Science.gov

Sample records for nuetele vastavus cross

  1. False Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The asterism formed by the four stars δ and κ Velorum, and ɛ and ι Carinae, all of the second magnitude, which make up a cross of about 10°×6°. It is so named because it is sometimes mistaken for the Southern Cross (Crux) by observers unfamiliar with the southern sky. There is a superficial resemblance, but Crux is more compact (about 7°×5°) and comprises rather brighter stars. The two crosses ca...

  2. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  3. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  4. Cross-functional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Many companies, including Xerox and Texas Instruments, are using cross functional systems to deal with the increasingly complex and competitive business environment. However, few firms within the aerospace industry appear to be aware of the significant benefits that cross functional systems can provide. Those benefits are examined and a flexible methodology is discussed that companies can use to identify and develop cross functional systems that will help improve organizational performance. In addition, some of the managerial issues are addressed that cross functional systems may raise and specific examples are used to explore networking's contributions to cross functional systems.

  5. Cross-Generational Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cindy; Thurston, Judy Kay

    2007-01-01

    What happens when you combine senior citizens, pre-service art teachers, and elementary students? Cross-generational connections based on sharing memories, ideas, skills, laughter, tears, and creativity. The authors describe the cross-generational book exchange project. This project was initiated when a group of Central Michigan University (CMU)…

  6. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Provides references to the work of cross-cultural psychologists that can be integrated into regular undergraduate psychology courses. Discusses methodological problems, benefits, and difficulties of cross-cultural research. Reviews contributions of this field to the study of perception, cognition, motivation, interpersonal interaction, and group…

  7. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  8. Cross-Shelf Exchange.

    PubMed

    Brink, K H

    2016-01-01

    Cross-shelf exchange dominates the pathways and rates by which nutrients, biota, and materials on the continental shelf are delivered and removed. This follows because cross-shelf gradients of most properties are usually far greater than those in the alongshore direction. The resulting transports are limited by Earth's rotation, which inhibits flow from crossing isobaths. Thus, cross-shelf flows are generally weak compared with alongshore flows, and this leads to interesting observational issues. Cross-shelf flows are enabled by turbulent mixing processes, nonlinear processes (such as momentum advection), and time dependence. Thus, there is a wide range of possible effects that can allow these critical transports, and different natural settings are often governed by different combinations of processes. This review discusses examples of representative transport mechanisms and explores possible observational and theoretical paths to future progress. PMID:26747520

  9. Corneal cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Randleman, J Bradley; Khandelwal, Sumitra S; Hafezi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Since its inception in the late 1990s, corneal cross-linking has grown from an interesting concept to a primary treatment for corneal ectatic disease worldwide. Using a combination of ultraviolet-A light and a chromophore (vitamin B2, riboflavin), the cornea can be stiffened, usually with a single application, and progressive thinning diseases such as keratoconus arrested. Despite being in clinical use for many years, some of the underlying processes, such as the role of oxygen and the optimal treatment times, are still being worked out. More than a treatment technique, corneal cross-links represent a physiological principle of connective tissue, which may explain the enormous versatility of the method. We highlight the history of corneal cross-linking, the scientific underpinnings of current techniques, evolving clinical treatment parameters, and the use of cross-linking in combination with refractive surgery and for the treatment of infectious keratitis. PMID:25980780

  10. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  11. Anticrossproducts and cross divisions.

    PubMed

    de Leva, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    This paper defines, in the context of conventional vector algebra, the concept of anticrossproduct and a family of simple operations called cross or vector divisions. It is impossible to solve for a or b the equation axb=c, where a and b are three-dimensional space vectors, and axb is their cross product. However, the problem becomes solvable if some "knowledge about the unknown" (a or b) is available, consisting of one of its components, or the angle it forms with the other operand of the cross product. Independently of the selected reference frame orientation, the known component of a may be parallel to b, or vice versa. The cross divisions provide a compact and insightful symbolic representation of a family of algorithms specifically designed to solve problems of such kind. A generalized algorithm was also defined, incorporating the rules for selecting the appropriate kind of cross division, based on the type of input data. Four examples of practical application were provided, including the computation of the point of application of a force and the angular velocity of a rigid body. The definition and geometrical interpretation of the cross divisions stemmed from the concept of anticrossproduct. The "anticrossproducts of axb" were defined as the infinitely many vectors x(i) such that x(i)xb=axb. PMID:18423647

  12. Cross-linked informofers.

    PubMed Central

    Prosvirnin, V V; Ruzidic, S; Samarina, O P

    1979-01-01

    The proteins of 30S RNP particles containing pre-mRNA (hnRNA) were cross-linked with bifunctional reagents (dimethyl-suberimidate and dimethyl-3,3'-dithiobispropionimidate). Further treatment with 1 or 2 M NaCl dissociates all RNA from protein. However, a significant part of protein particles--informofers being cross-linked survived high salt treatment. Their sedimentation coefficients were close to those of original particles. No RNA could be detected in the informofers even after labeling the cells with a precursor for a long period of time. Sodium dodecylsulfate or urea dissociated cross-linked informofers into oligomeric polypeptides. They could be dissociated by beta-mercaptoethanol treatment if a reversible cross-linked reagent had been used. The resulting polypeptides were represented by informatin. RNP particles (30S RNP or poly-particles) were reconstituted upon mixing of cross-linked informofers with pre-mRNA and removal of 2 M NaCl. PMID:503864

  13. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  14. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  15. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  16. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  17. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These five papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by David C. Bjorkquist on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) at the 1995 Academy of Human Resource Development conference. "Developing Managers for Overseas Assignments in the Pacific Rim: A Study of International HRD Issues in Singapore" (A. Ahad M. Osman-Gani, Thian-Ser…

  18. CRESS-CROSS, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Margarita, Ed.

    Three issues of the "CRESS-CROSS" newsletter published during 1976 are compiled in this publication. These issues include information on: how to contribute to the ERIC system, the computer search services at the ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, the Rural/Regional Education Association's research award for meritorious…

  19. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  20. Cross-Cultural HRD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of three papers presented at a symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD) moderated by Connie Fletcher at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Intercultural Adjustment of U.S. Expatriates in the People's Republic of China" (Hallett G. Hullinger, Robert E. Nolan) presents…

  1. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  2. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  3. Analyzing crossings under roads

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraffea, A.R.; Barry, A. )

    1989-10-01

    Current design procedures for cased and uncased crossings under highways and railroads are generated from semi-empirical methods. The authors describe the results of a GRI/Cornell University study to develop a three-dimensional finite element modeling to address some of the previous design shortcomings.

  4. Universal enveloping crossed module of Leibniz crossed modules and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casado, Rafael F.; García-Martínez, Xabier; Ladra, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The universal enveloping algebra functor UL: Lb → Alg, defined by Loday and Pirashvili [1], is extended to crossed modules. Then we construct an isomorphism between the category of representations of a Leibniz crossed module and the category of left modules over its universal enveloping crossed module of algebras. Note that the procedure followed in the proof for the Lie case cannot be adapted, since the actor in the category of Leibniz crossed modules does not always exist.

  5. Crossing the Next Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R.; Menard, J.; Brooks, J.; Doerner, R.; Gates, D.; Fu, G.-Y.; Gorelenkov, N.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kramer, G.; Kugel, H.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Skinner, C.; Strachan, J.; Harris, J.; Maingi, R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P.; Nygren, R.; Ulrickson, M.; Ruzic, D.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2007-11-01

    The plasma-material interface is the next frontier in fusion science. ITER's approaches to heat flux and tritium retention do not extrapolate to Demo. Defining questions at this frontier include: Can extremely high radiated-power fraction be consistent with high confinement and low Zeff? Can magnetic flux expansion or edge ergodization reduce heat loads sufficiently? Can tungsten survive with acceptable core radiation and tritium retention? Can liquid metals more effectively handle high heat flux, off-normal loads and tritium exhaust? Answers must be integrated with high-performance, fully steady state plasma operation, avoiding ELMs and eliminating disruptions. The vehicle to cross this frontier is a high-power-density plasma with long pulses, excellent diagnostic access, flexible first wall, divertor, heating, current drive and plasma control systems, extensive deuterium and trace tritium operation, and the ability to test a range of plasma-facing materials at reactor-relevant temperature.

  6. Caution -- Beam Crossing Ahead

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, Kenneth L.

    2008-04-02

    There are times when a laser beam needs to cross between tables or even go from one room to another. This presents an interesting traffic-flow and safety challenge to both the laser safety officer and laser user. Fortunately it is a challenge that has several solutions But the simplest solution may not be the best one. For example, the simplest way to get a beam from one optical table to another is just to put a sturdy tube around it. That's a permanent solution, and it completely contains the laser beam. While this is laser safe, there can be egress issues if it blocks a walkway. One comment this author often hears is, 'We can just duck under the tube.' The fire marshal, as well as the laser safety officer, might have issues with this. Especially in the case of a darkened lab, a blocked walkway can present a hazard of its own. One good solution is to transport the beam from Point A to Point B through a fiberoptic cable, when that is possible. One should easily be able to run the fiber up and over any walkway or down through a conduit on the floor. An important concern often overlooked with fibers is a label at the termination end indicating disconnection may expose one to laser radiation. Suppose there's an experiment that is usually confined to a single optical table, but sometimes needs to expand to a second table. It's inconvenient to install a permanent tube between the tables, so some sort of temporary arrangement is desirable. I have often seen people casually lay a beam tube across support arms, and remove it when it's not needed. The problem with this approach is that there's no mechanism to prevent the beam from crossing if somebody's forgotten the tube, or if the tube gets knocked out of place. A better solution is a mechanism that only allows the beam to cross when the beam protection is in place. A swing shutter, or a guillotine and swing arm, are examples (Figures 1 and 2). Another alternative is a sensor, maybe a little microswitch, that activates a

  7. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  8. Chao Formalism & Kondratenko Crossing Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; Kondratenko, A. M.

    2007-06-01

    We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance; this seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. The Chao matrix formalism allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. While the Froissart-Stora formula can make no prediction in this case, the data seem to support the Chao formalism. We also started investigating the new Kondratenko method to preserve beam polarization during a spin resonance crossing; the method uses 3 rapid changes of the crossing rate near the resonance. With a proper choice of crossing parameters, Kondratenko Crossing may better preserve the polarization than simple fast crossing. We tested Kondratenko's idea using 2.1 GeV/c polarized protons stored in COSY; the frequency of a ferrite rf dipole was swept though an rf-induced spin resonance using Kondratenko's crossing shape. We have not yet observed a significant advantage of Kondratenko Crossing over simple fast crossing. We plan to study it further by choosing better crossing parameters and a smaller momentum spread.

  9. (abstract) Cross with Your Spectra? Cross-Correlate Instead!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    The use of cross-correlation for certain types of spectral analysis is discussed. Under certain circumstances, the use of cross-correlation between a real spectrum and either a model or another spectrum can provide a very powerful tool for spectral analysis. The method (and its limitations) will be described with concrete examples using ATMOS data.

  10. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  11. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  12. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  13. Evaluating Cross-Lingual Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Joel; Allalouf, Avi

    This study examined the cross-lingual equating process adopted by a large scale testing system in which target language (TL) forms are equated to the source language (SL) forms using a set of translated items. The focus was on evaluating the degree of error inherent in the routine cross-lingual equating of the Verbal Reasoning subtest of the…

  14. Boundary Crossing and Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkerman, Sanne F.; Bakker, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and mobility in education and work present a paramount challenge that needs better conceptualization in educational theory. This challenge has been addressed by educational scholars with the notion of "boundaries", particularly by the concepts of "boundary crossing" and "boundary objects". Although studies on boundary crossing and…

  15. Housatonic crossing tests the technology

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, L.D. )

    1992-06-01

    One of the early problems facing engineers planning the construction of the Iroquois Gas Transmission System, from the Canadian border through six Northeastern states, was how and where to cross the major rivers and Long Island Sound. The Housatonic River, a major waterway near Shelton, Conn., had been crossed earlier during a previous pipeline project. The earlier crossing had been installed by conventional open cutting. However, the state of Connecticut and its environmental agencies insisted that the Iroquois crossing must be installed by horizontal directional drilling. This paper reports that prior to completing the design of the Housatonic River crossing, Iroquois Gas engineers took several deep soil borings at three possible crossing sites. Each site showed the same thing: a hard schist rock with compression strengths from 2,760 psi to 16,500 psi, overlain by either recent fill or alluvial till. Although most of the river crossing would be drilled through the hard rock formation, the drilled path would certainly have to cross the transition zones of fill or till on both sides of the river.

  16. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  17. To Cross or Not to Cross: Objective Timing Methods of Assessing Street Crossings without Traffic Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauerburger, Dona

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents methods for visually impaired pedestrians assessing safety of street crossings in the absence of traffic controls, considering both limited detection ability and the difficulty of judging when approaching traffic is distant or slow enough to allow crossing. Alternatives for "uncrossable" streets and teaching methods are…

  18. Oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome (Cross syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ozkan, H; Unsal, E; Köse, G

    1991-01-01

    A typical case of Cross syndrome with hypopigmentation, mental and psychomotor retardation, spasticity, bilateral optic atrophy and dental defects in a three-year-old boy is presented. The clinical features of this rare syndrome are discussed. PMID:1814043

  19. Cross-Referencing Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    1981-01-01

    In an attempt to ascertain student involvement in physical education programs, a cross-referencing participation scale was conducted to determine which activities were most popular, the extent of participation, and budget justifications. (JN)

  20. Cross-Cultural Counseling Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahia, Chikezie Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Examines problems and concerns of cross cultural counseling and psychotherapy. Raises specific questions concerning research designs and approaches, differences in cosmology, epistemology, differences in nosology, and problems of evaluation or testing. (JAC)

  1. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  2. Cross-Validated Bagged Learning

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya L.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Sinisi, Sandra E.; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Many applications aim to learn a high dimensional parameter of a data generating distribution based on a sample of independent and identically distributed observations. For example, the goal might be to estimate the conditional mean of an outcome given a list of input variables. In this prediction context, bootstrap aggregating (bagging) has been introduced as a method to reduce the variance of a given estimator at little cost to bias. Bagging involves applying an estimator to multiple bootstrap samples, and averaging the result across bootstrap samples. In order to address the curse of dimensionality, a common practice has been to apply bagging to estimators which themselves use cross-validation, thereby using cross-validation within a bootstrap sample to select fine-tuning parameters trading off bias and variance of the bootstrap sample-specific candidate estimators. In this article we point out that in order to achieve the correct bias variance trade-off for the parameter of interest, one should apply the cross-validation selector externally to candidate bagged estimators indexed by these fine-tuning parameters. We use three simulations to compare the new cross-validated bagging method with bagging of cross-validated estimators and bagging of non-cross-validated estimators. PMID:19255599

  3. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  4. Cross-cultural organizational behavior.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Michele J; Erez, Miriam; Aycan, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces. PMID:17044797

  5. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  6. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  7. Analyzing cross-sector interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Peerenboom, J. P.; Fisher, R. E.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses cross-sector infrastructure interdependencies and key risk considerations, analysis approaches, research and development needs, and the range of interdisciplinary skills required for comprehensive cross-sector analysis. Traditional analysis of interdependencies involves characterization of infrastructure-to-infrastructure linkages to identify the key infrastructure components that, if lost or degraded, could adversely affect the performance of other infrastructures. Such analysis is motivated by the recognition that a series of incidents could interact (cascade) across critical infrastructures to degrade the service upon which all depend. From a risk perspective, cross-sector analysis also must involve identifying and characterizing a wide range of threats (natural and accidental, systems related, and intentional), vulnerabilities (physical and cyber), and consequences of loss (e.g., health and safety, economic, national security, environmental, sociopolitical). Such information provides a foundation for making defensible, cost-effective infrastructure protection and operation decisions to ensure the security and reliability of our interdependent systems.

  8. Cross-Cultural Interpretations of Curricular Contextual Crossings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlein, Candace; Garii, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Teachers--who are generally representatives of the cultural mainstream--are expected to use global experiences to become culturally enhanced and to bring these enhancements back to their classrooms. In this article, the authors discuss a cross-cultural exploration of investigations into the experiences of Canadian and U.S. educators with…

  9. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  12. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service....2 Red Cross. (a) General. The Postal Service and the Red Cross cooperate to maintain communication... those caused by enemy action. (b) Role of Postal Service. The Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  13. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  14. Improved Zero-Crossing Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. John; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    Improved zero-crossing-detector circuit designed for precisely measuring difference between frequencies of two frequency-standard signal sources. Contains low-bandwidth first-stage amplifier and three limiting amplifiers, each "squares" signal bit more. Crosstalk eliminated and jitter reduced to about 10 to the negative 7th power microseconds.

  15. Redressing Cross-Dressed Shakespeare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Thomas L.; Pesta, Duke

    2003-01-01

    Gender critics obsess over the boy actors who played female roles on the Elizabethan stage. But, in their far-fetched interpretation of Shakespearean drama as a spectacle of cross dressing, these new historicists lose sight of a fundamental principle of theater. Thomas Martin and Duke Pesta argue that with their prurient chatter of "the…

  16. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  17. Cross-Cultural HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    The first of three papers from this symposium on cross-cultural human resource development (HRD), "Determinants of Supply of Technical Training Opportunities for Human Capital Development in Kenya" (Moses Waithanji Ngware, Fredrick Muyia Nafukho) reports findings from interviews of technical training institute department heads in Kenya who…

  18. Crossing Thresholds in Academic Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the conceptual thresholds in relation to academic reading which might be crossed by undergraduate English Literature students. It is part of a wider study following 16 students through three years of undergraduate study. It uses theoretical ideas from Bakhtin and Foucault to analyse interviews with English lecturers. It…

  19. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population. PMID:23494491

  20. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization.

    PubMed

    Sakes, Aimée; Regar, Evelyn; Dankelman, Jenny; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the "last frontier" of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the inability to actively navigate through the CTO. To improve the success rate and to identify future research pathways, this study systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of all existing and invented devices for crossing occlusions. The literature search was executed in the databases of Scopus and Espacenet using medical and instrument-related keyword combinations. The search yielded over 840 patents and 69 articles. After scanning for relevancy, 45 patents and 16 articles were included. The identified crossing devices were subdivided based on the determinant for the crossing path through the occlusion, which is either the device (straight and angled crossing), the environment (least resistance, tissue selective, centerline, and subintimal crossing) or the user (directly steered and sensor enhanced crossing). It was found that each crossing path is characterized by specific advantages and disadvantages. For a future crossing device, a combination of crossing paths is suggested were the interventionist is able to exert high forces on the CTO (as seen in the device approach) and actively steer through the CTO (user: directly steered crossing) aided by intravascular imaging (user: sensor enhanced crossing) or an intrinsically safe device following the centerline or path of least resistance (environment: centerline crossing or least resistance crossing) to reach the distal true lumen. PMID:26831298

  1. Planet-crossing asteroid survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    The planet-crossing asteroid survey was begun in 1973 in order to study those asteroids which may intersect the orbits of the inner planets. Throughout the history of the survey, many of the various classes of asteroids were investigated. The near-Earth objects including the Apollo, Amor, and Aten families were studied in addition to asteroids whose orbits cross that of Mars, and some objects which are generally confined to the main belt. Observing was done on the 18 inch Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Mtn. Observatory. Typically, two consecutive photographs of a favorable field are taken. The exposure times of the films are usually twenty minutes and ten minutes, respectively. The telescope is guided at sidereal rate, so that asteroids will leave short trailed images. The films are then scanned for trails. By comparing the two films, the direction and approximate rate of motion of an asteroid may be determined.

  2. Transmission through crossed polaroid filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    2001-04-01

    A modification to a digital lux meter is described. A Malus' law experiment performed with the meter gives unexpected results. The modified meter is used to show that the unexpected findings result from the inability of Polaroid filters to polarize radiation that is outside the range of visible light. With the use of a diffraction grating and the modified meter crossed Polaroids are shown to transmit infrared radiation.

  3. Cross well seismic reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, H.E.

    1995-08-01

    A striking example of how Cross Well Seismic reflection data can help characterize a reservoir, has resulted from an ongoing Multi-Discipline study of the carbonate Mishrif reservoir offshore Dubai, U.A.E. Because the study objectives include a more detailed description of intra reservoir structure and layering, Dubai Petroleum Company (DPC) analyzed the feasibility of Cross Well Seismic (CWS) and decided to acquire two surveys between three wells 337 to 523 feet apart. DPC has concluded that CWS can be cost effectively acquired offshore, in a Carbonate reservoir; as well as processed and interpreted. However, generally it is not often easy to acquire cross well seismic when and where it will be most useful. A CWS survey can provide multiple images such as a velocity Tomogram, P-wave reflections, and S-wave reflections. To date, Tomograms and P-wave reflections have been produced, and the reflection data has proven to be the most useful for reservoir characterization. Cross Well Seismic Reflection data have provided a level of vertical seismic reflection resolution of around 2 feet, which is more than 10 times better than surface seismic data (2D or 3D). The increase in vertical resolution has provided important detailed information about the reservoir, it`s continuity/heterogeneity; it`s detailed structure, stratigraphy and layering; and definition of any faults with more than 2 feet of offset. The CWS has shown detailed intra Mishrif reflectors. These reflectors have verified or changed detailed correlations between well bores, and show significant intra Mishrif thinning. These reflectors imply time stratigraphic layering which is consistent with tracer study results and regional sequence stratigraphy. This new data will be used to improve the reservoir model description.

  4. Geometry of operator cross ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikin, M I

    2006-02-28

    The operator cross ratio, which is meaningful, in particular, for the infinite-dimensional Sato Grassmannian is defined and investigated. Its homological interpretation is presented. A matrix and operator analogue of the Schwartzian differential operator is introduced and its relation to linear Hamiltonian systems and Riccati's equation is established. The aim of these constructions is application to the KP-hierarchy (the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy)

  5. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  6. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    PubMed

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. PMID:24798608

  7. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  8. A Study of Cross-Referencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochen, Manfred; Tagliacozzo, Renata

    The problem of determining the optimal cross-reference structure for a given index and for a given community of users is discussed. A cross-reference structure is represented as a graph in which the nodes are index terms and the links are relations between index terms. In order to clarify the concept of 'level of cross-referencing' the…

  9. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  11. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  12. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  13. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  14. 30 CFR 56.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 56.9104 Section 56.9104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  18. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  19. 30 CFR 57.9104 - Railroad crossings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Railroad crossings. 57.9104 Section 57.9104... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9104 Railroad crossings. Designated railroad crossings shall be posted...

  20. Laser cross-flow gas system

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, David B.

    1992-01-01

    A method and laser apparatus are disclosed which provide for a cross-flow of gas near one end of a laser discharge tube. The cross-flow of gas causes a concentration gradient which affects diffusion of contaminants in the discharge tube towards the cross-flow of the gas, which contaminants are then withdrawn from the discharge tube.

  1. Geneticists and the Biology of Race Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provine, William B.

    1973-01-01

    Examines historically the attitudes of United States and British geneticists on the topic of race crossing. Between 1930 and 1950 the attitudes changed from a condemnation of wide race crosses because of deleterious effects to a belief that such inter-racial crosses were at worst biologically harmless. (JR)

  2. Petascale cross correlation in software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsdell, Benjamin R.; Clark, M. A.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2014-04-01

    The exascale computational demands of back-end processing in the era of the SKA and HERA, headlined by the needs of cross-correlation, are likely to require solutions that differ significantly from traditional approaches on smaller arrays. The rapid growth of massively-parallel general-purpose computing hardware presents an alternative to ASIC- or FPGA-based designs and promises several advantages. In this talk we present strong scaling results for an FX correlator that runs entirely in software on GPU-based off-the-shelf HPC clusters.

  3. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  4. Deimos Crosses Face of Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the passing, or transit, of the martian moon Deimos over the Sun. This event is similar solar eclipse seen on Earth in which our Moon crosses in front of the Sun. The animation is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sol 39 of its mission. Deimos passed slightly closer to the center of the Sun than expected, and arrived about 30 seconds early. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Deimos.

  5. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  7. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Israel J.; Remelius, Dennis K.; Tiee, Joe J.; Buck, Steven E.; Whittemore, Stephen R.; Thompson, David C.; Shirey, Robert

    2010-04-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 106 ) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.ÿ

  8. The CrossGrid project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, M.; CrossGrid Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    There are many large-scale problems that require new approaches to computing, such as earth observation, environmental management, biomedicine, industrial and scientific modeling. The CrossGrid project addresses realistic problems in medicine, environmental protection, flood prediction, and physics analysis and is oriented towards specific end-users: Medical doctors, who could obtain new tools to help them to obtain correct diagnoses and to guide them during operations; industries, that could be advised on the best timing for some critical operations involving risk of pollution; flood crisis teams, that could predict the risk of a flood on the basis of historical records and actual hydrological and meteorological data; physicists, who could optimize the analysis of massive volumes of data distributed across countries and continents. Corresponding applications will be based on Grid technology and could be complex and difficult to use: the CrossGrid project aims at developing several tools that will make the Grid more friendly for average users. Portals for specific applications will be designed, that should allow for easy connection to the Grid, create a customized work environment, and provide users with all necessary information to get their job done.

  9. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  10. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Israel J; Remelius, Dennis K; Tiee, Joe J; Buck, Steven E; Whittemore, Stephen R; Thompson, David C; Shirey, Robert

    2010-01-01

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  11. Modeling jets in cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demuren, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    Various approaches to the modeling of jets in cross flow are reviewed. These are grouped into four classes, namely: empirical models, integral models, perturbation models, and numerical models. Empirical models depend largely on the correlation of experimental data and are mostly useful for first-order estimates of global properties such as jet trajectory and velocity and temperature decay rates. Integral models are based on some ordinary-differential form of the conservation laws, but require substantial empirical calibration. They allow more details of the flow field to be obtained; simpler versions have to assume similarity of velocity and temperature profiles, but more sophisticated ones can actually calculate these profiles. Perturbation models require little empirical input, but the need for small parameters to ensure convergent expansions limits their application to either the near-field or the far-field. Therefore, they are mostly useful for the study of flow physics. Numerical models are based on conservation laws in partial-differential form. They require little empirical input and have the widest range of applicability. They also require the most computational resources. Although many qualitative and quantitative features of jets in cross flow have been predicted with numerical models, many issues affecting accuracy such as grid resolution and turbulence model are not completely resolved.

  12. Dentists and cross-infection.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, S

    1997-03-01

    A structured questionnaire was administered to a random sample of general dental practitioners in Natal, South Africa in 1994, to ascertain the precautions they use against cross-infection and to gauge the attitudes and behaviour towards the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. An interview was conducted covering 5 broad topics: demographic details, personal barrier protection, instrument sterilization and disinfection, sharps disposal and incidence of needlestick injuries and the extent of the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the practitioners toward the treatment of HIV-infected individuals. The key findings were: routine glove wearing, for all patients, was practised by 87 per cent. The most common heat sterilization method was by autoclave (68 per cent), although a dry heat sterilizer and water boiler were used by 22 per cent of the respondents. Of the 18 respondents reporting a needlestick injury in the past 6 months only one sought after-care. 42 per cent of the respondents would continue to treat carriers of HIV in their practices. This survey shows that a significant number of dentists are using unacceptable cross-infection control procedures. Educational efforts should be made to improve their knowledge and to alleviate anxiety of health workers to treat HIV-infected patients. PMID:9461908

  13. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). 35.3575 Section 35.3575 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....3575 Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters). (a) General. A number of...

  14. Deionization shocks in cross flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ali

    2011-11-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have shown that surface conduction in supported electrolytes, such as in micro/nanochannels or porous media, can lead to nonlinear modes of transport and formation of sharp concentration fronts analogous to shock waves in gas dynamics. Propagation of these shocks leaves behind a region of ultra pure fluid, acting to deionize the bulk solution. In this work we present the analysis of salt transport in a porous medium next to a membrane with an electric field applied normal to the interface and cross flow in tangential direction. We show that two distinct boundary layers grow near the membrane: an inner (shocked) region with almost deionized solution dominated by surface conduction, and an outer layer with diffuse dynamics. Under certain conditions both regions collapse into a similarity solution with the same scaling. We will discuss advantages of such systems for desalination and water purification. Research performed in collaboration with Martin Bazant (MIT).

  15. Cross polarization compatible dialysis chip.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Micha; Heymann, Michael; Fraden, Seth; Beck, Roy

    2014-10-01

    We visualize birefringence in microliter sample volumes using a microfluidic dialysis chip optimized for cross polarization microscopy. The chip is composed of two overlapping polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channels separated by a commercial cellulose ester membrane. Buffer exchange in the sample chamber is achieved within minutes by dialyzing under continuous reservoir flow. Using fd virus as a birefringent model system, we monitor the fd virus isotropic to liquid crystal phase transition as a function of ionic strength. We show that the reorientation of the fd virus spans a few tens of seconds, indicative of fast ion exchange across the membrane. Complete phase separation reorganization takes minutes to hours as it involves diffusive virus mass transport within the storage chamber. PMID:25105977

  16. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  17. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  18. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  20. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  1. Cross-Correlations and Joint Gaussianity in Multivariate Level Crossing Models

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A variety of phenomena in physical and biological sciences can be mathematically understood by considering the statistical properties of level crossings of random Gaussian processes. Notably, a growing number of these phenomena demand a consideration of correlated level crossings emerging from multiple correlated processes. While many theoretical results have been obtained in the last decades for individual Gaussian level-crossing processes, few results are available for multivariate, jointly correlated threshold crossings. Here, we address bivariate upward crossing processes and derive the corresponding bivariate Central Limit Theorem as well as provide closed-form expressions for their joint level-crossing correlations. PMID:24742344

  2. Cross-Connections of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-02-01

    We are in desperate need of qualified chemistry teachers. Are the teachers who have biology, physics, or some psychology degrees qualified to teach chemistry? Have they taken enough chemistry to be prepared to teach outside their degree field? If remediation is necessary, what courses should be required? Attracting pre-service science teachers to the study of pure chemistry is not an easy task when more attractive course offerings are available. Maybe we should concentrate on cross-training in-service teachers by providing appropriate graduate courses to encourage them and bring them into the family. Many teachers with degrees outside the traditional discipline of chemistry have adequate backgrounds in the applications of chemistry. Requiring hours of undergraduate education before they enter the hallowed halls of the chemistry building as graduate students only serves to discourage a large segment of in-service teachers who wish to broaden their perspective. The National Science Education Standards make a compelling argument for connecting and integrating science courses for practicing teachers (3). We are at the crossroads. At a time when we so desperately need qualified chemistry teachers, shouldn't we be more open in our graduate teaching programs, inviting those with degrees in other disciplines to start on a graduate degree without insisting on undergraduate or survey coursework first? Many potential chemical education graduate students have a background in chemistry--it is just known by another name.

  3. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  4. Recirculating cross-correlation detector

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, W.H. Jr.; Roberts, M.J.

    1985-01-18

    A digital cross-correlation detector is provided in which two time-varying signals are correlated by repetitively comparing data samples stored in digital form to detect correlation between the two signals. The signals are sampled at a selected rate converted to digital form, and stored in separate locations in separate memories. When the memories are filled, the data samples from each memory are first fed word-by-word through a multiplier and summing circuit and each result is compared to the last in a peak memory circuit and if larger than the last is retained in the peak memory. Then the address line to leading signal memory is offset by one byte to affect one sample period delay of a known amount in that memory and the data in the two memories are then multiplied word-by-word once again and summed. If a new result is larger than a former sum, it is saved in the peak memory together with the time delay. The recirculating process continues with the address of the one memory being offset one additional byte each cycle until the address is shifted through the length of the memory. The correlation between the two signals is indicated by the peak signal stored in the peak memory together with the delay time at which the peak occurred. The circuit is faster and considerably less expensive than comparable accuracy correlation detectors.

  5. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  6. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Jankov II, Mirko R.; Jovanovic, Vesna; Nikolic, Ljubisa; Lake, Jonathan C.; Kymionis, Georgos; Coskunseven, Efekan

    2010-01-01

    Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A (UVA) is a new technique of corneal tissue strengthening by using riboflavin as a photosensitizer and UVA to increase the formation of intra and interfibrillar covalent bonds by photosensitized oxidation. Keratocyte apoptosis in the anterior segment of the corneal stroma all the way down to a depth of about 300 microns has been described and a demarcation line between the treated and untreated cornea has been clearly shown. It is important to ensure that the cytotoxic threshold for the endothelium has not been exceeded by strictly respecting the minimal corneal thickness. Confocal microscopy studies show that repopulation of keratocytes is already visible 1 month after the treatment, reaching its pre-operative quantity and quality in terms of functional morphology within 6 months after the treatment. The major indication for the use of CXL is to inhibit the progression of corneal ectasias, such as keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. CXL may also be effective in the treatment and prophylaxis of iatrogenic keratectasia, resulting from excessively aggressive photoablation. This treatment has also been used to treat infectious corneal ulcers with apparent favorable results. Combination with other treatments, such as intracorneal ring segment implantation, limited topography-guided photoablation and conductive keratoplasty have been used with different levels of success. PMID:20543933

  7. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  8. Test Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized.…

  9. Cross-Validation, Shrinkage, and Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Kevin

    One aspect of multiple regression--the shrinkage of the multiple correlation coefficient on cross-validation is reviewed. The paper consists of four sections. In section one, the distinction between a fixed and a random multiple regression model is made explicit. In section two, the cross-validation paradigm and an explanation for the occurrence…

  10. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  11. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  12. Pedestrian Crossings. USMES Teacher Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Ray, Jr., Ed.; Arbetter, Carolyn Clinton, Ed.

    This USMES unit challenges students to recommend and try to have a change made which would improve the safety and convenience of a pedestrian crossing near the school. The teacher resource book for the Pedestrian Crossings unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real…

  13. "Moving On": Learning to Cross Streets Independently.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattavina, Sylvia; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy with severe disabilities was taught street-crossing skills through the use of photographs with verbal rehearsal of appropriate street crossing, followed by community-based instruction. The skills were acquired, maintained at follow up, and generalized to new streets. (JDD)

  14. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  15. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  16. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  17. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  18. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  19. 47 CFR 15.11 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.11 Section 15.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.11 Cross reference. The provisions of subparts A, H, I, J and K of part 2 apply to intentional and unintentional...

  20. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... item in Red Cross disaster relief. It will urge disaster victims displaced from their homes to...

  1. 43 CFR 1840.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 1840.1 Section 1840.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) APPEALS PROCEDURES § 1840.1 Cross reference. For special procedural rules applicable to appeals...

  2. 43 CFR 1850.1 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 1850.1 Section 1850.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) HEARINGS PROCEDURES Hearing Procedures; General § 1850.1 Cross reference. For special...

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Cross-Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on cross connections provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on cross connections terminology and control devices. For each…

  4. Is Cross-Race Mentoring a Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    The author discusses cross-race mentoring and examines whether this is necessarily a negative. Here, he presents the opinions of one African-American female Ph.D., two Hispanic female Ph.D.s, and one Hispanic male graduate student, who offer varied perspectives. Ten points are presented: (1) 1. Cross-race mentoring requires extra sensitivity; (2)…

  5. Cross Cultural Watershed Partners. Activities Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.; And Others

    The Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN) has developed this manual of background information and activities for teachers and students who are interested in adding a cross cultural component to their watershed education program, or who wish to include an environmental context to their cross cultural experience. The instructional…

  6. Women in Cross-Cultural Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bystydzienski, Jill M., Ed.; Resnik, Estelle P., Ed.

    This series of 14 essays focuses on experiences of women who have made cross-cultural transitions. Cross-cultural transitions refer to moving across cultures, usually from one country to another or across subcultures within one society. The essays document what individual women perceived, how they felt when in the process of moving from one…

  7. 47 CFR 15.705 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.705 Section 15.705 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Television Band Devices § 15.705 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply to TVBDs, except...

  8. Cross-Cultural Psychotherapy and Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNiff, Shaun

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to cross-cultural psychotherapy, with reference to historical theories of art, symbols and myth, and to the therapist working with the client--both individual and groups. Cross-cultural dimensions of art therapy are delineated with a support for further research and cooperation between cultures, with attention…

  9. Curriculum Integration and Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Susan B.

    While many undergraduate disciplines are revising curricula to address issues of diversity more effectively, it is commonly assumed that courses in cross-cultural psychology are less in need of revision due to their inherent multi-cultural focus. The field of cross-cultural psychology, however, is not immune to Eurocentric and androcentric biases.…

  10. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  11. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  12. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  13. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  14. 47 CFR 15.405 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 15.405 Section 15.405 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure Devices § 15.405 Cross reference. (a) The provisions of subparts A, B, and C of this part apply...

  15. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, S; Lundemose, A G; Christiansen, G

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which were reacted with monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was shown that in EBs, MOMP was cross-linked to the LPS component of the outer membrane. Migration analysis of the cross-linked components showed that with extensive cross-linking, most of the MOMP became cross-linked to LPS, changing the migration rate from 40 to 42.5 kilodaltons. A small fraction of MOMP associated with LPS was shown to be present in bands with migration rates of 100 and 110 kilodaltons. No association of MOMP or LPS to other proteins, or to dimer or multimer forms of MOMP without LPS, was observed. A totally different membrane structure must be present in reticulate bodies, since there, MOMP was so heavily cross-linked that it did not enter the polyacrylamide gel and thus became impossible to analyze. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody, which reacted with LPS associated with MOMP in the cross-linked EBs, did not react with reticulate bodies. Images PMID:2449399

  16. Bridge over Troubled Water: Guidance Crosses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norm

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation at an international conference where the focus was cross-over career guidance. Simon and Garfunkel's popular song, "Bridge over troubled water", was used as a metaphor for exploring the cross-over theme. Some of the concepts under consideration included the working alliance, the importance of a…

  17. Cross-National Invariance of Children's Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Nicholas; Oakland, Thomas; Shermis, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of temperament is an important endeavor with international appeal; however, cross-national invariance (i.e., equivalence of test scores across countries as established by empirical comparisons) of temperament tests has not been established in published research. This study examines the cross-national invariance of school-aged…

  18. CrossRef: A Collaborative Linking Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Ed

    2001-01-01

    CrossRef was created to make broad-based linking efficient and scalable across a wide range of primary publishers, secondary publishers, abstracting and indexing services, and libraries. CrossRef runs a system that enables publishers to assign Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) to articles and collects standardized metadata so the identifiers can…

  19. The "No Crossing Constraint" in Autosegmental Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, John; Local, John

    A discussion of autosegmental phonology (AP), a theory of phonological representation that uses graphs rather than strings as the central data structure, considers its principal constraint, the "No Crossing Constraint" (NCC). The NCC is the statement that in a well-formed autosegmental diagram, lines of association may not cross. After an…

  20. The Impacts of Ignoring a Crossed Factor in Analyzing Cross-Classified Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Wen; Kwok, Oi-Man

    2009-01-01

    Cross-classified random-effects models (CCREMs) are used for modeling nonhierarchical multilevel data. Misspecifying CCREMs as hierarchical linear models (i.e., treating the cross-classified data as strictly hierarchical by ignoring one of the crossed factors) causes biases in the variance component estimates, which in turn, results in biased…

  1. Cross Calibration and Validation Using CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut; Gohlke, Jan; Ruzmaikin, Alex; Elliott, Denis

    2008-01-01

    The presentation focuses on study questions, effort, and result. Study questions include a focus on MW/LW, error sources and what can be expected, how validation will be performed and what resolution is required, and spatial resolution required for cross-calibration. Study effort includes empirical approach by examining AIRS ,IASI and MODIS cross-calibration methods already in place and estimate the number of clear and Dome C observations possible versus spatial resolution. Study results include 5000 sampler per cross-calibration recommended, insufficient cloud free and Dome C AWS observations for cross calibration and validation at 100km, and less than 20 km IFOV at 100 km swath needed to achieve sufficient samples for cross-calibration of CLARREO.

  2. The foundations of cross-modal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    Cross-modal plasticity is a striking adaptive feature of the brain, whereby the loss of one sensory modality induces cortical reorganization that leads to enhanced sensory performance in remaining modalities. Much is known about the macroscopic modifications in the brain that underly cross-modal plasticity and the associated changes in sensory performance. In contrast there is relatively scant information about the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this mechanism. We hypothesized that cross-modal plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system. As such, it should be found in organisms with brains that are substantially less complex than our own. Indeed, we discovered a cross-modal plasticity mechanism in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, whose nervous system is composed of only 302 neurons. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the C. elegans nervous system, we were able to comprehensively study cross-modal plasticity from molecule through circuit to behavior. PMID:27195068

  3. Robust optimisation of railway crossing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chang; Markine, Valeri; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a methodology for improving the crossing (frog) geometry through the robust optimisation approach, wherein the variability of the design parameters within a prescribed tolerance is included in the optimisation problem. Here, the crossing geometry is defined by parameterising the B-spline represented cross-sectional shape and the longitudinal height profile of the nose rail. The dynamic performance of the crossing is evaluated considering the variation of wheel profiles and track alignment. A multipoint approximation method (MAM) is applied in solving the optimisation problem of minimising the contact pressure during the wheel-rail contact and constraining the location of wheel transition at the crossing. To clarify the difference between the robust optimisation and the normal deterministic optimisation approaches, the optimisation problems are solved in both approaches. The results show that the deterministic optimum fails under slight change of the design variables; the robust optimum, however, has improved and robust performance.

  4. Experimental study of crossing angle collision

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Rice, D.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Tigner, M.

    1993-05-01

    The non-linear coupling due to the beam-beam interaction with crossing angle has been studied. The major effect of a small ({approximately}12mrad) crossing angle is to excite 5Q{sub x}{plus_minus}Q{sub s}=integer coupling resonance family on large amplitude particles, which results in bad lifetime. On the CESR, a small crossing angle ({approximately}2.4mr) was created at the IP and a reasonable beam-beam tune-shift was achieved. The decay rate of the beam is measured as a function of horizontal tune with and without crossing angle. The theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental measurements have a good agreement. The resonance strength as a function of crossing angle is also measured.

  5. The foundations of cross-modal plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Rabinowitch, Ithai; Bai, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cross-modal plasticity is a striking adaptive feature of the brain, whereby the loss of one sensory modality induces cortical reorganization that leads to enhanced sensory performance in remaining modalities. Much is known about the macroscopic modifications in the brain that underly cross-modal plasticity and the associated changes in sensory performance. In contrast there is relatively scant information about the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this mechanism. We hypothesized that cross-modal plasticity is a fundamental feature of the nervous system. As such, it should be found in organisms with brains that are substantially less complex than our own. Indeed, we discovered a cross-modal plasticity mechanism in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, whose nervous system is composed of only 302 neurons. Taking advantage of the simplicity of the C. elegans nervous system, we were able to comprehensively study cross-modal plasticity from molecule through circuit to behavior. PMID:27195068

  6. Two types of cross-gender identity.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Steiner, B W; Chan, S

    1982-02-01

    A revision of the typology of male cross-gender identity was carried out by means of formalized, easily replicable methods. The results suggest (1) that there are two discrete types of cross-gender identity, one heterosexual, the other homosexual; (2) that transvestism, and closely related conditions of cross-gender identity, occur exclusively or almost exclusively in heterosexuals; (3) that of the two types of transsexualism distinguished in this study, type A is, in heterosexuals, very rare or completely nonexistent; (4) that (in the course of time) transvestites or borderline transsexuals (defined below) may develop sustained cross-gender identity, as observed by Stoller (1971); (5) that although, according to Hoenig and Kenna (1974), transsexualism by itself is not an anomalous erotic preference, it is (virtually) always either preceded by transvestism or accompanied by homosexuality or cross-gender fetishism. PMID:7073469

  7. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  8. Cross polarization caused by perturbed circular cross sections of waveguides and horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik

    1987-03-01

    The cross polarization caused by a perturbed cross section of the conical hybrid-mode horn is analyzed. The perturbed cross section is assumed to be slightly elliptical. The theory of Lier and Bergh (1986) for cross polarization in a smooth-walled waveguide supporting the TE11-mode is referred and applied to the HE11 mode as well. Simple analytical formulas which are sufficiently accurate for small ellipticites of the cross-section ellipse are presented. These show that the tolerances on the waveguide diameter are extremely strong, typically on the order of 0.02-0.04 mm in the horn throat for typical horn geometries at 12 GHz.

  9. Cross-calibration between airborne SAR sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Manfred; Olivier, Philippe; Freeman, Anthony

    1993-01-01

    As Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system performance and experience in SAR signature evaluation increase, quantitative analysis becomes more and more important. Such analyses require an absolute radiometric calibration of the complete SAR system. To keep the expenditure on calibration of future multichannel and multisensor remote sensing systems (e.g., X-SAR/SIR-C) within a tolerable level, data from different tracks and different sensors (channels) must be cross calibrated. The 1989 joint E-SAR/DC-8 SAR calibration campaign gave a first opportunity for such an experiment, including cross sensor and cross track calibration. A basic requirement for successful cross calibration is the stability of the SAR systems. The calibration parameters derived from different tracks and the polarimetric properties of the uncalibrated data are used to describe this stability. Quality criteria for a successful cross calibration are the agreement of alpha degree values and the consistency of radar cross sections of equally sized corner reflectors. Channel imbalance and cross talk provide additional quality in case of the polarimetric DC-8 SAR.

  10. Porous Cross-Linked Polyimide Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Guo, Haiquan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Porous cross-linked polyimide networks are provided. The networks comprise an anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer. The oligomer (i) comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine and terminal anhydride groups, (ii) has an average degree of polymerization of 10 to 50, (iii) has been cross-linked via a cross-linking agent, comprising three or more amine groups, at a balanced stoichiometry of the amine groups to the terminal anhydride groups, and (iv) has been chemically imidized to yield the porous cross-linked polyimide network. Also provided are porous cross-linked polyimide aerogels comprising a cross-linked and imidized anhydride end-capped polyamic acid oligomer, wherein the oligomer comprises a repeating unit of a dianhydride and a diamine, and the aerogel has a density of 0.10 to 0.333 g/cm.sup.3 and a Young's modulus of 1.7 to 102 MPa. Also provided are thin films comprising aerogels, and methods of making porous cross-linked polyimide networks.

  11. Histone cross-linking by transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Nam, Kang Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Seok; Kim, In Gyu; Bustin, Michael; Choy, Hyon E; Park, Sang Chul

    2002-05-24

    Transglutaminases irreversibly catalyze covalent cross-linking of proteins by forming isopeptide bonds between peptide-bound glutamine and lysine residues. Among several transglutaminases, tissue-type transglutaminase (tTGase) is most ubiquitously found in every type of cells and tissues in animals, but its natural substrate has yet to be identified. In an attempt to identify the natural substrate for tTGase, we examined in vitro if core histones were subject to cross-linking by tTGase. We found core histone subunits, H2A and H2B, were specifically cross-linked by tTGase. The cross-linking was between either one or both glutamines at C-terminal end of H2A (-VTIAQ104 GGVLPNTQ112 SVLLPKKTESSKSK-C' end) and the first and/or third lysine from C-terminal end of H2B (-AVESEGK116 AVTKYTSSK125-C' end). The cross-linking occurred only when these subunits were released from nucleosome but not when these were organized in nucleosome. Most interestingly, in chicken erythrocyte the cross-linked H2A-H2B was present in a significant amount. From these results, it can be proposed that tTGase-mediated cross-linking is an another form of core histone modification and it may play a role of chromatin condensation during erythrocyte differentiation. PMID:12054678

  12. Cross-spectrally pure light, cross-spectrally pure fields and statistical similarity in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingjing; Lu, RongSheng; Chen, Feinan; Li, Jia

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the concept of cross-spectrally pure light, implications of statistical similarity of an optical field on its cross-spectral purity and cross-spectrally pure fields. First, the concept of cross-spectral purity of light is analysed in the space-frequency domain by taking into account the vectorial nature of the radiation, and the conditions and reduction formula are obtained. Then, by utilizing statistical similarity, the relationship between cross-spectral purity and spatial coherence is explored in the electromagnetic field. Last, the conditions for cross-spectrally pure fields are discussed, the polychromatic plane wave and the far field produced by a planar, secondary, stochastic electromagnetic source are studied as examples, and moreover, the relationship between cross-spectral purity and spatial coherence, which we have drawn, is verified during the study.

  13. Voyager 1 May Have Crossed Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA's intrepid Voyager 1, launched in 1977, may have recently become the first spacecraft to at least temporarily cross the termination shock of the solar system and enter into the heliosheath. Or maybe not. Different teams of scientists recently published conflicting papers about whether the spacecraft has entered this realm. Either way, the scientists agree that Voyager 1 is crossing through unexplored territory and likely will become the first human'made object to cross the termination shock and enter the heliosheath on its way toward the heliopause and interstellar space.

  14. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  15. Precautionary street crossing by elderly pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A

    1991-01-01

    Street crossing behavior of pedestrians was observed under varying roadway conditions and traffic volumes. The extent to which pedestrians checked for oncoming traffic before crossing signal controlled intersections on a dangerous downtown street was observed. Contrary to the stereotypical portrayal of older pedestrians as being less cognizant of the traffic environment, pedestrians in this study over the age of fifty years were the most cautious. Older pedestrians were also more cautious under the most potentially hazardous crossing conditions: when roadways were snow- or ice-covered and when traffic volumes were low or moderate, allowing vehicles to move rapidly through intersections. PMID:2022437

  16. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  17. Dissociative Recombination without a Curve Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio calculations show that a curve crossing is not always needed for a high dissociative- recombination cross section. For HeH(+), in which no neutral states cross the ion potential curve, dissociative recombination is driven by the nuclear kinetic-energy operator on adiabatic potential curves. The kinetic-energy derivative operator allows for capture into repulsive curves that are outside of the classical turning points for the nuclear motion. The dominant dissociative route is the C (2)Sigma(+) state leading to H(n = 2) atoms. An analogous mechanism is proposed for the dissociative recombination of H3(+).

  18. Transition crossing simulation at the Fermilab Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Pellico, W.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The demand in high intensity and low emittance of the beam extracted from the Booster requires a better control over the momentum spread growth and bunch length shortening at transition crossing, in order to prevent beam loss and coupled bunch instability. Since the transition crossing involves both longitudinal and transverse dynamics, the recently modified 3-D STRUCT code provides an opportunity to numerically investigate the different transition crossing schemes in the machine environment, and apply the results of simulation to minimize the beam loss and emittance growth operationally.

  19. Observations of Planet Crossing Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, David J.; Whiteley, Robert J.; Lambert, Joy; Connelley, Michael; Salyk, Colette

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this research were the physical and dynamical characterization of planet crossing asteroids (Earth crossers, Mars crossers, Centaurs, and Pluto crossers, meaning trans-Neptunian objects), including colorimetry, rotational studies, and astrometry. Highlights are listed as follows: 1) Produced one doctoral dissertation (R. J. Whiteley, A Compositional and Dynamical Survey of the Near-Earth Asteroids). A key result is the fraction of Q-type asteroids among the near-Earth population was found to be about one-third; 2) Had prediscovery image showing the binary nature of trans-Neptunian object 1998 WW31, which is the first TNO to have a satellite found in orbit around it; 3) Discovery of shortest known rotation period for any asteroid (2000 D08, rotation period 78 seconds); it is just one of several fast-rotating small asteroids observed during the course of this project; 4) Discovery of a Centaur asteroid (1998 QM107) with, at the time, the smallest known orbital eccentricity among the Centaurs (0.13) and nearly in a 1:1 resonance with Uranus (semimajor axis of 19.9 AU); 5) Discovery of Apollo-type asteroid 1999 OW3, with a surprisingly bright absolute magnitude of 14.6 (estimated diameter of 4.6 km), brightest Apollo found in that calendar year; 6) Discovery of Aten-type asteroid 2000 SG344, which has the highest cumulative Earth impact probability among the near-Earth asteroids and a very Earth-similar orbit; 7) Instrumental in repairing the orbit of a numbered near-Earth asteroid for which prediscovery observations had been mis-attributed to it (2000 VN2); 8) Second-opposition recovery of 30-meter diameter Apollo-type asteroid 1998 KY26 in early 2002 when it was at a favorable magnitude of 24.8; 9) Primary contributor of astrometric observations of the CONTOUR fragments to the CONTOUR project following the failure of the spacecraft s kick motor; and 10) Development of orbit and ephemeris computation code that handles short observational arcs

  20. Parents' Attitudes and Expectations about Children's Cross-Gender Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Ahlberg, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Assessed parents' attitudes toward cross-gender behavior of boys and girls. Responses of 224 white Finnish parents of 5-year olds reveal that cross-gender boys are regarded more negatively than cross-gender girls. Men perceived more societal acceptance of cross-gender boys than did women. It is thought that cross-gender boys were more likely to…

  1. Cross-Referencing the Lab Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeder, John L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a table cross-referencing 12 physics laboratory manuals by topics. Topic areas include measurement and techniques, mechanics, molecular physics, waves and optics, electricity and magnetism, and quantum physics. (JN)

  2. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  4. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  5. Highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers

    DOEpatents

    Steckle, Jr., Warren P.; Apen, Paul G.; Mitchell, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Condensation polymerization followed by a supercritical extraction step can be used to obtain highly cross-linked nanoporous polymers with high surface area, controlled pore sizes and rigid structural integrity. The invention polymers are useful for applications requiring separation membranes.

  6. Cross-coupling: The final frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasspoole, Ben W.; Crudden, Cathleen M.

    2011-12-01

    Cross-coupling between a racemic secondary alkyl halide and an alkyl borane to produce an enantioenriched alkyl-alkyl product is one of the final substrate combinations to succumb to the synthetically powerful Suzuki-Miyaura methodology.

  7. CROSS DRIFT ALCOVE/NICHE UTILITIES ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Goodin

    1999-07-08

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide the design basis and general arrangement requirements of the non-potable water, waste water, compressed air and ventilation (post excavation) utilities required in support of the Cross Drift alcoves and niches.

  8. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  9. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  10. Cross-bispectrum computation and variance estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lii, K. S.; Helland, K. N.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the estimation of cross-bispectra of discrete real time series is developed. The asymptotic variance properties of the bispectrum are reviewed, and a method for the direct estimation of bispectral variance is given. The symmetry properties are described which minimize the computations necessary to obtain a complete estimate of the cross-bispectrum in the right-half-plane. A procedure is given for computing the cross-bispectrum by subdividing the domain into rectangular averaging regions which help reduce the variance of the estimates and allow easy application of the symmetry relationships to minimize the computational effort. As an example of the procedure, the cross-bispectrum of a numerically generated, exponentially distributed time series is computed and compared with theory.

  11. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  12. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  13. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  14. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  15. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  16. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  17. A fast SEQUEST cross correlation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Eng, Jimmy K; Fischer, Bernd; Grossmann, Jonas; Maccoss, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The SEQUEST program was the first and remains one of the most widely used tools for assigning a peptide sequence within a database to a tandem mass spectrum. The cross correlation score is the primary score function implemented within SEQUEST and it is this score that makes the tool particularly sensitive. Unfortunately, this score is computationally expensive to calculate, and thus, to make the score manageable, SEQUEST uses a less sensitive but fast preliminary score and restricts the cross correlation to just the top 500 peptides returned by the preliminary score. Classically, the cross correlation score has been calculated using Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) to generate the full correlation function. We describe an alternate method of calculating the cross correlation score that does not require FFTs and can be computed efficiently in a fraction of the time. The fast calculation allows all candidate peptides to be scored by the cross correlation function, potentially mitigating the need for the preliminary score, and enables an E-value significance calculation based on the cross correlation score distribution calculated on all candidate peptide sequences obtained from a sequence database. PMID:18774840

  18. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  19. The Junior Red Cross goes to Healthland.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J F

    1997-01-01

    An amusing reminder of earnest attempts to teach the principles of public health, Junior Red Cross Time brought plays and games about "Healthland" to schoolchildren in the 1920s. Explaining why health education became part of the mission of the Junior Red Cross raises larger issues, such as the ideology and practice of the American Red Cross in war and peace, the place of health in the moral education of children, and the transition from the activism of the Progressive Era to the markedly different social climate of the 1920s. The Junior Red Cross promoted Healthland largely because it was an innocuous concept that had been stripped of potentially controversial features to adapt it to the conservative mood of postwar America. This process of dilution mirrored the fate of the adult Red Cross, which briefly and unsuccessfully sought to reinvent itself as a national (and international) agency for the promotion of public health. The unreality of Healthland is no mere coincidence; its separation from the real world was a crucial part of its appeal to the Red Cross in the 1920s. PMID:9366639

  20. Cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells, cross-flow reactors, and use of cross-flow reactors for oxidation reactions

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Kleefisch, Mark S.; Kobylinski, Thaddeus P.; Udovich, Carl A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention discloses cross-flow electrochemical reactor cells containing oxygen permeable materials which have both electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity, cross-flow reactors, and electrochemical processes using cross-flow reactor cells having oxygen permeable monolithic cores to control and facilitate transport of oxygen from an oxygen-containing gas stream to oxidation reactions of organic compounds in another gas stream. These cross-flow electrochemical reactors comprise a hollow ceramic blade positioned across a gas stream flow or a stack of crossed hollow ceramic blades containing a channel or channels for flow of gas streams. Each channel has at least one channel wall disposed between a channel and a portion of an outer surface of the ceramic blade, or a common wall with adjacent blades in a stack comprising a gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material of a perovskite structure having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. The invention includes reactors comprising first and second zones seprated by gas-impervious mixed metal oxide material material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity. Prefered gas-impervious materials comprise at least one mixed metal oxide having a perovskite structure or perovskite-like structure. The invention includes, also, oxidation processes controlled by using these electrochemical reactors, and these reactions do not require an external source of electrical potential or any external electric circuit for oxidation to proceed.

  1. It does belong together: cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Lionel; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences. PMID:25914653

  2. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS states contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as such to the geometry at the Planck scale. In the second part, we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multicentered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  3. Chris Christiansen and the Chris Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Mathewson, Don

    2009-03-01

    The Chris Cross was the world's first crossed-grating interferometer, and was the brainchild of orte of Australia's foremost radio astronomers, W.N. (Chris) Christiansen, from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney. Inspired by the innovative and highly-successful E-W and N-S solar grating arrays that he constructed at Potts Hill (Sydney) in the early 1950s, Christiansen sited the Chris Cross at the Division's Fleurs field station near Sydney, and from 1957 to 1988 it provided two-dimensional maps of solar radio emission at 1423 MHz. In 1960 an 18m parabolic antenna was installed adjacent to the Chris Cross array, and when used with the Chris Cross formed the Southern Hemisphere's first high-resolution compound interferometer. A survey of discrete radio sources was carried out with this radio telescope. The Division of Radiophysics handed the Fleurs field station over to the School of Engineering at the University of Sydney in 1963, and Christiansen and his colleagues from the Department of Electrical Engineering proceeded to develop the Chris Cross into the Fleurs Synthesis Telescope (FST) by adding six stand-alone 13.7m parabolic antennas. The FST was used for detailed studies of large radio galaxies, supernova remnants and emission nebulae. The FST was closed down in 1988, and antennas in the original Chris Cross array quickly began to deteriorate. A number of individual antennas in the central part of the array received a new lease of life in 1991 when they were refurbished by staff and students from the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Universityy of Western Sydney, but this only proved to be a temporary reprieve as even these aerials were bulldozed by the landowner in 2004, bringing to an untimely end one of the world's most remarkable radio telescopes.

  4. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Crystal Melting and Wall Crossing Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Masahito

    2010-02-01

    This paper summarizes recent developments in the theory of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) state counting and the wall crossing phenomena, emphasizing in particular the role of the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting. This paper is divided into two parts, which are closely related to each other. In the first part, we discuss the statistical mechanical model of crystal melting counting BPS states. Each of the BPS state contributing to the BPS index is in one-to-one correspondence with a configuration of a molten crystal, and the statistical partition function of the melting crystal gives the BPS partition function. We also show that smooth geometry of the Calabi-Yau manifold emerges in the thermodynamic limit of the crystal. This suggests a remarkable interpretation that an atom in the crystal is a discretization of the classical geometry, giving an important clue as to the geometry at the Planck scale.In the second part we discuss the wall crossing phenomena. Wall crossing phenomena states that the BPS index depends on the value of the moduli of the Calabi-Yau manifold, and jumps along real codimension one subspaces in the moduli space. We show that by using type IIA/M-theory duality, we can provide a simple and an intuitive derivation of the wall crossing phenomena, furthermore clarifying the connection with the topological string theory. This derivation is consistent with another derivation from the wall crossing formula, motivated by multi-centered BPS extremal black holes. We also explain the representation of the wall crossing phenomena in terms of crystal melting, and the generalization of the counting problem and the wall crossing to the open BPS invariants.

  6. Molonglo Observatory: Building the Cross and MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    When Bernard Mills left the GSIRO in 1960 to establish a radio astronomy group in the School of Physics, University of Sydney, he had not only invented the principle of cross-type radio telescopes but proved their great efficiency at surveying the positions, intensity and structure of radio sources. He had ambitious plans for a second generation Cross - a radio telescope with arms one mile long. This paper describes the circumstances of Mills' appointment as Professor of Astrophysics and the recruitment of an international Department that achieved his vision with the Molonglo Cross: The construction involved interaction with many colleagues - engineers in other university departments and government agencies, and with the contracting firms. Formal links were set up with the Electrical Engineering Department through The Radio Astronomy Centre in the University of Sydney and then with Arecibo Observatory through the Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Center. When the Molonglo Cross completed its main survey in 1978 after eleven years, it was switched off and the EW arm was then converted to the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope. Many of the staff involved with the MOST are now challenged by SKAMP, testing systems for the Square Kilometre Array with cylindrical geometry in the Molonglo Prototype. These two later developments out of the original Cross telescope are described briefly.

  7. Cross-frequency Doppler sensitive signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2005-04-01

    When there is relative motion between an acoustic source and a receiver, a signal can be Doppler shifted in frequency and enter or leave the processing bins of the conventional signal processor. The amount of the shift is determined by the frequency and the rate of change in the distance between the source and the receiver. This frequency Doppler shifting can cause severe reductions in the processors performance. Special cross-frequency signal processing algorithms have recently been developed to mitigate the effects of Doppler. They do this by using calculation paths that cut across frequency bins in order to follow signals during frequency shifting. Cross-frequency spectral grams of a fast-flying sound source were compared to conventional grams, to evaluate the performance of this new signal processing method. The Doppler shifts in the data ranged up to 70 contiguous frequency bins. The resulting cross-frequency grams showed that three paths provided small to no improvement. Four paths showed improvements for either up-frequency or down-frequency shifting, but not for both. Two paths showed substantial improvement for both up-frequency and down-frequency shifting. The cross-frequency paths will be defined, and comparisons between conventional and cross-frequency grams will be presented. [Work supported by Miltec Corporation.

  8. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  9. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  10. Cross-linking Chemistry of Squid Beak*

    PubMed Central

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J. Herbert

    2010-01-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  11. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    PubMed

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-01

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed. PMID:20870720

  12. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  13. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  14. Alp Transit: Crossing Faults 44 and 49

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Tani, M.; Bremen, R.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the crossing of faults 44 and 49 when constructing the 57 km Gotthard base tunnel of the Alp Transit project. Fault 44 is a permeable fault that triggered significant surface deformations 1,400 m above the tunnel when it was reached by the advancing excavation. The fault runs parallel to the downstream face of the Nalps arch dam. Significant deformations were measured at the dam crown. Fault 49 is sub-vertical and permeable, and runs parallel at the upstream face of the dam. It was necessary to assess the risk when crossing fault 49, as a limit was put on the acceptable dam deformation for structural safety. The simulation model, forecasts and action decided when crossing over the faults are presented, with a brief description of the tunnel, the dam, and the monitoring system.

  15. Heat acclimation and cross tolerance to hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Lovering, Andrew T; Horowitz, Michal; Minson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has suggested a potential for some of the physiological and cellular responses to heat acclimation to carry over to improved tolerance of the novel stresses of another environment. This cross-tolerance is evident in heat-acclimated animals that exhibit enhanced tolerance to either hypoxic or ischemic stress, and is primarily attributed to shared cellular stress response pathways. These pathways include Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSP). Whether these shared cellular stress response pathways translate to systemic cross-tolerance (improved exercise tolerance, reduced risk of environment-associated illness) has not been clearly shown, particularly in humans. This review highlights the HIF-1 and HSP pathways and their relationship with systemic acclimation responses, and further examines the potential cellular and systemic adaptations that may result in cross-tolerance between hot and hypoxic environments.

  16. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  17. Has Voyager 1 really crossed the heliopause?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft is currently in the vicinity of the heliopause, which separates the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. There has been a precipitous decrease in particles accelerated in the heliosphere, and a substantial increase in galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The evidence is unclear, however, as to whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause into the local interstellar medium, or remains within the heliosheath. In this paper we propose a test that will determine whether Voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause: If Voyager 1 remains in the heliosheath, the high plasma densities must be due to compressed solar wind, with the consequence that Voyager 1 will encounter another current sheet, where the polarity of the magnetic field reverses. Voyager 1 observations can be used to predict that the next current sheet crossing is likely to occur during 2015. A prediction is also provided as to what the Voyager 2 plasma detector will measure in the next few years.

  18. Earth-crossing asteroids - New discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helin, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    An earth-crossing asteroid is an asteroid whose orbit will intersect the orbit of the earth as a result of secular perturbations. Astronomical observations have led to the discovery of 43 earth-crossing asteroids during the last fifty years. Nearly sixty percent of these were found in the decade 1971-1981. Noteworthy results of the last decade are discussed, taking into account the Aten asteroids, accidental rediscoveries, asteroids of possible cometary origin, candidates for rendezvous and sample return missions, and populations and collision rates with earth. The observed earth-crossing asteroids are listed in a table, and the orbits of earth, Mars, and four Atens projected on ecliptic plane are shown.

  19. Cross talk during the periconception period.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Alireza; Holt, William V

    2016-07-01

    The cross talk between gametes, embryos, and female reproductive tract plays a crucial role in fine tuning of different reproductive events as well as influencing the epigenetic profile of offspring and their health in adulthood. Here, we describe some background to the recent investigations leading to the discovery of this cross talk. We will also point to important requirements for understanding the maternal communication with gametes and embryos. Finally, we mention two probable hypotheses regarding how gametes and embryos are recognized by the female reproductive tract. It is clear that understanding this cross talk is leading to the production of new means for increasing fertility and potentials for affecting the epigenomic profile of an individual. PMID:27160448

  20. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  1. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  2. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  3. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant. PMID:8254116

  4. Cross Coursing in Mathematics: Physical Modelling in Differential Equations Crossing to Discrete Dynamical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We give an example of cross coursing in which a subject or approach in one course in undergraduate mathematics is used in a completely different course. This situation crosses falling body modelling in an upper level differential equations course into a modest discrete dynamical systems unit of a first-year mathematics course. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Crossing the Atlantic: Integrating Cross-Cultural Experiences into Undergraduate Business Courses Using Virtual Communities Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luethge, Denise J.; Raska, David; Greer, Bertie M.; O'Connor, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Today's business school academics are tasked with pedagogy that offers students an understanding of the globalization of markets and the cross-cultural communication skills needed in today's business environment. The authors describe how a virtual cross-cultural experience was integrated into an undergraduate business course and used as an…

  6. 40 CFR 35.3575 - Application of Federal cross-cutting authorities (cross-cutters).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35... assistance makes them applicable. A few cross-cutters apply by their own terms only to the State as the grant..., cross-cutter requirements apply in the following manner: (1) All projects for which a State...

  7. Crossing the Border? Exploring the Cross-State Mobility of the Teacher Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian L.; Brown, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Due to data limitations, very little is known about patterns of cross-state teacher mobility. It is an important issue because barriers to cross-state mobility create labor market frictions that could lead both current and prospective teachers to opt out of the teaching profession. In this article, we match state-level administrative data sets…

  8. Effects of Student Teams and Individualized Instruction on Cross-Race and Cross-Sex Friendships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oishi, Sabine; And Others

    A sample of 160 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students in a Baltimore City (Maryland) magnet school participated in an experimental study on the effects within cross-race and cross-sex friendships on a mathematics program that used Team Assisted Individualization (TAI). TAI is an instructional method that combines individualized instruction with…

  9. The primal scene in cross-species and cross-cultural perspectives.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Lawrence

    2011-10-01

    A review of cross-species and cross-cultural research suggests that, throughout most of human behavioral evolution, children may have been enlightened as to the facts of life by observing parental intercourse and then imitating it in sexual rehearsal play in the context of a continuously rising curve of sexual desire and sexual knowledge throughout childhood. Concealment of the primal scene and prohibition of cross-generational, bisexual, and 'polymorphously perverse' childhood sex play may be of relatively recent origin in human cultural evolution, buttressed by the instillation of culturally acquired sexual disgust in sexually conservative cultures. Looking at the primal scene in cross-species and cross-cultural perspectives utilizing the adaptationist framework of contemporary evolutionary biology can challenge normative assumptions that may still be embedded in psychoanalytic theories of species-wide psychosexual development. PMID:22014369

  10. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  11. Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

  12. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  13. Approximations for crossing two nearby spin resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, V. H.

    2015-01-01

    Solutions to the Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin equation for spin 1 /2 particles have to date been confined to the single-resonance crossing. However, in reality, most cases of interest concern the overlapping of several resonances. While there have been several serious studies of this problem, a good analytical solution or even an approximation has eluded the community. We show that this system can be transformed into a Hill-like equation. In this representation, we show that, while the single-resonance crossing represents the solution to the parabolic cylinder equation, the overlapping case becomes a parametric type of resonance.

  14. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  15. Direct Cross-Couplings of Propargylic Diols.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicholas J; Willis, Anthony C; Sherburn, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    [Pd(PPh3 )4 ] catalyzes a Suzuki-Miyaura-like twofold cross-coupling sequence between underivatized propargylic diols and either aryl or alkenyl boronic acids to furnish highly substituted 1,3-dienes. Thus, 2,3-diaryl-1,3-butadienes and their dialkenic congeners ([4]dendralenes) are delivered in a (pseudo)halogen-free, single-step synthesis which supersedes existing methods. Allenols are also readily formed. Treatment of these single- and twofold cross-coupled products with acid leads to remarkably short syntheses of highly-substituted benzofulvenes and aryl indenes, respectively. PMID:27375221

  16. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  17. Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Advantages demonstrated by Thames River crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Lavieri, J.L. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that during a 9-day period in June 1991, Yankee Gas Services Co. installed a 1,600-ft. 20-in. steel gas pipeline across the Thames River using the horizontal drilling technique that demonstrated why trench-less construction plays an important part in subsurface pipeline crossing. The crossing was completed ahead of time, under budget and with no adverse affect on the environment. In addition, the project resulted in minimal inconvenience to the public. The pipeline enabled Yankee Gas to provide gas service to new customers.

  19. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  20. Crossing the endothelial barrier during metastasis.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; d'Água, Bárbara Borda; Ridley, Anne J

    2013-12-01

    During metastasis, cancer cells disseminate to other parts of the body by entering the bloodstream in a process that is called intravasation. They then extravasate at metastatic sites by attaching to endothelial cells that line blood vessels and crossing the vessel walls of tissues or organs. This Review describes how cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier during extravasation and how different receptors, signalling pathways and circulating cells such as leukocytes and platelets contribute to this process. Identification of the mechanisms that underlie cancer cell extravasation could lead to the development of new therapies to reduce metastasis. PMID:24263189

  1. Hybridization triggered cross-linking of deoxyoligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Webb, T R; Matteucci, M D

    1986-01-01

    This paper reports details of the synthesis of oligodeoxynucleotides containing the modified base 5-methyl-N4,N4-ethanocytosine (Ce). The 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl group is used as a protecting group for the exocyclic amines of dA and dC. This group can be removed rapidly under very mild conditions. Oligomers containing the Ce base form a cross-link when hybridized to their complementary deoxyoligonucleotides. Some of the scope and limitations of these cross-link forming oligonucleotides are reported. Images PMID:3774542

  2. Cross Flow Parameter Calculation for Aerodynamic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, David, Jr. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system and method for determining a cross flow angle for a feature on a structure. A processor unit receives location information identifying a location of the feature on the structure, determines an angle of the feature, identifies flow information for the location, determines a flow angle using the flow information, and determines the cross flow angle for the feature using the flow angle and the angle of the feature. The flow information describes a flow of fluid across the structure. The flow angle comprises an angle of the flow of fluid across the structure for the location of the feature.

  3. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans. PMID:26809254

  4. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  5. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  6. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  7. Printed-Circuit Cross-Slot Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foy, Wong; Chung, Hsien-Hsien; Peng, Sheng Y.

    1990-01-01

    Coupling between perpendicular slots suppressed. Balanced feed configuration minimizes coupling between slots of printed-circuit cross-slot antenna unit. Unit and array have conventional cavity-backed-printed-circuit, crossed-slot antenna design. Strip-line feeders behind planar conductive antenna element deliver power to horizontal slot in opposite phase. As result, little or no power propagates into vertical slot. Similar considerations apply to strip lines that feed vertical slot. Units of this type elements of phased-array antennas for radar, mobile/satellite communications, and other applications requiring flush mounting and/or rapid steering of beams with circular polarization.

  8. 50 CFR 228.18 - Cross-examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross-examination. 228.18 Section 228.18...-examination. (a) The presiding officer may: (1) Require the cross-examiner to outline the intended scope of the cross-examination; (2) Prohibit parties from cross-examining witnesses unless the...

  9. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  10. A Cross-National Study of Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Jun; Friedler, Louis M.; Wolff, Edward F.; Li, Jun; Rhea, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The results from a cross-national study comparing calculus performance of students at East China Normal University (ECNU) in Shanghai and students at the University of Michigan before and after their first university calculus course are presented. Overall, ECNU significantly outperformed Michigan on both the pre- and post-tests, but the Michigan…

  11. Nonadiabatic transitions at potential curve crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Hiroki; Zhu, Chaoyuan

    1996-12-31

    Recently, the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg problems have been completely solved in a form convenient for various applications. A summary of the results will be reported. Other related subjects such as multi-level curve crossing and conical intersection problems will also be briefly touched upon.

  12. Indochinese Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Liem Dang

    Information is given about the cultural and religious background of Indochinese refugees arriving in the United States since 1975, to be used as a basis for promoting cross-cultural adjustment and communication with and in this group. The Indochinese exodus since 1975 is briefly described, focusing on the journey undertaken and the spread of…

  13. Cross-Cultural Issues in Art Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocoy, Dan

    2002-01-01

    Examines the conditions under which art therapy might be a culturally appropriate intervention. Presents the aspects of art therapy and assessment that may be assimilationist or ethnocentric. Problems inherent in the cross-cultural interpretation of art are also discussed and methods that maximize interpretive validity and reliability are…

  14. Research Trends with Cross Tabulation Search Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Chengjiu; Hirokawa, Sachio; Yau, Jane Yin-Kim; Hashimoto, Kiyota; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Nakatoh, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    To help researchers in building a knowledge foundation of their research fields which could be a time-consuming process, the authors have developed a Cross Tabulation Search Engine (CTSE). Its purpose is to assist researchers in 1) conducting research surveys, 2) efficiently and effectively retrieving information (such as important researchers,…

  15. Cross-Registration and Joint Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandness, Jean T.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cross-registration system and formation of joint academic programs between colleges create a variety of educational opportunities for students and provide both direct and indirect benefits to a consortium's member institutions and their faculty. The Tri-College University Consortium in North Dakota illustrates the advantages…

  16. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  17. Genetic Diversity in Cotton Out-Crossing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we have reported on the finding of genetic differences in the abiotic stress tolerance of cotton pollen. Genetic differences in sensitivity to humidity were observed impacting pollen survival in dry environments. The present study evaluated out-crossing rates in cotton lines whose polle...

  18. Computing Determinants by Double-Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Deanna; Perry, John; Torrence, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Dodgson's method of computing determinants is attractive, but fails if an interior entry of an intermediate matrix is zero. This paper reviews Dodgson's method and introduces a generalization, the double-crossing method, that provides a workaround for many interesting cases.

  19. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  20. Cross-Language Effects in Biliteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of codes across languages, with particular reference to written language and to English in relation to Japanese and Chinese. Reviews language contact and language learning effects related to reading, writing, cognition and linguistic creativity as various types of cross-language effects in biliteracy. (42 references)…

  1. A design for vertical crossing insertions

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    A crossing insertion designed for an SSC with vertically separated 1-in-1 beam lines is presented in this note. The author supposes that the beam lines consist of separate magnets in separate cryostats separated by about 70 cm. He then describes the design, where vertical separation is done with four vertical dipoles producing a steplike beam line.

  2. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a…

  3. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  4. Explaining the Cross-Multiplication Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    Many high-school mathematics teachers have likely been asked by a student, "Why does the cross-multiplication algorithm work?" It is a commonly used algorithm when dealing with proportion problems, conversion of units, or fractional linear equations. For most teachers, the explanation usually involves the idea of finding a common denominator--one…

  5. Cross-Cultural Training in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. L.; Venner, Kamilla; Bisono, Ani; Daugherty, Mikyta; Yahne, Carolina E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the cross-cultural transportability of motivational interviewing (MI), an evidence-based addiction treatment method. Free clinical training in MI was offered in separate targeted workshops for 86 African American, Native American, and Spanish-speaking addiction treatment providers. Audiotaped pre- and posttraining clinical…

  6. Visual monitoring of railroad grade crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Yaser A.; Zhai, Yun; Shafique, Khurram; Shah, Mubarak A.

    2004-09-01

    There are approximately 261,000 rail crossings in the United States according to the studies by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). From 1993 to 1998, there were over 25,000 highway-rail crossing incidents involving motor vehicles - averaging 4,167 incidents a year. In this paper, we present a real-time computer vision system for the monitoring of the movement of pedestrians, bikers, animals and vehicles at railroad intersections. The video is processed for the detection of uncharacteristic events, triggering an immediate warning system. In order to recognize the events, the system first performs robust object detection and tracking. Next, a classification algorithm is used to determine whether the detected object is a pedestrian, biker, group or a vehicle, allowing inferences on whether the behavior of the object is characteristic or not. Due to the ubiquity of low cost, low power, and high quality video cameras, increased computing power and memory capacity, the proposed approach provides a cost effective and scalable solution to this important problem. Furthermore, the system has the potential to significantly decrease the number of accidents and therefore the resulting deaths and injuries that occur at railroad crossings. We have field tested our system at two sites, a rail-highway grade crossing, and a trestle located in Central Florida, and we present results on six hours of collected data.

  7. Difference of cross-spectral densities.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, M; Piquero, G; de Sande, J C G; Gori, F

    2014-04-01

    Generally speaking, the difference between two cross-spectral densities (CSDs) does not represent a correlation function. We will furnish a sufficient condition so that such difference be a valid CSD. Using such a condition, we will show through some examples how new classes of CSDs can be generated. PMID:24686586

  8. Cross-Cultural Adaptation: Current Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young Yun, Ed.; Gudykunst, William B., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting multidisciplinary and multisocietal approaches, this collection presents 14 theoretical or research-based essays dealing with cross-cultural adaptation of individuals who are born and raised in one culture and find themselves in need of modifying their customary life patterns in a foreign culture. Papers in the collection are:…

  9. Gender Differences in Cross-Generation Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troll, Lillian E.

    1987-01-01

    Members of cross-generational networks, which are primarily among kin, are likely to share basic values or to avoid issues that might cause conflict. Mother-daughter bonds are both the strongest through life and the most complex, linking household units into modified extended family networks. Critical conceptual methodological problems abound.…

  10. Cross-linked structure of network evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, Danielle S.; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Porter, Mason A.; Mucha, Peter J.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2014-03-01

    We study the temporal co-variation of network co-evolution via the cross-link structure of networks, for which we take advantage of the formalism of hypergraphs to map cross-link structures back to network nodes. We investigate two sets of temporal network data in detail. In a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators, hyperedges that consist of network edges with temporally co-varying weights uncover the driving co-evolution patterns of edge weight dynamics both within and between oscillator communities. In the human brain, networks that represent temporal changes in brain activity during learning exhibit early co-evolution that then settles down with practice. Subsequent decreases in hyperedge size are consistent with emergence of an autonomous subgraph whose dynamics no longer depends on other parts of the network. Our results on real and synthetic networks give a poignant demonstration of the ability of cross-link structure to uncover unexpected co-evolution attributes in both real and synthetic dynamical systems. This, in turn, illustrates the utility of analyzing cross-links for investigating the structure of temporal networks.