the course of its 4-year primary mission the Kepler mission has discovered numerous planets. Part of the process of planet discovery has involved generating threshold crossing events (TCEs); a light curve with a repeating exoplanet transit-like feature. The large number of diagnostics 100) makes it difficult to examine all the information available for each TCE. The effort required for vetting all threshold-crossing events (TCEs) takes several months by many individuals associated with the Kepler Threshold Crossing Event Review Team (TCERT). The total number of objects with transit-like features identified in the light curves has increased to as many as 18,000, just examining the first three years of data. In order to accelerate the process by which new planet candidates are classified, we propose a machine learning approach to establish a preliminary list of planetary candidates ranked from most credible to least credible. The classifier must distinguish between three classes of detections: non-transiting phenomena, astrophysical false positives, and planet candidates. We use random forests, a supervised classification algorithm to this end. We report on the performance of the classifier and identify diagnostics that are important for discriminating between these classes of TCEs.Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

  6. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  7. Induction with cross-classified categories.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G L; Ross, B H

    1999-11-01

    One of the main functions of categories is to allow inferences about new objects. However, most objects are cross-classified, and it is not known whether and how people combine information from these different categories in making inferences. In six experiments, food categories, which are strongly cross-classified (e.g., a bagel is both a bread and a breakfast food), were studied. For each food, the subjects were told fictitious facts (e.g., 75% of breads are subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds) about two of the categories to which it belonged and then were asked to make an inference about the food (e.g., how likely is a bagel to be subject to spoilage from Aspergillus molds?). We found no more use of multiple categories in these cases of cross-classification than in ambiguous classification, in which it is uncertain to which category an item belongs. However, some procedural manipulations did markedly increase the use of both categories in inferences, primarily those that focused the subjects' attention on the critical feature in both categories. PMID:10586578

  8. Barrier crossing by a star polymer.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ananya; Sebastian, K L

    2007-11-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a star polymer of F arms trapped in a double well potential. Initially the molecule is confined to one of the minima and can cross over the barrier to the other side. We use the continuum version of the Rouse-Ham model and calculate the rate of crossing using the multidimensional approach due to Langer [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 54, 258 (1969)]. Finding the transition state for the process is shown to be equivalent to the solution of Newton's equations for F independent particles, moving in an inverted potential. For each star polymer, there is a critical barrier top curvature, below which the star crosses over in coiled conformation. The value of the critical curvature is determined by the first Rouse mode of the star. If the curvature is greater than this critical value, the saddle point for the crossing is a stretched conformation of the star. For the coiled transition state, the activation energy is proportional to the total arm length of the star. For the stretched transition state, as one increases the length of an arm of the star, the activation energy at first increases and then decreases. This results from the fact that in the stretched state, only one arm of the polymer is stretched across the top of the barrier, while others need not be. We calculate the rate by expanding the energy around the saddle up to second order in the fluctuations. As we use the continuum model, there are infinite modes for the polymer and, consequently, the prefactor has infinite products. We show that these infinite products can be reduced to a simple expression, and evaluated easily. However, the rate diverges near NTc due to the multifurcation, which results in more than one unstable mode. The cure for this divergence is to keep terms up to fourth order in the expansion of energy for these modes. Performing this, we have calculated the rate as a function of the length of the star. It is found that the rate has a nonmonotonic dependence on the length

  9. Cross-taxon congruence and environmental conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diversity patterns of different taxa typically covary in space, a phenomenon called cross-taxon congruence. This pattern has been explained by the effect of one taxon diversity on taxon diversity, shared biogeographic histories of different taxa, and/or common responses to environmental conditions. A meta-analysis of the association between environment and diversity patterns found that in 83 out of 85 studies, more than 60% of the spatial variability in species richness was related to variables representing energy, water or their interaction. The role of the environment determining taxa diversity patterns leads us to hypothesize that this would explain the observed cross-taxon congruence. However, recent analyses reported the persistence of cross-taxon congruence when environmental effect was statistically removed. Here we evaluate this hypothesis, analyzing the cross-taxon congruence between birds and mammals in the Brazilian Cerrado, and assess the environmental role on the spatial covariation in diversity patterns. Results We found a positive association between avian and mammal richness and a positive latitudinal trend for both groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. Regression analyses indicated an effect of latitude, PET, and mean temperature over both biological groups. In addition, we show that NDVI was only associated with avian diversity; while the annual relative humidity, was only correlated with mammal diversity. We determined the environmental effects on diversity in a path analysis that accounted for 73% and 76% of the spatial variation in avian and mammal richness. However, an association between avian and mammal diversity remains significant. Indeed, the importance of this link between bird and mammal diversity was also supported by a significant association between birds and mammal spatial autoregressive model residuals. Conclusion Our study corroborates the main role of environmental conditions on diversity patterns, but suggests that other

  10. Kojak: Efficient analysis of chemically cross-linked protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    Hoopmann, Michael R.; Zelter, Alex; Johnson, Richard S.; Riffle, Michael; MacCoss, Michael J.; Davis, Trisha N.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry enable the analysis of protein-protein interactions and protein topologies, however complicated cross-linked peptide spectra require specialized algorithms to identify interacting sites. The Kojak cross-linking software application is a new, efficient approach to identify cross-linked peptides, enabling large-scale analysis of protein-protein interactions by chemical cross-linking techniques. The algorithm integrates spectral processing and scoring schemes adopted from traditional database search algorithms, and can identify cross-linked peptides using many different chemical cross-linkers, with or without heavy isotope labels. Kojak was used to analyze both novel and existing datasets, and was compared with existing cross-linking algorithms. The algorithm provided increased cross-link identifications over existing algorithms, and equally importantly, the results in a fraction of computational time. The Kojak algorithm is open-source, cross-platform, and freely available. This software provides both existing and new cross-linking researchers alike an effective way to derive additional cross-link identifications from new or existing datasets. For new users, it provides a simple analytical resource resulting in more cross-link identifications than other methods. PMID:25812159

  11. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  12. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  13. 20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR

  14. Crossed Pulmonary Arteries in a Patient With Persistent Truncus Arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Sachin; Rajashekar, Palleti; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh; Airan, Balram

    2016-06-01

    We report a 14-month-old child with persistent truncus arteriosus and crossed pulmonary arteries. The potential advantage of crossed pulmonary artery arrangement in achieving surgical correction is discussed. PMID:27211951

  15. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    MedlinePlus

    ... dignity and resilience Geneva, 14 September 2016 – The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies... ... News Contact us Sitemap Go to top The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies ( ...

  16. 33 CFR 83.15 - Crossing situation (Rule 15).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other on her starboard side... other vessel. (b) Vessels crossing river. Notwithstanding paragraph (a), on the Great Lakes,...

  17. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  18. OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE LINED UP WITH MANHATTAN SKYLINE IN MIDDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OUTERBRIDGE CROSSING BRIDGE LINED UP WITH MANHATTAN SKYLINE IN MIDDLE OF HORIZON, VERRAZANO NARROWS BRIDGE TO THE RIGHT - Outerbridge Crossing Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Island, Staten Island (subdivision), Richmond County, NY

  19. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  20. Electron cross section set for CHF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W. Lowell; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2001-08-15

    We describe the development of a consistent set of low-energy electron collision cross sections for trifluoromethane, CHF{sub 3}. First-principles calculations are used to obtain key elastic and inelastic cross sections. These are combined with literature values of the ionization cross section and with vibrational excitation cross sections obtained from the Born approximation to form a preliminary set, which is then adjusted to achieve consistency with measured swarm parameters. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  1. 7. REBUILDING POWELL & CALIFORNIA CROSSING: Photocopy of April 1907 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REBUILDING POWELL & CALIFORNIA CROSSING: Photocopy of April 1907 photograph showing reconstruction of the crossing of the California Street Cable Railroad and the Ferries & Cliff House Railway (United Railroads of San Francisco) at Powell and California. One of the special yokes required for a cable crossing is evident on the left side of the photograph immediately behind the crossing excavation. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  3. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.227 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane...

  4. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.227 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane...

  5. 14 CFR 125.125 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 125.125... Requirements § 125.125 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through... fuel system by valves at each end must incorporate provisions for relieving excessive pressures...

  6. 14 CFR 125.125 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 125.125... Requirements § 125.125 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through... fuel system by valves at each end must incorporate provisions for relieving excessive pressures...

  7. 38 CFR 18b.58 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-examination. 18b.58... Procedures § 18b.58 Cross-examination. A witness may be cross-examined on any matter material to the proceeding without regard to the scope of his direct examination....

  8. 50 CFR 18.88 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-examination. 18.88 Section 18.88... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.88 Cross-examination... examination; and (2) Exclude cross-examination questions that are immaterial, irrelevant or unduly...

  9. 45 CFR 81.79 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-examination. 81.79 Section 81.79 Public... UNDER PART 80 OF THIS TITLE Hearing Procedures § 81.79 Cross-examination. A witness may be cross-examined on any matter material to the proceeding without regard to the scope of his direct examination....

  10. 40 CFR 750.40 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-examination. 750.40 Section 750... Processing and Distribution in Commerce Exemptions § 750.40 Cross-examination. (a) After the close of the... cross-examination. The request must be received by EPA within one week after a full transcript of...

  11. 40 CFR 750.8 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cross-examination. 750.8 Section 750.8... Section 6 of the Toxic Substances Control Act § 750.8 Cross-examination. (a) After the close of the... cross-examination. The request shall be received by EPA within one week after a full transcript of...

  12. A New Methodology of Spatial Cross-Correlation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    Spatial correlation modeling comprises both spatial autocorrelation and spatial cross-correlation processes. The spatial autocorrelation theory has been well-developed. It is necessary to advance the method of spatial cross-correlation analysis to supplement the autocorrelation analysis. This paper presents a set of models and analytical procedures for spatial cross-correlation analysis. By analogy with Moran’s index newly expressed in a spatial quadratic form, a theoretical framework is derived for geographical cross-correlation modeling. First, two sets of spatial cross-correlation coefficients are defined, including a global spatial cross-correlation coefficient and local spatial cross-correlation coefficients. Second, a pair of scatterplots of spatial cross-correlation is proposed, and the plots can be used to visually reveal the causality behind spatial systems. Based on the global cross-correlation coefficient, Pearson’s correlation coefficient can be decomposed into two parts: direct correlation (partial correlation) and indirect correlation (spatial cross-correlation). As an example, the methodology is applied to the relationships between China’s urbanization and economic development to illustrate how to model spatial cross-correlation phenomena. This study is an introduction to developing the theory of spatial cross-correlation, and future geographical spatial analysis might benefit from these models and indexes. PMID:25993120

  13. Cross-Cultural Considerations for Simulation-based Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Konrad

    2000-01-01

    Reviews some of the cross-cultural factors that should be considered in the design of interactive learning environments such as computer simulations and games. Highlights include cross-cultural differences in learning and the use of technology; cross-cultural attitudes toward technology; computer anxiety; and a methodology for culture-centered…

  14. 32 CFR 700.816 - The American National Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The American National Red Cross. 700.816 Section... Commanding Officers in General § 700.816 The American National Red Cross. (a) Pursuant to the request of the... Red Cross is authorized to conduct a program of welfare, including social, financial, medical...

  15. 22 CFR 71.8 - Assistance to American Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... American Red Cross. Officers and employees of the Foreign Service may cooperate fully with the American Red Cross within their respective districts and subject to the limitations prescribed in § 102.806 (22 CFR... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to American Red Cross. 71.8...

  16. A simple approach to SEU cross section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshkin, V.V.; Tverskoy, M.G.

    1998-12-01

    The simplified method for determination of proton induced SEU cross section is presented. The method is based on results of the analysis of experimental SEU cross sections initiated by fast nucleons. The possibility of SEU cross section measurement at single proton energy for SEU rate prediction is shown.

  17. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  18. Cross-Curricular Skills Testing in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Joost

    2007-01-01

    This article gives a description of three analyses concerning the construct learning to learn and the assessment of cross-curricular skills. First, the correspondence between learning to learn and cross-curricular skills is examined by means of a theoretical content analysis. Second, the nature of cross-curricular skills is studied through a…

  19. Cross-Cultural Social Psychology Newsletter. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Yasumasa, Ed.

    This international newsletter, published since 1968, provides cross-cultural and cross-national midi-communications in social psychology. Usually included are: 1) notices of international conferences, institutes, or seminars, 2) a list of new publications, 3) letters to the editor, 4) announcements, and 5) a bibliography of cross-cultural…

  20. Cross-Disciplinarization: A New Talisman for Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on crossing disciplinary lines abound in the scientific community. Can cross-disciplinary approaches, with all their complexity and particularities, provide the way forward in the search for practical solutions to real-world problems? In this article, the author addresses how the debate on cross-disciplinarization pertains to the field…

  1. Conditions that Influence Drivers' Yielding Behavior for Uncontrolled Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourquin, Eugene; Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrians with visual impairments need to cross streets where traffic signals and traffic signage are not present. This study examined the influences of several interventions, including a pedestrian's use of a mobility cane, on the behavior of drivers when they were expected to yield to a pedestrian crossing at an uncontrolled crossing.…

  2. Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, John, Ed.

    The Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter, an official publication of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, reports on recent publications and research in cross-cultural psychology. Notes on international conferences in the field are followed by annotations of new publications. In addition, recent research projects are…

  3. Social Organization and Leadership in Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemers, Martin M.

    There is little research by social psychologists in the areas of leadership and social organization, especially from a cross-cultural perspective, though such research offers an understanding of both leadership and culture. Existing cross-cultural management studies suffer from a lack of understanding of important social and cross-cultural…

  4. Revising and Updating the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Jennifer A.; Cushner, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The following article outlines research conducted to examine cross-cultural sensitivity in a sample of 949 incoming university students in the USA. The study was conducted during the process of updating an existing measure of cross-cultural sensitivity known as the Inventory of Cross-Cultural Sensitivity (ICCS), and to examine the various levels…

  5. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  6. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  7. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  8. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  9. 49 CFR 195.256 - Crossing of railroads and highways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crossing of railroads and highways. 195.256... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Construction § 195.256 Crossing of railroads and highways. The pipe at each railroad or highway crossing must be installed so as to adequately withstand the...

  10. Cross-Cultural Comparison of Maternal Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of mothers of children (ages birth to 6 years) in multiple predominantly Asian and predominantly Caucasian countries. Methods: Mothers of 10,085 young children (predominantly Asian countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; predominantly Caucasian countries: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States) completed an internet-based expanded version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results: Mothers in predominantly Asian countries/regions had later bedtimes, decreased number and duration of night wakings, more nighttime sleep, and more total sleep than mothers from predominantly Caucasian countries, P < 0.001. More than half (54.7%) of mothers reported having poor sleep, ranging from 50.9% of mothers in Malaysia to 77.8% of mothers in Japan. Sleep disturbance symptoms were quite common, especially symptoms related to insomnia, and were more likely to be reported by mothers in predominantly Caucasian countries. However, psychosocial factors, including having children of a younger age, being unemployed, and having a lower education level were the best predictors of poor sleep, whereas culture was not a significant predictor. Conclusions: Overall, mothers in predominantly Asian countries/regions reported later bedtimes but sleeping better and longer than mothers from predominantly Caucasian countries, which is dissimilar to cross-cultural findings of young children. Psychosocial factors were found to be the best predictors of poor sleep, irrespective of culture. Further studies are needed to understand the impact of these findings. Citation: Mindell JA; Sadeh A; Kwon R; Goh DYT. Cross-cultural comparison of maternal sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1699-1706. PMID:24179304

  11. Titan's "Hot Cross Bun": A Titan Laccolith?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Stofan, E. R.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.; Mitchell, K. L.; Lunine, J. I.; Turtle, E. P.; Radebaugh, J.; Malaska, M.; Cassini RADAR Team

    2012-10-01

    Cassini’s RADAR instrument acquired Synthetic Aperture Radar data during the T83 flyby on May 22, 2012. The data showed a feature centered at 38.5N, 203W that resembles a “hot cross bun”. This type of feature has not been seen on Titan before, even though 52% of Titan’s surface has been imaged using SAR. The feature, approximately 100 km across, is mostly radar bright but the cross pattern, interpreted to be extensional fractures, located roughly at the center of the brighter area, appears darker at radar wavelengths (2.3 cm). Radar illumination of the image indicates that the fractures are lower in elevation than the surrounding bright region. The morphology of the region is markedly similar to that of a 30-km dome-shaped feature on Venus that lies at the summit of the Kunapipi volcano. The Venus feature is interpreted to be the result of intrusion of magma at the summit of the volcano [1]. A similar feature, interpreted as a laccolith, is seen on the Moon near the crater Ramsden [2]. The lunar feature, imaged by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the cross-shaped depression over a 300 m high rise. No topographic data for the feature on Titan are available at this time, but the morphology seen by the SAR data suggests that the feature may have been formed by material pushing up from below. Laccoliths form when an igneous intrusion splits apart two strata, resulting in a domeline structure. This previously unknown type of structure on Titan may be yet another indication of cryovolcanism. [1] Stofan, E.R., et al, Icarus, 152, 75-95, 2001. [2] Wichman, R.W. and Schultz, P. H. (1996). Icarus, 122, Issue 1, July 1996, pages 193-199. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0118

  12. Cross-Cultural Collaboration - With Integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryboy, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Cross-Cultural Collaboration - with Integrity This poster will show the value of cross-cultural collaboration, between scientific institutions and Indigenous ways of knowing, as practiced by the Indigenous Education Institute. Focus is on respect for diverse worldviews, integrity as process, and academic diversity and equity. Today, as never before, traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is of vital importance as it speaks strongly to the significance of balance to create a healthy environment. Utilizing a lens of contemporary scientific perspective along with a traditional Indigenous perspective illuminates the complementary aspects of both ways of knowing and a greater sense of understanding the earth and sky than would be possible with one perspective alone. The poster will highlight several examples of successful cross-cultural collaborations. *Collaborative partnership with University of Washington, Tacoma, Symposium on Contemporary Native American Issues in Higher Education: Intersectionality of Native Language and Culture in Modern Society (Sharing Our Skies - Looking at the Stars Through Indigenous Eyes and Western Astronomy Lenses) *AST 201, Introduction to Indigenous Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University: a course that fulfills the Diversity Requirement for graduation *Native Universe: a National Science Foundation funded project, which honors Indigenous Voice in science museums to deepen our relationship with nature, vital in this time of climate change *MAVEN - Imagine Mars Through Indigenous Eyes: a NASA funded project which provides middle and high school curriculum delivered in science centers and Indigenous schools *Navajo Sky: modules and shows for planetariums, funded by NASA, that juxtapose Navajo and western astronomy concepts and context, highlighting place-based science

  13. To Cross-Link or Not to Cross-Link? Cross-Linking Associated Foreign Body Response of Collagen-Based Devices

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Luis M.; Bayon, Yves; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-01-01

    Collagen-based devices, in various physical conformations, are extensively used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Given that the natural cross-linking pathway of collagen does not occur in vitro, chemical, physical, and biological cross-linking methods have been assessed over the years to control mechanical stability, degradation rate, and immunogenicity of the device upon implantation. Although in vitro data demonstrate that mechanical properties and degradation rate can be accurately controlled as a function of the cross-linking method utilized, preclinical and clinical data indicate that cross-linking methods employed may have adverse effects on host response, especially when potent cross-linking methods are employed. Experimental data suggest that more suitable cross-linking methods should be developed to achieve a balance between stability and functional remodeling. PMID:25517923

  14. Cross-functional support ensures success.

    PubMed

    Paree, Tim

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive PPE program that has the support of key stakeholders at the corporate and plant levels has the potential to yield significant safety, productivity, and cost improvements. An automotive manufacturer, for example, was able to decrease injuries by 70 percent and reduce SKUs 24 percent by implementing recommendations resulting from a comprehensive PPE program that had the endorsement of key safety, procurement, operations, and production personnel from the start. Gaining cross-functional commitment for a comprehensive PPE program not only will move the improvement process forward, but also will ensure the company benefits from optimal cost and performance advantages that positively impact the bottom line. PMID:22590821

  15. Precise Relative Earthquake Magnitudes from Cross Correlation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cleveland, K. Michael; Ammon, Charles J.

    2015-04-21

    We present a method to estimate precise relative magnitudes using cross correlation of seismic waveforms. Our method incorporates the intercorrelation of all events in a group of earthquakes, as opposed to individual event pairings relative to a reference event. This method works well when a reliable reference event does not exist. We illustrate the method using vertical strike-slip earthquakes located in the northeast Pacific and Panama fracture zone regions. Our results are generally consistent with the Global Centroid Moment Tensor catalog, which we use to establish a baseline for the relative event sizes.

  16. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  17. Contraction of cross-linked actomyosin bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Marcq, Philippe

    2012-08-01

    Cross-linked actomyosin bundles retract when severed in vivo by laser ablation, or when isolated from the cell and micromanipulated in vitro in the presence of ATP. We identify the timescale for contraction as a viscoelastic time τ, where the viscosity is due to (internal) protein friction. We obtain an estimate of the order of magnitude of the contraction time τ ≈ 10-100 s, consistent with available experimental data for circumferential microfilament bundles and stress fibers. Our results are supported by an exactly solvable, hydrodynamic model of a retracting bundle as a cylinder of isotropic, active matter, from which the order of magnitude of the active stress is estimated.

  18. Cross Cutting Structural Design for Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of our new National Space Policy and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) is keyed to the development of more effective space access and transportation systems. Optimizing in-space systems through innovative cross cutting structural designs that reduce mass, combine functional requirements and improve performance can significantly advance spacecraft designs to meet the ever growing demands of our new National Space Policy. Dependence on limited structural designs is no longer an option. We must create robust materials, forms, function and evolvable systems. We must advance national policy objectives in the design, development, test and operation of multi-billion dollar new generation crew capsules by enabling them to evolve in meeting the requirements of long duration missions to the moon and mars. This paper discusses several current issues and major design drivers for consideration in structural design of advanced spacecraft systems. Approaches to addressing these multifunctional requirements is presented as well as a discussion on utilizing Functional Analysis System Technique (FAST) in developing cross cutting structural designs for future spacecraft. It will be shown how easy it is to deploy such techniques in any conceptual architecture definition or ongoing preliminary design. As experts in merging mission, safety and life support requirements of the frail human existence into robust vehicle and habitat design, we will conquer the final frontier, harness new resources and develop life giving technologies for mankind through more innovative designs. The rocket equation tells us that a reduction in mass optimizes our propulsive results. Primary and secondary structural elements provide for the containment of gases, fluids and solids; translate and sustain loads/impacts; conduct/radiate thermal energy; shield from the harmful effects of radiation; provide for grounding/bonding of electrical power systems; compartmentalize operational

  19. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  20. Cross-talk in abscisic acid signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoroff, Nina V.

    2002-01-01

    "Cross-talk" in hormone signaling reflects an organism's ability to integrate different inputs and respond appropriately, a crucial function at the heart of signaling network operation. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone involved in bud and seed dormancy, growth regulation, leaf senescence and abscission, stomatal opening, and a variety of plant stress responses. This review summarizes what is known about ABA signaling in the control of stomatal opening and seed dormancy and provides an overview of emerging knowledge about connections between ABA, ethylene, sugar, and auxin synthesis and signaling.

  1. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  2. Cross-species models of human melanoma.

    PubMed

    van der Weyden, Louise; Patton, E Elizabeth; Wood, Geoffrey A; Foote, Alastair K; Brenn, Thomas; Arends, Mark J; Adams, David J

    2016-01-01

    Although transformation of melanocytes to melanoma is rare, the rapid growth, systemic spread, as well as the chemoresistance of melanoma present significant challenges for patient care. Here we review animal models of melanoma, including murine, canine, equine, and zebrafish models, and detail the immense contribution these models have made to our knowledge of human melanoma development, and to melanocyte biology. We also highlight the opportunities for cross-species comparative genomic studies of melanoma to identify the key molecular events that drive this complex disease. PMID:26354726

  3. Can you communicate cross-generationally?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M M

    1997-01-01

    What is fractured cross-generational communication? When what one person heard was not what the other person said. Regardless of your age, you need to understand some of the differences in communication styles that must be overcome if people are to work well together. This is especially important in health care right now when there are other pressing issues. Interpreters are at a premium because so much misunderstanding clouds the communication process. Two management strategies are presented that will help bridge the gaps between communication styles. PMID:10164289

  4. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources. PMID:12889758

  5. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  6. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Outcomes: Review

    PubMed Central

    Jankov II, Mirko R; Jovanovic, Vesna; Delevic, Sladjana; Coskunseven, Efekan

    2011-01-01

    Keratoconus is a condition characterized by biomechanical instability of the cornea, presenting in a progressive, asymmetric and bilateral way. Corneal collagen cross-linking with riboflavin and UVA (CXL) is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening that combines the use of riboflavin as a photo sensitizer and UVA irradiation. The studies showed that CXL was effective in halting the progression of keratoconus over a period of up to four years. The published studies also revealed a reduction of max K readings by more than 2 D, while the postoperative SEQ was reduced by an average of more than 1 D, and refractive cylinder decreased by about 1 D. No eyes lost any line of BCDVA. Moreover, there was no significant decrease in endothelial cell density. It was also found that CXL treatment was effective with reducing corneal and total wavefront aberrations. Corneal cross-linking has also led to an arrest and/or even a partial reversal of keratectasia in the treatment of iatrogenic ectasia after excimer laser ablation. A primary intervention such as CXL should be considered to potentially increase the biomechanical stability of the corneal tissue and postpone the need of lamellar or penetrating keratoplasty. PMID:21448301

  7. Corneal collagen cross-linking: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Brart, David P S

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to review the published literature on corneal collagen cross-linking. The emphasis was on the seminal publications, systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials. Where such an evidence did not exist, selective large series cohort studies, case controlled studies and case series with follow-up preferably greater than 12 months were included. Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking appears to be the first treatment modality to halt the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectatic disorders with improvement in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters documented by most investigators. Its precise mechanism of action at a molecular level is as yet not fully determined. Follow-up is limited to 4-6 years at present but suggests continued stability and improvement in corneal shape with time. Most published data are with epithelium-off techniques. Epithelium-on studies suggest some efficacy but less than with the epithelium-off procedures and long-term data are not currently available. The use of Riboflavin/UVA CXL for the management of infectious and non-infectious keratitis appears very promising. Its use in the management of bullous keratopathy is equivocal. Investigation of other methodologies for CXL are under investigation. PMID:25000866

  8. Cross-chest liposuction in gynaecomastia

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Biju; Vijayaraghavan, Sundeep; Kishore, P.; Iyer, Subramania; Jimmy, Mathew; Sharma, Mohit; Paul, George; Chavare, Sachin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gynaecomastia is usually treated with liposuction or liposuction with excision of the glandular tissue. The type of surgery chosen depends on the grade of the condition. Objective: Because gynaecomastia is treated primarily as a cosmetic procedure, we aimed at reducing the invasiveness of the surgery. Materials and Methods: The technique complies with all recommended protocols for different grades of gynaecomastia. It uses liposuction, gland excision, or both, leaving only minimal post-operative scars. The use of cross-chest liposuction through incisions on the edge of the areola helps to get rid of all the fat under the areola without an additional scar as in the conventional method. Results: This is a short series of 20 patients, all with bilateral gynaecomastia (i.e., 40 breasts), belonging to Simon's Stage 1 and 2, studied over a period of 2 years. The average period of follow-up was 15 months. Post-operative complications were reported in only two cases, with none showing long-term complications or issues specifically due to the procedure. Conclusions : Cross-chest liposuction for gynaecomastia is a simple yet effective surgical tool in bilateral gynaecomastia treatment to decrease the post-operative scars. The use of techniques like incision line drain placement and post-drain removal suturing of wounds aid in decreasing the scar. PMID:21713166

  9. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  10. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  11. Corneal collagen cross-linking: A review

    PubMed Central

    O’Brart, David P.S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to review the published literature on corneal collagen cross-linking. The emphasis was on the seminal publications, systemic reviews, meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials. Where such an evidence did not exist, selective large series cohort studies, case controlled studies and case series with follow-up preferably greater than 12 months were included. Riboflavin/Ultraviolet A (UVA) corneal collagen cross-linking appears to be the first treatment modality to halt the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectatic disorders with improvement in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters documented by most investigators. Its precise mechanism of action at a molecular level is as yet not fully determined. Follow-up is limited to 4–6 years at present but suggests continued stability and improvement in corneal shape with time. Most published data are with epithelium-off techniques. Epithelium-on studies suggest some efficacy but less than with the epithelium-off procedures and long-term data are not currently available. The use of Riboflavin/UVA CXL for the management of infectious and non-infectious keratitis appears very promising. Its use in the management of bullous keratopathy is equivocal. Investigation of other methodologies for CXL are under investigation. PMID:25000866

  12. Plasma heating with crossing relativistic electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratan, Naren; Sircombe, Nathan; Ceurvorst, Luke; Kasim, Muhammad; Sadler, James; Bingham, Robert; Trines, Raoul; Norreys, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Plasma heating by relativistic electron beams is a powerful tool with applications including the heating of inertial confinement fusion targets and the study of matter in extreme conditions. We discuss the use of two relativistic electron beams to efficiently heat the plasma ions where the beams cross by using beam-plasma instabilities and non-linear wave coupling between Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves. Energy from the electron beams is coupled to the plasma ions as the beams become unstable and drive Langmuir waves which couple non-linearly to ion-acoustic waves which are then damped . Results of linear growth rate calculations are presented for the system of two crossing electron beams demonstrating a broad spectrum of unstable modes. Relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell simulations in two space and two momentum dimensions have been performed which demonstrate the non-linear coupling of the electron beam energy into ion-acoustic waves and the energy cascade to the background ions. Time-frequency analysis is applied to analyze the non-linear coupling between Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves in wave phase space. Structural properties of the strong turbulence produced at late times are analyzed.

  13. Eliminating Murine Norovirus by Cross-Fostering

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Laurence U.; DeRitis, Pierina C.; Chu, Niansheng; Conti, Pierre A.

    2011-01-01

    Murine norovirus (MNV) is a newly discovered and extremely prevalent pathogen of laboratory mouse colonies. MNV causes severe disease in some immunocompromised mouse strains and can cause persistent infections even in immunocompetent mice. Despite the fact that immunocompetent mice are generally asymptomatic, the possibility that MNV infection might alter immune responses makes its eradication a potentially useful goal for many facilities. Initial attempts by others to use a strategy of testing and culling were unsuccessful, whereas complete depopulation and facility decontamination was successful. However, these measures may be impractical, and finding less drastic approaches seemed prudent. Based on a report that cross-fostering of pups from MNV-positive mothers to MNV-negative ones could be successful in experimental MNV infection, we undertook a comprehensive fostering program using Swiss Webster mothers, careful sanitary measures, and fecal PCR testing to eradicate the virus from a mouse colony recently infected with MNV. We successfully decontaminated 17 of 18 (94%) litters and managed to prevent spread when a new MNV-infected mouse strain entered quarantine at our facility. These results suggest that cross-fostering, when performed in a setting of excellent sanitary procedures, may be practical for the large number of mouse facilities in which MNV is endemic. PMID:21838978

  14. HEALPix Based Cross-Correlation in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernique, P.; Durand, D.; Boch, T.; Oberto, A.; Pineau, F.

    2013-10-01

    We are presenting our work on a cross correlation system based on HEALPix cells indexing. The system allows users to answer scientific questions like “please find all HST images on which there is an observation of a radio quiet quasar” in a single query. The baseline of this system is the creation of the HEALPix indexes grouped hierarchically and organized in a special format file called MOC (see http://ivoa.net/Documents/Notes/MOC) developed by the CDS. Using the MOC files, the cross correlation between images and or catalogues is reduced to searches only in meaningful areas. Under the condition that the survey database also internally uses a HEALPix positional index, the search result comes back almost immediately (typically a few seconds). We have started building the index for some surveys, catalogues (VizieR catalogues, Simbad, etc.) and some pointed mode archives (like HST at CADC) and are developing an elementary library to support basic operations on any input MOC files. The usage of the MOC files is starting to be used throughout the VO community as a general indexing method and tools such as Aladin and TOPCAT are starting to make use of them.

  15. Machine learning optimization of cross docking accuracy.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, Esben J

    2016-06-01

    Performance of small molecule automated docking programs has conceptually been divided into docking -, scoring -, ranking - and screening power, which focuses on the crystal pose prediction, affinity prediction, ligand ranking and database screening capabilities of the docking program, respectively. Benchmarks show that different docking programs can excel in individual benchmarks which suggests that the scoring function employed by the programs can be optimized for a particular task. Here the scoring function of Smina is re-optimized towards enhancing the docking power using a supervised machine learning approach and a manually curated database of ligands and cross docking receptor pairs. The optimization method does not need associated binding data for the receptor-ligand examples used in the data set and works with small train sets. The re-optimization of the weights for the scoring function results in a similar docking performance with regard to docking power towards a cross docking test set. A ligand decoy based benchmark indicates a better discrimination between poses with high and low RMSD. The reported parameters for Smina are compatible with Autodock Vina and represent ready-to-use alternative parameters for researchers who aim at pose prediction rather than affinity prediction. PMID:27179709

  16. Cross-Modal Prediction in Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, Carolina; Alsius, Agnès; Enns, James T.; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Speech perception often benefits from vision of the speaker's lip movements when they are available. One potential mechanism underlying this reported gain in perception arising from audio-visual integration is on-line prediction. In this study we address whether the preceding speech context in a single modality can improve audiovisual processing and whether this improvement is based on on-line information-transfer across sensory modalities. In the experiments presented here, during each trial, a speech fragment (context) presented in a single sensory modality (voice or lips) was immediately continued by an audiovisual target fragment. Participants made speeded judgments about whether voice and lips were in agreement in the target fragment. The leading single sensory context and the subsequent audiovisual target fragment could be continuous in either one modality only, both (context in one modality continues into both modalities in the target fragment) or neither modalities (i.e., discontinuous). The results showed quicker audiovisual matching responses when context was continuous with the target within either the visual or auditory channel (Experiment 1). Critically, prior visual context also provided an advantage when it was cross-modally continuous (with the auditory channel in the target), but auditory to visual cross-modal continuity resulted in no advantage (Experiment 2). This suggests that visual speech information can provide an on-line benefit for processing the upcoming auditory input through the use of predictive mechanisms. We hypothesize that this benefit is expressed at an early level of speech analysis. PMID:21998642

  17. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  18. MHT tracking for crossing sonar targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Peter; Luginbuhl, Tod; Giannopoulos, Evangelos

    2007-09-01

    Sometimes radar targets cross and become unresolved; this is a concern, but with a reasonable track depth and an appropriate merged-measurement model the concern is considerably mitigated. Sonar targets, however, can become merged (in the same beam) for considerably longer, particularly with bearing-only measurements. In such cases the crossing times can be 100 scans long, and no reasonable depth exists for an multi-frame tracker that can "see" both ends of the merged period. Further, there is a demonstrable tendency for estimated targets to repel each other as they are being tracked. In this paper we explore the hypothesis-oriented multi-hypothesis tracker (HO-MHT), an MHT approach that uses the new "rollout" optimization insight and the to give an appropriate and cost-effective means to rank hypotheses, and also the PMHT tracker that operates on batches of scans with linear computational complexity in most quantities. We show results in terms of estimation error (RMSE), consistency (NEES) and computational effort in both linear and beam-space tracking scenarios.

  19. Cross-classified occupational exposure data.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachael M; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the regression analysis of exposure determinants using cross-classified random effects in the context of lead exposures resulting from blasting surfaces in advance of painting. We had three specific objectives for analysis of the lead data, and observed: (1) high within-worker variability in personal lead exposures, explaining 79% of variability; (2) that the lead concentration outside of half-mask respirators was 2.4-fold higher than inside supplied-air blasting helmets, suggesting that the exposure reduction by blasting helmets may be lower than expected by the Assigned Protection Factor; and (3) that lead concentrations at fixed area locations in containment were not associated with personal lead exposures. In addition, we found that, on average, lead exposures among workers performing blasting and other activities was 40% lower than among workers performing only blasting. In the process of obtaining these analyses objectives, we determined that the data were non-hierarchical: repeated exposure measurements were collected for a worker while the worker was a member of several groups, or cross-classified among groups. Since the worker is a member of multiple groups, the exposure data do not adhere to the traditionally assumed hierarchical structure. Forcing a hierarchical structure on these data led to similar within-group and between-group variability, but decreased precision in the estimate of effect of work activity on lead exposure. We hope hygienists and exposure assessors will consider non-hierarchical models in the design and analysis of exposure assessments. PMID:27029937

  20. Level crossings in a cavity QED model

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.

    2006-01-15

    In this paper I study the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a standing-wave field. When the atom is subjected to a weak linear force, the problem can be turned into a time-dependent one, and the evolution is understood from the band structure of the spectrum. The presence of level crossings in the spectrum gives rise to Bloch oscillations of the atomic motion. Here I investigate the effects of the atom-field detuning parameter. A variety of different level crossings are obtained by changing the magnitude of the detuning, and the behavior of the atomic motion is strongly affected due to this. I also consider the situation in which the detuning is oscillating in time, and its impact on the atomic motion. Wave-packet simulations of the full problem are treated numerically and the results are compared with analytical solutions given by the standard Landau-Zener and the three-level Landau-Zener models.

  1. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FLİBE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  2. Electron-impact-ionization cross section for the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Fang, D.; Wang, Y.; Yang, F.

    1994-02-01

    A distorted-wave Born exchange approximation was used to calculate the cross section for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atoms. Both the integral and energy-differential cross section were calculated. The results were compared with the latest experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Comparison shows that the calculations agree with differential cross-section measurements in general. For integral cross sections the calculation shows a better agreement with an earlier measurement [M.B. Shah, D. S. Elliott, and H. B. Gilbody, J. Phys. B 20, 3501 (1987)] in which the cross sections are normalized to the first Born approximation.

  3. Cross-correlation between interest rates and commodity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing; Hu, Yiming

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate cross-correlations between interest rate and agricultural commodity markets. Based on a statistic of Podobnik et al. (2009), we find that the cross-correlations are all significant. Using the MF-DFA and MF-DXA methods, we find strong multifractality in both auto-correlations and cross-correlations. Moreover, the cross-correlations are persistent. Finally, based on the technique of rolling window, the time-variation property of cross-correlations is also revealed.

  4. Desmosine-Inspired Cross-Linkers for Hyaluronan Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagel, Valentin; Mateescu, Markus; Southan, Alexander; Wegner, Seraphine V.; Nuss, Isabell; Haraszti, Tamás; Kleinhans, Claudia; Schuh, Christian; Spatz, Joachim P.; Kluger, Petra J.; Bach, Monika; Tussetschläger, Stefan; Tovar, Günter E. M.; Laschat, Sabine; Boehm, Heike

    2013-06-01

    We designed bioinspired cross-linkers based on desmosine, the cross-linker in natural elastin, to prepare hydrogels with thiolated hyaluronic acid. These short, rigid cross-linkers are based on pyridinium salts (as in desmosine) and can connect two polymer backbones. Generally, the obtained semi-synthetic hydrogels are form-stable, can withstand repeated stress, have a large linear-elastic range, and show strain stiffening behavior typical for biopolymer networks. In addition, it is possible to introduce a positive charge to the core of the cross-linker without affecting the gelation efficiency, or consequently the network connectivity. However, the mechanical properties strongly depend on the charge of the cross-linker. The properties of the presented hydrogels can thus be tuned in a range important for engineering of soft tissues by controlling the cross-linking density and the charge of the cross-linker.

  5. Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis in the MENA area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Alaoui, Marwane; Benbachir, Saâd

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we investigated multifractal cross-correlations qualitatively and quantitatively using a cross-correlation test and the Multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method (MF-DCCA) for markets in the MENA area. We used cross-correlation coefficients to measure the level of this correlation. The analysis concerns four stock market indices of Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Jordan. The countries chosen are signatory of the Agadir agreement concerning the establishment of a free trade area comprising Arab Mediterranean countries. We computed the bivariate generalized Hurst exponent, Rényi exponent and spectrum of singularity for each pair of indices to measure quantitatively the cross-correlations. By analyzing the results, we found the existence of multifractal cross-correlations between all of these markets. We compared the spectrum width of these indices; we also found which pair of indices has a strong multifractal cross-correlation.

  6. Ofrendas/BorderCrossings: A Studio-Based Model for Cross Cultural Traveling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congdon, Kristin G.

    While creating an art form which is foreign to an artist's cultural expression may seem like taking a risk in today's world, it may provide a way to successfully negotiate a fulfilling living and working space on this diverse planet. Movement into a foreign space, often referred to as a border crossing, can be understood as a central meeting…

  7. The Research Interview as Discourses Crossing Swords: The Researcher and Apprentice on Crossing Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a conception of the qualitative research interview as discourses crossing swords. The article draws on examples showing how the researchers' view on learning is challenged by the interviewed apprentices. The apprentices do not assume learning in itself to be an important aspect of their lives. They consider the process of…

  8. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by Steven C. Linke; (3)…

  9. The evolutionary stability of cross-sex, cross-trait genetic covariances.

    PubMed

    Gosden, Thomas P; Chenoweth, Stephen F

    2014-06-01

    Although knowledge of the selective agents behind the evolution of sexual dimorphism has advanced considerably in recent years, we still lack a clear understanding of the evolutionary durability of cross-sex genetic covariances that often constrain its evolution. We tested the relative stability of cross-sex genetic covariances for a suite of homologous contact pheromones of the fruit fly Drosophila serrata, along a latitudinal gradient where these traits have diverged in mean. Using a Bayesian framework, which allowed us to account for uncertainty in all parameter estimates, we compared divergence in the total amount and orientation of genetic variance across populations, finding divergence in orientation but not total variance. We then statistically compared orientation divergence of within-sex (G) to cross-sex (B) covariance matrices. In line with a previous theoretical prediction, we find that the cross-sex covariance matrix, B, is more variable than either within-sex G matrix. Decomposition of B matrices into their symmetrical and nonsymmetrical components revealed that instability is linked to the degree of asymmetry. We also find that the degree of asymmetry correlates with latitude suggesting a role for spatially varying natural selection in shaping genetic constraints on the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:24620712

  10. Foreign Language Reading and Study Abroad: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Linguistic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taillefer, Gail F.

    2005-01-01

    Little cross-cultural empirical research has been devoted to expectations for academic performance of study abroad (SA) students, particularly in their foreign language (FL) reading. This study explored premobility English and French FL reading comprehension and strategy use in 177 European SA students of law and economics. Our concern was whether…

  11. Differential Socialization in Mathematics Achievement: Cross-National and Cross-Cultural Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. R., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special issue summarizes parallel studies in five countries (Japan, Greece, Thailand, Republic of China, United States) investigating the causal linkages among socioeconomic status variables, family processes, and school variables on the mathematics achievement of urban elementary school children. Methodological problems in cross-cultural and…

  12. What can cross-bedding tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are a common transport mechanism associated with explosive eruptions. They behave as particulate density current (flows of particles and fluid, whose driving force is the excess density compared to the ambient fluid). The particles thus are the defining part of the flow acting as the agent of momentum and the resultant deposits, making PDC sedimentology fundamental. We combine wind tunnel measurements with nontraditional field techniques to consider cross-bedding from dilute PDCs from the mm to the km scale. Each deposited particle requires 1) momentum to reach its final location, but 2) sufficiently low shearing to halt at this place. A range of shearing is constrained from wind tunnel measurements. The results are combined with field data from lacquer peel sampling (an outcrop is impregnated with a solidifying glue, preserving the primary organization of the grains). This enables quantification of the grain size of mm-scale laminae, giving an order of magnitude of turbulence during deposition. The lacquer peel technique also imaged cm-scale, soft sediment deformation patterns producing overturned beds. These are interpreted as related to Kelvin-Helmholtz shear instabilities between a granular-based flow and the bed. Dune bedform (DBs) cross-stratification at the m scale generally have an overall stoss-aggrading stacking pattern. Often interpreted as indicating supercritical flows, the wind-tunnel results and DBs' geometry rather suggest they are a specificity of particulate density currents with high deposition rates. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) reveals the 3D stability in location of a DB over several m depth, although stacking patterns vary with time and laterally. This emphasizes the primary influence of the basal boundary layer in the depositional dynamics. At the 100 m scale, DBs' shape evolves in dimensions and form, calling for 3D datasets. Terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry enable quantification of the

  13. THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Toniolo, Roberto

    2008-07-08

    This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:.

  14. Reactive Collisions in Crossed Molecular Beams

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Herschbach, D. R.

    1962-02-01

    The distribution of velocity vectors of reaction products is discussed with emphasis on the restrictions imposed by the conservation laws. The recoil velocity that carries the products away from the center of mass shows how the energy of reaction is divided between internal excitation and translation. Similarly, the angular distributions, as viewed from the center of mass, reflect the partitioning of the total angular momentum between angular momenta of individual molecules and orbital angular momentum associated with their relative motion. Crossed-beam studies of several reactions of the type M + RI yields R + MI are described, where M = K, Rb, Cs, and R = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 3}H{sub 5}, etc. The results show that most of the energy of reaction goes into internal excitation of the products and that the angular distribution is quite anisotropic, with most of the MI recoiling backward (and R forward) with respect to the incoming K beam. (auth)

  15. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  16. Photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.X.; Yeh, T.R.; Lancman, H.

    1986-10-01

    The photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th was measured in the 5.8-12 MeV energy range with an average photon energy resolution of 600 eV. Intermediate structure was observed at 5.91, 5.97, and 6.31 MeV. The experimental fission probability and various properties of the intermediate structure were compared with calculated values based on a double-humped fission barrier as well as a triple-humped one. The results favor, though not decisively, the presence of a shallow third well in the barrier. Certain features of both barriers, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretical barrier calculations.

  17. SASE FEL Polarization Control Using Crossed Undulator

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yuantao; Huang, Zhirong; /SLAC

    2008-09-30

    There is a growing interest in producing intense, coherent x-ray radiation with an adjustable and arbitrary polarization state. In this paper, we study the crossed undulator scheme for rapid polarization control in a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free electron laser (FEL). Because a SASE source is a temporally chaotic light, we perform a statistical analysis on the state of polarization using FEL theory and simulations. We show that by adding a small phase shifter and a short (about 1.3 times the FEL power gain length), 90{sup o} rotated planar undulator after the main SASE planar undulator, one can obtain circularly polarized light--with over 80% polarization--near the FEL saturation.

  18. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  19. Failure of the Cross Correlation Measurement Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Ken; Ham, Katie; Schock, Kris

    2014-03-01

    The experiment involves creating a sound wave that propagates down a pipe with 8 transducers attached at equally spaced intervals of 0.01016 meters. The numerical method used to solve for the phase component, the Cross Correlation Method, creates a high correlation value, but the speed of sound varies immensely. The method involves a Fast Fourier Transform of the collected data, which is used to find the phase of the sound wave, and the slope of the position versus time graph, which is used to calculate the speed of sound. This high correlation values shows that the data is correct, but the numerical method for analyzing the data is incorrect. We would like to thank Dr. Ken McGill for all of his time, help, and guidance with this research project. We would also like to thank Georgia College and State University for both the resources and space necessary for this experiment.

  20. Temporal and Cross Correlations in Business News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Takei, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Watanabe, T.

    We empirically investigate temporal and cross correlations inthe frequency of news reports on companies, using a dataset of more than 100 million news articles reported in English by around 500 press agencies worldwide for the period 2003--2009. Our first finding is that the frequency of news reports on a company does not follow a Poisson process, but instead exhibits long memory with a positive autocorrelation for longer than one year. The second finding is that there exist significant correlations in the frequency of news across companies. Specifically, on a daily time scale or longer the frequency of news is governed by external dynamics, while on a time scale of minutes it is governed by internal dynamics. These two findings indicate that the frequency of news reports on companies has statistical properties similar to trading volume or price volatility in stock markets, suggesting that the flow of information through company news plays an important role in price dynamics in stock markets.

  1. Riboflavin for corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    O'Brart, D P S

    2016-06-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation is the first therapeutic modality that appears to arrest the progression of keratoconus and other corneal ectasias. Riboflavin is central to the process, acting as a photosensitizer for the production of oxygen singlets and riboflavin triplets. These free radicals drive the CXL process within the proteins of the corneal stroma, altering its biomechanical properties. Riboflavin also absorbs the majority of the UVA radiation, which is potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic, within the anterior stroma, preventing damage to internal ocular structures, such as the corneal endothelium, lens and retina. Clinical studies report cessation of ectatic progression in over 90% of cases and the majority document significant improvements in visual, keratometric and topographic parameters. Clinical follow-up is limited to 5-10 years, but suggests sustained stability and enhancement in corneal shape. Sight-threatening complications are rare. The optimal stromal riboflavin dosage for CXL is as yet undetermined. PMID:27458610

  2. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  3. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  4. Cross-stiffened continuous fiber structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, John R.; Suarez, Jim A.

    1993-01-01

    Under NASA's Novel Composites for Wing and Fuselage Applications (NCWFA) program, Contract NAS1-18784, Grumman is evaluating the structural efficiency of graphite/epoxy cross-stiffened panel elements fabricated using innovative textile preforms and cost effective Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Resin Film Infusion (RFI) processes. Two three-dimensional woven preform assembly concepts have been defined for application to a representative window belt design typically found in a commercial transport airframe. The 3D woven architecture for each of these concepts is different; one is vertically woven in the plane of the window belt geometry and the other is loom woven in a compressed state similar to an unfolded eggcrate. The feasibility of both designs has been demonstrated in the fabrication of small test element assemblies. These elements and the final window belt assemblies will be structurally tested, and results compared.

  5. Cross-Cultural Aspects of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Hinton, Devon E.

    2014-01-01

    A person’s cultural background influences the experience and expression of emotions. In reviewing the recent literature on cross-cultural aspects of anxiety disorders, we identified some culturally related ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors (the culture’s conceptualizations of how the mind and body function) and contextual factors that influence anxiety disorders. Ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology factors include the person’s ideas about the mental and bodily processes (and their interaction), whereas contextual factors are associated with the social norms and rules that may contribute to anxiety, including individualism vs. collectivism and self-construals. From the perspective of ethnopsychology/ethnophysiology and contextual factors, we will discuss “khyâl cap” (“wind attacks”), taijin kyofusho, and ataques de nervios, three prominent examples of culture-specific expressions of anxiety disorders that have all been included in the DSM-5 list of cultural concepts of distress, PMID:24744049

  6. Dispersion interaction between crossed conducting wires

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, John F.; Gould, Timothy; Klich, Israel

    2009-07-15

    We compute the T=0 K Van der Waals (nonretarded Casimir) interaction energy E between two infinitely long, crossed conducting wires separated by a minimum distance D much greater than their radius. We find that, up to a logarithmic correction factor, E{proportional_to}-D{sup -1}|sin {theta}|{sup -1}f({theta}), where f({theta}) is a smooth bounded function of the angle {theta} between the wires. We recover a conventional result of the form E{proportional_to}-D{sup -4}|sin {theta}|{sup -1}g({theta}) when we include an electronic energy gap in our calculation. Our prediction of gap-dependent energetics may be observable experimentally for carbon nanotubes either via atomic force microscopy detection of the Van der Waals force or torque or indirectly via observation of mechanical oscillations. This shows that strictly parallel wires, as assumed in previous predictions, are not needed to see a unique effect of this type.

  7. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  8. A cross-national study of calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan students showed a larger gain and normalized gain, and hence narrowed the gap. ECNU's superior performance was especially striking on the subset of problems requiring only a pre-calculus background. On those, Michigan's post-test scores were below ECNU's pre-test scores and, indeed, ECNU's higher performance on both the overall pre-test and overall post-test is attributable to its success on these problems.

  9. KSI's Cross Insulated Core Transformer Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Uhmeyer, Uwe

    2009-08-04

    Cross Insulated Core Transformer (CCT) technology improves on Insulated Core Transformer (ICT) implementations. ICT systems are widely used in very high voltage, high power, power supply systems. In an ICT transformer ferrite core sections are insulated from their neighboring ferrite cores. Flux leakage is present at each of these insulated gaps. The flux loss is raised to the power of stages in the ICT design causing output voltage efficiency to taper off with increasing stages. KSI's CCT technology utilizes a patented technique to compensate the flux loss at each stage of an ICT system. Design equations to calculate the flux compensation capacitor value are presented. CCT provides corona free operation of the HV stack. KSI's CCT based High Voltage power supply systems offer high efficiency operation, high frequency switching, low stored energy and smaller size over comparable ICT systems.

  10. Cross-channel variability in benthic habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vayssieres, Marc; Peterson, Heather

    2003-01-01

    The Interagency Ecological Program’s Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) has monitored benthic invertebrates since the mid-1970s. A recent review of the EMP found that the spatial study design of the benthos monitoring element was in need of a thorough reexamination through intense special studies and extensive historic data analyses. This article reports the results of preliminary analyses of historical EMP data focusing on cross-channel variability. Specific questions are: (1) do benthic habitats and community assemblages vary between positions across a river channel? (2) Are benthic samples taken at a single channel position sufficiently representative of benthos assemblages across the channel to characterize long term changes in the benthos community of a particular section of a river?

  11. Portfolio Selection Using Level Crossing Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam; Shirazi, A. H.; Jafari, G. R.

    Asset allocation is one of the most important and also challenging issues in finance. In this paper using level crossing analysis we introduce a new approach for portfolio selection. We introduce a portfolio index that is obtained based on minimizing the waiting time to receive known return and risk values. By the waiting time, we mean time that a special level is observed in average. The advantage of this approach is that the investors are able to set their goals based on gaining return and knowing the average waiting time and risk value at the same time. As an example we use our model for forming portfolio of stocks in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE).

  12. A Genus Oblivious Approach to Cross Parameterization

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J C; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2008-06-16

    In this paper we present a robust approach to construct a map between two triangulated meshes, M and M{prime} of arbitrary and possibly unequal genus. We introduce a novel initial alignment scheme that allows the user to identify 'landmark tunnels' and/or a 'constrained silhouette' in addition to the standard landmark vertices. To describe the evolution of non-landmark tunnels we automatically derive a continuous deformation from M to M{prime} using a variational implicit approach. Overall, we achieve a cross parameterization scheme that is provably robust in the sense that it can map M to M{prime} without constraints on their relative genus. We provide a number of examples to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our scheme between meshes of different genus and shape.

  13. Construction of momentum theorem using cross moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, T. S.; Wang, Lu; Diamond, P. H.

    2009-11-01

    Charney-Drazin theorem has been extended to Hasegawa Wakatani system for zonal flow problem in magnetic fusion [P.H. Diamond, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50, 124018 (2008)]. For this model, the guiding center density is the potential vorticity and zonal flow is influenced by the particle flux. In this work we construct momentum theorems in terms of a hierarchy of cross moments , , and . Then we show that the particle flux, momentum flux, and heat flux influence the zonal flow for each system respectively. This work was supported by U. S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE--AC02--09CH11466 (TSH, LW), China Scholarship Council (LW), U. S. DOE SciDAC center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas, and the U. S. DOE SciDAC-FSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (TSH).

  14. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people. PMID:17817633

  15. KSI's Cross Insulated Core Transformer Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhmeyer, Uwe

    2009-08-01

    Cross Insulated Core Transformer (CCT) technology improves on Insulated Core Transformer (ICT) implementations. ICT systems are widely used in very high voltage, high power, power supply systems. In an ICT transformer ferrite core sections are insulated from their neighboring ferrite cores. Flux leakage is present at each of these insulated gaps. The flux loss is raised to the power of stages in the ICT design causing output voltage efficiency to taper off with increasing stages. KSI's CCT technology utilizes a patented technique to compensate the flux loss at each stage of an ICT system. Design equations to calculate the flux compensation capacitor value are presented. CCT provides corona free operation of the HV stack. KSI's CCT based High Voltage power supply systems offer high efficiency operation, high frequency switching, low stored energy and smaller size over comparable ICT systems.

  16. Improving predictions by cross pollination in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schevenhoven, Francine; Selten, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Given a set of imperfect weather models, one could ask how these models can be combined in order to improve weather predictions produced with these models. In this study we explore a technique called cross-pollination in time (CPT, Smith 2001). In the CPT approach the models exchange states during the prediction. The number of possible predictions grows quickly with time and a strategy to retain only a small number of predictions, called pruning, needs to be developed. In the learning phase a pruning strategy is proposed based on retaining those solutions that remain closest to the truth. From the learning phase probabilities are derived that determine weights to be applied to the imperfect models in the forecast phase. The CPT technique is explored using low-order dynamical systems and applied to a global atmospheric model. First results indicate that the CPT approach improves the forecast quality over the individual models.

  17. Cross-cultural dynamics in rural Peru.

    PubMed

    Paz, David A; Blair, Patrick J

    2006-12-01

    Cross-cultural and language barriers can be an impediment to the conduct of biomedical studies in developing nations. To assess the implementation of human-use procedures within a minimum-risk febrile illness surveillance study in Peru, personnel fluent in both English and Spanish conducted a review of 10 sites. Guideline adherence, consent procedures, and potential problems in the conduct of the trial were reviewed. Concerns cited by on-site investigators included patient follow-up, poor facilities, and power fluctuations that jeopardized samples before shipment to a central location. However, both local study coordinators and patients demonstrated a clear grasp of study enrollment and consent procedures and reported no significant problems in the conduct of the study. These findings suggest that significant planning is crucial before initiation of biomedical studies in developing nations to successfully overcome physical challenges and cultural dynamics that could otherwise adversely affect scientific outcomes. PMID:17256693

  18. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  19. Unstable avoided crossing in coupled spinor condensates.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nathan R; Dalla Torre, Emanuele G; Demler, Eugene

    2014-08-01

    We consider the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate with two internal states, coupled through a coherent drive. We focus on a specific quench protocol, in which the sign of the coupling field is suddenly changed. At a mean-field level, the system is transferred from a minimum to a maximum of the coupling energy and can remain dynamically stable, in spite of the development of negative-frequency modes. In the presence of a nonzero detuning between the two states, the "charge" and "spin" modes couple, giving rise to an unstable avoided crossing. This phenomenon is generic to systems with two dispersing modes away from equilibrium and constitutes an example of class-I(o) nonequilibrium pattern formation in quantum systems. PMID:25148334

  20. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  1. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nital; Hackla, Shafiq; Bhagat, Virendar; Singh, Satvir; Hussain, Farid; Gupta, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:26957821

  2. A Cross-chiral RNA Polymerase Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Sczepanski, Jonathan T.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was shown that the non-enzymatic, template-directed polymerization of activated mononucleotides proceeds readily in a homochiral system, but is severely inhibited by the presence of the opposing enantiomer.1 This finding poses a severe challenge for the spontaneous emergence of RNA-based life, and has led to the suggestion that either RNA was preceded by some other genetic polymer that is not subject to chiral inhibition2 or chiral symmetry was broken through chemical processes prior to the origin of RNA-based life.3,4 Once an RNA enzyme arose that could catalyze the polymerization of RNA, it would have been possible to distinguish among the two enantiomers, enabling RNA replication and RNA-based evolution to occur. It is commonly thought that the earliest RNA polymerase and its substrates would have been of the same handedness, but this is not necessarily the case. Replicating D-and L-RNA molecules may have emerged together, based on the ability of structured RNAs of one handedness to catalyze the templated polymerization of activated mononucleotides of the opposite handedness. Such a cross-chiral RNA polymerase has now been developed using in vitro evolution. The D-RNA enzyme, consisting of 83 nucleotides, catalyzes the joining of L-mono- or oligonucleotide substrates on a complementary L-RNA template, and similarly for the L-enzyme with D-substrates and a D-template. Chiral inhibition is avoided because the 106-fold rate acceleration of the enzyme only pertains to cross-chiral substrates. The enzyme's activity is sufficient to generate full-length copies of its enantiomer through the templated joining of 11 component oligonucleotides. PMID:25363769

  3. Quinone cross-linked polysaccharide hybrid fiber.

    PubMed

    Kuboe, Yoshiko; Tonegawa, Hitomi; Ohkawa, Kousaku; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    The present article describes the synthesis of the N-(Lys-Gly-Tyr-Gly)-chitosan using the water-soluble active ester method, the preparation of the N-(Lys-Gly-Tyr-Gly)-chitosan-gellan hybrid fibers, and the reinforcement of the hybrid fibers by enzymatic cross-linking between the N-grafted peptides chains of chitosan. The cationic polysaccharide chitosan was treated with Boc-Lys(Z)-Gly-Tyr(Bzl)-Gly (4-hydroxyphenyl)dimethylsulfonium methyl sulfate ester in DMF-0.15 M acetic acid to incorporate the peptides into the side chain amino groups of chitosan followed by the acidic removals of the Z and Bzl groups. The degrees of N substitution were estimated to be 2.0 and 10 molar % by changing the molar ratios of the amino groups of the parent chitosan and the active ester. The resulting cationic N-(Lys-Gly-Tyr-Gly)-chitosan was spun into the hybrid fibers with the anionic polysaccharide gellan in water. The tensile strengths of the N-(Lys-Gly-Tyr-Gly)-chitosan hybrid fibers were superior to those of the original chitosan-gellan fibers. The mechanical strengths of the hybrid fibers further increased upon enzymatic oxidation using tyrosinase. Based on these results, we concluded that the covalent cross-linking due to the enzyme oxidation between the grafted peptides significantly contributed to reinforcement of the polysaccharide hybrid fibers. The present results afford a new methodology for the reinforcement achieved by the polymer modification inspired by a biological process. PMID:15002994

  4. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  5. Cross folding in southern Bighorn basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.

    1986-08-01

    Analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery coupled with surface structural investigations of well-exposed folds in the southern Bighorn basin have revealed two northwest-trending folds that have been refolded. The eastern boundary of the Owl Creek Mountains is characterized by a well-defined alignment of folds that extend north-northwest from the Owl Creek thrust front. Bridger monocline, Wildhorse Butte anticline, and Red Hole anticline lie along this trend. Initial Laramide folding, probably during latest Cretaceous time, resulted in a single, continuous, north-northwest-trending anticline with a southwestward vergence. This anticline was progressively unfolded from south to north as the Owl Creek Range was thrust southward over the Wind River basin in earliest Eocene time; scissors-like vertical motion along this flexure rotated the axial surface of the early formed Bridger anticline, resulting in a monocline with a reversed vergence (northeastward). Formation of the Thermopolis/East Warm Springs anticline parallel to the north flank of the range accompanied thrusting and effectively refolded the northern end of the Wildhorse Butte anticline along an east-west axis. Faulting of the oversteepened south limb of the Red Hole cross fold was contemporaneous with folding. Cross-cutting fold axes in this area and the Mud Creek area to the west are best explained by a counterclockwise change in stress direction during the latest phase of the Laramide orogeny. Vertical movement along the eastern side of the Owl Creek Range results from differential motion in the hanging wall of the crystalline thrust sheet.

  6. Crossing and creating boundaries in healthcare innovation.

    PubMed

    Ingerslev, Karen

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - This paper reports from a qualitative case study of a change initiative undertaken in a Danish public hospital setting during national healthcare reforms. The purpose of this paper is to challenge understandings of innovations as defined by being value-adding per se. Whether the effects of attempting to innovate are positive or negative is in this paper regarded as a matter of empirical investigation. Design/methodology/approach - Narrative accounts of activities during the change initiative are analysed in order to elucidate the effects of framing the change initiative as innovation on which boundaries are created and crossed. Findings - Framing change initiatives as innovation leads to intended as well as unanticipated boundary crossings where healthcare practitioners from different organizations recognize a shared problem and task. It also leads to unintended boundary reinforcements between "us and them" that may exclude the perspectives of patients or stakeholders when confronting complex problems in healthcare. This boundary reinforcement can lead to further fragmentation of healthcare despite the stated intention to create more integrated services. Practical implications - The paper suggests that researchers as well as practitioners should not presume that intentions to innovate will by themselves enhance creativity and innovation. When analysing the intended, unintended as well as unanticipated consequences of framing change initiatives as innovation, researchers and practitioner gain nuanced knowledge about the effects of intending to innovate in complex settings such as healthcare. Originality/value - This paper suggests the need for an analytical move from studying the effects of innovation to studying the effects of framing complex problems as a call for innovation. PMID:27296877

  7. Directional guidance from audible pedestrian signals for street crossing.

    PubMed

    Wall, Robert S; Ashmead, Daniel H; Bentzen, Billie Louise; Barlow, Janet

    2004-10-10

    Typical audible pedestrian signals indicate when the pedestrian walk interval is in effect but provide little, or even misleading information for directional alignment. In three experiments, blind and blindfolded sighted adults crossed a simulated crossing with recorded traffic noise to approximate street sounds. This was done to investigate how characteristics of signal presentation affected usefulness of the auditory signal for guiding crossing behaviour. Crossing was more accurate when signals came only from the far end of the crossing rather than the typical practice of presenting signals simultaneously from both ends. Alternating the signal between ends of the crossing was not helpful. Also, the customary practice of signalling two parallel crossings at the same time drew participants somewhat toward the opposite crossing. Providing a locator tone at the end of the crossing during the pedestrian clearance interval improved crossing accuracy. These findings provide a basis for designing audible pedestrian signals to enhance directional guidance. The principal findings were the same for blind and sighted participants and applied across a range of specific signals (e.g. chirps, clicks, voices). PMID:15370850

  8. Multifractal cross-correlation analysis in electricity spot market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qingju; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the multiscale cross-correlations between electricity price and trading volume in Czech market based on a newly developed algorithm, called Multifractal Cross-Correlation Analysis (MFCCA). The new algorithm is a natural multifractal generalization of the Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and is sensitive to cross-correlation structure and free from limitations of other algorithms. By considering the original sign of the cross-covariance, it allows us to properly quantify and detect the subtle characteristics of two simultaneous recorded time series. First, the multifractality and the long range anti-persistent auto-correlations of price return and trading volume variation are confirmed using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA). Furthermore, we show that there exist long-range anti-persistent cross-correlations between price return and trading volume variation by MFCCA. And we also identify that the cross-correlations disappear on the level of relative small fluctuations. In order to obtain deeper insight into the dynamics of the electricity market, we analyze the relation between generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent λq. We find that the difference between the generalized Hurst exponent and the multifractal cross-correlation scaling exponent is significantly different for smaller fluctuation, which indicates that the multifractal character of cross-correlations resembles more each other for electricity price and trading volume on the level of large fluctuations and weakens for the smaller ones.

  9. Multiscale Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of STOCK Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yi; Shang, Pengjian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we employ the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) to investigate the cross-correlations between different stock markets. We report the results of cross-correlated behaviors in US, Chinese and European stock markets in period 1997-2012 by using DCCA method. The DCCA shows the cross-correlated behaviors of intra-regional and inter-regional stock markets in the short and long term which display the similarities and differences of cross-correlated behaviors simply and roughly and the persistence of cross-correlated behaviors of fluctuations. Then, because of the limitation and inapplicability of DCCA method, we propose multiscale detrended cross-correlation analysis (MSDCCA) method to avoid "a priori" selecting the ranges of scales over which two coefficients of the classical DCCA method are identified, and employ MSDCCA to reanalyze these cross-correlations to exhibit some important details such as the existence and position of minimum, maximum and bimodal distribution which are lost if the scale structure is described by two coefficients only and essential differences and similarities in the scale structures of cross-correlation of intra-regional and inter-regional markets. More statistical characteristics of cross-correlation obtained by MSDCCA method help us to understand how two different stock markets influence each other and to analyze the influence from thus two inter-regional markets on the cross-correlation in detail, thus we get a richer and more detailed knowledge of the complex evolutions of dynamics of the cross-correlations between stock markets. The application of MSDCCA is important to promote our understanding of the internal mechanisms and structures of financial markets and helps to forecast the stock indices based on our current results demonstrated the cross-correlations between stock indices. We also discuss the MSDCCA methods of secant rolling window with different sizes and, lastly, provide some relevant implications and

  10. Large Scale Chemical Cross-linking Mass Spectrometry Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Zybailov, Boris L.; Glazko, Galina V.; Jaiswal, Mihir; Raney, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The spectacular heterogeneity of a complex protein mixture from biological samples becomes even more difficult to tackle when one’s attention is shifted towards different protein complex topologies, transient interactions, or localization of PPIs. Meticulous protein-by-protein affinity pull-downs and yeast-two-hybrid screens are the two approaches currently used to decipher proteome-wide interaction networks. Another method is to employ chemical cross-linking, which gives not only identities of interactors, but could also provide information on the sites of interactions and interaction interfaces. Despite significant advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the last decade, mapping Protein-Protein Interactions (PPIs) using chemical cross-linking remains time consuming and requires substantial expertise, even in the simplest of systems. While robust methodologies and software exist for the analysis of binary PPIs and also for the single protein structure refinement using cross-linking-derived constraints, undertaking a proteome-wide cross-linking study is highly complex. Difficulties include i) identifying cross-linkers of the right length and selectivity that could capture interactions of interest; ii) enrichment of the cross-linked species; iii) identification and validation of the cross-linked peptides and cross-linked sites. In this review we examine existing literature aimed at the large-scale protein cross-linking and discuss possible paths for improvement. We also discuss short-length cross-linkers of broad specificity such as formaldehyde and diazirine-based photo-cross-linkers. These cross-linkers could potentially capture many types of interactions, without strict requirement for a particular amino-acid to be present at a given protein-protein interface. How these shortlength, broad specificity cross-linkers be applied to proteome-wide studies? We will suggest specific advances in methodology, instrumentation and software that are needed to

  11. Collagen cross-linking and resorption: effect of glutaraldehyde concentration.

    PubMed

    Roe, S C; Milthorpe, B K; Schindhelm, K

    1990-12-01

    Cross-linked collagen bioprostheses usually are designed to be inert and nonresorbable, resulting in fatigue and wear failure in high-stress environments. Eventual replacement of the implant, although minimizing strength loss during resorption, would result in a graft with reparative ability. Kangaroo tail tendon (KTT) partially cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) was evaluated in vitro for resistance to bacterial collagenase digestion and in vivo for biocompatibility and resorbability in an intramuscular implant assay. Cross-linking was quantified by thermal denaturation studies. Incomplete cross-linking was achieved with concentrations of GA less than 0.1% (w/v). KTT cross-linked in greater than or equal to 0.05% GA were collagenase resistant being incompletely digested after 240 h. Cross-linking of KTT with low concentrations of GA resulted in partial collagenase resistance and slowed resorption. PMID:2126427

  12. Robust Statistical Detection of Power-Law Cross-Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Nikulin, Vadim V.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-06-01

    We show that widely used approaches in statistical physics incorrectly indicate the existence of power-law cross-correlations between financial stock market fluctuations measured over several years and the neuronal activity of the human brain lasting for only a few minutes. While such cross-correlations are nonsensical, no current methodology allows them to be reliably discarded, leaving researchers at greater risk when the spurious nature of cross-correlations is not clear from the unrelated origin of the time series and rather requires careful statistical estimation. Here we propose a theory and method (PLCC-test) which allows us to rigorously and robustly test for power-law cross-correlations, correctly detecting genuine and discarding spurious cross-correlations, thus establishing meaningful relationships between processes in complex physical systems. Our method reveals for the first time the presence of power-law cross-correlations between amplitudes of the alpha and beta frequency ranges of the human electroencephalogram.

  13. Experimental verification of theoretical cross sections for FIB PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streib, Kenneth L.; Alford, Terry L.; Mayer, James W.

    2006-08-01

    X-ray production cross sections were found for films of Cr, Cu, Ge, Ag, W and Au, using incident H+ and Be+ ions at energies from 300 keV to 3.5 MeV. These experimental cross section results were compared with the cross section results obtained using software which calculates inner shell ionization and X-ray production cross sections. The software uses the ECPSSR-UA approach to finding X-ray production cross sections. This program was found to be useful for predicting cross sections for H+ and Be+ ions at the energies in this study. The software was then used to predict results for Li+, Be+ and B+ ions at 280 keV, energies available in the Arizona State University focused ion beam laboratory.

  14. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  15. Charge exchange cross sections for the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.; Johnson, R. E.

    1989-03-01

    An impact parameter method for calculating cross sections as a function of incident ion energy is used in conjunction with an improved exchange energy formulation to update several of the charge exchange cross sections currently used in Io plasma torus modeling. New cross sections for S(+) + S(2+) yielding S(2+) + S(+) and Na(+) on neutral targets, useful in analyzing the fast Na jets observed at Io, are also calculated.

  16. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  17. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  18. Single event upset cross sections at various data rates

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; Marshall, C.J.; McMorrow, D.; Carts, M.A.; Marshall, P.W.; Buchner, S.; La Macchia, M.; Mathes, B.

    1996-12-01

    The authors present data which show that Single Event Upset (SEU) cross section varies linearly with frequency for most devices tested. They show that the SEU cross section can increase dramatically away from a linear relationship when the test setup is not optimized, or when testing near the maximum operating frequency. They also observe non-linear behavior in some complex circuit topologies. Knowledge of the relationship between SEU cross section and frequency is important for estimates of on-orbit SEU rates.

  19. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  20. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  1. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  2. High-resolution Imaging of Rapid Tremor Reversals Using Cross-Station Cross-Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.; Rubin, A. M.; Bostock, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    Tectonic tremor is assumed to be a proxy for slow slip, and together they provide unique observational constraints on the rheology and deformation styles operating near the base of the seismogenic zone. Several techniques have been used to locate tremor/LFE sources, including well-established "cross-time" methods that compare waveforms from different time windows at the same station (e.g., work by Shelly, Brown, Bostock and others). We have been developing a "cross-station" method, based on the original work of Armbruster and Kim [AGU 2010], that instead compares waveforms from the same time window at widely separated stations. We compare 4-second windows at 3 stations after rotating the horizontal component into the empirical shear wave particle motion direction for the particular source-station geometry. The large-scale "rapid tremor reversals" described by Houston et al. [2011] beneath southern Vancouver Island are best recorded by stations that exhibit pronounced shear wave splitting, which obscures this optimal direction. We correct for splitting using the stacked templates of about 90 LFE families obtained by Bostock et al. [2012] in this region. These empirical corrections significantly increase the cross-correlation coefficients between templates from a given family at stations separated by tens of kilometers, and significantly increase the number (and presumably location accuracy) of our cross-station detections. Requiring a large ratio of the amplitude of the (split-corrected) optimal horizontal component to that of the orthogonal component helps weed out false detections. We find numerous large-scale reversals, with propagation speeds similar to those of the smaller-scale reversals imaged further down-dip by Rubin and Armbruster [AGU2012]. However, the recurrence intervals of the larger reversals are longer, perhaps consistent with loading a larger patch by creep of the surroundings, and they progress from being too short to be tidally-modulated to

  3. Cross-Correlations in Quasar Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    The main factors forming the complex evolution of the accretive astrophysical systems are nonlinearity, intermittency, nonstationarity and also collective phenomena. To discover the dynamic processes in these objects and to detain understanding their properties we need to use all the applicable analyzing methods. Here we use the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) as a phenomenological approach to analyzing and parameterizing the auto- and cross-correlations in time series of astrophysical objects dynamics. As an example we consider the quasar flux radio spectral density at frequencies 2.7 GHz and 8.1 GHz. Data have been observed by Dr. N. Tanizuka (Laboratory for Complex Systems Analysis, Osaka Prefecture University) in a period of 1979 to 1988 (3 309 days). According to mental habits quasar is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus containing a supermassive black hole by size 10-10,000 times the Schwarzschild radius. The quasar is powered by an accretion disc around the black hole. The accretion disc material layers, moving around the black hole, are under the influence of gravitational and frictional forces. It results in raising the high temperature and arising the resonant and collective phenomena reflected in quasar emission dynamics. Radio emission dynamics of the quasar 0215p015 is characterized by three quasi-periodic processes, which are prevalent in considering dynamics. By contrast the 1641p399's emission dynamics have not any distinguish processes. It means the presence of high intermittency in accretive modes. The second difference moment allows comparing the degree of manifesting of resonant and chaotic components in initial time series of the quasar radio emission. The comparative analysis shows the dominating of chaotic part of 1641p399's dynamics whereas the radio emission of 0215p015 has the predominance of resonant component. Analyzing the collective features of the quasar radio emission intensity demonstrates the significant

  4. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  5. [Cross reactivity of food allergens and its clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Moneret-Vautrin, Denise Anne

    2005-10-01

    Cross-reactions between food allergens and other allergens are a major focus of interest. They include cross-allergies between Betulaceae and Compositae pollen, and also between fruits and vegetables (Prunoideae and Apiaceae). Cross-allergies between animal allergens include mites, cockroaches and crustaceans, milk and meat, animal epithelia, meat and egg. Cross-reactivity results from homology between protein sequences, and is highly likely when this homology reaches about 70%. Phylogenetically similar proteins occur in all species and are known as pan allergens. Profilins, Bet v1 homologues, and lipid transfer proteins have varying degrees of clinical relevance. The involvement of cross-reactivity in the persistence of sensitization and in allergic disorders is unclear. The consequences of cross-reactivity during specific immunotherapy with total allergenic extracts are random. Interpretation of biological tests of IgE binding is also biased by cross-reactivity. The use of panels of major recombinant allergens should help to identify specific sensitization profiles as well as clinically relevant sensitization. Cross-reactivity between epitopes of inhalants and of food allergens may perpetuate and intensify allergic disorders. The consequences of cross-reactivity between allergens and autologous proteins are unknown. PMID:16669147

  6. Parametric study of wheel transitions at railway crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, C.; Markine, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicle-track interaction at railway crossings is complex due to the discontinuity of the crossings. In this study, the effect of the local crossing geometry, the track alignment, and the wheel profiles on the wheel transition behaviour is investigated using the multi-body system software package VI-Rail. The transition behaviour is evaluated based on the location of the transition point along the crossing (and the location of impact), the contact pressure and the energy dissipation during the wheel-rail contact. A detailed parametric study of the crossing geometry has been performed, through which the most effective parameters for defining the crossing geometry are identified. These parameters are the cross-sectional shape of the nose rail, which can be tuned by one variable, and the vertical distance between the top of the wing rail and the nose rail. Additionally, a parametric study on the interaction influence of the crossing geometry, the track alignment and the wheel profile is performed using the design of experiments method with a two-level full factorial design. The longitudinal height profile of the crossing and the wheel profile are the most significant factors.

  7. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  8. Documentation of Uncertainties in Experimental Cross Sections for EXFOR

    SciTech Connect

    Otuka, N.; Smith, D.L.

    2014-06-15

    Documentation of uncertainties and covariances in experimental nuclear reaction cross sections has been assessed. Following consideration of the importance of covariances for nuclear data in various nuclear applications, and presentation of a simple numerical example to demonstrate this point, the minimum basic concepts (mean, covariance, standard derivation, partial uncertainties, micro- and macro-correlation coefficients) are introduced. A deterministic approach to propagating the covariances in primary measured parameters (e.g., counts) to the derived cross sections is discussed, using a neutron-induced activation cross section measurement as an example. Finally, various approaches to documentation (publication, compilation) of experimental cross sections to facilitate their use in future evaluations are mentioned.

  9. Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System Startup Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Gerken, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    This Startup Plan provides a discussion of organizational responsibilities, work planning, quality assurance (QA), personnel qualifications, and testing requirements for the Cross-Site Transfer System.

  10. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak.

  11. Ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion metasurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guoxiang; Shi, Hongyu; Xia, Song; Zhang, Anxue; Xu, Zhuo; Wei, Xiaoyong

    2016-04-01

    We propose a metasurface with multiple plasmon resonances that achieves an ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion. The metasurface is composed of an array of unit resonators, three plasmon resonances are excited in the unit resonator, which leads to an ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization conversion. The cross polarization conversion efficiency is higher than 99%, and the bandwidth of the converter is 53.7% of the central wavelength. Both numerical and experimental results were used to validate the ultra-broadband perfect cross polarization converter presented here.

  12. Derivation of reaction cross sections from experimental elastic backscattering probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Gomes, P. R. S.

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between the backward elastic scattering probabilities and the reaction cross sections is derived. This is a very simple and useful method to extract reaction cross sections for heavy-ion systems. We compare the results of our method with those that use the traditional full elastic scattering angular distributions for several systems at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier. From the calculated reaction and capture cross sections that use the present method, we derive the cross sections of other mechanisms for weak nearly spherical systems.

  13. DBCC Software as Database for Collisional Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Daniel; Moroz, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Interactions of species, such as atoms, radicals, molecules, electrons, and photons, in plasmas used for materials processing could be very complex, and many of them could be described in terms of collisional cross-sections. Researchers involved in plasma simulations must select reasonable cross-sections for collisional processes for implementing them into their simulation codes to be able to correctly simulate plasmas. However, collisional cross-section data are difficult to obtain, and, for some collisional processes, the cross-sections are still not known. Data on collisional cross-sections can be obtained from numerous sources including numerical calculations, experiments, journal articles, conference proceedings, scientific reports, various universities' websites, national labs and centers specifically devoted to collecting data on cross-sections. The cross-sections data received from different sources could be partial, corresponding to limited energy ranges, or could even not be in agreement. The DBCC software package was designed to help researchers in collecting, comparing, and selecting cross-sections, some of which could be constructed from others or chosen as defaults. This is important as different researchers may place trust in different cross-sections or in different sources. We will discuss the details of DBCC and demonstrate how it works and why it is beneficial to researchers working on plasma simulations.

  14. Italian river crossing; Horizontal drilling meets pipeline project criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The River Piave flows out of the Italian Alps, crossing the Veneto farmlands on its way to the Adriatic Sea. It is an important commerce-carrying waterway. SNAM, the Italian state gas pipeline company, wanted to install a 22-in. pipeline across the Piave just north of Venice. The method chosen for crossing the river had to meet several important criteria. InArc had used its river crossing method on seven previous SNAM projects and recommended the Piave crossing should be drilled. This paper describes the use of this horizontal drilling method for this application.

  15. Multifractal cross-correlation spectra analysis on Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shang, Pengjian; Shi, Wenbin

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the long-range cross-correlation of Chinese stock indices is systematically studied. The multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DXA) appears to be one of the most effective methods in detecting long-range cross-correlation of two non-stationary variables. The Legendre spectrum and the large deviations spectrum are extended to the cross-correlation case, so as to present multifractal structure of stock return and volatility series. It is characterized of the multifractality in Chinese stock markets, partly due to clusters of local detrended covariance with large and small magnitudes.

  16. Cross-protection among strains of barley yellow dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, F; Lister, R M; Fattouh, F A

    1991-04-01

    ELISA, cDNA dot blot hybridization and transmission by vector aphids were used to investigate the occurrence and degree of cross-protection produced in oat plants by virus isolates representing five strains or serotypes of barley yellow dwarf virus, namely PAV, MAV, SGV, RPV and RMV. Generally, the degree of cross-protection was positively correlated with the serological relatedness between the isolates. A high degree of cross-protection occurred between NY-MAV and MAV-PS1, two isolates of the MAV serotype; cross-protection was moderate between MAV-PS1 and either P-PAV (a Purdue isolate of the PAV serotype) or NY-SGV; cross-protection between P-PAV and NY-SGV was low. Cross-protection did not occur in other paired inoculations and did not persist in some plants, the challenge virus eventually becoming detectable. The persistence of cross-protection depended on the interval between inoculations with protecting and challenge viruses; longer inoculation intervals enhanced the persistence of cross-protection. Results obtained by ELISA and dot blot hybridization were usually consistent, indicating that cross-protection affected both viral capsid and RNA synthesis. PMID:2016594

  17. Cross-linked polyelectrolyte for direct methanol fuel cells applications based on a novel sulfonated cross-linker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingyu; Zhang, Gang; Xu, Shuai; Zhao, Chengji; Han, Miaomiao; Zhang, Liyuan; Jiang, Hao; Liu, Zhongguo; Na, Hui

    2014-06-01

    A novel type of cross-linked proton exchange membrane of lower methanol permeation and high proton conductivity is prepared, based on a newly synthesized sulfonated cross-linker: carboxyl terminated benzimidazole trimer bearing sulfonic acid groups (s-BI). Compared to membranes cross-linked with non-sulfonated cross-linker (BI), SPEEK/s-BI-n membranes show higher IEC values and proton conductivities. Meanwhile, oxidative stability and mechanical property of SPEEK/s-BI-n membranes are obviously improved. Among SPEEK/s-BI-n membranes, SPEEK/s-BI-2 exhibits high proton conductivity, low swelling ratio (0.122 S cm-1 and 15.2% at 60 °C, respectively) and low methanol permeability coefficient. These results imply that the cross-linked membranes prepared with the newly sulfonated cross-linker are promising for the direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) application.

  18. Multilevel Cross-dependent Binary Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Staicu, Ana-Maria; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    We provide insights into new methodology for the analysis of multilevel binary data observed longitudinally, when the repeated longitudinal measurements are correlated. The proposed model is logistic functional regression conditioned on three latent processes describing the within- and between-variability, and describing the cross-dependence of the repeated longitudinal measurements. We estimate the model components without employing mixed-effects modeling but assuming an approximation to the logistic link function. The primary objectives of this paper are to highlight the challenges in the estimation of the model components, to compare two approximations to the logistic regression function, linear and exponential, and to discuss their advantages and limitations. The linear approximation is computationally efficient whereas the exponential approximation applies for rare events functional data. Our methods are inspired by and applied to a scientific experiment on spectral backscatter from long range infrared light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. The models are general and relevant to many new binary functional data sets, with or without dependence between repeated functional measurements. PMID:24131242

  19. Repackaging, refilling, cross contamination - EPA perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Wingett, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) requires all pesticide products to be registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that their use will not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Changes in formulation of a registered pesticide product and repackaging of a pesticide product into another container are examples of two activities which are considered {open_quotes}production{close_quotes} of a new pesticide product and which require separate registration as a new pesticide under FIFRA. Based upon the results of inspections and the experience of other EPA Regions and the states, it is apparent that there is a need for technical and compliance assistance concerning bulk pesticide repackaging. There is also a need to develop more data on the extent and risk of pesticide cross-contamination of bulk repackaged pesticides. There is also a need for members of the regulated community to evaluate their own operations and practices concerning bulk pesticide repackaging to ensure compliance with Agency regulations and policies.

  20. Cross-domain human action recognition.

    PubMed

    Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng; Rui, Yong

    2012-04-01

    Conventional human action recognition algorithms cannot work well when the amount of training videos is insufficient. We solve this problem by proposing a transfer topic model (TTM), which utilizes information extracted from videos in the auxiliary domain to assist recognition tasks in the target domain. The TTM is well characterized by two aspects: 1) it uses the bag-of-words model trained from the auxiliary domain to represent videos in the target domain; and 2) it assumes each human action is a mixture of a set of topics and uses the topics learned from the auxiliary domain to regularize the topic estimation in the target domain, wherein the regularization is the summation of Kullback-Leibler divergences between topic pairs of the two domains. The utilization of the auxiliary domain knowledge improves the generalization ability of the learned topic model. Experiments on Weizmann and KTH human action databases suggest the effectiveness of the proposed TTM for cross-domain human action recognition. PMID:21954214

  1. Cross-modal orienting of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Hillyard, Steven A; Störmer, Viola S; Feng, Wenfeng; Martinez, Antigona; McDonald, John J

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews a series of experiments that combined behavioral and electrophysiological recording techniques to explore the hypothesis that salient sounds attract attention automatically and facilitate the processing of visual stimuli at the sound's location. This cross-modal capture of visual attention was found to occur even when the attracting sound was irrelevant to the ongoing task and was non-predictive of subsequent events. A slow positive component in the event-related potential (ERP) that was localized to the visual cortex was found to be closely coupled with the orienting of visual attention to a sound's location. This neural sign of visual cortex activation was predictive of enhanced perceptual processing and was paralleled by a desynchronization (blocking) of the ongoing occipital alpha rhythm. Further research is needed to determine the nature of the relationship between the slow positive ERP evoked by the sound and the alpha desynchronization and to understand how these electrophysiological processes contribute to improved visual-perceptual processing. PMID:26072092

  2. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross.

  3. Intelligent optical networking with photonic cross connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceuppens, L.; Jerphagnon, Olivier L.; Lang, Jonathan; Banerjee, Ayan; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2002-09-01

    Optical amplification and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) have fundamentally changed optical transport networks. Now that these technologies are widely adopted, the bottleneck has moved from the outside line plant to nodal central offices, where electrical switching equipment has not kept pace. While OEO technology was (and still is) necessary for grooming and traffic aggregation, the transport network has dramatically changed, requiring a dramatic rethinking of how networks need to be designed and operated. While todays transport networks carry remarkable amounts of bandwidth, their optical layer is fundamentally static and provides for only simple point-to-point transport. Efficiently managing the growing number of wavelengths can only be achieved through a new breed of networking element. Photonic switching systems (PSS) can efficiently execute these functions because they are bit rate, wavelength, and protocol transparent. With their all-optical switch cores and interfaces, PSS can switch optical signals at various levels of granularity wavelength, sub band, and composite DWDM fiber levels. Though cross-connect systems with electrical switch cores are available, they perform these functions at very high capital costs and operational inefficiencies. This paper examines enabling technologies for deployment of intelligent optical transport networks (OTN), and takes a practical perspective on survivability architecture migration and implementation issues.

  4. Hill crossing during preheating after hilltop inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antusch, Stefan; Nolde, David; Orani, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    In ``hilltop inflation'', inflation takes place when the inflaton field slowly rolls from close to a maximum of its potential (i.e. the ``hilltop'') towards its minimum. When the inflaton potential is associated with a phase transition, possible topological defects produced during this phase transition, such as domain walls, are efficiently diluted during inflation. It is typically assumed that they also do not reform after inflation, i.e. that the inflaton field stays on its side of the ``hill'', finally performing damped oscillations around the minimum of the potential. In this paper we study the linear and the non-linear phases of preheating after hilltop inflation. We find that the fluctuations of the inflaton field during the tachyonic oscillation phase grow strong enough to allow the inflaton field to form regions in position space where it crosses ``over the top of the hill'' towards the ``wrong vacuum''. We investigate the formation and behaviour of these overshooting regions using lattice simulations: rather than durable domain walls, these regions form oscillon-like structures (i.e. localized bubbles that oscillate between the two vacua) which should be included in a careful study of preheating in hilltop inflation.

  5. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  6. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  7. Boundary crossing in epithelial wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Eileen; Tzlil, Shelly; Tirrell, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The processes of wound healing and collective cell migration have been studied for decades. Intensive research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms involved in wound healing, but the role of cell-substrate interactions is still not thoroughly understood. Here we probe the role of cell-substrate interactions by examining in vitro the healing of monolayers of human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells cultured on artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) proteins. We find that the rate of wound healing is dependent on the concentration of fibronectin-derived (RGD) cell-adhesion ligands in the aECM substrate. The wound closure rate varies nearly sixfold on the substrates examined, despite the fact that the rates of migration and proliferation of individual cells show little sensitivity to the RGD concentration (which varies 40-fold). To explain this apparent contradiction, we study collective migration by means of a dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. The cells in the simulation spread, retract, and proliferate with probabilities obtained from a simple phenomenological model. The results indicate that the overall wound closure rate is determined primarily by the rate at which cells cross the boundary between the aECM protein and the matrix deposited under the cell sheet. PMID:20974917

  8. Crossed aphasia in Chinese: a clinical survey.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y H; Qiou, Y G; Zhong, G Q

    1990-10-01

    According to our clinical observations from various aspects of stroke patients, such as the total incidence of aphasia, the incidence of aphasia after left brain damage of the dextrals, the aphasia that occurs in patients without hemiplegia, and the types of aphasia, a much higher incidence of crossed aphasia is seen among the stroke patients of the Han (the largest ethnic group in China) as compared with the Uighur-Kazaks (U-K) in China and the Occidentals documented in the literature. Motor aphasia is most common and pure sensory or posterior aphasia is rarely seen in Han patients. The distinct features of the Chinese language is a possible explanation for this difference. We suspect that language function of the Han is not localized in the left brain but in the right or both hemispheres. There is no definite Wernicke's area in the left brain of the Chinese people and the neural pathway of the language function in the brain of the Chinese people is not similar to people who speak phonetic languages. Consequently the universal applicability of the theories of cerebral laterality of the language function and dominant hemisphere established by Dax and Broca are questioned in this paper. PMID:1704810

  9. Spectrophotometric Standards for Cross-Observatory Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Miller, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    This program will obtain NICMOS spectrophotometry of four main sequence A stars and four K giants, each selected from the Spitzer IRAC photometric calibration target and/or candidate calibration target lists {Reach et al 2005, PASP,117,978}. These observations will supplement existing HST observations of DA white dwarfs and solar analogs, and will provide a broad base of stellar types for spectrophotometric cross calibration of HST, Spitzer, and eventually JWST. The targets are chosen to be faint enough for unsaturated observations with JWST NIRSPEC, yet still bright enough for high signal to noise in relatively short observations with HST+NICMOS and with Spitzer+IRAC.ANALYSIS OF THE FIRST OBS OF 1812095 & KF06T2These data demonstated heavy saturation in the longer exposures. For example, 1812095 {A3V, V=11.8, Ks=11.6} shows a peak rate of 250DN/s in G096, while KF06T2 {K1.5III V=13.8, Ks=11.3} reaches 250DN/s in G206, including the 100DN/s of background. Thus, full saturation of some charge wells occurred after integrating for 100s. Adopting a 2x safety factor, the integration times should be limited to 50s. The brightest stars are Ks=11, or 32% brighter.

  10. Crossed Flux Tubes Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Zachary; Bellan, Paul

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of arched, plasma-filled flux tubes have been studied in experiments at Caltech. These flux tubes expand, undergo kink instabilities, magnetically reconnect, and are subject to magnetohydrodynamic forces. An upgraded experiment will arrange for two of these flux tubes to cross over each other. It is expected then that the flux tubes will undergo magnetic reconnection at the crossover point, forming one long flux tube and one short flux tube. This reconnection should also result in a half-twist in the flux tubes at the crossover point, which will propagate along each tube as Alfv'en waves. The control circuitry requires two independent floating high energy capacitor power supplies to power the plasma loops, which will be put in series when the plasma loops reconnect. Coordinating these two power supplies requires the building of new systems for controlling plasma generation. Unlike with previous designs, all timing functions are contained on a single printed circuit board, allowing the design to be easily replicated for use with each independent capacitor involved. The control circuit sequencing has been tested successfully in generating a single flux tube. The plasma gun is currently under construction, with its installation pending completion of prior experiments.

  11. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims. PMID:20662147

  12. Cross validation in LASSO and its acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We investigate leave-one-out cross validation (CV) as a determinator of the weight of the penalty term in the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). First, on the basis of the message passing algorithm and a perturbative discussion assuming that the number of observations is sufficiently large, we provide simple formulas for approximately assessing two types of CV errors, which enable us to significantly reduce the necessary cost of computation. These formulas also provide a simple connection of the CV errors to the residual sums of squares between the reconstructed and the given measurements. Second, on the basis of this finding, we analytically evaluate the CV errors when the design matrix is given as a simple random matrix in the large size limit by using the replica method. Finally, these results are compared with those of numerical simulations on finite-size systems and are confirmed to be correct. We also apply the simple formulas of the first type of CV error to an actual dataset of the supernovae.

  13. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  14. Perception of cross-situational consistency.

    PubMed

    Epstein, S; Teraspulsky, L

    1986-06-01

    Eighty-eight undergraduates rated the degree of relation in each of 21 pairs of items that described behavior in the domains of conscientiousness, friendliness, and extraversion. In these three domains, estimates of relations by the average subject correlated, respectively, with actual empirical relations, .63, .58, and .40. Relations corresponding to correlations between .10 to .20 could be significantly distinguished by subjects from relations in the range of .00 to .10 in two of the three domains. The confidence that individuals placed in their perceptions varied directly with the accuracy of their judgments against the empirical criterion. In addition, subjects were more confident of what they perceived to be extreme relations in both directions than of intermediate relations, and they also tended to be more confident of their judgments of strong positive relations than of zero relations. They exhibited an intuitive awareness of the effect of aggregation over occasions and items of behavior on the magnitude of cross-situational relations and the demonstration of traits. They also reported using reasonable strategies in arriving at decisions. Far from being inveterate trait believers, as some have suggested, subjects' intuitions paralleled psychometric principles in several important respects when assessing relations between real-life behaviors. PMID:3723332

  15. Corneal Cross-Linking and Safety Issues

    PubMed Central

    Spoerl, Eberhard; Hoyer, Anne; Pillunat, Lutz E; Raiskup, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compile the safety aspects of the corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) by means of the riboflavin/UVA (370 nm) approach. Materials and Methodology: Analysis of the current treatment protocol with respect to safety during CXL. Results: The currently used UVA dose density of 5.4 J/cm2 and the corresponding irradiance of 3 mW/cm2 are below the known damage thresholds of UVA for the corneal endothelium, lens, and retina. Regarding the photochemical damages due to the free radicals the damage threshold for endothelial cells is 0.35 mW/cm2. In a 400μm thick corneal stroma saturated with riboflavin, the irradiance at the endothelial level is about 0.18 mW/cm2, which is a factor of 2 smaller than the damage threshold. Conclusion: As long as the corneal stroma treated has a minimal thickness of 400 microns (as recommended), neither corneal endothelium nor deeper structures such as lens and retina will suffer any damages. The light source should provide a homogenous irradiance avoiding hot spots. PMID:21399770

  16. Cross-talk unfolded: MARCKS proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Arbuzova, Anna; Schmitz, Arndt A P; Vergères, Guy

    2002-01-01

    The proteins of the MARCKS (myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate) family were first identified as prominent substrates of protein kinase C (PKC). Since then, these proteins have been implicated in the regulation of brain development and postnatal survival, cellular migration and adhesion, as well as endo-, exo- and phago-cytosis, and neurosecretion. The effector domain of MARCKS proteins is phosphorylated by PKC, binds to calmodulin and contributes to membrane binding. This multitude of mutually exclusive interactions allows cross-talk between the signal transduction pathways involving PKC and calmodulin. This review focuses on recent, mostly biophysical and biochemical results renewing interest in this protein family. MARCKS membrane binding is now understood at the molecular level. From a structural point of view, there is a consensus emerging that MARCKS proteins are "natively unfolded". Interestingly, domains similar to the effector domain have been discovered in other proteins. Furthermore, since the effector domain enhances the polymerization of actin in vitro, MARCKS proteins have been proposed to mediate regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the recent observations that MARCKS might serve to sequester phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in the plasma membrane of unstimulated cells suggest an alternative model for the control of the actin cytoskeleton. While myristoylation is classically considered to be a co-translational, irreversible event, new reports on MARCKS proteins suggest a more dynamic picture of this protein modification. Finally, studies with mice lacking MARCKS proteins have investigated the functions of these proteins during embryonic development in the intact organism. PMID:11829734

  17. Cross Support Transfer Service (CSTS) Framework Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), there is an effort to standardize data transfer between ground stations and control centers. CCSDS plans to publish a collection of transfer services that will each address the transfer of a particular type of data (e.g., tracking data). These services will be called Cross Support Transfer Services (CSTSs). All of these services will make use of a common foundation that is called the CSTS Framework. This library implements the User side of the CSTS Framework. "User side" means that the library performs the role that is typically expected of the control center. This library was developed in support of the Goddard Data Standards program. This technology could be applicable for control centers, and possibly for use in control center simulators needed to test ground station capabilities. The main advantages of this implementation are its flexibility and simplicity. It provides the framework capabilities, while allowing the library user to provide a wrapper that adapts the library to any particular environment. The main purpose of this implementation was to support the inter-operability testing required by CCSDS. In addition, it is likely that the implementation will be useful within the Goddard mission community (for use in control centers).

  18. Some origins of cross-cultural psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Raimundo Oda, Ana Maria G; Banzato, Claudio Eduardo M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    The interface between insanity, race and culture was a challenging subject for some of the most influential nineteenth-century alienists. Our paper reviews some of the theoretical and clinical investigations of comparative psychiatry of this period. The idea that insanity was supposedly rare among 'primitive' people, e.g., Africans, American Natives and some Eastern populations, was repeatedly defended by prominent alienists. Associated with this notion, many authors believed that insanity tends to become more prevalent as civilization evolves. According to them, civilization had an unfavourable effect on insanity rates because it demanded a much higher degree of organization and mental production. Moreover, a greater degree of mental excitation would explain why insanity occurs more frequently in Europe than in the East, Africa or South America. Eventually, at the end of the nineteenth century, the coalition of cross-cultural and neuropsychiatry produced a notion that the brain of the 'native' is more simple and crude than that of the civilized, and more vulnerable to the evil effects of civilized life. In conclusion, some ethnocentric bias and racial stereotypes still pervasive in contemporary psychiatry are identified and traced back to their historical origins. PMID:16013118

  19. Nonlinear elasticity of cross-linked networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Karin; Caillerie, Denis; Peyla, Philippe; Raoult, Annie; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2013-04-01

    Cross-linked semiflexible polymer networks are omnipresent in living cells. Typical examples are actin networks in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, which play an essential role in cell motility, and the spectrin network, a key element in maintaining the integrity of erythrocytes in the blood circulatory system. We introduce a simple mechanical network model at the length scale of the typical mesh size and derive a continuous constitutive law relating the stress to deformation. The continuous constitutive law is found to be generically nonlinear even if the microscopic law at the scale of the mesh size is linear. The nonlinear bulk mechanical properties are in good agreement with the experimental data for semiflexible polymer networks, i.e., the network stiffens and exhibits a negative normal stress in response to a volume-conserving shear deformation, whereby the normal stress is of the same order as the shear stress. Furthermore, it shows a strain localization behavior in response to an uniaxial compression. Within the same model we find a hierarchy of constitutive laws depending on the degree of nonlinearities retained in the final equation. The presented theory provides a basis for the continuum description of polymer networks such as actin or spectrin in complex geometries and it can be easily coupled to growth problems, as they occur, for example, in modeling actin-driven motility.

  20. Cross sections for actinide burner reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of burning higher actinides (i.e., transuranium (TRU) elements excluding plutonium) in ad hoc designed reactors (Actinide Burner Reactors: ABR) which, because of their hard neutron spectra, enhance the fission of TRU. The transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into stable or short-lived isotopes reduces considerably the burden of handling high-level waste from either LWR or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) fuels. Because of the large concentrations of higher actinides in these novel reactor designs the Doppler effect due to TRU materials is the most important temperature coefficient from the point of view of reactor safety. Here we report calculations of energy group-averaged capture and fission cross sections as function of temperature and dilution for higher actinides in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The calculations were done with the codes SAMMY in the resolved region and URR in the unresolved regions and compared with an independent calculation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.