Numerical analysis of free vibrations of damped rotating structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, K. K.
1977-01-01
This paper is concerned with the efficient numerical solution of damped and undamped free vibration problems of rotating structures. While structural discretization is achieved by the finite element method, the associated eigenproblem solution is effected by a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique that enables the computation of a few required roots only without having to compute any other. For structures of complex configurations, a modal synthesis technique is also presented, which is based on appropriate combinations of eigenproblem solution of various structural components. Such numerical procedures are general in nature, which fully exploit matrix sparsity inherent in finite element discretizations, and prove to be most efficient for the vibration analysis of any damped rotating structure, such as rotating machineries, helicopter and turbine blades, spinning space stations, among others.
Experimental validation of a numerical model for subway induced vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, S.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.
2009-04-01
This paper presents the experimental validation of a coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model for the prediction of subway induced vibrations. The model fully accounts for the dynamic interaction between the train, the track, the tunnel and the soil. The periodicity or invariance of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transformation, which allows for an efficient formulation in the frequency-wavenumber domain. A general analytical formulation is used to compute the response of three-dimensional invariant or periodic media that are excited by moving loads. The numerical model is validated by means of several experiments that have been performed at a site in Regent's Park on the Bakerloo line of London Underground. Vibration measurements have been performed on the axle boxes of the train, on the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall, and in the free field, both at the surface and at a depth of 15 m. Prior to these vibration measurements, the dynamic soil characteristics and the track characteristics have been determined. The Bakerloo line tunnel of London Underground has been modelled using the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element approach and free field vibrations due to the passage of a train at different speeds have been predicted and compared to the measurements. The correspondence between the predicted and measured response in the tunnel is reasonably good, although some differences are observed in the free field. The discrepancies are explained on the basis of various uncertainties involved in the problem. The variation in the response with train speed is similar for the measurements as well as the predictions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model to make realistic predictions of the vibrations from underground railways.
Results from Numerical General Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2011-01-01
For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.
Numerical Simulation of Airfoil Vibrations Induced by Compressible Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistauer, Miloslav; Kučera, Václav; Šimánek, Petr
2010-09-01
The paper is concerned with the numerical solution of interaction of compressible flow and a vibrating airfoil with two degrees of freedom, which can rotate around an elastic axis and oscillate in the vertical direction. Compressible flow is described by the Euler or Navier-Stokes equations written in the ALE form. This system is discretized by the semi-implicit discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DGFEM) and coupled with the solution of ordinary differential equations describing the airfoil motion. Computational results showing the flow induced airfoil vibrations are presented.
Numerical Approximations of Flow Induced Vibrations of Vocal Folds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sváček, P.; Horáček, J.
2010-09-01
The paper is interested in numerical modelling of incompressible channel flow interacting with elastic part of its walls simulating vocal fold oscillations. The flow in moving domain is described with the aid of the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian method, see e.g. [1], and governed by the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The flow model is coupled with the structural motion modelled by an aeroelastic two degrees of freedom model of the oscillating vocal folds, cf. [2], [9]. The described fluid-structure interaction problem is discretized in time and space, see also [1]. The numerical results of a channel flow modelling the glottal region of the human vocal tract including the vibrating vocal folds are shown. The vibrations of the channel walls are either prescribed (1st case) or induced by the aerodynamical forces (2nd case).
Experimental and numerical study of the effect of mold vibration on aluminum castings alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abu-Dheir, Numan
2005-07-01
The recent advances in scientific and engineering tools have allowed researchers to integrate more science into manufacturing, leading to improved and new innovative processes. As a result, important accomplishments have been reached in the area of designing and engineering new materials for various industrial applications. This subject is of critical significance because of the impact it could have on the manufacturing industry. In the casting industry, obtaining the desired microstructure and properties during solidification may reduce or eliminate the need for costly thermo-mechanical processing prior to secondary manufacturing processes. Several techniques have been developed to alter and control the microstructure of castings during solidification including semi-solid processing, electromagnetic stirring, electromagnetic vibration, and mechanical vibration. Although it is established that mold vibration can significantly influence the structure and properties of castings, however, most of the studies are generally qualitative, limited to a small range of conditions and no attempts have been made to simulate the effect of vibration on casting microstructure. In this work, a detailed experimental and numerical investigation is carried out to advance the utilization of mold vibration as an effective tool for controlling and modifying the casting microstructure. The effects of a wide range of vibration amplitudes and frequencies on the solidification kinetics, microstructure formation and mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys are examined. Results show strong influence of mold vibration on the resulting casting. The presence of porosity was significantly reduced as a result of mold vibration. In addition, the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties can be successfully represented by the changes in solidification characteristics. Increasing the vibration amplitude tends to reduce the lamellar spacing and change the silicon morphology to become more
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, R.; Hasrati, E.; Faghih Shojaei, M.; Gholami, R.; Shahabodini, A.
2015-05-01
In this paper, the nonlinear forced vibration behavior of composite plates reinforced by carbon nanotubes is investigated by a numerical approach. The reinforcement is considered to be functionally graded (FG) in the thickness direction according to a micromechanical model. The first-order shear deformation theory and von Kármán-type kinematic relations are employed. The governing equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived with the use of Hamilton's principle. The generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to achieve a discretized set of nonlinear governing equations. A Galerkin-based scheme is then applied to obtain a time-varying set of ordinary differential equations of Duffing-type. Subsequently, a time periodic discretization is done and the frequency response of plates is determined via the pseudo-arc length continuation method. Selected numerical results are given for the effects of different parameters on the nonlinear forced vibration characteristics of uniformly distributed carbon nanotube- and FG carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates. It is found that with the increase of CNT volume fraction, the flexural stiffness of plate increases; and hence its natural frequency gets larger. Moreover, it is observed that the distribution type of CNTs significantly affects the vibrational behavior of plate. The results also show that when the mid-plane of plate is CNT-rich, the natural frequency takes its minimum value and the hardening-type response of plate is intensified.
Numerical Manifold Method for the Forced Vibration of Thin Plates during Bending
Jun, Ding; Song, Chen; Wei-Bin, Wen; Shao-Ming, Luo; Xia, Huang
2014-01-01
A novel numerical manifold method was derived from the cubic B-spline basis function. The new interpolation function is characterized by high-order coordination at the boundary of a manifold element. The linear elastic-dynamic equation used to solve the bending vibration of thin plates was derived according to the principle of minimum instantaneous potential energy. The method for the initialization of the dynamic equation and its solution process were provided. Moreover, the analysis showed that the calculated stiffness matrix exhibited favorable performance. Numerical results showed that the generalized degrees of freedom were significantly fewer and that the calculation accuracy was higher for the manifold method than for the conventional finite element method. PMID:24883403
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Zhu; Jin, Guoyong; Ye, Tiangui
2016-06-01
The paper presents a unified solution for free and transient vibration analyses of a functionally graded piezoelectric curved beam with general boundary conditions within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The formulation is derived by means of the variational principle in conjunction with a modified Fourier series which consists of standard Fourier cosine series and supplemented functions. The mechanical and electrical properties of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs) are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction and are estimated by Voigt’s rule of mixture. The convergence, accuracy and reliability of the present formulation are demonstrated by comparing the present solutions with those from the literature and finite element analysis. Numerous results for FGPM beams with different boundary conditions, geometrical parameters as well as material distributions are given. Moreover, forced vibration of the FGPM beams subjected to dynamic loads and general boundary conditions are also investigated.
Static and Vibration Analyses of General Wing Structures Using Equivalent Plate Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapania, Rakesh K.; Liu, Youhua
1999-01-01
An efficient method, using equivalent plate model, is developed for studying the static and vibration analyses of general built-up wing structures composed of skins, spars, and ribs. The model includes the transverse shear effects by treating the built-up wing as a plate following the Reissner-Mindlin theory, the so-called First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT). The Ritz method is used with the Legendre polynomials being employed as the trial functions. This is in contrast to previous equivalent plate model methods which have used simple polynomials, known to be prone to numerical ill-conditioning, as the trial functions. The present developments are evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained using MSC/NASTRAN, for a set of examples. These examples are: (i) free-vibration analysis of a clamped trapezoidal plate with (a) uniform thickness, and (b) non-uniform thickness varying as an airfoil, (ii) free-vibration and static analyses (including skin stress distribution) of a general built-up wing, and (iii) free-vibration and static analyses of a swept-back box wing. The results obtained by the present equivalent plate model are in good agreement with those obtained by the finite element method.
Numerical simulation of vortex-induced vibration of a square cylinder at a low Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Cheng, Liang; Zhou, Tongming
2013-02-01
Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a square cylinder at a Reynolds number of 100 and a low mass ratio of 3 are studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations using the finite element method. The equation of motion of the square cylinder is solved to simulate the vibration and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian scheme is employed to model the interaction between the vibrating cylinder and the fluid flow. The numerical model is validated against the published results of flow past a stationary square cylinder and the results of VIV of a circular cylinder at low Reynolds numbers. The effect of flow approaching angle (α) on the response of the square cylinder is investigated. It is found that α affects not only the vibration amplitude but also the lock-in regime. Among the three values of α (α = 0°, 45°, and 22.5°) that are studied, the smallest vibration amplitude and the narrowest lock-in regime occur at α = 0°. It is discovered that the vibration locks in with the natural frequency in two regimes of reduced velocity for α = 22.5°. Single loop vibration trajectories are observed in the lock-in regime at α = 22.5° and 45°, which is distinctively different from VIV of a circular cylinder. As a result, the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is the same as that in the cross-flow direction.
Numerical study of human vocal folds vibration using Immersed Finite Element Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xingshi; Zhang, Lucy; Krane, Michael
2011-11-01
The voice production procedure is a self-oscillating, fluid-structure interaction problem. In this study, the vocal folds vibration during phonation will be simulated by self-oscillated layered-structure vocal folds model, using Immersed Finite Element Method. With the numerical results, we will find out the vocal folds vibration pattern, and also show how the lung pressure, stiffness and geometry of vocal folds will affect the vocal folds vibration. With further analysis, we shall get better understanding of the dynamics of voice production. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.
Railway cuttings and embankments: Experimental and numerical studies of ground vibration.
Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P; Olivier, Bryan; Laghrouche, Omar; Costa, Pedro Alves
2016-07-01
Railway track support conditions affect ground-borne vibration generation and propagation. Therefore this paper presents a combined experimental and numerical study into high speed rail vibrations for tracks on three types of support: a cutting, an embankment and an at grade section. Firstly, an experimental campaign is undertaken where vibrations and in-situ soil properties are measured at three Belgian rail sites. A finite element model is then developed to recreate the complex ground topology at each site. A validation is performed and it is found that although the at-grade and embankment cases show a correlation with the experimental results, the cutting case is more challenging to replicate. Despite this, each site is then analysed to determine the effect of earthworks profile on ground vibrations, with both the near and far fields being investigated. It is found that different earthwork profiles generate strongly differing ground-borne vibration characteristics, with the embankment profile generating lower vibration levels in comparison to the cutting and at-grade cases. Therefore it is concluded that it is important to consider earthwork profiles when undertaking vibration assessments. PMID:26994799
Numerical Investigation of Flapwise-Torsional Vibration Model of a Smart Section Blade with Microtab
Li, Nailu; Balas, Mark J.; Yang, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Magar, Kaman T.
2015-01-01
This study presents a method to develop an aeroelastic model of a smart section blade equipped with microtab. The model is suitable for potential passive vibration control study of the blade section in classic flutter. Equations of the model are described by the nondimensional flapwise and torsional vibration modes coupled with the aerodynamic model based on the Theodorsen theory and aerodynamic effects of the microtab based on the wind tunnel experimental data. The aeroelastic model is validated using numerical data available in the literature and then utilized to analyze the microtab control capability on flutter instability case and divergence instabilitymore » case. The effectiveness of the microtab is investigated with the scenarios of different output controllers and actuation deployments for both instability cases. The numerical results show that the microtab can effectively suppress both vibration modes with the appropriate choice of the output feedback controller.« less
Research on algorithm of blade vibration for general wind turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Long; Sun, Lun-ye; Wu, Guang; Li, Xue-bin; Lai, Yong-bin; Zhou, Yi-jun
2016-01-01
Evaluation of vibration characteristics for wind turbine blades is one of the important contents in the wind turbine research. This paper uses the compressible flow equations with the preconditioning technique, based on the finite volume method and combined with the LU-SGS algorithm for solving the flow area; meanwhile adopts the two degree of freedom of vibration equation with the vertical and torsional vibration for blades to simulate the vibration trajectory of blade under the aerodynamic force, uses the motion grid algorithm for changes in grid computing domain. Calculation program was developed autonomous in the C ++ platform, and the development of software correctness was verified by contrast the results of the classic cylindrical examples. Finally, the vibration characteristics of a wind turbine blade was given, and the software developed in this paper can provide technical support for wind turbine blade vibration study.
Methods for numerical study of tube bundle vibrations in cross-flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longatte, E.; Bendjeddou, Z.; Souli, M.
2003-11-01
In many industrial applications, mechanical structures like heat exchanger tube bundles are subjected to complex flows causing possible vibrations and damage. Part of fluid forces are coupled with tube motion and the so-called fluid-elastic forces can affect the structure dynamic behaviour generating possible instabilities and leading to possible short term failures through high amplitude vibrations. Most classical fluid force identification methods rely on structure response experimental measurements associated with convenient data processes. Owing to recent improvements in Computational Fluid Dynamics, numerical simulation of flow-induced vibrations is now practicable for industrial purposes. The present paper is devoted to the numerical identification of fluid-elastic effects affecting tube bundle motion in presence of fluid at rest and one-phase cross-flows. What is the numerical process? When fluid-elastic effects are not significant and are restricted to added mass effects, there is no strong coupling between structure and fluid motions. The structure displacement is not supposed to affect flow patterns. Thus it is possible to solve flow and structure problems separately by using a fixed nonmoving mesh for the fluid dynamic computation. Power spectral density and time record of lift and drag forces acting on tube bundles can be computed numerically by using an unsteady fluid computation involving for example a large Eddy simulation. Fluid force spectra or time record can then be introduced as inlet conditions into the structure code providing the tube dynamic response generated by flow. Such a computation is not possible in presence of strong flow structure coupling. When fluid-elastic effects cannot be neglected, in presence of tube bundles subjected to cross-flows for example, a coupling between flow and structure computations is required. Appropriate numerical methods are investigated in the present work. The purpose is to be able to provide a numerical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xing-Jian; Meng, Guang; Peng, Juan-Chun
2006-11-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of a system identification technique known as observer/Kalman filter identification (OKID) technique in the numerical simulation and experimental study of active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures. Based on the structure responses determined by finite element method, an explicit state space model of the equivalent linear system is developed by employing OKID approach. The linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) algorithm is employed for controller design. The control law is then incorporated into the ANSYS finite element model to perform closed loop simulations. Therefore, the control law performance can be evaluated in the context of a finite element environment. Furthermore, a complete active vibration control system comprising the cantilever plate, the piezoelectric actuators, the accelerometers and the digital signal processor (DSP) board is set up to conduct the experimental investigation. A state space model characterizing the dynamics of the physical system is developed from experimental results using OKID approach for the purpose of control law design. The controller is then implemented by using a floating point TMS320VC33 DSP. Numerical examples by employing the proposed numerical simulation method, together with the experimental results obtained by using the active vibration control system, have demonstrated the validity and efficiency of OKID method in application of active vibration control of piezoelectric smart structures.
Sharma, S.P.; Huo, W.M.; Park, C.
1988-01-01
A theoretical study of vibrational excitations and dissociations of nitrogen undergoing a nonequilibrium relaxation process upon heating and cooling is reported. The rate coefficients for collisional induced vibrational transitions and transitions from a bound vibrational state into a dissociative state have been calculated using an extension of the theory originally proposed by Schwarz (SSH) et al. (1952). High-lying vibrational states and dissociative states were explicitly included but rotational energy transfer was neglected. The transition probabilities calculated from the SSH theory were fed into the master equation, which was integrated numerically to determine the population distribution of the vibrational states as well as bulk thermodynamic properties. The results show that: (1) the transition rates have a minimum near the middle of the bound vibrational levels, causing a bottleneck in the vibrational relaxation and dissociation rates; (2) high vibrational states are always in equilibrium with the dissociative state; (3) for the heating case, only the low vibrational states relax according to the Landau-Teller theory; (4) for the cooling case, vibrational relaxation cannot be described by a rate equation; (5) Park's (1985, 1988) two-temperature model is approximately valid; and (6) the average vibrational energy removed in dissociation is about 30 percent of the dissociation energy. 29 references.
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C_{1} symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm^{–1} from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Qun
The purpose of this research is to numerically and analytically investigate the acoustic streaming and the associated heat transfer, which are induced by a beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms. Analytical results show that the beam vibrating in standing waveforms scatters the acoustic waves into the free space, which have a larger attenuation coefficient and longer propagating traveling wavelength than those of the plane wave. In contrast to a constant Reynolds stress in the plane wave, the Reynolds stress generated by such acoustic wave is expected to drive the free space streaming away from the anti-nodes and towards nodes of the standing wave vibration. The sonic and ultrasonic streamings within the channel between the vibrating beam and a parallel stationary beam are also investigated. The acoustic streaming is utilized to cool the stationary beam, which has either a heat source attached to it or subjected to a uniform heat flux. The sonic streaming is found to be mainly the boundary layer streaming dominating the whole channel while the ultrasonic streaming is clearly composed of two boundary layer streamings near both beams and a core region streaming, which is driven by the streaming velocity at the edge of the boundary layer near the vibrating beam. The standing wave vibration of the beam induces acoustic streaming in a series of counterclockwise eddies, which is directed away from the anti-nodes and towards the nodes. The magnitude of the sonic streaming is proportional to o2A 2 while that of the ultrasonic streaming is proportional to o 3/2A2. Numerical results show that the acoustic streaming induced by the beam vibrating in either standing or traveling waveforms has almost the same cooling efficiency for the heat source and the heat flux cases although the flow and temperature fields within the channel are different. The hysteresis of the ultrasonic streaming flow patterns associated with the change of the aspect ratio of the channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, K. A.; Verbraken, H.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.
2016-07-01
Along with the rapid expansion of urban rail networks comes the need for accurate predictions of railway induced vibration levels at grade and in buildings. Current computational methods for making predictions of railway induced ground vibration rely on simplifying modelling assumptions and require detailed parameter inputs, which lead to high levels of uncertainty. It is possible to mitigate against these issues using a combination of field measurements and state-of-the-art numerical methods, known as a hybrid model. In this paper, two hybrid models are developed, based on the use of separate source and propagation terms that are quantified using in situ measurements or modelling results. These models are implemented using term definitions proposed by the Federal Railroad Administration and assessed using the specific illustration of a surface railway. It is shown that the limitations of numerical and empirical methods can be addressed in a hybrid procedure without compromising prediction accuracy.
Numerical Simulation of Planar and Axisymmetric Unsteady Flows Over Vibrating Bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkat, N. Kolluru
1991-02-01
Engineering applications of unsteady boundary layers are numerous and of great importance in hydro and aero dynamics. Relatively little research however is focussed on understanding the flow structure if the perturbations in the flow are caused by the motion of flexible boundaries rather than by time dependent variations in the flow itself. A model is therefore developed to examine the hydrodynamic characteristics of external laminar flow over an arbitrarily shaped body, a portion of which is subjected to harmonic motion. A vorticity-stream function formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is used. A boundary fitted coordinate system is adopted to allow accurate modeling in the presence of the time dependent motion of the body surface. The flow equations are solved using a Thompson Tri Diagonal Finite Difference Algorithm. Inviscid-viscous interaction theory is used to split the model domain and save computational time. The model is tested by comparison to selected numerical, experimental or analytical results for flow over a cavity, boundary layer flow along a flat plate and time dependent flow in a channel with wavy walls. The model is then applied to predict the flow over a flat plate and circular cylinder with a section forced in simple harmonic motion. The nonlinear response of the flow is investigated for various Reynolds numbers, Re, Strouhal number, St, (ratio of the flow advective time scale to the plate or cylinder oscillation period), vibration amplitude ration, bf{H _ 0} (vibration amplitude divided by plate or cylinder vibrating section length) and the vibration mode number, n. The time varying friction (bf{C_ f}) and pressure ( bf{C_ p}) coefficients along the vibrating plate and cylinder are analyzed using Fast Fourier Transform techniques (FFT). Model results show that for low St and bf {H_ 0} the response of the external flow to the plate vibration amplitude is linear and there is little up or downstream influence. For high St, Re and bf{H_ 0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Gustavo H. C.; Paupitz Gonçalves, Paulo J.
2013-09-01
This paper develops a novel full analytic model for vibration analysis of solid-state electronic components. The model is just as accurate as finite element models and numerically light enough to permit for quick design trade-offs and statistical analysis. The paper shows the development of the model, comparison to finite elements and an application to a common engineering problem. A gull-wing flat pack component was selected as the benchmark test case, although the presented methodology is applicable to a wide range of component packages. Results showed very good agreement between the presented method and finite elements and demonstrated the usefulness of the method in how to use standard test data for a general application. The properties E, G, A, I, J and κ need not be constants; they may all be functions of s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haque, Md. Rejaul; Chowdhury, M. Arshad Zahangir; Goswami, Anjan
2016-07-01
A two-dimensional numerical study of flow induced vibration is reported in this paper to investigate flow over a semi-cricular D-shaped bluff body oriented at different angles-of-attack to determine an optimized design for energy harvesting. Bluff body structure governs fluid streamlines; therefore obtaining a suitable range of "lock in frequency" for energy harvesting purpose is dependent on refining and optimizing bluff body's shape and structure. A cantilever based novel energy harvester design incorporates the suitable angle-of-attack for optimized performance. This optimization was done by performing computations for 30°, 60° and 90° angles-of-attack. The frequency of vibration of the body was calculated at different Reynolds Number. A Fast Fourier Transformation yielded frequency of vortex shedding. From the wake velocity profile, lift oscillation and frequency of vortex shedding is estimated. Strouhal numbers of the body were analyzed at different angles-of-attack. A higher synchronized bandwidth of shedding frequencies is an indication of an optimized harvester design at different Reynolds number. The `D' shaped bluff bodies (with angle of attack of 30°,60° and 90°) are more suitable than that of cylindrical shaped bluff bodies. The research clearly stated that, bluff bodies shape has a prominent influence on vortex induced vibration and semicircular bluff body gives the highest vibration or energy under stated conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulier, P.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.
2014-06-01
The numerical prediction of vibrations in buildings due to railway traffic is a complicated problem where wave propagation in the soil couples the source (railway tunnel or track) and the receiver (building). This through-soil coupling is often neglected in state-of-the-art numerical models in order to reduce the computational cost. In this paper, the effect of this simplifying assumption on the accuracy of numerical predictions is investigated. A coupled finite element-boundary element methodology is employed to analyze the interaction between a building and a railway tunnel at depth or a ballasted track at the surface of a homogeneous halfspace, respectively. Three different soil types are considered. It is demonstrated that the dynamic axle loads can be calculated with reasonable accuracy using an uncoupled strategy in which through-soil coupling is disregarded. If the transfer functions from source to receiver are considered, however, large local variations in terms of vibration insertion gain are induced by source-receiver interaction, reaching up to 10 dB and higher, although the overall wave field is only moderately affected. A global quantification of the significance of through-soil coupling is made, based on the mean vibrational energy entering a building. This approach allows assessing the common assumption in seismic engineering that source-receiver interaction can be neglected if the distance between source and receiver is sufficiently large compared to the wavelength of waves in the soil. It is observed that the interaction between a source at depth and a receiver mainly affects the power flow distribution if the distance between source and receiver is smaller than the dilatational wavelength in the soil. Interaction effects for a railway track at grade are observed if the source-receiver distance is smaller than six Rayleigh wavelengths. A similar trend is revealed if the passage of a freight train is considered. The overall influence of dynamic
Free vibrations of beam-mass-spring systems: analytical analysis with numerical confirmation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darabi, Mohammad A.; Kazemirad, Siavash; Ghayesh, Mergen H.
2012-04-01
Free vibrations of a beam-mass-spring system with different boundary conditions are analyzed both analytically and numerically. In the analytical analysis, the system is divided into three subsystems and the effects of the spring and the point mass are considered as internal boundary conditions between any two neighboring subsystems. The partial differential equations governing the motion of the subsystems and internal boundary conditions are then solved using the method of separation of variables. In the numerical analysis, the whole system is considered as a single system and the effects of the spring and point mass are introduced using the Dirac delta function. The Galerkin method is then employed to discretize the equation of motion and the resulting set of ordinary differential equations are solved via eigenvalue analysis. Analytical and numerical results are shown to be in very good agreement.
Numerical study of liquid-hydrogen droplet generation from a vibrating orifice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, J.; Celik, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Van Sciver, S. W.
2005-08-01
Atomic hydrogen propellant feed systems for far-future spacecraft may utilize solid-hydrogen particle carriers for atomic species that undergo recombination to create hot rocket exhaust. Such technology will require the development of particle generation techniques. One such technique could involve the production of hydrogen droplets from a vibrating orifice that would then freeze in cryogenic helium vapor. Among other quantities, the shape and size of the droplet are of particular interest. The present paper addresses this problem within the framework of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for multiphase flows, in order to unravel the basic mechanisms of droplet formation with a view to control them. Surface tension, one of the most important mechanisms to determine droplet shape, is modeled as the source term in the momentum equation. Droplet shape is tracked using a volume-of-fluid approach. A dynamic meshing technique is employed to accommodate the vibration of the generator orifice. Numerically predicted droplet shapes show satisfactory agreement with photographs of droplets generated in experiments. A parametric study is carried out to understand the influence of injection velocity, nozzle vibrational frequency, and amplitude on the droplet shape and size. The computational model provides a definitive qualitative picture of the evolution of droplet shape as a function of the operating parameters. It is observed that, primarily, the orifice vibrational frequency affects the shape, the vibrational amplitude affects the time until droplet detachment from the orifice, and the injection velocity affects the size. However, it does not mean that, for example, there is no secondary effect of amplitude on shape or size.
Numerical and experimental investigation of natural flow-induced vibrations of flexible hydrofoils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chae, Eun Jung; Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Lelong, Alexandra; Astolfi, Jacques Andre; Young, Yin Lu
2016-07-01
The objective of this work is to present combined numerical and experimental studies of natural flow-induced vibrations of flexible hydrofoils. The focus is on identifying the dependence of the foil's vibration frequencies and damping characteristics on the inflow velocity, angle of attack, and solid-to-fluid added mass ratio. Experimental results are shown for a cantilevered polyacetate (POM) hydrofoil tested in the cavitation tunnel at the French Naval Academy Research Institute (IRENav). The foil is observed to primarily behave as a chordwise rigid body and undergoes spanwise bending and twisting deformations, and the flow is observed to be effectively two-dimensional (2D) because of the strong lift retention at the free tip caused by a small gap with a thickness less than the wall boundary layer. Hence, the viscous fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is formulated by coupling a 2D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) model with a two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model representing the spanwise tip bending and twisting deformations. Good agreements were observed between viscous FSI predictions and experimental measurements of natural flow-induced vibrations in fully turbulent and attached flow conditions. The foil vibrations were found to be dominated by the natural frequencies in absence of large scale vortex shedding due to flow separation. The natural frequencies and fluid damping coefficients were found to vary with velocity, angle of attack, and solid-to-fluid added mass ratio. In addition, the numerical results showed that the in-water to in-air natural frequency ratios decreased rapidly, and the fluid damping coefficients increased rapidly, as the solid-to-fluid added mass ratio decreases. Uncoupled mode (UM) linear potential theory was found to significantly over-predict the fluid damping for cases of lightweight flexible hydrofoils, and this over-prediction increased with higher velocity and lower solid-to-fluid added mass ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostasevicius, V.; Ubartas, M.; Gaidys, R.; Jurenas, V.; Samper, S.; Dauksevicius, R.
2012-11-01
This study is concerned with application of numerical-experimental approach for characterizing dynamic behavior of the developed piezoelectrically excited vibration drilling tool with the aim to identify the most effective conditions of tool vibration mode control for improved cutting efficiency. 3D finite element model of the tool was created on the basis of an elastically fixed pre-twisted cantilever (standard twist drill). The model was experimentally verified and used together with tool vibration measurements in order to reveal rich dynamic behavior of the pre-twisted structure, representing a case of parametric vibrations with axial, torsional and transverse natural vibrations accompanied by the additional dynamic effects arising due to the coupling of axial and torsional deflections ((un)twisting). Numerical results combined with extensive data from interferometric, accelerometric, dynamometric and surface roughness measurements allowed to determine critical excitation frequencies and the corresponding vibration modes, which have the largest influence on the performance metrics of the vibration drilling process. The most favorable tool excitation conditions were established: inducing the axial mode of the vibration tool itself through tailoring of driving frequency enables to minimize magnitudes of surface roughness, cutting force and torque. Research results confirm the importance of the tool mode control in enhancing the effectiveness of vibration cutting tools from the viewpoint of structural dynamics.
Numerical Dimension-Reduction Methods for Non-Linear Shell Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foale, S.; Thompson, J. M. T.; McRobie, F. A.
1998-08-01
A number of methods are investigated for obtaining a low-dimensional dynamical system from a set of partial differential equations describing the non-linear vibrations of a shallow cylindrical panel under periodic axial forcing. In these approaches an initial (high-dimensional) spatial discretization of a (possibly irregular) domain is performed and a subsequent procedure is used to further reduce the resulting set of ordinary differential equations. In particular the results suggest that a numerical method based upon inertial manifold approximation is possible, but for the specific case studied, no advantage could be discerned over more direct dimension-reduction techniques.
Wang Lei; Babikov, Dmitri
2011-02-15
Anharmonicity of the quantized motional states of ions in a Paul trap can be utilized to address the state-to-state transitions selectively and control the motional modes of trapped ions coherently and adiabatically [Zhao and Babikov, Phys. Rev. A 77, 012338 (2008)]. In this paper we study two sources of the vibrational anharmonicity in the ion traps: the intrinsic Coulomb anharmonicity due to ion-ion interactions and the external anharmonicity of the trapping potential. An accurate numerical approach is used to compute energies and wave functions of vibrational eigenstates. The magnitude of the Coulomb anharmonicity is determined and shown to be insufficient for successful control. In contrast, anharmonicity of the trapping potential allows one to control the motion of ions very efficiently using the time-varying electric fields. Optimal control theory is used to derive the control pulses. One ion in a slightly anharmonic trap can be easily controlled. In the two- and three-ion systems the symmetric stretching mode is dark and cannot be controlled at all. The other two normal modes of the three-ion system can be controlled and used, for example, to encode a two-qubit system into the motional states of ions. A trap architecture that allows the necessary amount of vibrational anharmonicity to be achieved is proposed.
Numerical stability of pseudo-spectral PIC code generalizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godfrey, Brendan B.; Vay, Jean-Luc
2014-10-01
Laser Plasma Accelerator (LPA) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are computationally demanding, because they require beam transport over times and distances long compared with the natural scales of the acceleration mechanism and because they are prone to numerical instabilities. To provide greater flexibility in LPA PIC simulations, we have generalized the Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain (PSTD) algorithm to accommodate arbitrary order spatial derivative approximations and substantially longer time steps. Here, we show that, by extending approaches developed by us for other PIC algorithms, numerical Cherenkov instabilities can be suppressed for the generalized PSTD algorithm. We also illustrate the relationships between the generalized PSTD and other PIC algorithms, such as Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) and Pseudo-Spectral Analytical Time Domain (PSATD) algorithms. Background information can be found at http://hifweb.lbl.gov/public/BLAST/Godfrey/. Work supported in part by DOE under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutton, M. A.; Davis, P. K.
1976-01-01
Numerical solutions of the governing equations of motion of a liquid squeeze film damped forced vibration system were carried out to examine the feasibility of using a liquid squeeze film to cushion and protect large structures, such as buildings, located in areas of high seismic activity. The mathematical model used was that for a single degree of freedom squeeze film damped spring mass system. The input disturbance was simulated by curve fitting actual seismic data with an eleventh order Lagranging polynomial technique. Only the normal component of the seismic input was considered. The nonlinear, nonhomogeneous governing differential equation of motion was solved numerically to determine the transmissibility over a wide range of physical parameters using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. It is determined that a liquid squeeze film used as a damping agent in a spring-mass system can significantly reduce the response amplitude for a seismic input disturbance.
An Asymptotic-Numerical Method for Large-Amplitude Free Vibrations of Thin Elastic Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azrar, L.; Benamar, R.; Potier-Ferry, M.
1999-03-01
An Asymptotic-Numerical Method has been developed for large amplitude free vibrations of thin elastic plates. It is based on the perturbation method and the finite element method. This method eliminates the major difficulties of the classical perturbation methods, namely the complexity of the right hand sides and the limitation of the validity of the solution obtained. The applicability of this method to non-linear vibrations of plates is clearly presented. Based on the Von Karman theory and the harmonic balance method, a cubic non-linear operational formulation has been obtained. By using the mixed stress-displacement Hellinger-Reissner principle, a quadratic formulation is given. The displacement and frequency are expanded into power series with respect to a control parameter. The non-linear governing equation is then transformed into a sequence of linear problems having the same stiffness matrix, which can be solved by a classical FEM. Needing one matrix inversion, a large number of terms of the series can be easily computed with a small computation time. The non-linear mode and frequency are then obtained up to the radius of convergence. Taking the starting point in the zone of validity, the method is reapplied in order to determine a further part of the non-linear solution. Iteration of this method leads to a powerful incremental method. In order to increase the validity of the perturbed solution, another technique, called Padé approximants, is shrewdly incorporated. The solutions obtained by these two concepts coincide perfectly in a very large part of the backbone curve. Comprehensive numerical tests for non-linear free vibrations of circular, square, rectangular and annular plates with various boundary conditions are reported and discussed.
PERTURB: A program for calculating vibrational energies by generalized algebraic quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fried, Laurence E.; Ezra, Gregory S.
1988-09-01
We describe PERTURB, a special purpose algebraic manipulation program which calculates vibrational eigenvalues in coupled oscillator systems. PERTURB implements the method of generalized algebraic quantization (AQ), in which Van Vleck perturbation theory is formulated in a mock phase space. The phase space formulation enables quantum and classical perturbation theory to be treated on the same footing, and allows the systematic calculation of corrections to classical perturbation results in powers of h̷. Generalized AQ is a powerful and efficient technique for calculating semiclassical vibrational energy levels. In many cases, including just the first correction to classical perturbation theory yields highly accurate energies.
Numerical simulation of vibration of horizontal cylinder induced by progressive waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chern, Ming-Jyh; Odhiambo, E. A.; Horng, Tzyy-Leng; Borthwick, A. G. L.
2016-02-01
Maritime structures often comprise cylinders of small diameter relative to the prevailing wave length. This paper describes the direct forcing immersed boundary simulation of the hydroelastic behaviour of a rigid, horizontal circular cylinder in regular progressive waves. Fluid motions are numerically solved by the full Navier-Stokes equations, and the free surface by the volume-of-fluid method. The Reynolds number Re = 110, Keulegan-Carpenter number KC = 10, Froude number Fr = 0.69 and Ursell number U rs ≈ 12. A single-degree-of-freedom model is used for the elastically mounted cylinder. Velocity profiles for the stationary cylinder case have been successfully validated using experimental results. The frequency response for reduced velocities 4.5\\lt {U}R*\\lt 5.3 have been compared with theoretical data. Three transverse vibration regimes are identified: lower beating (4\\lt {U}R*\\lt 4.5); lock-in (4.7\\lt {U}R*\\lt 4.8); and upper beating (5\\lt {U}R*\\lt 10) modes. The lower and upper beating regimes exhibit varying amplitude response. The lock-in mode represents the region of fixed and maximum response. The lower beating and lock-in modes have peaks at a common vibration to wave frequency ratio {f}{{w}}* = 2. For the upper beating mode, {f}{{w}}* = 1, except for {U}R*=10 when {f}{{w}}* = 2.
Wave interpretation of numerical results for the vibration in thin conical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ni, Guangjian; Elliott, Stephen J.
2014-05-01
The dynamic behaviour of thin conical shells can be analysed using a number of numerical methods. Although the overall vibration response of shells has been thoroughly studied using such methods, their physical insight is limited. The purpose of this paper is to interpret some of these numerical results in terms of waves, using the wave finite element, WFE, method. The forced response of a thin conical shell at different frequencies is first calculated using the dynamic stiffness matrix method. Then, a wave finite element analysis is used to calculate the wave properties of the shell, in terms of wave type and wavenumber, as a function of position along it. By decomposing the overall results from the dynamic stiffness matrix analysis, the responses of the shell can then be interpreted in terms of wave propagation. A simplified theoretical analysis of the waves in the thin conical shell is also presented in terms of the spatially-varying ring frequency, which provides a straightforward interpretation of the wave approach. The WFE method provides a way to study the types of wave that travel in thin conical shell structures and to decompose the response of the numerical models into the components due to each of these waves. In this way the insight provided by the wave approach allows us to analyse the significance of different waves in the overall response and study how they interact, in particular illustrating the conversion of one wave type into another along the length of the conical shell.
Numerical solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, K. K.
1975-01-01
This paper is concerned with the efficient and accurate solution of the eigenvalue problem represented by quadratic matrix equations. Such matrix forms are obtained in connection with the free vibration analysis of structures, discretized by finite 'dynamic' elements, resulting in frequency-dependent stiffness and inertia matrices. The paper presents a new numerical solution procedure of the quadratic matrix equations, based on a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique enabling economical and accurate determination of a few required eigenvalues and associated vectors. An alternative procedure based on a simultaneous iteration procedure is also described when only the first few modes are the usual requirement. The employment of finite dynamic elements in conjunction with the presently developed eigenvalue routines results in a most significant economy in the dynamic analysis of structures.
Vibrational Spectra of Molecular Crystals with the Generalized Energy-Based Fragmentation Approach.
Fang, Tao; Jia, Junteng; Li, Shuhua
2016-05-01
The generalized energy-based fragmentation (GEBF) approach for molecular crystals with periodic boundary condition (PBC) (denoted as PBC-GEBF) is extended to allow vibrational spectra of molecular crystals to be easily computed at various theory levels. Within the PBC-GEBF approach, the vibrational frequencies of a molecular crystal can be directly evaluated from molecular quantum chemistry calculations on a series of nonperiodic molecular systems. With this approach, the vibrational spectra of molecular crystals can be calculated with much reduced computational costs at various theory levels, as compared to those required by the methods based on periodic electronic structure theory. By testing the performance of the PBC-GEBF method for two molecular crystals (CO2 and imidazole), we demonstrate that the PBC-GEBF approach can reproduce the results of the methods based on periodic electronic structure theory in predicting vibrational spectra of molecular crystals. We apply the PBC-GEBF method at second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (PBC-GEBF-MP2 in short) to investigate the vibrational spectra of the urea and ammonia borane crystals. Our results show that the PBC-GEBF-MP2 method can provide quite accurate descriptions for the observed vibrational spectra of the two systems under study. PMID:27076120
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Ren-Jie; Ku, Xiao-Ke
2014-03-01
Dynamics of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of one and two elastically mounted circular cylinders in tandem is numerically studied via a lattice Boltzmann method. The structural damping is set to zero and the cylinders are of one degree of freedom. The Reynolds number is in the range of Re = [5, 100], covering the sub- and super-critical regions. The effects of reduced velocity UR = [4, 10], center-to-center spacing between the two cylinders S/D = [1.1, 4] and mass ratio M = [0.5, 4] on the cylinder motion and flow structures are investigated. The VIV at subcritical Reynolds number exists extensively for both one- and two-cylinder systems. Besides the traditional symmetrical vibration regime, an anomalous biased vibration regime is observed for the case of two tandem cylinders. It is the first time that the existence of such an asymmetric vibration regime has been confirmed. The biased oscillation regime mainly exists in the region of subcritical Reynolds number, large reduced velocity, small spacing, and low mass ratio. As the reduced velocity is more than 7, such an asymmetric periodic vibration regime even occurs for Reynolds number as low as 10. Based on the positions of the oscillation axes and the flow structures, the biased vibration regime is classified into two subregimes and the mechanisms of the biased vibration subregimes are analysed separately.
Efficiency improvement in a vibration power generator for a linear MR damper: numerical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sapiński, Bogdan; Krupa, Stanisław
2013-04-01
This paper summarizes a numerical analysis of the electromagnetic field, voltage and circuit properties and the cogging force in a vibration power generator comprising permanent magnets and a coil with a foil winding. The device converts the energy harvested from vibrations into electrical energy which is next used to vary the damping characteristics of a linear MR damper attached to the generator. The objective of the study is to propose a sufficiently efficient generator whose finally developed (target) version could be integrated with a small-scale MR damper to build a single device. Two design options for the device are numerically studied, the previously engineered generator 1 and the newly devised generator 2. Generator 1 incorporates two magnet systems having four magnets each and a single-section coil, while generator 2 comprises three magnet systems with four magnets each and a two-section coil. Calculations were performed to determine the electromagnetic field, voltage and current properties and the cogging force in the generators. The electromagnetic field parameters include the distribution of the magnetic field, the electrical potential field and the current density in the open turn and closed turn of the generators’ coils. The voltage and current properties include electromotive force (emf) in the generators and the voltage, current, instantaneous power and energy of the magnetic field in the MR damper control coil which is represented by resistance parameter R and inductance parameter L. The cogging force expresses the magnetic interactions between the permanent magnet systems and ferromagnetic structural components of the generators. The occurrence of this force is very unfavourable and attempts should be made to reduce it through control of the parameters of the magnetic circuit components. On one hand, comparison of the numerical results for the electromagnetic field parameters and voltage and current properties revealed that for the
[Changes in specific sensation in pilots exposed to systematic general vibration].
Podshivalov, A A; Krylov, Iu V; Zaritskiĭ, V V
1995-01-01
Helicopter pilots exposed to excessive general vibration demonstrate changes of specific sensation (vibrotactile, vestibular, auditory), that could be signs of occupational disorder. Those changes are increased thresholds of vibrotactile sensation, lower vestibulovegetative stability, changed vestibulospinal reflexes, more common occurrence of consistent deafness for voice frequencies in comparison with jet aircraft pilots. Experimental vibration (50-1,800 (m/s2) 2 hour) caused no changes of the vibrotactile and auditory sensation, and the modified vestibular function could prove the increased vestibular reactivity. PMID:7620795
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; LoConte, A.; Previtali, B.
2012-12-01
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very interesting smart materials not only for their shape memory and superelastic effects but also because of their significant intrinsic damping capacity. The latter is exhibited upon martensitic transformations and especially in martensitic state. The combination of these SMA properties with the mechanical and the lightweight of fiberglass-reinforced polymer (FGRP) is a promising solution for manufacturing of innovative composites for vibration suppression in structural applications. CuZnAl sheets, after laser patterning, were embedded in a laminated composite between a thick FGRP core and two thin outer layers with the aim of maximizing the damping capacity of the beam for passive vibration suppression. The selected SMA Cu66Zn24Al10 at.% was prepared by vacuum induction melting; the ingot was subsequently hot-and-cold rolled down to 0.2 mm thickness tape. The choice of a copper alloy is related to some advantages in comparison with NiTiCu SMA alloys, which was tested for the similar presented application in a previous study: lower cost, higher storage modulus and consequently higher damping properties in martensitic state. The patterning of the SMA sheets was performed by means of a pulsed fiber laser. After the laser processing, the SMA sheets were heat treated to obtain the desired martensitic state at room temperature. The transformation temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The damping properties were determined, at room temperature, on full-scale sheet, using a universal testing machine (MTS), with cyclic tensile tests at different deformation amplitudes. Damping properties were also determined as a function of the temperature on miniature samples with a dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA). Numerical modeling of the laminated composite, done with finite element method analysis and modal strain energy approaches, was performed to estimate the corresponding total damping capacity and then
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, Surendra P.; Huo, Winifred M.; Park, Chul
1988-01-01
A theoretical study of vibrational excitations and dissociations of nitrogen undergoing a nonequilibrium relaxation process upon heating and cooling is reported. The rate coefficients for collisional induced vibrational transitions and transitions from a bound vibrational state into a dissociative state have been calculated using an extension of the theory originally proposed by Schwarz (SSH) et al. (1952). High-lying vibrational states and dissociative states were explicitly included but rotational energy transfer was neglected. The transition probabilities calculated from the SSH theory were fed into the master equation, which was integrated numerically to determine the population distribution of the vibrational states as well as bulk thermodynamic properties. The results show that: (1) the transition rates have a minimum near the middle of the bound vibrational levels, causing a bottleneck in the vibrational relaxation and dissociation rates; (2) high vibrational states are always in equilibrium with the dissociative state; (3) for the heating case, only the low vibrational states relax according to the Landau-Teller theory; (4) for the cooling case, vibrational relaxation cannot be described by a rate equation; (5) Park's (1985, 1988) two-temperature model is approximately valid; and (6) the average vibrational energy removed in dissociation is about 30 percent of the dissociation energy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.
2015-05-01
Scavenging of low-level ambient vibrations i.e. the conversion of kinetic into electric energy, is proven as effective means of powering low consumption electronic devices such as wireless sensor nodes. Cantilever based scavengers are characterised by several advantages and thus thoroughly investigated; analytical models based on a distributed parameter approach, Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and eigenvalue analysis have thus been developed and experimentally verified. Finite element models (FEM) have also been proposed employing different modelling approaches and commercial software packages with coupled analysis capabilities. An approach of using a FEM analysis of a piezoelectric cantilever bimorph under harmonic excitation is used in this work. Modal, harmonic and linear and nonlinear transient analyses are performed. Different complex dynamic effects are observed and compared to the results obtained by using a distributed parameter model. The influence of two types of finite elements and three mesh densities is also investigated. A complex bimorph cantilever, based on commercially available Midé Technology® Volture energy scavengers, is then considered. These scavengers are characterised by an intricate multilayer structure not investigated so far in literature. An experimental set-up is developed to evaluate the behaviour of the considered class of devices. The results of the modal and the harmonic FEM analyses of the behaviour of the multilayer scavengers are verified experimentally for three different tip masses and 12 different electrical load values. A satisfying agreement between numerical and experimental results is achieved.
A Numerical Simulator for Three-Dimensional Flows Through Vibrating Blade Rows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chuang, H. Andrew; Verdon, Joseph M.
1998-01-01
The three-dimensional, multi-stage, unsteady, turbomachinery analysis, TURBO, has been extended to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic response behaviors of a single blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct. In particular, a blade vibration capability has been incorporated so that the TURBO analysis can be applied over a solution domain that deforms with a vibratory blade motion. Also, unsteady far-field conditions have been implemented to render the computational boundaries at inlet and exit transparent to outgoing unsteady disturbances. The modified TURBO analysis is applied herein to predict unsteady subsonic and transonic flows. The intent is to partially validate this nonlinear analysis for blade flutter applications, via numerical results for benchmark unsteady flows, and to demonstrate the analysis for a realistic fan rotor. For these purposes, we have considered unsteady subsonic flows through a 3D version of the 10th Standard Cascade, and unsteady transonic flows through the first stage rotor of the NASA Lewis, Rotor 67, two-stage fan.
Vortex-induced vibration of two parallel risers: Experimental test and numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Weiping; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Haiming
2016-04-01
The vortex-induced vibration of two identical rigidly mounted risers in a parallel arrangement was studied using Ansys- CFX and model tests. The vortex shedding and force were recorded to determine the effect of spacing on the two-degree-of-freedom oscillation of the risers. CFX was used to study the single riser and two parallel risers in 2-8 D spacing considering the coupling effect. Because of the limited width of water channel, only three different riser spacings, 2 D, 3 D, and 4 D, were tested to validate the characteristics of the two parallel risers by comparing to the numerical simulation. The results indicate that the lift force changes significantly with the increase in spacing, and in the case of 3 D spacing, the lift force of the two parallel risers reaches the maximum. The vortex shedding of the risers in 3 D spacing shows that a variable velocity field with the same frequency as the vortex shedding is generated in the overlapped area, thus equalizing the period of drag force to that of lift force. It can be concluded that the interaction between the two parallel risers is significant when the risers are brought to a small distance between them because the trajectory of riser changes from oval to curve 8 as the spacing is increased. The phase difference of lift force between the two risers is also different as the spacing changes.
A General Framework for Multiphysics Modeling Based on Numerical Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lunati, I.; Tomin, P.
2014-12-01
In the last years, multiphysics (hybrid) modeling has attracted increasing attention as a tool to bridge the gap between pore-scale processes and a continuum description at the meter-scale (laboratory scale). This approach is particularly appealing for complex nonlinear processes, such as multiphase flow, reactive transport, density-driven instabilities, and geomechanical coupling. We present a general framework that can be applied to all these classes of problems. The method is based on ideas from the Multiscale Finite-Volume method (MsFV), which has been originally developed for Darcy-scale application. Recently, we have reformulated MsFV starting with a local-global splitting, which allows us to retain the original degree of coupling for the local problems and to use spatiotemporal adaptive strategies. The new framework is based on the simple idea that different characteristic temporal scales are inherited from different spatial scales, and the global and the local problems are solved with different temporal resolutions. The global (coarse-scale) problem is constructed based on a numerical volume-averaging paradigm and a continuum (Darcy-scale) description is obtained by introducing additional simplifications (e.g., by assuming that pressure is the only independent variable at the coarse scale, we recover an extended Darcy's law). We demonstrate that it is possible to adaptively and dynamically couple the Darcy-scale and the pore-scale descriptions of multiphase flow in a single conceptual and computational framework. Pore-scale problems are solved only in the active front region where fluid distribution changes with time. In the rest of the domain, only a coarse description is employed. This framework can be applied to other important problems such as reactive transport and crack propagation. As it is based on a numerical upscaling paradigm, our method can be used to explore the limits of validity of macroscopic models and to illuminate the meaning of
Balunov, V D; Barsukov, A F; Artamonova, V G
1998-01-01
The article covers complex evaluation of health state in building industry workers engaged into ferro-concrete production in St. Petersburg. The health state was considered under combined action of infrasound, noise and general vibration. Clinical and functional evaluation included medical examination by doctors, blood biochemistry and CBC, ECG, computer integral rheography, voice audiometry. Data for 62 moulders helped to assess acoustic environment at workplace and to reveal the morbidity structure. PMID:9662931
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lumentut, Mikail F.; Howard, Ian M.
2016-02-01
This paper focuses on the primary development of novel numerical and analytical techniques of the modal damped vibration energy harvesters with arbitrary proof mass offset. The key equations of electromechanical finite element discretisation using the extended Lagrangian principle are revealed and simplified to give matrix and scalar forms of the coupled system equations, indicating the most relevant numerical technique for the power harvester research. To evaluate the performance of the numerical study, the analytical closed-form boundary value equations have been developed using the extended Hamiltonian principle. The results from the electromechanical frequency response functions (EFRFs) derived from two theoretical studies show excellent agreement with experimental studies. The benefit of the numerical technique is in providing effective and quick predictions for analysing parametric designs and physical properties of piezoelectric materials. Although analytical technique provides a challenging process for analysing the complex smart structure, it shows complementary study for validating the numerical technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nghiem, H. T. M.; Costi, T. A.
2014-02-01
The time-dependent numerical renormalization group (TDNRG) method [Anders et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 196801 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.196801] offers the prospect of investigating in a nonperturbative manner the time dependence of local observables of interacting quantum impurity models at all time scales following a quantum quench. Here, we present a generalization of this method to arbitrary finite temperature by making use of the full density matrix approach [Weichselbaum et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076402 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.076402]. We show that all terms in the projected full density matrix ρi →f=ρ+++ρ--+ρ+-+ρ-+ appearing in the time evolution of a local observable may be evaluated in closed form at finite temperature, with ρ+-=ρ-+=0. The expression for ρ-- is shown to be finite at finite temperature, becoming negligible only in the limit of vanishing temperatures. We prove that this approach recovers the short-time limit for the expectation value of a local observable exactly at arbitrary temperatures. In contrast, the corresponding long-time limit is recovered exactly only for a continuous bath, i.e., when the logarithmic discretization parameter Λ →1+. Since the numerical renormalization group approach breaks down in this limit, and calculations have to be carried out at Λ >1, the long-time behavior following an arbitrary quantum quench has a finite error, which poses an obstacle for the method, e.g., in its application to the scattering-states numerical renormalization group method for describing steady-state nonequilibrium transport through correlated impurities [Anders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 066804 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.066804]. We suggest a way to overcome this problem by noting that the time dependence, in general, and the long-time limit, in particular, become increasingly more accurate on reducing the size of the quantum quench. This suggests an improved generalized TDNRG approach in which the system is time
Thermally induced vibrations in a generalized thermoelastic solid with a cavity
Erbay, H.A.; Erbay, S.; Dost, S. )
1991-06-01
The present work deals with thermally induced vibrations in an infinite solid with a cavity. The medium is assumed to be linear, isotropic, temperature-rate-dependent thermoelastic. The problem is solved for the cases of cylindrical and spherical cavities. The surface of the cavity is assumed to be subjected to a temperature varying harmonically with time, and free of stress. For the cases considered, the coupled field equations admit exact solutions in terms of Hankel and the spherical Hankel functions, respectively. Numerical results are compared with those of classical thermoelasticity. The contribution of the second sound parameters in these problems becomes more significant as the frequency of applied temperature increases. 8 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomioka, Takahiro; Takigami, Tadao
2015-05-01
The effects of passengers on vertical flexural vibrations of railway vehicle carbodies have been investigated experimentally and numerically. The primary focus is the damping effect caused by passengers. Vibration measurement tests, including stationary excitation tests and a running test on a commercial line, were conducted on three different types of actual railway vehicles for varying the numbers, postures and distributions of passengers. The measurement results showed that the peak frequencies in the measured FRF (frequency response function) and acceleration PSD (power spectral density) in response to excitation force or acceleration changed only a little; in contrast large reduction of the peak values was observed when passengers were aboard. These results show that passengers behave not as additional mass but as damping elements upon the carbody flexural vibrations. The damping effect by passengers appeared over several flexural modes and was significantly induced even by few passengers. Numerical studies were also carried out to develop analytical models for representing the measured results of the vibrations of carbody with passengers. It was shown that the change of the carbody FRF due to passengers could be simulated well by using a simple one-degree-of-freedom passenger model comprising a mass-spring-dashpot with a large damping ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Lihua; Yang, Qingxin; Yan, Rongge; Li, Yongjian; Zhang, Xian; Yan, Weili; Zhu, Jianguo
2013-05-01
Magnetostriction (MS) caused by the global magnetization of limbs and yokes and magnetic forces are the undisputed causes of the vibration and noise in power transformer cores. This paper presents a novel way to reduce the vibration and noise, in which nanocrystalline soft magnetic composite (NSMC) material with high permeability is used to fill the step-lap joint gaps of the power transformer magnetic cores. In order to numerically predict the effectiveness of the proposed method, a 3-D magneto-mechanical strong coupled model including MS and magnetic anisotropy of steel sheet was founded. Then, the numerical model was applied to analyze the step-lap joint region of the corner of magnetic cores. The analysis results illustrated that the deformation and noise of core with NSMC are lower than with the traditional epoxy damping material. Moreover, the validity of the proposed new way was verified by the simplified step-lap joint cores, which were achieved based on Epstein Frames.
Generalized Database Management System Support for Numeric Database Environments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dominick, Wayne D.; Weathers, Peggy G.
1982-01-01
This overview of potential for utilizing database management systems (DBMS) within numeric database environments highlights: (1) major features, functions, and characteristics of DBMS; (2) applicability to numeric database environment needs and user needs; (3) current applications of DBMS technology; and (4) research-oriented and…
Natkaniec, I.; Holderna-Natkaniec, K.; Kalus, J.; Khavryutchenko, V. D.
1999-06-15
Vibrational densities of states of solid xylenes were determined from the inelastic neutron scattering spectra measured on the NERA spectrometer at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor. These spectra were used to test the semi-empirical quantum-chemistry calculations of internal vibrations of xylene molecules with differently deuterated sub-units. Rotations of methyl groups were found to be strongly affected by intermolecular interactions in the crystals and mixed with phenyl ring deformations.
Experimental and numerical study on vibration of the full-revolving propulsion ship stern
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chang-qing; Che, Chi-dong; Shen, Xiao-han
2015-03-01
In order to solve the severe vibration problems of an ocean engineering ship with a full-revolving propulsion system, the navigation tests, including forced vibration response test and modal test, are carried out in its stern. It is concluded from the comparison of the time-domain waveform and spectrum from different measurement points that three main factors lead to a high-level stern vibration. Firstly, the specific dynamic stiffness of a water tank is relatively small compared with its neighbor hold, which makes it act like a vibration isolator preventing vibrational energy transmitting to the main hold. Secondly, there exists high-density local modes in the working frequency range of the main engine and thus the local resonance occurs. Thirdly, the abnormal engagement of gears caused by the large deflection of the shaft bearing due to its low mounting rigidity leads to violent extra impulse excitations at high speeds. Then the modification against the dynamic defects is given by simply improving the specific stiffness of the water tanks. And the effect is validated by the FEM calculation. Some important experience is obtained with the problems being solved, which is useful in the design of ships with the same propulsion system. It is also believed that the dynamic consideration is as important as the static analysis for the ships, and that most of the vibration problems may be avoided with a proper acoustic design.
A numerical model for calculating vibration from a railway tunnel embedded in a full-space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.
2007-08-01
Vibration generated by underground railways transmits to nearby buildings causing annoyance to inhabitants and malfunctioning to sensitive equipment. Vibration can be isolated through countermeasures by reducing the stiffness of railpads, using floating-slab tracks and/or supporting buildings on springs. Modelling of vibration from underground railways has recently gained more importance on account of the need to evaluate accurately the performance of vibration countermeasures before these are implemented. This paper develops an existing model, reported by Forrest and Hunt, for calculating vibration from underground railways. The model, known as the Pipe-in-Pipe model, has been developed in this paper to account for anti-symmetrical inputs and therefore to model tangential forces at the tunnel wall. Moreover, three different arrangements of supports are considered for floating-slab tracks, one which can be used to model directly-fixed slabs. The paper also investigates the wave-guided solution of the track, the tunnel, the surrounding soil and the coupled system. It is shown that the dynamics of the track have significant effect on the results calculated in the wavenumber-frequency domain and therefore an important role on controlling vibration from underground railways.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verbraken, H.; Lombaert, G.; Degrande, G.
2011-04-01
Vibrations induced by the passage of trains are a major environmental concern in urban areas. In practice, vibrations are often predicted using empirical methods such as the detailed vibration assessment procedure of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) of the U.S. Department of Transportation. This procedure allows predicting ground surface vibrations and re-radiated noise in buildings. Ground vibrations are calculated based on force densities, measured when a vehicle is running over a track, and line source transfer mobilities, measured on site to account for the effect of the local geology on wave propagation. Compared to parametric models, the advantage of this approach is that it inherently takes into account all important parameters. It can only be used, however, when an appropriate estimation of the force density is available. In this paper, analytical expressions are derived for the force density and the line source transfer mobility of the FRA procedure. The derivation of these expressions is verified using a coupled finite element-boundary element method.
A general numerical model for wave rotor analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Daniel W.
1992-01-01
Wave rotors represent one of the promising technologies for achieving very high core temperatures and pressures in future gas turbine engines. Their operation depends upon unsteady gas dynamics and as such, their analysis is quite difficult. This report describes a numerical model which has been developed to perform such an analysis. Following a brief introduction, a summary of the wave rotor concept is given. The governing equations are then presented, along with a summary of the assumptions used to obtain them. Next, the numerical integration technique is described. This is an explicit finite volume technique based on the method of Roe. The discussion then focuses on the implementation of appropriate boundary conditions. Following this, some results are presented which first compare the numerical approximation to the governing differential equations and then compare the overall model to an actual wave rotor experiment. Finally, some concluding remarks are presented concerning the limitations of the simplifying assumptions and areas where the model may be improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Yan, Guirong
2013-08-01
Two-degree-of-freedom Vortex-Induced Vibration (VIV) of two rigidly coupled circular cylinders of different diameters at a low Reynolds number of 250 is investigated numerically. While the diameter ratio and the mass ratio are kept constant, the study is focused on the effect of the position angle of the small cylinder on the lock-in regime of the VIV. Simulations are carried out for position angles α of the small cylinder ranging from 0° to 180° with an interval of 22.5° and the reduced velocities ranging from 1 to 15 with an increment of 1. In order to find the effect of the gap between the two cylinders on the vibration, two gap-to-diameter ratios (0 and 0.2) are considered. It is found that compared with a single cylinder case, the lock-in regime of the reduced velocity is widened significantly when the position angle of the small cylinder is α = 0°, 22.5°, 90°, or 112.5°. Pulsed beating phenomenon characterized by regular vibration with occasional high-amplitude disturbances at regular or irregular intervals is observed at G = 0 and α = 90°. At α = 135°, more than one lock-in regimes are observed in the computed range of reduced velocity for both gaps (G = 0 and 0.2). Setting a small gap (gap-to-diameter ratio of 0.2) between the two cylinders mitigates the vibration by narrowing the lock-in regime and reducing the vibration amplitude.
A GENERAL MASS-CONSERVATIVE NUMERICAL SOLUTION FOR THE UNSATURATED FLOW EQUATION
Numerical approximations based on different forms of the governing partial differential equation can lead to significantly different results for unsaturated flow problems. Numerical solution based on the standard h-based form of Richards equation generally yields poor results, ch...
Free Vibration of Simply Supported General Triangular Thin Plates: AN Accurate Simplified Solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saliba, H. T.
1996-09-01
In this paper, a highly accurate, simplified, and economical solution is provided for the free vibration problem of simply supported thin general triangular plates. The method is applicable to thin plates with linear boundaries regardless of there geometrical shapes. Results are compared with previously published reliable data for both the isosceles as well as the general triangles. Excellent agreements are reported. Eigenvalues are provided for a wide range of place aspect ratios. The first five mode shapes for some isosceles triangles are also provided for illustrative purposes. The advantages of the solution presented in the paper over previously published solutions are briefly discussed. Although the paper deals only with simple support conditions, it is mentioned that any combination of classical boundary conditions, with or without complicating factors, can easily be handled.
Numerical and semiclassical analysis of some generalized Casimir pistons
Schaden, M.
2009-05-15
The Casimir force due to a scalar field in a cylinder of radius r with a spherical cap of radius R>r is computed numerically in the world-line approach. A geometrical subtraction scheme gives the finite interaction energy that determines the Casimir force. The spectral function of convex domains is obtained from a probability measure on convex surfaces that is induced by the Wiener measure on Brownian bridges the convex surfaces are the hulls of. Due to reflection positivity, the vacuum force on the piston by a scalar field satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is attractive in these geometries, but the strength and short-distance behavior of the force depend strongly on the shape of the piston casing. For a cylindrical casing with a hemispherical head, the force on the piston does not depend on the dimension of the casing at small piston elevation a<
Numerical methods for a general class of porous medium equations
Rose, M. E.
1980-03-01
The partial differential equation par. deltau/par. deltat + par. delta(f(u))/par. deltax = par. delta(g(u)par. deltau/par. deltax)/par. deltax, where g(u) is a non-negative diffusion coefficient that may vanish for one or more values of u, was used to model fluid flow through a porous medium. Error estimates for a numerical procedure to approximate the solution are derived. A revised version of this report will appear in Computers and Mathematics with Applications.
Numerical implementation of generalized Coddington equations for ophthalmic lens design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rojo, P.; Royo, S.; Ramírez, J.; Madariaga, I.
2014-02-01
A method for general implementation in any software platform of the generalized Coddington equations is presented, developed, and validated within a Matlab environment. The ophthalmic lens design strategy is presented thoroughly, and the basic concepts of generalized ray tracing are introduced. The methodology for ray tracing is shown to include two inter-related processes. Firstly, finite ray tracing is used to provide the main direction of propagation of the considered ray at the incidence point of interest. Afterwards, generalized ray tracing provides the principal curvatures of the local wavefront at that point, and its orientation after being refracted by the lens. The curvature values of the local wavefront are interpreted as the sagital and tangential powers of the lens at the point of interest. The proposed approach is validated using a double-check of the calculated lens performance in the spherical lens case: while finite ray tracing is validated using a commercial ray tracing software, generalized ray tracing is validated using a software application for ophthalmic lens design based on the classical version of Coddington equations. Equations of the complete tracing process are developed in detail for the case of generic astigmatic ophthalmic lenses as an example. Three-dimensional representation of the sagital and tangential powers of the ophthalmic lens at all directions of gaze then becomes possible, and results are presented for lenses with different geometries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouroussis, G.; Bergeret, E.; Conti, C.; Verlinden, O.
With the development of continuous technological innovation, the railway transport is presented as an interesting alternative to the road traffic. Some drawbacks exist, one of the most problematic being certainly the vibrations induced by the railway traffic. The presented research wants to establish a reliable methodology in order to evaluate, from the design stage of a vehicle or of a track, the efforts transmitted by the vehicle to the track/soil system and consequently the level of vibrations in the surroundings. An analysis of the interaction between the track and the soil has been performed in order to show when the track/soil uncoupling can be assumed, with the aim of working in two stages. The first step is based on the vertical dynamic behaviour of the vehicle/track subsystem, taking into account any irregularity in the rail surface. For the soil subsystem (second step), recent publications showed that the finite/infinite element method can be an interesting alternative to boundary element method. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the real benefit of the vehicle modelling in this kind of problem. Typical railway applications (Brussels tram, Thalys HST) are proposed, showing among others that significant reduction of ground vibration level can be obtained by modifying the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guilmineau, E.; Queutey, P.
2004-05-01
In this paper, we present some numerical results from a study of the dynamics and fluid forcing on an elastically mounted rigid cylinder with low mass-damping, constrained to oscillate transversely to a free stream. The vortex shedding around the cylinder is investigated numerically by the incompressible two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These equations are written in a primitive formulation in which the Cartesian velocity components and pressure share the same location at the center of the control volume. The numerical method uses a consistent physical reconstruction for the mass and momentum fluxes: the so-called consistent physical interpolation (CPI) approach in a conservative discretization using finite volumes on structured grids. The turbulence modeling is carried out by the SST K-ω model of Menter (AIAA 24th Fluid Dynamics Conference, Orlando, FL, USA). The numerical results are compared with the 1996 experimental results of Khalak and Williamson (J. Fluids Struct. 10 (1996) 455). The Reynolds number is in the range 900-15 000, the reduced velocity is including between 1.0 and 17.0. The mass ratio is 2.4 and the mass-damping is 0.013. Several initial conditions are used. According the initial condition used, the simulations predict correctly the maximum amplitude. On the other hand, the numerical results do not match the upper branch found experimentally. However, these results are encouraging, because no simulations have yet predicted such a high amplitude of vibration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekhoucha, Ferhat; Rechak, Said; Duigou, Laëtitia; Cadou, Jean-Marc
2015-05-01
This paper deals with the computation of backbone curves bifurcated from a Hopf bifurcation point in the framework of nonlinear free vibrations of a rotating flexible beams. The intrinsic and geometrical equations of motion for anisotropic beams subjected to large displacements are used and transformed with Galerkin and harmonic balance methods to one quadratic algebraic equation involving one parameter, the pulsation. The latter is treated with the asymptotic numerical method using Padé approximants. An algorithm, equivalent to the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction is proposed, to compute the bifurcated branches accurately from a Hopf bifurcation point, with singularity of co-rank 2, related to a conservative and gyroscopic dynamical system steady state, toward a nonlinear periodic state. Numerical tests dealing with clamped, isotropic and composite, rotating beams show the reliability of the proposed method reinforced by accurate results.
On a New Numerical Method for Solving General Variational Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bnouhachem, Abdellah; Noor, Muhammad Aslam; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Sheng, Zhaohan
In this paper, we suggest and analyze a new extragradient method for solving the general variational inequalities involving two operators. We also prove the global convergence of the proposed modified method under certain mild conditions. We used a self-adaptive technique to adjust parameter ρ at each iteration. It is proved theoretically that the lower-bound of the progress obtained by the proposed method is greater than that by the extragradient method. An example is given to illustrate the efficiency and its comparison with the extragradient method. Since the general variational inequalities include the classical variational inequalities and complementarity problems as special cases, our results obtained in this paper continue to hold for these problems. Results obtained in this paper may be viewed as an improvement and refinement of the previously known results in this field.
A general numerical analysis program for the superconducting quasiparticle mixer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hicks, R. G.; Feldman, M. J.; Kerr, A. R.
1986-01-01
A user-oriented computer program SISCAP (SIS Computer Analysis Program) for analyzing SIS mixers is described. The program allows arbitrary impedance terminations to be specified at all LO harmonics and sideband frequencies. It is therefore able to treat a much more general class of SIS mixers than the widely used three-frequency analysis, for which the harmonics are assumed to be short-circuited. An additional program, GETCHI, provides the necessary input data to program SISCAP. The SISCAP program performs a nonlinear analysis to determine the SIS junction voltage waveform produced by the local oscillator. The quantum theory of mixing is used in its most general form, treating the large signal properties of the mixer in the time domain. A small signal linear analysis is then used to find the conversion loss and port impedances. The noise analysis includes thermal noise from the termination resistances and shot noise from the periodic LO current. Quantum noise is not considered. Many aspects of the program have been adequately verified and found accurate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, W. F., Jr.; Malatino, R. E.
1975-01-01
A method is presented for determining the free vibration characteristics of a rotating blade having nonuniform spanwise properties and cantilever boundary conditions. The equations which govern the coupled flapwise, chordwise, and torsional motion of such a blade are solved using an integrating matrix method. By expressing the equations of motion and matrix notation, utilizing the integrating matrix as an operator, and applying the boundary conditions, the equations are formulated into an eigenvalue problem whose solutions may be determined by conventional methods. Computer results are compared with experimental data.
WhiskyMHD: Numerical Code for General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baiotti, Luca; Giacomazzo, Bruno; Hawke, Ian; et al.
2010-10-01
Whisky is a code to evolve the equations of general relativistic hydrodynamics (GRHD) and magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) in 3D Cartesian coordinates on a curved dynamical background. It was originally developed by and for members of the EU Network on Sources of Gravitational Radiation and is based on the Cactus Computational Toolkit. Whisky can also implement adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) if compiled together with Carpet. Whisky has grown from earlier codes such as GR3D and GRAstro_Hydro, but has been rewritten to take advantage of some of the latest research performed here in the EU. The motivation behind Whisky is to compute gravitational radiation waveforms for systems that involve matter. Examples would include the merger of a binary system containing a neutron star, which are expected to be reasonably common in the universe and expected to produce substantial amounts of radiation. Other possible sources are given in the projects list.
A numerical investigation of flow induced vibrations in a rocket engine manifold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peugeot, John W.
2011-12-01
Flow induced vibrations are common in liquid rocket engine components and have been the subject of several recent studies within the Space Shuttle and Delta launch vehicle programs. Understanding how unsteady flow phenomena develop is important when investigating failures in existing hardware and in the design of new propulsion systems. In this study, a subsonic turbulent flow in a rocket engine manifold is analyzed using a compressible form of the viscous flow equations coupled with a hybrid RANS-DES turbulence model. It is found that vortex shedding and pressure perturbations within a manifold significantly influence the stability of shear layers and flow through exit cooling tubes. By adding a chamfer to the inlet of the cooling tubes, it was demonstrated that greater shear layer stability can be obtaIned at a given pressure ratio.
Transverse vibrations of shear-deformable beams using a general higher order theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosmatka, J. B.
1993-01-01
A general higher order theory is developed to study the static and vibrational behavior of beam structures having an arbitrary cross section that utilizes both out-of-plane shear-dependent warping and in-plane (anticlastic) deformations. The equations of motion are derived via Hamilton's principle, where the full 3D constitutive relations are used. A simplified version of the general higher-order theory is also presented for beams having an arbitrary cross section that includes out-of-plane shear deformation but assumes that stresses within the cross section and in-plane deformations are negligible. This simplified model, which is accurate for long to moderately short wavelengths, offers substantial improvements over existing higher order theories that are limited to beams with thin rectangular cross sections. The current approach will be very useful in the study of thin-wall closed-cell beams such as airfoil-type sections where the magnitude of shear-related cross-sectional warping is significant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, I. G.
1984-01-01
A cubic spline based Galerkin-like method is developed for the identification of a class of hybrid systems which describe the transverse vibration to flexible beams with attached tip bodies. The identification problem is formulated as a least squares fit to data subject to the system dynamics given by a coupled system of ordnary and partial differential equations recast as an abstract evolution equation (AEE) in an appropriate infinite dimensional Hilbert space. Projecting the AEE into spline-based subspaces leads naturally to a sequence of approximating finite dimensional identification problems. The solutions to these problems are shown to exist, are relatively easily computed, and are shown to, in some sense, converge to solutions to the original identification problem. Numerical results for a variety of examples are discussed.
Numerical investigation of nonlinear vibration for rotor-seal system of centrifugal pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, W. J.; Yang, Y. C.; Xing, G. K.; Wang, L. Q.
2013-12-01
The exciting force in the seal is an important factor for the stability of a multiple stage centrifugal pump. With the speed increasing, the rotor system of multiple stage centrifugal pump presents some nonlinear characters. In order to provide supports for the research of nonlinear characters of multiple stage centrifugal pump, a rotor-seal system model of centrifugal pump is presented and the Muszynska nonlinear seal model is used to express the seal exciting force with multiple parameters in the paper. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is also used to determine the vibration response at the impeller place and obtain bifurcation diagram, axis orbit, phase diagram as well as Poincaré Map. The bifurcation results show that the rotor-seal system would be stable under a lower speed and change to be unstable as the rotor speed increases. Various multi-periodic motions and quasi-periodic motions are found showing the complicated motions in the rotor-seal system under nonlinear seal forces.
Experimental evidence, numerics, and theory of vibrational resonance in bistable systems.
Baltanás, J P; López, L; Blechman, I I; Landa, P S; Zaikin, A; Kurths, J; Sanjuán, M A F
2003-06-01
We consider an overdamped bistable oscillator subject to the action of a biharmonic force with very different frequencies, and study the response of the system when the parameters of the high-frequency force are varied. A resonantlike behavior is obtained when the amplitude or the frequency of this force is modified in an experiment performed by means of an analog circuit. This behavior, confirmed by numerical simulations, is explained on the basis of a theoretical approach. PMID:16241316
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Xiaohai; Lee, Taehun; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Wang, Zhexuan
2013-11-01
Vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) phenomena related to self-excited energy harvesters consisting of circular or square cylinders have been investigated numerically by using the BGK or MRT Lattice Boltzmann Method. In the present work such a harvester is placed inside a channel flow and is allowed to oscillate without a structural restoring force in a direction normal to the flow. Currently the half-way bounce-back boundary scheme and interpolations are being used to model the moving boundary. The numerical results were compared to the ones by classical CFD methods and experiments. A good agreement was obtained. The vortex dynamics and the development of the flow patterns for different flow parameters such as Reynolds number, blockage and aspect ratios will be presented. Particular emphasis is given to the dynamics of vortex pairing observed in several of the simulations. The present approach will be extended to simulate the flexible beam with the Immersed Boundary Method. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation (CBET #1033117) and a fellowship support from China Scholarship Council.
Thomson, S L; Tack, J W; Verkerke, G J
2007-01-01
A computational model for exploring the design of a voice-producing voice prosthesis, or voice-producing element (VPE), is presented. The VPE is intended for use by laryngectomized patients who cannot benefit from current speech rehabilitation techniques. Previous experiments have focused on the design of a double-membrane voice generator as a VPE. For optimization studies, a numerical model has been developed. The numerical model introduced incorporates the finite element (FE) method to solve for the flow-induced vibrations of the VPE system, including airflow coupled with a mass-loaded membrane. The FE model includes distinct but coupled fluid and solid domains. The flow solver is governed by the incompressible, laminar, unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The solid solver allows for large deformation, large strain, and collision. It is first shown that the model satisfactorily represents previously published experimental results in terms of frequency and flow rate, enabling the model for use as a design tool. The model is then used to study the influence of geometric scaling, membrane thickness, membrane stiffness, and slightly convergent or divergent channel geometry on the model response. It is shown that physiological allowable changes in the latter three device parameters alone will not be sufficient to generate the desired reduction in fundamental frequency. However, their effects are quantified and it is shown that membrane stiffness and included angle should be considered in future designs. PMID:17662296
Chapman, Craig T; Cheng, Xiaolu; Cina, Jeffrey A
2011-04-28
A recently framed quantum/semiclassical treatment for the internal nuclear dynamics of a small molecule and the induced small-amplitude coherent motion of a low-temperature host medium (Chapman, C. T.; Cina, J. A. J. Chem. Phys.2007,127, 114502) is further analyzed and subjected to initial tests of its numerical implementation. In the illustrative context of a 1D system interacting with a 1D medium, we rederive the fixed vibrational basis/gaussian bath (FVB/GB) equations of motion for the parameters defining the gaussian bath wave packet accompanying each of the energy eigenkets of the quantum mechanical system. The conditions of validity for the gaussian-bath approximation are shown to coincide with those supporting approximate population conservation. We perform initial numerical tests of the FVB/GB scheme and illustrate the semiclassical description it provides of coherent motion in the medium by comparing its predictions with the exact results for a high-frequency system harmonic oscillator bilinearly coupled to a lower-frequency bath oscillator. Linear vibronic absorption spectra or, equivalently, ultrafast wave packet interferometry signals are shown to be readily and accurately calculable within the FVB/GB framework. PMID:21462985
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fowlis, W. W. (Editor); Davis, M. H. (Editor)
1981-01-01
The atmospheric general circulation experiment (AGCE) numerical design for Spacelab flights was studied. A spherical baroclinic flow experiment which models the large scale circulations of the Earth's atmosphere was proposed. Gravity is simulated by a radial dielectric body force. The major objective of the AGCE is to study nonlinear baroclinic wave flows in spherical geometry. Numerical models must be developed which accurately predict the basic axisymmetric states and the stability of nonlinear baroclinic wave flows. A three dimensional, fully nonlinear, numerical model and the AGCE based on the complete set of equations is required. Progress in the AGCE numerical design studies program is reported.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming
2013-05-01
Two-degree-of-freedom (2dof) vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a circular cylinder in oscillatory flow is investigated numerically. The direction of the oscillatory flow is perpendicular to the spanwise direction of the circular cylinder. Simulations are carried out for the Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers of 10, 20 and 40 and the Reynolds numbers ranging from 308 to 9240. The ratio of the Reynolds number to the reduced velocity is 308. At KC=10, the amplitude of the primary frequency component is much larger than those of other frequency components. Most vibrations for KC=20 and 40 have multiple frequencies. The primary frequency of the response in the cross-flow direction decreases with the increasing reduced velocity, except when the reduced velocity is very small. Because the calculated primary frequencies of the response in the cross-flow direction are multiple of the oscillatory flow frequency in most of the calculated cases, the responses are classified into single-frequency mode, double-frequency mode, triple frequency mode, etc. If the reduced velocity is in the range where the VIV is transiting from one mode to another, the vibration is very irregular.For each KC number the range of the reduced velocity can be divided into a cross-flow-in-phase regime (low Vr), where the response and the hydrodynamic force in the cross-flow direction synchronize, and a cross-flow-anti-phase regime (high Vr), where the response and the hydrodynamic force in the cross-flow direction are in anti-phase with each other. The boundary values of Vr between the cross-flow-in-phase and the cross-flow-anti-phase regimes are 7, 9 and 11 for KC=10, 20 and 40, respectively. For KC=20, another cross-flow-anti-phase regime is found between 15≤Vr≤19. Similarly the in-line-in-phase and the in-line-anti-phase regimes are also identified for the response in the in-line direction. It is found that the boundary value of Vr between the in-line-in-phase and the in-line-anti-phase regimes is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Dibin; Roberts, Stephen; Mouille, Thomas; Tudor, Michael J.; Beeby, Stephen P.
2012-10-01
This paper presents a general model and its experimental validation for electrically tunable electromagnetic energy harvesters. Electrical tuning relies on the adjustment of the electrical load so that the maximum output power of the energy harvester occurs at a frequency which is different from the mechanical resonant frequency of the energy harvester. Theoretical analysis shows that for this approach to be feasible the electromagnetic vibration energy harvester’s coupling factor must be maximized so that its resonant frequency can be tuned with the minimum decrease of output power. Two different-sized electromagnetic energy harvesters were built and tested to validate the model. Experimentally, the micro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 0.0035 and an untuned resonant frequency of 70.05 Hz. When excited at 30 mg, it was tuned by 0.23 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 4000 nF its effective tuning range is 0.15 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1500 nF. The macro-scale energy harvester has a coupling factor of 552.25 and an untuned resonant frequency of 95.1 Hz and 95.5 Hz when excited at 10 mg and 25 mg, respectively. When excited at 10 mg, it was tuned by 3.8 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of 3.5 Hz for a capacitive load variation from 0 to 1200 nF. When excited at 25 mg, its resonant frequency was tuned by 4.2 Hz by changing its capacitive load from 0 to 1400 nF it has an effective tuning range of about 5 Hz. Experimental results were found to agree with the theoretical analysis to within 10%.
Modal wavefront reconstruction over general shaped aperture by numerical orthogonal polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Jingfei; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhishan; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Wenqing; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Qun
2015-03-01
In practical optical measurements, the wavefront data are recorded by pixelated imaging sensors. The closed-form analytical base polynomial will lose its orthogonality in the discrete wavefront database. For a wavefront with an irregularly shaped aperture, the corresponding analytical base polynomials are laboriously derived. The use of numerical orthogonal polynomials for reconstructing a wavefront with a general shaped aperture over the discrete data points is presented. Numerical polynomials are orthogonal over the discrete data points regardless of the boundary shape of the aperture. The performance of numerical orthogonal polynomials is confirmed by theoretical analysis and experiments. The results demonstrate the adaptability, validity, and accuracy of numerical orthogonal polynomials for estimating the wavefront over a general shaped aperture from regular boundary to an irregular boundary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin; Hu, Ting
2008-06-01
An efficient 2.5D finite element numerical modeling approach was developed to simulate wave motions generated in ground by high-speed train passages. Fourier transform with respect to the coordinate in the track direction was applied to reducing the three-dimensional dynamic problem to a plane strain problem which has been solved in a section perpendicular to the track direction. In this study, the track structure and supporting ballast layer were simplified as a composite Euler beam resting on the ground surface, while the ground with complicated geometry and physical properties was modeled by 2.5D quadrilateral elements. Wave dissipation into the far field was dealt with the transmitting boundary constructed with frequency-dependent dashpots. Three-dimensional responses of track structure and ground were obtained from the wavenumber expansion in the track direction. The simulated wave motions in ground were interpreted for train moving loads traveling at speeds below or above the critical velocity of a specific track-ground system. It is found that, in the soft ground area, the high-speed train operations can enter the transonic range, which can lead to resonances of the track structure and the supporting ground. The strong vibration will endanger the safe operations of high-speed train and accelerate the deterioration of railway structure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Bin; Tian, Aimei; Tang, Wei
2016-06-01
Particle damping (PD) has been well known for its simplicity and high efficiency in attenuating structure vibration. Recent studies on PD have focused mainly on new types of dampers and applications. Meanwhile, excitation applied to the primary structure is still limited to either horizontal or vertical direction, perpendicular or parallel to gravity. In this study, the characteristics of PD under horizontal-vertical excitations (HVE) are investigated numerically and experimentally. The particle damper, which is attached to the top free end of an L-shaped cantilever beam, is simultaneously excited in the horizontal and vertical directions in the context of free decay. An equivalent model capable of motion in both the horizontal and vertical directions is generated. Given an initial displacement disturbance, this model starts vibrating freely in the vertical plane. A code based on the 3D discrete element method is programmed, and the high coincidence between the numerical and experimental results shows that this equivalent model is capable of high-fidelity simulation for PD under HVE. Parametric studies have been implemented to characterize the basic nonlinear damping capacity of particle dampers under this new operating condition. The effects of seven dimensionless independent parameters on the specific damping capacity (SDC) are investigated, including dimensionless acceleration amplitude, particle mass ratio, dimensionless horizontal and vertical impact clearances, coefficients of friction and restitution, and amplitude ratio of the horizontal excitation to the vertical excitation. The results show that the basic damping properties of PD under HVE are similar to those of PD under only vertical excitation. However, PD under HVE signifies its own characteristics because of the existence of horizontal excitation: (1) The impact clearances in both the horizontal and vertical directions have significant effects on the SDC because of the significant increase in oblique
Generalized thick strip modelling for vortex-induced vibration of long flexible cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Y.; Palacios, R.; Graham, M.; Sherwin, S.
2016-09-01
We propose a generalized strip modelling method that is computationally efficient for the VIV prediction of long flexible cylinders in three-dimensional incompressible flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional strip-theory-based 2D models, the fluid domain is divided into "thick" strips, which are sufficiently thick to locally resolve the small scale turbulence effects and three dimensionality of the flow around the cylinder. An attractive feature of the model is that we independently construct a three-dimensional scale resolving model for individual strips, which have local spanwise scale along the cylinder's axial direction and are only coupled through the structural model of the cylinder. Therefore, this approach is able to cover the full spectrum for fully resolved 3D modelling to 2D strip theory. The connection between these strips is achieved through the calculation of a tensioned beam equation, which is used to represent the dynamics of the flexible body. In the limit, however, a single "thick" strip would fill the full 3D domain. A parallel Fourier spectral/hp element method is employed to solve the 3D flow dynamics in the strip-domain, and then the VIV response prediction is achieved through the strip-structure interactions. Numerical tests on both laminar and turbulent flows as well as the comparison against the fully resolved DNS are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wildman, R. D.; Jenkins, J. T.; Krouskop, P. E.; Talbot, J.
2006-07-01
A comparison of the predictions of a simple kinetic theory with experimental and numerical results for a vibrated granular bed consisting of nearly elastic particles of two sizes has been performed. The results show good agreement between the data sets for a range of numbers of each size of particle, and are particularly good for particle beds containing similar proportions of each species. The agreement suggests that such a model may be a good starting point for describing polydisperse systems of granular flows.
Drolshagen, G.; Mayne, H.R.; Toennies, J.P.
1981-07-01
We extend the theory of inelastic rainbows to include vibrationally inelastic scattering, showing how the existence of vibrational rainbows can be deduced from collinear classical scattering theory. Exact close-coupling calculations are carried out for a breathing sphere potential, and rainbow structures are, in fact, observed. The location of the rainbows generally agrees well with the classical prediction. In addition, the sensitivity of the location of the rainbow to changes in the vibrational coupling has been investigated. It is shown that vibrational rainbows persist in the presence of anisotropy. Experimental results (R. David, M. Faubel, and J. P. Toennies, Chem. Phys. Lett. 18, 87 (1973)) are examined for evidence of vibrational rainbow structure, and it is shown that vibrational rainbow theory is not inconsistent with these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takada, Shoji; Nakamura, Hiroki
1995-03-01
Tunneling energy splittings of vibrationally excited states are calculated quantum mechanically using several models of two-dimensional symmetric double well potentials. Various effects of vibrational excitation on tunneling are found to appear, depending on the topography of potential energy surface; the symmetry of the mode coupling plays an essential role. Especially, oscillation of tunneling splitting with respect to vibrational quantum number can occur and is interpreted by a clear physical picture based on the semiclassical theory formulated recently [Takada and Nakamura, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 98 (1994)]. The mixed tunneling in the C region found there allows the wave functions to have nodal lines in classically inaccessible region and can cause the suppression of the tunneling. The above analysis is followed by the interpretation of recent experiments of proton tunneling in tropolone. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations are carried out for the electronically ground state. A simple three-dimensional model potential is constructed and employed to analyze the proton tunneling dynamics. Some of the experimentally observed intriguing features can be explained by the typical mechanisms discussed above.
Numerically pricing American options under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wenting; Yan, Bowen; Lian, Guanghua; Zhang, Ying
2016-06-01
In this paper, we introduce a robust numerical method, based on the upwind scheme, for the pricing of American puts under the generalized mixed fractional Brownian motion (GMFBM) model. By using portfolio analysis and applying the Wick-Itô formula, a partial differential equation (PDE) governing the prices of vanilla options under the GMFBM is successfully derived for the first time. Based on this, we formulate the pricing of American puts under the current model as a linear complementarity problem (LCP). Unlike the classical Black-Scholes (B-S) model or the generalized B-S model discussed in Cen and Le (2011), the newly obtained LCP under the GMFBM model is difficult to be solved accurately because of the numerical instability which results from the degeneration of the governing PDE as time approaches zero. To overcome this difficulty, a numerical approach based on the upwind scheme is adopted. It is shown that the coefficient matrix of the current method is an M-matrix, which ensures its stability in the maximum-norm sense. Remarkably, we have managed to provide a sharp theoretic error estimate for the current method, which is further verified numerically. The results of various numerical experiments also suggest that this new approach is quite accurate, and can be easily extended to price other types of financial derivatives with an American-style exercise feature under the GMFBM model.
Harleston, H. Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Distrito Federal ); Vishniac, E.T. )
1992-06-15
The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism is used to write the Einstein-Boltzmann coupled system of equations. The sources of gravitational field are represented by ordinary matter described by a perfect-fluid approximation together with a particle gas described by a phase-space distribution function obeying the general-relativistic Boltzmann transport equation. Through the use of the Liouville operator in phase space, we obtain a form of the Boltzmann equation that makes it very amenable for numerical treatment. The resulting system of equations can be used for the numerical study of either massless or massive particles interacting with ordinary matter.
Steady and Unsteady Numerical Solution of Generalized Newtonian Fluids Flow by Runge-Kutta method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keslerová, R.; Kozel, K.; Prokop, V.
2010-09-01
In this paper the laminar viscous incompressible flow for generalized Newtonian (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) fluids is considered. The governing system of equations is the system of Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation. The steady and unsteady numerical solution for this system is computed by finite volume method combined with an artificial compressibility method. For time discretization the explicit multistage Runge-Kutta numerical scheme is considered. Steady state solution is achieved for t→∞ using steady boundary conditions and followed by steady residual behavior. The dual time-stepping method is considered for unsteady computation. The high artificial compressibility coefficient is used in the artificial compressibility method applied in the dual time τ. The steady and unsteady numerical results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian (shear thickening and shear thinning) fluids flow in the branching channel are presented.
Numerical studies of constraints and gravitational wave extraction in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiske, David Robert
Within classical physics, general relativity is the theory of gravity. Its equations are non-linear partial differential equations for which relatively few closed form solutions are known. Because of the growing observational need for solutions representing gravitational waves from astrophysically plausible sources, a subfield of general relativity; numerical relativity, has a emerged with the goal of generating numerical solutions to the Einstein equations. This dissertation focuses on two fundamental problems in modern numerical relativity: (1)Creating a theoretical treatment of the constraints in the presence of constraint-violating numerical errors, and (2)Designing and implementing an algorithm to compute the spherical harmonic decomposition of radiation quantities for comparison with observation. On the issue of the constraints, I present a novel and generic procedure for incorporating the constraints into the equations of motion of the theory in a way designed to make the constraint hypersurface an attractor of the evolution. In principle, the prescription generates non- linear corrections for the Einstein equations. The dissertation presents numerical evidence that the correction terms do work in the case of two formulations of the Maxwell equations and two formulations of the linearized Einstein equations. On the issue of radiation extraction, I provide the first in-depth analysis of a novel algorithm, due originally to Misner, for computing spherical harmonic components on a cubic grid. I compute explicitly how the truncation error in the algorithm depends on its various parameters, and I also provide a detailed analysis showing how to implement the method on grids in which explicit symmetries are enforced via boundary conditions. Finally, I verify these error estimates and symmetry arguments with a numerical study using a solution of the linearized Einstein equations known as a Teukolsky wave. The algorithm performs well and the estimates prove true both
Numerical solution of shock and ramp compression for general material properties
Swift, D C
2009-01-28
A general formulation was developed to represent material models for applications in dynamic loading. Numerical methods were devised to calculate response to shock and ramp compression, and ramp decompression, generalizing previous solutions for scalar equations of state. The numerical methods were found to be flexible and robust, and matched analytic results to a high accuracy. The basic ramp and shock solution methods were coupled to solve for composite deformation paths, such as shock-induced impacts, and shock interactions with a planar interface between different materials. These calculations capture much of the physics of typical material dynamics experiments, without requiring spatially-resolving simulations. Example calculations were made of loading histories in metals, illustrating the effects of plastic work on the temperatures induced in quasi-isentropic and shock-release experiments, and the effect of a phase transition.
Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.
2013-01-01
The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaris, Christos S.; Sakellariou, John S.; Fassois, Spilios D.
2015-07-01
A Generalized Functional Model Based Method for vibration-based damage precise localization on structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements is introduced. The method generalizes previous versions applicable to structures consisting of 1D elements, thus allowing for 2D and 3D elements as well. It is based on scalar (single sensor) or vector (multiple sensor) Functional Models which - in the inspection phase - incorporate the mathematical form of the specific structural topology. Precise localization is then based on coordinate estimation within this model structure, and confidence bounds are also obtained. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated through experiments on a 3D truss structure where damage corresponds to single bolt loosening. Both the scalar and vector versions of the method are shown to be effective even within a very limited, low frequency, bandwidth of 3-59 Hz. The improvement achieved through the use of multiple sensors is also demonstrated.
Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.
1993-03-01
The primary objective of this study was to measure the coupling between the experimental hall structure and the storage ring tunnel. The study was motivated in part by concern over the potential for wind excitation of the building to couple through the ground and/or piping/ductwork to the storage ring basemat. Unfortunately, there was very little wind on the measurement date. However, it can be assumed that the wind turbulence would excite the experimental hall structure at one or more of its resonant frequencies. Similar coupling information can be obtained by using ambient vibration as the excitation source and measuring the resultant structure/basemat response and associated coupling. This was the approach taken in this study.
Dong, S.
2015-02-15
We present a family of physical formulations, and a numerical algorithm, based on a class of general order parameters for simulating the motion of a mixture of N (N⩾2) immiscible incompressible fluids with given densities, dynamic viscosities, and pairwise surface tensions. The N-phase formulations stem from a phase field model we developed in a recent work based on the conservations of mass/momentum, and the second law of thermodynamics. The introduction of general order parameters leads to an extremely strongly-coupled system of (N−1) phase field equations. On the other hand, the general form enables one to compute the N-phase mixing energy density coefficients in an explicit fashion in terms of the pairwise surface tensions. We show that the increased complexity in the form of the phase field equations associated with general order parameters in actuality does not cause essential computational difficulties. Our numerical algorithm reformulates the (N−1) strongly-coupled phase field equations for general order parameters into 2(N−1) Helmholtz-type equations that are completely de-coupled from one another. This leads to a computational complexity comparable to that for the simplified phase field equations associated with certain special choice of the order parameters. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method developed herein using several test problems involving multiple fluid phases and large contrasts in densities and viscosities among the multitude of fluids. In particular, by comparing simulation results with the Langmuir–de Gennes theory of floating liquid lenses we show that the method using general order parameters produces physically accurate results for multiple fluid phases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Geary, David C.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Bryant, Joan D.; Schatschneider, Christopher
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between basic numerical cognition and domain-general abilities (such as working memory) in explaining school mathematics learning. First graders (N = 280; mean age = 5.77 years) were assessed on 2 types of basic numerical cognition, 8 domain-general abilities, procedural calculations, and word…
A fully general relativistic numerical simulation code for spherically symmetric matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Dong-Ho; Cho, Inyong; Kang, Gungwon; Lee, Hyung Mok
2013-02-01
We present a fully general relativistic open-source code that can be used for simulating a system of spherically symmetric perfect fluid matter. It is based on the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner 3+1 formalism with maximal slicing and isotropic spatial coordinates. For hydrodynamic matter High Resolution Shock Capturing (HRSC) schemes with a monotonized central-difference limiter and approximated Riemann solvers are used in the Eulerian viewpoint. The accuracy and the convergence of our numerical code are verified by performing several test problems. These include a relativistic blast wave, relativistic spherical accretion of matter into a black hole, Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) stars and Oppenheimer-Snyder (OS) dust collapses. In particular, a dynamical code test is done for the OS collapse by explicitly performing numerical coordinate transformations between our coordinate 8system and the one used for the analytic solution. Finally, some TOV star solutions are presented for the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity theory.
Generalization Evaluation of Machine Learning Numerical Observers for Image Quality Assessment.
Kalayeh, Mahdi M; Marin, Thibault; Brankov, Jovan G
2013-06-01
In this paper, we present two new numerical observers (NO) based on machine learning for image quality assessment. The proposed NOs aim to predict human observer performance in a cardiac perfusion-defect detection task for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Human observer (HumO) studies are now considered to be the gold standard for task-based evaluation of medical images. However such studies are impractical for use in early stages of development for imaging devices and algorithms, because they require extensive involvement of trained human observers who must evaluate a large number of images. To address this problem, numerical observers (also called model observers) have been developed as a surrogate for human observers. The channelized Hotelling observer (CHO), with or without internal noise model, is currently the most widely used NO of this kind. In our previous work we argued that development of a NO model to predict human observers' performance can be viewed as a machine learning (or system identification) problem. This consideration led us to develop a channelized support vector machine (CSVM) observer, a kernel-based regression model that greatly outperformed the popular and widely used CHO. This was especially evident when the numerical observers were evaluated in terms of generalization performance. To evaluate generalization we used a typical situation for the practical use of a numerical observer: after optimizing the NO (which for a CHO might consist of adjusting the internal noise model) based upon a broad set of reconstructed images, we tested it on a broad (but different) set of images obtained by a different reconstruction method. In this manuscript we aim to evaluate two new regression models that achieve accuracy higher than the CHO and comparable to our earlier CSVM method, while dramatically reducing model complexity and computation time. The new models are defined in a Bayesian machine-learning framework: a channelized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qingshan; Shi, Dongyan; Pang, Fuzhen; Liang, Qian
2016-04-01
A Fourier-Ritz method for predicting the free vibration of composite laminated circular panels and shells of revolution subjected to various combinations of classical and non-classical boundary conditions is presented in this paper. A modified Fourier series approach in conjunction with a Ritz technique is employed to derive the formulation based on the first-order shear deformation theory. The general boundary condition can be achieved by the boundary spring technique in which three types of liner and two types of rotation springs along the edges of the composite laminated circular panels and shells of revolution are set to imitate the boundary force. Besides, the complete shells of revolution can be achieved by using the coupling spring technique to imitate the kinematic compatibility and physical compatibility conditions of composite laminated circular panels at the common meridian with θ = 0 and 2π. The comparisons established in a sufficiently conclusive manner show that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate solutions with little computational effort. The influence of boundary and coupling restraint parameters, circumference angles, stiffness ratios, numbers of layer and fiber orientations on the vibration behavior of the composite laminated circular panels and shells of revolution are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davoodi, H.; Noori, M.
1990-07-01
The work presented in this paper constitutes the second phase of on-going research aimed at developing mathematical models for representing general hysteretic behavior of structures and approximation techniques for the computation and analysis of the response of hysteretic systems to random excitations. In this second part, the technique previously developed by the authors for the Gaussian response analysis of non-linear systems with general hysteretic behavior is extended for the non-Gaussian analysis of these systems. This approximation technique is based on the approach proposed independently by Ibrahim and Wu-Lin. In this work up to fourth order moments of the response co-ordinates are obtained for the Bouc-Baber-Wen smooth hysteresis model. These higher order statistics previously have not been made available for general hysteresis models by using existing approximation methods. Second order moments obtained for the model by this non-Gaussian closure scheme are compared with equivalent linearization and Gaussian closure results via Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Higher order moments are compared with the simulation results. The study performed for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density ( PSD) levels shows that the non-Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are in better agreement with the MCS results than the linearized and Gaussian ones. This approximation technique can provide information on higher order moments for general hysteretic systems. This information is valuable in random vibration and the reliability analysis of hysteretically yielding structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Xingyu; Oyadiji, S. Olutunde
2014-10-01
Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with multi-layer stacked structures have been developed. They consist of multi-layer beams, of zigzag configurations, with rigid masses attached between the beams. The rigid masses, which also serve as spacers, are attached to each layer to tune the frequencies of the harvester. Close resonance frequencies and considerable power output can be achieved in multiple modes by varying the positions of the masses. A modal approach is introduced to determine the modal performance conveniently using the mass ratio and the modal electromechanical coupling coefficient, and the required modal parameters are derived using the finite element method. Mass ratio represents the influence of modal mechanical behaviour on the power density. Since the modes with larger mass ratios cause the remaining modes to have smaller mass ratios and lower power densities, a screening process using the modal approach is developed to determine the optimal or near-optimal performance of the harvesters when altering mass positions. This procedure obviates the need for full analysis by pre-selecting the harvester configurations with close resonances and favourable values of mass ratio initially. Furthermore, the multi-layer stacked designs using the modal approach can be used to develop harvesters with different sizes with the power ranging from microwatts to milliwatts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagy, Péter R.; Surján, Péter R.; Szabados, Ágnes
2014-01-01
Cross sections of inelastic light scattering accompanied by vibronic excitation in large conjugated carbon structures is assessed at the π-electron level. Intensities of Raman and vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA) spectra of fullerenes are computed, relying on a single electron per atom. When considering only first neighbor terms in the Hamiltonian (a tight-binding (TB) type or Hückel-model), Raman intensities are captured remarkably well, based on comparison with frequency-dependent linear response of the self-consistent field (SCF) method. Resorting to π-electron levels when computing spectral intensities brings a beneficial reduction in computational cost as compared to linear response SCF. At difference with total intensities, the first neighbor TB model is found inadequate for giving the left and right circularly polarized components of the scattered light, especially when the molecular surface is highly curved. To step beyond first neighbor approximation, an effective π-electron Hamiltonian, including interaction of all sites is derived from the all-electron Fockian, in the spirit of the Bloch-equation. Chiroptical cross-sections computed by this novel π-electron method improve upon first-neighbor TB considerably, with no increase in computational cost. Computed VROA spectra of chiral fullerenes, such as C76 and C28, are reported for the first time, both by conventional linear response SCF and effective π-electron models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Y. C.; Zhang, J. Z. H.; Kouri, D. J.; Haug, K.; Schwenke, D. W.
1988-01-01
Numerically exact, fully three-dimensional quantum mechanicl reactive scattering calculations are reported for the H2Br system. Both the exchange (H + H-prime Br to H-prime + HBr) and abstraction (H + HBR to H2 + Br) reaction channels are included in the calculations. The present results are the first completely converged three-dimensional quantum calculations for a system involving a highly exoergic reaction channel (the abstraction process). It is found that the production of vibrationally hot H2 in the abstraction reaction, and hence the extent of population inversion in the products, is a sensitive function of initial HBr rotational state and collision energy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. 3280.903 Section 3280.903 Housing and... structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (a) The cumulative effect of highway transportation shock and vibration upon a manufactured home structure may result in incremental degradation...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. 3280.903 Section 3280.903 Housing and... structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (a) The cumulative effect of highway transportation shock and vibration upon a manufactured home structure may result in incremental degradation...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. 3280.903 Section 3280.903 Housing and... structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (a) The cumulative effect of highway transportation shock and vibration upon a manufactured home structure may result in incremental degradation...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... the structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. 3280.903 Section 3280.903 Housing and... structure to withstand transportation shock and vibration. (a) The cumulative effect of highway transportation shock and vibration upon a manufactured home structure may result in incremental degradation...
An efficient numerical method for general L(p) regularization in fluorescence molecular tomography.
Baritaux, Jean-Charles; Hassler, Kat; Unser, Michael
2010-04-01
Reconstruction algorithms for fluorescence tomography have to address two crucial issues: 1) the ill-posedness of the reconstruction problem, 2) the large scale of numerical problems arising from imaging of 3-D samples. Our contribution is the design and implementation of a reconstruction algorithm that incorporates general Lp regularization (p ¿ 1). The originality of this work lies in the application of general Lp constraints to fluorescence tomography, combined with an efficient matrix-free strategy that enables the algorithm to deal with large reconstruction problems at reduced memory and computational costs. In the experimental part, we specialize the application of the algorithm to the case of sparsity promoting constraints (L (1)). We validate the adequacy of L (1) regularization for the investigation of phenomena that are well described by a sparse model, using data acquired during phantom experiments. PMID:20236875
Analytical and Numerical Solutions of a Generalized Hyperbolic Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pakdemirli, Mehmet; Sarı, Pınar; Solmaz, Bekir
2010-03-01
The generalized hyperbolic non-Newtonian fluid model first proposed by Al-Zahrani [J. Petroleum Sci. Eng. 17, 211 (1997)] is considered. This model was successfully applied to some drilling fluids with a better performance in relating shear stress and velocity gradient compared to power-law and the Hershel-Bulkley model. Special flow geometries namely pipe flow, parallel plate flow, and flow between two rotating cylinders are treated. For the first two cases, analytical solutions of velocity profiles and discharges in the form of integrals are presented. These quantities are calculated by numerically evaluating the integrals. For the flow between two rotating cylinders, the differential equation is solved by the Runge-Kutta method combined with shooting. For all problems, the power-law approximation of the model is compared with the generalized hyperbolic model, too.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polome, J.
2012-07-01
This paper presents the performance methodology and the achieved results of a vibration test campaign. The test performed by shaker simulates an unusual acoustic excitation containing a harmonic serial superimposed on random noise seen by electronic flight equipment. The paper is focused on main experimental aspects resulting of “helicopter simulation” capability applied on (representative) dummy electronic equipment. Wide internal instrumentation shows that the equipment is effectively answering to the stimuli by resonances excitation.
Numerical methods for the weakly compressible Generalized Langevin Model in Eulerian reference frame
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azarnykh, Dmitrii; Litvinov, Sergey; Adams, Nikolaus A.
2016-06-01
A well established approach for the computation of turbulent flow without resolving all turbulent flow scales is to solve a filtered or averaged set of equations, and to model non-resolved scales by closures derived from transported probability density functions (PDF) for velocity fluctuations. Effective numerical methods for PDF transport employ the equivalence between the Fokker-Planck equation for the PDF and a Generalized Langevin Model (GLM), and compute the PDF by transporting a set of sampling particles by GLM (Pope (1985) [1]). The natural representation of GLM is a system of stochastic differential equations in a Lagrangian reference frame, typically solved by particle methods. A representation in a Eulerian reference frame, however, has the potential to significantly reduce computational effort and to allow for the seamless integration into a Eulerian-frame numerical flow solver. GLM in a Eulerian frame (GLMEF) formally corresponds to the nonlinear fluctuating hydrodynamic equations derived by Nakamura and Yoshimori (2009) [12]. Unlike the more common Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS) equations these equations are derived from the underdamped Langevin equation and are not based on a local equilibrium assumption. Similarly to LLNS equations the numerical solution of GLMEF requires special considerations. In this paper we investigate different numerical approaches to solving GLMEF with respect to the correct representation of stochastic properties of the solution. We find that a discretely conservative staggered finite-difference scheme, adapted from a scheme originally proposed for turbulent incompressible flow, in conjunction with a strongly stable (for non-stochastic PDE) Runge-Kutta method performs better for GLMEF than schemes adopted from those proposed previously for the LLNS. We show that equilibrium stochastic fluctuations are correctly reproduced.
The generalized Dirichlet-Neumann map for linear elliptic PDEs and its numerical implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sifalakis, A. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Fulton, S. R.; Saridakis, Y. G.
2008-09-01
A new approach for analyzing boundary value problems for linear and for integrable nonlinear PDEs was introduced in Fokas [A unified transform method for solving linear and certain nonlinear PDEs, Proc. Roy. Soc. London Ser. A 53 (1997) 1411-1443]. For linear elliptic PDEs, an important aspect of this approach is the characterization of a generalized Dirichlet to Neumann map: given the derivative of the solution along a direction of an arbitrary angle to the boundary, the derivative of the solution perpendicularly to this direction is computed without solving on the interior of the domain. This is based on the analysis of the so-called global relation, an equation which couples known and unknown components of the derivative on the boundary and which is valid for all values of a complex parameter k. A collocation-type numerical method for solving the global relation for the Laplace equation in an arbitrary bounded convex polygon was introduced in Fulton et al. [An analytical method for linear elliptic PDEs and its numerical implementation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 167 (2004) 465-483]. Here, by choosing a different set of the "collocation points" (values for k), we present a significant improvement of the results in Fulton et al. [An analytical method for linear elliptic PDEs and its numerical implementation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 167 (2004) 465-483]. The new collocation points lead to well-conditioned collocation methods. Their combination with sine basis functions leads to a collocation matrix whose diagonal blocks are point diagonal matrices yielding efficient implementation of iterative methods; numerical experimentation suggests quadratic convergence. The choice of Chebyshev basis functions leads to higher order convergence, which for regular polygons appear to be exponential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shintaku, Hirofumi; Yonemura, Tsubasa; Tsuru, Kazuaki; Isoyama, Takashi; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Kawano, Satoyuki
In this study, we construct an experimental apparatus for a prototype artificial heart and lung (AHL) by installing hollow fibers into the cylindrical tube of the vibrating flow pump (VFP). The oxygenation characteristics are investigated both by experiments using bovine blood and by numerical analyses based on the computational fluid dynamics. The analyses are carried out at the Reynolds numbers Re ranged from O(1) to O(103), which are determined based on the experimental conditions. The blood flow and the diffusion of oxygen gas are analyzed based on the Newtonian/non-Newtonian, unsteady, incompressible and axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations, and the advection-diffusion equation. The results show that the oxygenation rate increases in proportion to Re1/3, where the phenomenon corresponds to the decreasing thickness of the concentration boundary layer with Re. Although the effects of the vibrating flow and the rheology of the blood are clearly appeared on the velocity field, their effects on the gas exchange are relatively small at the ranges of prescribed Reynolds numbers. Furthermore, the numerical results in terms of the oxygenation rate are compared with the experimental ones. The basic design data of VFP were accumulated for the development of AHL in the clinical applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monsalve-Cano, J. F.; Darío Aristizábal-Ochoa, J.
2009-12-01
The stability and free vibration analyses (i.e., buckling, natural frequencies and modal shapes) of an orthotropic singly symmetric 3D Timoshenko beam-column with generalized boundary conditions (i.e., with bending and torsional semirigid restraints and lateral bracings as well as lumped masses at both ends) subjected to an eccentric end axial load are presented in a classical manner. The five governing equations of dynamic equilibrium (i.e., two transverse shear equations, two bending moment equations and pure torsional moment equation) are sufficient to determine the natural frequencies and the corresponding modal shapes of the beam-column in the two principal planes of bending and torsion about its longitudinal axis. The proposed model includes the coupling effects among: (1) the deformations due to bending, shear and pure torsion; (2) inertias (translational, rotational and torsional) of all masses considered; (3) eccentric axial loads applied at the ends, and (4) restraints at the supports (bending, torsional and lateral bracings at both ends of the member). However, the effects of axial deformations and warping torsion produced by the axial load are not included; consequently the proposed model is not capable of capturing the phenomena of torsional buckling or combined lateral bending-torsional buckling. The proposed analytical model indicates that the stability and dynamic response of beam-columns are highly sensitive to the coupling effects, particularly in members with both ends free to rotate. The natural frequencies and modal shapes can be determined from the eigenvalues of a full 4×4 matrix for vibration in the plane of symmetry (using the uncoupled equations of transverse force and moment equilibrium at both ends) and from a full 6×6 matrix for the coupled shear-bending-torsional vibration (using the coupled equations of transverse shear, bending and torsional moment equilibrium at both ends). Also, it is shown that the proposed method reproduces the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleury, Gérard; Mistrot, Pierre
2006-12-01
While driving off-road vehicles, operators are exposed to whole-body vibration acting in the fore-and-aft direction. Seat manufacturers supply products equipped with fore-and-aft suspension but only a few studies report on their performance. This work proposes a computational approach to design fore-and-aft suspensions for wheel loader seats. Field tests were conducted in a quarry to analyse the nature of vibration to which the driver was exposed. Typical input signals were recorded to be reproduced in the laboratory. Technical specifications are defined for the suspension. In order to evaluate the suspension vibration attenuation performance, a model of a sitting human body was developed and coupled to a seat model. The seat model combines the models of each suspension component. A linear two-degree-of-freedom model is used to describe the dynamic behaviour of the sitting driver. Model parameters are identified by fitting the computed apparent mass frequency response functions to the measured values. Model extensions are proposed to investigate postural effects involving variations in hands and feet positions and interaction of the driver's back with the backrest. Suspension design parameters are firstly optimized by computing the seat/man model response to sinusoidal acceleration. Four criteria including transmissibility, interaction force between the driver's back and the backrest and relative maximal displacement of the suspension are computed. A new suspension design with optimized features is proposed. Its performance is checked from calculations of the response of the seat/man model subjected to acceleration measured on the wheel loader during real work conditions. On the basis of the computed values of the SEAT factors, it is found possible to design a suspension that would increase the attenuation provided by the seat by a factor of two.
Fixtureless geometric inspection of nonrigid parts using "generalized numerical inspection fixture"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Radvar Esfahlan, Hassan
Free-form nonrigid parts form the substance of today's automotive and aerospace industries. These parts have different shapes in free state due to their dimensional and geometric variations, gravity and residual strains. For the geometric inspection of such compliant parts, special inspection fixtures, in combination with coordinate measuring systems (CMM) and/or optical data acquisition devices (scanners) are used. This inevitably causes additional costs and delays that result in a lack of competitiveness in the industry. The goal of this thesis is to facilitate the dimensional and geometrical inspection of flexible components from a point cloud without using a jig or secondary conformation operation. More specifically, we aim to develop a methodology to localize and quantify the profile defects in the case of thin shells which are typical to the aerospace and automotive industries. The presented methodology is based on the fact that the interpoint geodesic distance between any two points of a shape remains unchangeable during an isometric deformation. This study elaborates on the theory and general methods for the metrology of nonrigid parts. We have developed a Generalized Numerical Inspection Fixture (GNIF), a robust methodology which merges existing technologies in metric and computational geometry, nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, and finite element methods to introduce a general approach to the fixtureless geometrical inspection of nonrigid parts.
Shurtz, Timothy E.; Thomson, Scott L.
2012-01-01
Computational vocal fold models are often used to study the physics of voice production. In this paper the sensitivity of predicted vocal fold flow-induced vibration and resulting airflow patterns to several modeling selections is explored. The location of contact lines used to prevent mesh collapse and assumptions of symmetry were found to influence airflow patterns. However, these variables had relatively little effect on the vibratory response of the vocal fold model itself. Model motion was very sensitive to Poisson’s ratio. The importance of these parameter sensitivities in the context of vocal fold modeling is discussed. PMID:23794762
Shurtz, Timothy E; Thomson, Scott L
2013-06-01
Computational vocal fold models are often used to study the physics of voice production. In this paper the sensitivity of predicted vocal fold flow-induced vibration and resulting airflow patterns to several modeling selections is explored. The location of contact lines used to prevent mesh collapse and assumptions of symmetry were found to influence airflow patterns. However, these variables had relatively little effect on the vibratory response of the vocal fold model itself. Model motion was very sensitive to Poisson's ratio. The importance of these parameter sensitivities in the context of vocal fold modeling is discussed. PMID:23794762
Analytical and Numerical Solutions of Generalized Fokker-Planck Equations - Final Report
Prinja, Anil K.
2000-12-31
The overall goal of this project was to develop advanced theoretical and numerical techniques to quantitatively describe the spreading of a collimated beam of charged particles in space, in angle, and in energy, as a result of small deflection, small energy transfer Coulomb collisions with the target nuclei and electrons. Such beams arise in several applications of great interest in nuclear engineering, and include electron and ion radiotherapy, ion beam modification of materials, accelerator transmutation of waste, and accelerator production of tritium, to name some important candidates. These applications present unique and difficult modeling challenges, but from the outset are amenable to the language of ''transport theory'', which is very familiar to nuclear engineers and considerably less-so to physicists and material scientists. Thus, our approach has been to adopt a fundamental description based on transport equations, but the forward peakedness associated with charged particle interactions precludes a direct application of solution methods developed for neutral particle transport. Unique problem formulations and solution techniques are necessary to describe the transport and interaction of charged particles. In particular, we have developed the Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) approach to describe the angular and radial spreading of a collimated beam and a renormalized transport model to describe the energy-loss straggling of an initially monoenergetic distribution. Both analytic and numerical solutions have been investigated and in particular novel finite element numerical methods have been developed. In the first phase of the project, asymptotic methods were used to develop closed form solutions to the GFP equation for different orders of expansion, and was described in a previous progress report. In this final report we present a detailed description of (i) a novel energy straggling model based on a Fokker-Planck approximation but which is adapted for a
The sensitivity of the general circulation to Arctic Sea ice boundaries - A numerical experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herman, G. F.; Johnson, W. T.
1978-01-01
Results are presented for a set of numerical experiments conducted with the Goddard (formerly GISS) general circulation model. The experiments were designed to test the model atmospheric response to a single fixed and specified parameter, the total ice cover in the Davis Strait, Barents Sea, East Greenland Sea, Sea of Okhotsk and Bering Sea. Margin variations are considered that are substantially smaller than those involved in ice age or ice-free Arctic simulations. Anomaly is defined as the mean of two runs corresponding to climatological maximum sea ice conditions. Model results indicate that the ice margin anomalies are capable of altering local climates in certain regions of high and middle latitudes. Possible interactions between high latitudes and subtropical regions are suggested.
Numerical model of Zeeman splitting of ro-vibrational lines in the fundamental band of NO molecule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borkov, Yu. G.; Sulakshina, O. N.; Klimachev, Yu. M.
2016-07-01
This paper presents the results of calculation the LMR spectrograms of NO molecule in a variable magnetic field with maximum induction up to 6 T for probed CO laser lines. For the simulation of the LMR spectrum a numerical model was developed. This model is based on the numerical diagonalization the matrix of the effective molecular Hamiltonian, which includes Zeeman operator corresponding to interaction an external magnetic field with NO molecule. The comparison of calculated and experimental spectrograms has shown that the numerical model is very reliable and can reproduce the location of absorption peaks measured in a damped oscillating magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sourie, Aurélien; Oertel, Micaela; Novak, Jérôme
2016-04-01
We present a numerical model for uniformly rotating superfluid neutron stars in a fully general relativistic framework with, for the first time, realistic microphysics including entrainment. We compute stationary and axisymmetric configurations of neutron stars composed of two fluids, namely superfluid neutrons and charged particles (protons and electrons), rotating with different rates around a common axis. Both fluids are coupled by entrainment, a nondissipative interaction which in the case of a nonvanishing relative velocity between the fluids causes the fluid momenta to be not aligned with the respective fluid velocities. We extend the formalism put forth by Comer and Joynt in order to calculate the equation of state (EOS) and entrainment parameters for an arbitrary relative velocity as far as superfluidity is maintained. The resulting entrainment matrix fulfills all necessary sum rules, and in the limit of small relative velocity our results agree with Fermi liquid theory ones derived to lowest order in the velocity. This formalism is applied to two new nuclear equations of state which are implemented in the numerical model, which enables us to obtain precise equilibrium configurations. The resulting density profiles and moments of inertia are discussed employing both EOSs, showing the impact of entrainment and the dependence on the EOS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capron, Alexandre; Valentin, Johann; Jongmans, Denis; Baillet, Laurent; Larose, Eric; Bottelin, Pierre; Donze, Frédéric; Mangeney, Anne
2015-04-01
During the last two decades, seismic noise measurements have been increasingly used in gravitational hazard assessment for both investigation and monitoring purposes. The wide frequency range allows ambient vibrations to be applied for investigating geological and civil engineering structures in a great variety of sizes, from the lithospheric or crust scale to a few m-thick landslide and rock column or buildings. On unstable slopes, ambient vibrations have been applied in very different ways for reconnaissance, depending on the investigation purpose and the landslide type. The simplest way to extract information from ambient vibrations on a given site is to perform single-station measurements with a 3-C sensor and to process the records computing Fourier spectra of the three components or the spectral ratio between the horizontal and vertical components (the so-called H/V method). On landslide sites, several studies revealed significant spectral amplification at given frequency and polarization of the wave-field in the direction of maximum slope displacement. They show that different characteristics of the seismic noise (resonant frequencies, polarization, and spectral amplification) could be used from the spectral analysis of the motion or of spectral ratios for characterizing the landslides. For cliff-like sites, this study aims to identify the pertinent and applicable parameters that could be extracted from ambient vibrations and used to gain information on the prone-to-fall column geometry. We first use 2D numerical modeling for better understanding the influence of the rear fracture characteristics (wideness w and depth L) on the horizontal motion H(f), as well as on the spectral ratios H(f)/V(f) and H(f)/Hr(f), where Hr(f) is the horizontal motion measured at a reference site. We then identify the seismic parameters able to characterize the column decoupling and we compare numerical results to data acquired at two rocky sites exhibiting cliff-like geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad
2016-02-01
This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for the near and far pattern generalization types but not for the immediate generalization type. The findings showed that for the recursive strategy, the numerical reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the figural reasoning approach for each of the three pattern generalization types. However, the figural reasoning approach seems to be more dominant than the numerical reasoning approach for the functional strategy, for each generalization type. The findings also showed that the numerical reasoning was more dominant than the figural reasoning in lower grade levels (grades 4 and 5) for each generalization type. In contrast, the figural reasoning became more dominant than the numerical reasoning in the upper grade levels (grades 10 and 11).
Generalized ``thick'' strip modelling for vortex-induced vibration of long flexible cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Yan; Palocios, Rafael; Sherwin, Spencer; Nektar++ Collaboration
2015-11-01
We propose a generalized strip modelling method that is computationally efficient for the VIV prediction of long flexible cylinders in three-dimensional incompressible flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional strip theory-based 2D models, the fluid domain is divided into ``thick'' strips, which are sufficiently thick to locally resolve the small scale turbulence effects and three dimensionality of the flow around the cylinder. An attractive feature of the model is that we independently construct a three-dimensional scale resolving model for individual strips, which have local spanwise scale along the cylinder's axial direction and are only coupled through the structural model of the cylinder. Therefore, this model is able to cover the situations of fully resolved 3D model and 2D strip theory model. The connection between these strips is achieved through the calculation of a tensioned beam equation, which is used to represent the dynamics of the flexible body. In the limit, however, a single ``thick'' strip would request the full 3D domain. A parallel Fourier spectral/hp element method is employed to solve the 3D flow dynamics in the strip-domain, and then the VIV response prediction is achieved through the strip-structure interactions. This work is supported by EPSRC grant EP/K037536/1. Acknowledge UK Turbulence Consortium (UKTC) for ARCHER time under EPSRC grant EP/L000261/1.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel
2014-11-01
By using the second-law of thermodynamics and the Onsager reciprocal method for irreversible processes, we have developed a set of physically consistent multicomponent compressible generalized Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (CGCHNS) equations from basic thermodynamics. The new equations can describe not only flows with pure miscible and pure immiscible materials but also complex flows in which mass diffusion and surface tension or Korteweg stresses effects may coexist. Furthermore, for the first time, the incompressible generalized Cahn-Hilliard Navier-Stokes (IGCHNS) equations are rigorously derived from the incompressible limit of the CGCHNS equations (as the infinite sound speed limit) and applied to the immiscible Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem. Extensive good agreements between numerical results and the linear stability theory (LST) predictions for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability are achieved for a wide range of wavenumber, surface tension, and viscosity values. The late-time results indicate that the IGCHNS equations can naturally capture complex interface topological changes including merging and breaking-up and are free of singularity problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wie, Yong-Sun
1990-01-01
A procedure for calculating 3-D, compressible laminar boundary layer flow on general fuselage shapes is described. The boundary layer solutions can be obtained in either nonorthogonal 'body oriented' coordinates or orthogonal streamline coordinates. The numerical procedure is 'second order' accurate, efficient and independent of the cross flow velocity direction. Numerical results are presented for several test cases, including a sharp cone, an ellipsoid of revolution, and a general aircraft fuselage at angle of attack. Comparisons are made between numerical results obtained using nonorthogonal curvilinear 'body oriented' coordinates and streamline coordinates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Han; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Tian-Yao; Yan, Fang; Shen, Jiang
2015-07-01
The crystal structure of L-glutamine is stabilized by a three-dimensional network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. We utilize plane-wave density functional theory lattice-dynamics calculations within the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA), Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), PBE for solids (PBEsol), PBE with Wu-Cohen exchange (WC), and dispersion-corrected PBE, to investigate the effect of these intermolecular contacts on the absorption spectra of glutamine in the terahertz frequency range. Among these calculations, the solid-state simulated results obtained using the WC method exhibit a good agreement with the measured absorption spectra, and the absorption features are assigned with the help of WC. This indicates that the vibrational modes of glutamine were related to the combination of intramolecular and intermolecular motions, the intramolecular modes were dominated by rocking or torsion involving functional groups; the intermolecular modes mainly result from the translational motions of individual molecules, and the rocking of the hydrogen-bonded functional groups. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61302007 and 60977065), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. FRF-SD-12-016A), and the Engineering Research Center of Industrial Spectrum Imaging of Beijing, China.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degrande, G.; Clouteau, D.; Othman, R.; Arnst, M.; Chebli, H.; Klein, R.; Chatterjee, P.; Janssens, B.
2006-06-01
A numerical model is presented to predict vibrations in the free field from excitation due to metro trains in tunnels. The three-dimensional dynamic tunnel-soil interaction problem is solved with a subdomain formulation, using a finite element formulation for the tunnel and a boundary element method for the soil. The periodicity of the geometry in the longitudinal direction of the tunnel is exploited using the Floquet transform, limiting the discretization to a single-bounded reference cell. The responses of two different types of tunnel due to a harmonic load on the tunnel invert are compared, both in the frequency-wavenumber and spatial domains. The first tunnel is a shallow cut-and-cover masonry tunnel on the Paris metro network, embedded in layers of sand, while the second tunnel is a deep bored tunnel of London Underground, with a cast iron lining and embedded in the London clay.
Aref's chaotic orbits tracked by a general ellipsoid using 3D numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shui, Pei; Popinet, Stéphane; Govindarajan, Rama; Valluri, Prashant
2015-11-01
The motion of an ellipsoidal solid in an ideal fluid has been shown to be chaotic (Aref, 1993) under the limit of non-integrability of Kirchhoff's equations (Kozlov & Oniscenko, 1982). On the other hand, the particle could stop moving when the damping viscous force is strong enough. We present numerical evidence using our in-house immersed solid solver for 3D chaotic motion of a general ellipsoidal solid and suggest criteria for triggering such motion. Our immersed solid solver functions under the framework of the Gerris flow package of Popinet et al. (2003). This solver, the Gerris Immersed Solid Solver (GISS), resolves 6 degree-of-freedom motion of immersed solids with arbitrary geometry and number. We validate our results against the solution of Kirchhoff's equations. The study also shows that the translational/ rotational energy ratio plays the key role on the motion pattern, while the particle geometry and density ratio between the solid and fluid also have some influence on the chaotic behaviour. Along with several other benchmark cases for viscous flows, we propose prediction of chaotic Aref's orbits as a key benchmark test case for immersed boundary/solid solvers.
Numerical study of fourth-order linearized compact schemes for generalized NLS equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Hong-lin; Shi, Han-sheng; Zhao, Ying
2014-08-01
The fourth-order compact approximation for the spatial second-derivative and several linearized approaches, including the time-lagging method of Zhang et al. (1995), the local-extrapolation technique of Chang et al. (1999) and the recent scheme of Dahlby et al. (2009), are considered in constructing fourth-order linearized compact difference (FLCD) schemes for generalized NLS equations. By applying a new time-lagging linearized approach, we propose a symmetric fourth-order linearized compact difference (SFLCD) scheme, which is shown to be more robust in long-time simulations of plane wave, breather, periodic traveling-wave and solitary wave solutions. Numerical experiments suggest that the SFLCD scheme is a little more accurate than some other FLCD schemes and the split-step compact difference scheme of Dehghan and Taleei (2010). Compared with the time-splitting pseudospectral method of Bao et al. (2003), our SFLCD method is more suitable for oscillating solutions or the problems with a rapidly varying potential.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Fertis, J.; Zeid, I.; Lam, P.
1982-01-01
Finite element codes are used in modelling rotor-bearing-stator structure common to the turbine industry. Engine dynamic simulation is used by developing strategies which enable the use of available finite element codes. benchmarking the elements developed are benchmarked by incorporation into a general purpose code (ADINA); the numerical characteristics of finite element type rotor-bearing-stator simulations are evaluated through the use of various types of explicit/implicit numerical integration operators. Improving the overall numerical efficiency of the procedure is improved.
A general spectral method for the numerical simulation of one-dimensional interacting fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clason, Christian; von Winckel, Gregory
2012-08-01
This software implements a general framework for the direct numerical simulation of systems of interacting fermions in one spatial dimension. The approach is based on a specially adapted nodal spectral Galerkin method, where the basis functions are constructed to obey the antisymmetry relations of fermionic wave functions. An efficient Matlab program for the assembly of the stiffness and potential matrices is presented, which exploits the combinatorial structure of the sparsity pattern arising from this discretization to achieve optimal run-time complexity. This program allows the accurate discretization of systems with multiple fermions subject to arbitrary potentials, e.g., for verifying the accuracy of multi-particle approximations such as Hartree-Fock in the few-particle limit. It can be used for eigenvalue computations or numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The new version includes a Python implementation of the presented approach. New version program summaryProgram title: assembleFermiMatrix Catalogue identifier: AEKO_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKO_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 332 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5418 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB/GNU Octave, Python Computer: Any architecture supported by MATLAB, GNU Octave or Python Operating system: Any supported by MATLAB, GNU Octave or Python RAM: Depends on the data Classification: 4.3, 2.2. External routines: Python 2.7+, NumPy 1.3+, SciPy 0.10+ Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKO_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 405 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The direct numerical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blake, W. K.
Physical and mathematical analyses of the vibration and sound induced by different types of fluid flow are presented in a comprehensive introduction intended primarily for practicing engineers. The elementary concepts are explained, and chapters are devoted to the theory of sound and its generation by flow; shear-layer instabilities, flow tones, and jet noise; dipole sound from cylinders; the fundamentals of flow-induced vibration and noise; bubble dynamics and cavitation; hydrodynamically induced cavitation and bubble noise; turbulent wall-pressure fluctuations; structural response to turbulent wall flow and random sound; noise radiation from pipe and duct systems; noncavitating lifting sections; and noise from rotating machinery. Graphs, diagrams, drawings, and tables of numerical data are provided.
Iwasa, Takeshi; Takenaka, Masato; Taketsugu, Tetsuya
2016-03-28
A theoretical method to compute infrared absorption spectra when a molecule is interacting with an arbitrary nonuniform electric field such as near-fields is developed and numerically applied to simple model systems. The method is based on the multipolar Hamiltonian where the light-matter interaction is described by a spatial integral of the inner product of the molecular polarization and applied electric field. The computation scheme is developed under the harmonic approximation for the molecular vibrations and the framework of modern electronic structure calculations such as the density functional theory. Infrared reflection absorption and near-field infrared absorption are considered as model systems. The obtained IR spectra successfully reflect the spatial structure of the applied electric field and corresponding vibrational modes, demonstrating applicability of the present method to analyze modern nanovibrational spectroscopy using near-fields. The present method can use arbitral electric fields and thus can integrate two fields such as computational chemistry and electromagnetics. PMID:27036436
TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase nonisothermal flows
Pruess, K.
1991-06-01
Numerical simulators for multiphase fluid and heat flows in permeable media have been under development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for more than 10 yr. Real geofluids contain noncondensible gases and dissolved solids in addition to water, and the desire to model such `compositional` systems led to the development of a flexible multicomponent, multiphase simulation architecture known as MULKOM. The design of MULKOM was based on the recognition that the mass-and energy-balance equations for multiphase fluid and heat flows in multicomponent systems have the same mathematical form, regardless of the number and nature of fluid components and phases present. Application of MULKOM to different fluid mixtures, such as water and air, or water, oil, and gas, is possible by means of appropriate `equation-of-state` (EOS) modules, which provide all thermophysical and transport parameters of the fluid mixture and the permeable medium as a function of a suitable set of primary thermodynamic variables. Investigations of thermal and hydrologic effects from emplacement of heat-generating nuclear wastes into partially water-saturated formations prompted the development and release of a specialized version of MULKOM for nonisothermal flow of water and air, named TOUGH. TOUGH is an acronym for `transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat` and is also an allusion to the tuff formations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The TOUGH2 code is intended to supersede TOUGH. It offers all the capabilities of TOUGH and includes a considerably more general subset of MULKOM modules with added capabilities. The paper briefly describes the simulation methodology and user features.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cowan, Richard; Powell, Daisy
2014-01-01
Explanations of the marked individual differences in elementary school mathematical achievement and mathematical learning disability (MLD or dyscalculia) have involved domain-general factors (working memory, reasoning, processing speed, and oral language) and numerical factors that include single-digit processing efficiency and multidigit skills…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El Mouhayar, Rabih; Jurdak, Murad
2016-01-01
This paper explored variation of student numerical and figural reasoning approaches across different pattern generalization types and across grade level. An instrument was designed for this purpose. The instrument was given to a sample of 1232 students from grades 4 to 11 from five schools in Lebanon. Analysis of data showed that the numerical…
Cowan, Richard; Powell, Daisy
2014-02-01
Explanations of the marked individual differences in elementary school mathematical achievement and mathematical learning disability (MLD or dyscalculia) have involved domain-general factors (working memory, reasoning, processing speed, and oral language) and numerical factors that include single-digit processing efficiency and multidigit skills such as number system knowledge and estimation. This study of 3rd graders (N = 258) finds both domain-general and numerical factors contribute independently to explaining variation in 3 significant arithmetic skills: basic calculation fluency, written multidigit computation, and arithmetic word problems. Estimation accuracy and number system knowledge show the strongest associations with every skill, and their contributions are independent of both each other and other factors. Different domain-general factors independently account for variation in each skill. Numeral comparison, a single digit processing skill, uniquely accounts for variation in basic calculation. Subsamples of children with MLD (at or below 10th percentile, n = 29) are compared with low achievement (LA, 11th to 25th percentiles, n = 42) and typical achievement (above 25th percentile, n = 187). Examination of these and subsets with persistent difficulties supports a multiple deficits view of number difficulties: Most children with number difficulties exhibit deficits in both domain-general and numerical factors. The only factor deficit common to all persistent MLD children is in multidigit skills. These findings indicate that many factors matter but multidigit skills matter most in 3rd grade mathematical achievement. PMID:24532854
Numeric and symbolic evaluation of the pfaffian of general skew-symmetric matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González-Ballestero, C.; Robledo, L. M.; Bertsch, G. F.
2011-10-01
Evaluation of pfaffians arises in a number of physics applications, and for some of them a direct method is preferable to using the determinantal formula. We discuss two methods for the numerical evaluation of pfaffians. The first is tridiagonalization based on Householder transformations. The main advantage of this method is its numerical stability that makes unnecessary the implementation of a pivoting strategy. The second method considered is based on Aitken's block diagonalization formula. It yields to a kind of LU (similar to Cholesky's factorization) decomposition (under congruence) of arbitrary skew-symmetric matrices that is well suited both for the numeric and symbolic evaluations of the pfaffian. Fortran subroutines (FORTRAN 77 and 90) implementing both methods are given. We also provide simple implementations in Python and Mathematica for purpose of testing, or for exploratory studies of methods that make use of pfaffians.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaris, C. S.; Sakellariou, J. S.; Fassois, S. D.
2016-06-01
This study focuses on the problem of vibration-based damage precise localization via data-based, time series type, methods for structures consisting of 1D, 2D, or 3D elements. A Generalized Functional Model Based method is postulated based on an expanded Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled ARX (VFP-ARX) model form, capable of accounting for an arbitrary structural topology. The FP model's operating parameter vector elements are properly constrained to reflect any given topology. Damage localization is based on operating parameter vector estimation within the specified topology, so that the location estimate and its uncertainty bounds are statistically optimal. The method's effectiveness is experimentally demonstrated through damage precise localization on a laboratory spatial truss structure using various damage scenarios and a single pair of random excitation - vibration response signals in a low and limited frequency bandwidth.
Numerical Convergence of the Block-Maxima Approach to the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faranda, Davide; Lucarini, Valerio; Turchetti, Giorgio; Vaienti, Sandro
2011-12-01
In this paper we perform an analytical and numerical study of Extreme Value distributions in discrete dynamical systems. In this setting, recent works have shown how to get a statistics of extremes in agreement with the classical Extreme Value Theory. We pursue these investigations by giving analytical expressions of Extreme Value distribution parameters for maps that have an absolutely continuous invariant measure. We compare these analytical results with numerical experiments in which we study the convergence to limiting distributions using the so called block-maxima approach, pointing out in which cases we obtain robust estimation of parameters. In regular maps for which mixing properties do not hold, we show that the fitting procedure to the classical Extreme Value Distribution fails, as expected. However, we obtain an empirical distribution that can be explained starting from a different observable function for which Nicolis et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(21): 210602, 2006) have found analytical results.
Analytical and experimental study of vibrations in a gear transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, F. B.; Coy, J. J.
1991-01-01
An analytical simulation of the dynamics of a gear transmission system is presented and compared to experimental results from a gear noise test rig at NASA Lewis. The analytical procedure developed couples the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing-gear system with the response of the gearbox structure. Transient and steady-state vibrations of the gearbox system are presented in the time and frequency domains. The vibration characteristics of a simple single-mesh-gear noise test rig are modeled. The numerical simulations are compared to experimental data measured under typical operating conditions. The system natural frequencies, peak vibration amplitudes, and gear mesh frequencies are generally in good agreement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Padovan, J.; Adams, M.; Lam, P.; Fertis, D.; Zeid, I.
1982-01-01
Second-year efforts within a three-year study to develop and extend finite element (FE) methodology to efficiently handle the transient/steady state response of rotor-bearing-stator structure associated with gas turbine engines are outlined. The two main areas aim at (1) implanting the squeeze film damper element into a general purpose FE code for testing and evaluation; and (2) determining the numerical characteristics of the FE-generated rotor-bearing-stator simulation scheme. The governing FE field equations are set out and the solution methodology is presented. The choice of ADINA as the general-purpose FE code is explained, and the numerical operational characteristics of the direct integration approach of FE-generated rotor-bearing-stator simulations is determined, including benchmarking, comparison of explicit vs. implicit methodologies of direct integration, and demonstration problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed
2016-08-01
This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarepour, Misagh; Amirhosein Hosseini, Seyed
2016-08-01
This study presents an examination of nonlinear free vibration of a nanobeam under electro-thermo-mechanical loading with elastic medium and various boundary conditions, especially the elastic boundary condition. The nanobeam is modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The von Kármán strain-displacement relationship together with Hamilton’s principle and Eringen’s theory are employed to derive equations of motion. The nonlinear free vibration frequency is obtained for simply supported (S-S) and elastic supported (E-E) boundary conditions. E-E boundary condition is a general and actual form of boundary conditions and it is chosen because of more realistic behavior. By applying the differential transform method (DTM), the nanobeam’s natural frequencies can be easily obtained for the two different boundary conditions mentioned above. Performing a precise study led to investigation of the influences of nonlocal parameter, temperature change, spring constants (either for elastic medium or boundary condition) and imposed electric potential on the nonlinear free vibration characteristics of nanobeam. The results for S-S and E-E nanobeams are compared with each other. In order to validate the results, some comparisons are presented between DTM results and open literature to show the accuracy of this new approach. It has been discovered that DTM solves the equations with minimum calculation cost.
Chau, W.Y.; Lake, K.; Stone, J.
1984-06-15
The Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for isothermal, partially degenerate neutral lepton configurations have been solved numerically for arbitrary temperature and degree of degeneracy. For the specific case where the leptons are massive neutrions (approx.30 eV) with properties quite tightly constrained by cosmological considerations, we find that it possible to have a neutrino halo surrounding a normal galaxy with the right values of mass and radius required of the ''invisible halo'' in the missing mass problem. The density distribution, however, yields a rotational curve which, with the present chosen values of parameters, does not fit the observations for spiral galaxies.
A novel numerical flux for the 3D Euler equations with general equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toro, Eleuterio F.; Castro, Cristóbal E.; Lee, Bok Jik
2015-12-01
Here we extend the flux vector splitting approach recently proposed in E.F. Toro and M.E. Vázquez-Cendón (2012) [42]. The scheme was originally presented for the 1D Euler equations for ideal gases and its extension presented in this paper is threefold: (i) we solve the three-dimensional Euler equations on general meshes; (ii) we use a general equation of state; and (iii) we achieve high order of accuracy in both space and time through application of the semi-discrete ADER methodology on general meshes. The resulting methods are systematically assessed for accuracy, robustness and efficiency on a carefully selected suite of test problems. Formal high accuracy is assessed through convergence rates studies for schemes of up to 4th order of accuracy in both space and time on unstructured meshes.
A Numerical Treatment of the Rf SQUID: I. General Properties andNoise Energy
Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter; Clarke, John
2007-01-15
We investigate the characteristics and noise performance of rf Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) by solving the corresponding Langevin equations numerically and optimizing the model parameters with respect to noise energy. After introducing the basic concepts of the numerical simulations, we give a detailed discussion of the performance of the SQUID as a function of all relevant parameters. The best performance is obtained in the crossover region between the dispersive and dissipative regimes, characterized by an inductance parameter {beta}{prime}{sub L} {triple_bond} 2{pi}LI{sub 0}/{Phi}{sub 0} {approx} 1; L is the loop inductance, I{sub 0} the critical current of the Josephson junction, and {phi}{sub 0} the flux quantum. In this regime, which is not well explored by previous analytical approaches, the lowest (intrinsic) values of noise energy are a factor of about 2 above previous estimates based on analytical approaches. However, several other analytical predictions, such as the inverse proportionality of the noise energy on the tank circuit quality factor and the square of the coupling coefficient between the tank circuit and the SQUID loop, could not be well reproduced. The optimized intrinsic noise energy of the rf SQUID is superior to that of the dc SQUID at all temperatures. Although for technologically achievable parameters this advantage shrinks, particularly at low thermal fluctuation levels, we give an example for realistic parameters that leads to a noise energy comparable to that of the dc SQUID even in this regime.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, C.
1971-01-01
Guidelines of the methods and applications used in vibration technology at the MSFC are presented. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical tool for coordination and understanding between industry and government groups concerned with vibration of systems and equipments. Topics covered include measuring, reducing, analyzing, and methods for obtaining simulated environments and formulating vibration specifications. Methods for vibration and shock testing, theoretical aspects of data processing, vibration response analysis, and techniques of designing for vibration are also presented.
TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase fluid and heat flow
Pruess, K.
1991-05-01
TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation program for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, and unsaturated zone hydrology. A successor to the TOUGH program, TOUGH2 offers added capabilities and user features, including the flexibility to handle different fluid mixtures, facilities for processing of geometric data (computational grids), and an internal version control system to ensure referenceability of code applications. This report includes a detailed description of governing equations, program architecture, and user features. Enhancements in data inputs relative to TOUGH are described, and a number of sample problems are given to illustrate code applications. 46 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.
Numeric promoter description - A comparative view on concepts and general application.
Beier, Rico; Labudde, Dirk
2016-01-01
Nucleic acid molecules play a key role in a variety of biological processes. Starting from storage and transfer tasks, this also comprises the triggering of biological processes, regulatory effects and the active influence gained by target binding. Based on the experimental output (in this case promoter sequences), further in silico analyses aid in gaining new insights into these processes and interactions. The numerical description of nucleic acids thereby constitutes a bridge between the concrete biological issues and the analytical methods. Hence, this study compares 26 descriptor sets obtained by applying well-known numerical description concepts to an established dataset of 38 DNA promoter sequences. The suitability of the description sets was evaluated by computing partial least squares regression models and assessing the model accuracy. We conclude that the major importance regarding the descriptive power is attached to positional information rather than to explicitly incorporated physico-chemical information, since a sufficient amount of implicit physico-chemical information is already encoded in the nucleobase classification. The regression models especially benefited from employing the information that is encoded in the sequential and structural neighborhood of the nucleobases. Thus, the analyses of n-grams (short fragments of length n) suggested that they are valuable descriptors for DNA target interactions. A mixed n-gram descriptor set thereby yielded the best description of the promoter sequences. The corresponding regression model was checked and found to be plausible as it was able to reproduce the characteristic binding motifs of promoter sequences in a reasonable degree. As most functional nucleic acids are based on the principle of molecular recognition, the findings are not restricted to promoter sequences, but can rather be transferred to other kinds of functional nucleic acids. Thus, the concepts presented in this study could provide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Sandra E.; Georgescu, IonuÅ£; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A.
2013-01-01
The self-consistent phonons (SCP) method provides a consistent way to include anharmonic effects when treating a many-body quantum system at thermal equilibrium. The system is then described by an effective temperature-dependent harmonic Hamiltonian, which can be used to estimate the system's properties, such as its free energy or its vibrational spectrum. The numerical bottleneck of the method is the evaluation of Gaussian averages of the potential energy and its derivatives. Several algorithmic ideas/tricks are introduced to reduce the cost of such integration by orders of magnitude, e.g., relative to that of the previous implementation of the SCP approach by Calvo et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 074303 (2010), 10.1063/1.3465554]. One such algorithmic improvement is the replacement of standard Monte Carlo integration by quasi-Monte Carlo integration utilizing low-discrepancy sequences. The performance of the method is demonstrated on the calculation of vibrational frequencies of pyrene. It is then applied to compute the free energies of five isomers of water hexamer using the WHBB potential of Bowman and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094509 (2011), 10.1063/1.3554905]. The present results predict the hexamer prism being thermodynamically most stable, with the free energy of the hexamer cage being about 0.2 kcal mol-1 higher at all temperatures below T = 200 K.
Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo
2015-01-01
Models going beyond the rigid-rotor and the harmonic oscillator levels are mandatory for providing accurate theoretical predictions for several spectroscopic properties. Different strategies have been devised for this purpose. Among them, the treatment by perturbation theory of the molecular Hamiltonian after its expansion in power series of products of vibrational and rotational operators, also referred to as vibrational perturbation theory (VPT), is particularly appealing for its computational efficiency to treat medium-to-large systems. Moreover, generalized (GVPT) strategies combining the use of perturbative and variational formalisms can be adopted to further improve the accuracy of the results, with the first approach used for weakly coupled terms, and the second one to handle tightly coupled ones. In this context, the GVPT formulation for asymmetric, symmetric, and linear tops is revisited and fully generalized to both minima and first-order saddle points of the molecular potential energy surface. The computational strategies and approximations that can be adopted in dealing with GVPT computations are pointed out, with a particular attention devoted to the treatment of symmetry and degeneracies. A number of tests and applications are discussed, to show the possibilities of the developments, as regards both the variety of treatable systems and eligible methods. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26345131
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.
1986-01-01
Numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is known to be time consuming and expensive. Testing of the INS3D computers code, which solves these equations with the use of the pseudocompressibility method, shows this method to be an efficient way to obtain the steady state solution. The effects of the waves introduced by the pseudocompressibility method are analyzed and criteria are set and tested for the choice of the pseudocompressibility parameter which governs the artificial sound speed. The code is tested using laminar flow over a two dimensional backward-facing step, and laminar flow over a two dimensional circular cylinder. The results of the computations over the backward-facing step are in excellent agreement with experimental results. The transient solution of the flow over the cylinder impulsively started from rest is in good agreement with experimental results. However, the computed frequency of periodic shedding of vortices behind the cylinder is not in agreement with the experimental value. For a three dimensional test case, computations were conducted for a cylinder end wall junction. The saddle point separation and horseshoe vortex system appear in the computed field. The solution also shows secondary vortex filaments which wrap around the cylinder and spiral up in the wake.
An efficient and general numerical method to compute steady uniform vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luzzatto-Fegiz, Paolo; Williamson, Charles H. K.
2011-07-01
Steady uniform vortices are widely used to represent high Reynolds number flows, yet their efficient computation still presents some challenges. Existing Newton iteration methods become inefficient as the vortices develop fine-scale features; in addition, these methods cannot, in general, find solutions with specified Casimir invariants. On the other hand, available relaxation approaches are computationally inexpensive, but can fail to converge to a solution. In this paper, we overcome these limitations by introducing a new discretization, based on an inverse-velocity map, which radically increases the efficiency of Newton iteration methods. In addition, we introduce a procedure to prescribe Casimirs and remove the degeneracies in the steady vorticity equation, thus ensuring convergence for general vortex configurations. We illustrate our methodology by considering several unbounded flows involving one or two vortices. Our method enables the computation, for the first time, of steady vortices that do not exhibit any geometric symmetry. In addition, we discover that, as the limiting vortex state for each flow is approached, each family of solutions traces a clockwise spiral in a bifurcation plot consisting of a velocity-impulse diagram. By the recently introduced "IVI diagram" stability approach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 044504], each turn of this spiral is associated with a loss of stability for the steady flows. Such spiral structure is suggested to be a universal feature of steady, uniform-vorticity flows.
Using a Vibration Device to Ease Pain During Facial Needling and Injection
Ogawa, Rei
2016-01-01
Objective: In general, needling and injection are painful procedures, especially when the face is the target. Although local anesthetics (cream or tape) can be used to reduce the pain, they are not sufficiently effective. It has been suggested that vibration can reduce pain. The aim of this case study was to determine whether application of a vibration device to an area adjacent to the facial target area to be injected/needled would relieve pain. Methods: Consecutive women scheduled to undergo facial injection with hyaluronic acid or botulinum toxin were recruited. Half of the face was injected with concomitant vibration, whereas the other half was injected without vibration. The pain experienced by the women during both procedures was assessed using the Numeric Rating Scale. The safety of injection with vibration was also assessed. Results: Of the 32 patients, 28 indicated that vibration relieved the pain, 3 stated that it had no effect, and 1 (who received deep botulinum toxin injections to the masseter muscle) complained that it made the pain worse. Vibration did not affect the safety of the injections. The average Numeric Rating Scale scores for the no-vibration and vibration injections were 4.5 ± 1.5 and 2.3 ± 0.9, respectively (P < .001). Conclusions: The Gate Control Theory of Pain explains why vibration reduces pain. PMID:26933468
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, S.; Wesseling, P.
1993-01-01
The performance of a linear multigrid method using four smoothing methods, called SCGS (Symmetrical Coupled GauBeta-Seidel), CLGS (Collective Line GauBeta-Seidel), SILU (Scalar ILU), and CILU (Collective ILU), is investigated for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in general coordinates, in association with Galerkin coarse grid approximation. Robustness and efficiency are measured and compared by application to test problems. The numerical results show that CILU is the most robust, SILU the least, with CLGS and SCGS in between. CLGS is the best in efficiency, SCGS and CILU follow, and SILU is the worst.
Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.
2013-07-01
Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing
Numerical simulation of the general circulation of the atmosphere of Titan.
Hourdin, F; Talagrand, O; Sadourny, R; Courtin, R; Gautier, D; McKay, C P
1995-10-01
The atmospheric circulation of Titan is investigated with a general circulation model. The representation of the large-scale dynamics is based on a grid point model developed and used at Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique for climate studies. The code also includes an accurate representation of radiative heating and cooling by molecular gases and haze as well as a parametrization of the vertical turbulent mixing of momentum and potential temperature. Long-term simulations of the atmospheric circulation are presented. Starting from a state of rest, the model spontaneously produces a strong superrotation with prograde equatorial winds (i.e., in the same sense as the assumed rotation of the solid body) increasing from the surface to reach 100 m sec-1 near the 1-mbar pressure level. Those equatorial winds are in very good agreement with some indirect observations, especially those of the 1989 occultation of Star 28-Sgr by Titan. On the other hand, the model simulates latitudinal temperature contrasts in the stratosphere that are significantly weaker than those observed by Voyager 1 which, we suggest, may be partly due to the nonrepresentation of the spatial and temporal variations of the abundances of molecular species and haze. We present diagnostics of the simulated atmospheric circulation underlying the importance of the seasonal cycle and a tentative explanation for the creation and maintenance of the atmospheric superrotation based on a careful angular momentum budget. PMID:11538593
Vanbinst, K; De Smedt, B
2016-01-01
This contribution reviewed the available evidence on the domain-specific and domain-general neurocognitive determinants of children's arithmetic development, other than nonsymbolic numerical magnitude processing, which might have been overemphasized as a core factor of individual differences in mathematics and dyscalculia. We focused on symbolic numerical magnitude processing, working memory, and phonological processing, as these determinants have been most researched and their roles in arithmetic can be predicted against the background of brain imaging data. Our review indicates that symbolic numerical magnitude processing is a major determinant of individual differences in arithmetic. Working memory, particularly the central executive, also plays a role in learning arithmetic, but its influence appears to be dependent on the learning stage and experience of children. The available evidence on phonological processing suggests that it plays a more subtle role in children's acquisition of arithmetic facts. Future longitudinal studies should investigate these factors in concert to understand their relative contribution as well as their mediating and moderating roles in children's arithmetic development. PMID:27339010
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, C.; Peter, R.
2015-06-01
We present a detailed numerical study of solutions to general Korteweg-de Vries equations with critical and supercritical nonlinearity, both in the context of dispersive shocks and blow-up. We study the stability of solitons and show that they are unstable against being radiated away and blow-up. In the L2 critical case, the blow-up mechanism by Martel, Merle and Raphaël can be numerically identified. In the limit of small dispersion, it is shown that a dispersive shock always appears before an eventual blow-up. In the latter case, always the first soliton to appear will blow up. It is shown that the same type of blow-up as for the perturbations of the soliton can be observed which indicates that the theory by Martel, Merle and Raphaël is also applicable to initial data with a mass much larger than the soliton mass. We study the scaling of the blow-up time t∗ in dependence of the small dispersion parameter ɛ and find an exponential dependence t∗(ɛ) and that there is a minimal blow-up time t0∗ greater than the critical time of the corresponding Hopf solution for ɛ → 0. To study the cases with blow-up in detail, we apply the first dynamic rescaling for generalized Korteweg-de Vries equations. This allows to identify the type of the singularity.
49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the qualification of all rigid IBC design types. Flexible IBC design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b)...
49 CFR 178.819 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.819 Section 178.819... Vibration test. (a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the qualification of all rigid IBC design types. Flexible IBC design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b)...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holm, D. D.; Ivanov, R. I.
2010-12-01
The Lax pair formulation of the two-component Camassa-Holm equation (CH2) is generalized to produce an integrable multi-component family, CH(n, k), of equations with n components and 1 <= |k| <= n velocities. All of the members of the CH(n, k) family show fluid-dynamics properties with coherent solitons following particle characteristics. We determine their Lie-Poisson Hamiltonian structures and give numerical examples of their soliton solution behaviour. We concentrate on the CH(2, k) family with one or two velocities, including the CH(2, -1) equation in the Dym position of the CH2 hierarchy. A brief discussion of the CH(3, 1) system reveals the underlying graded Lie-algebraic structure of the Hamiltonian formulation for CH(n, k) when n >= 3. Fondly recalling our late friend Jerry Marsden.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmedal, Bjørn; Osmundsen, Elisa; Du, Qiang
2016-01-01
Particles precipitated during aging treatments often have non-spherical shapes, e.g., needles or plates, while in the classical Kampmann-Wagner Numerical (KWN) precipitation model, it is assumed that the particles are of spherical shape. This model is here generalized resulting in two correction factors accounting for the effects induced by the particles' non-spherical shape on their growth kinetics. The first one is for the correction of the growth rate. It is derived from the approximate solution of the diffusion problem on spheroidal coordinate and verified by the three-dimensional numerical solutions for cuboid particles. The second factor is for the energetic correction due to the particle surface curvature. It is derived from chemical potential equality (or Gibbs energy minimization principle) at equilibrium for non-spherical particles and provides a correction factor for the Gibbs-Thomson effect. In the accompanying paper, the two correction factors are implemented into a multi-component KWN modeling framework, and the resulting improvements on the model's predictive power are demonstrated.
Vertical Distribution of Vibrationally Excited Hydroxyl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grygalashvyly, Mykhaylo; Becker, Erich; Sonnemann, Gerd
2016-04-01
Knowledge about the vertical distribution of the vibrationally excited states of hydroxyl (OH*) is important for the interpretation of airglow measurements with respect to dynamical processes in the mesopause region. We derive an approximate analytical expression for the distribution of OH* that highlights the dependence on atomic oxygen and temperature. In addition, we use an advanced numerical model for the formation and relaxation of OH* and investigate the distributions of the different vibrationally exited states of OH*. For the production of OH*, the model includes the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone, as well as the reaction of atomic oxygen with hydroperoxy radicals. As loss processes we include 1) deactivation by atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, and molecular nitrogen, 2) spontaneous emission, and 3) loss due to chemical reaction with atomic oxygen. All these processes take the dependence on the vibrational number into account. The quenching by molecular and atomic oxygen is parameterized by a multi-quantum relaxation scheme. This diagnostic model for OH* has been implemented as part of a chemistry-transport model that is driven by the dynamics simulated with the KMCM (Kühlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model). Numerical results confirm that emission from excited states with higher vibrational number is weaker and emanates from higher altitudes. In addition we find that the OH*-peak altitudes depend significantly on season and latitude. This behavior is mainly controlled by the corresponding variations of atomic oxygen and temperature, as is also confirmed by the aforementioned approximate theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Liangming; Xie, Weiping; He, Xingwen; Hayashikawa, Toshiro
2016-03-01
In this study a 3D numerical analysis approach is developed to predict the ground vibration around rigid-frame viaducts induced by running high-speed trains. The train-bridge-ground interaction system is divided into two subsystems: the train-bridge interaction and the soil-structure interaction. First, the analytical program to simulate bridge vibration with consideration of train-bridge interaction is developed to obtain the vibration reaction forces at the pier bottoms. The highspeed train is described by a multi-DOFs vibration system and the rigid-frame viaduct is modeled with 3D beam elements. Second, applying these vibration reaction forces as input external excitations, the ground vibration is simulated by using a general-purpose program that includes soil-structure interaction effects. The validity of the analytical procedure is confirmed by comparing analytical and experimental results. The characteristics of high-speed train-induced vibrations, including the location of predominant vibration, are clarified. Based on this information a proposed vibration countermeasure using steel strut and new barrier is found effective in reducing train-induced vibrations and it satisfies environmental vibration requirements. The vibration screening efficiency is evaluated by reduction VAL based on 1/3 octave band spectral analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pessoa, Renato; Castro, Marcos A.; Amaral, Orlando A. V.; Fonseca, Tertius L.
2005-08-01
In this work we report results of CPHF calculations, including vibrational corrections, for the dynamic polarizability and first hyperpolarizability of the LiF molecule. Vibrational corrections were computed through the Numerov-Cooley and perturbation-theoretic methods. Comparison between the results obtained using both methods shows that first-order perturbation-theoretic provides a good approximation for the zpva contribution. The double-harmonic-oscillator approximation is reliable for the pv contributions of αzz, βxxz and βzxx, while [ μα] 0 + [ μ3] I is a good approximation for βzzz. CCSD(T) results obtained for the pv contribution show that the electron correlation effects are small for the polarizability but significant for the first hyperpolarizability.
Malik, Suheel Abdullah; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor; Amir, Muhammad; Malik, Aqdas Naveed; Haq, Ihsanul
2015-01-01
In this paper, a new heuristic scheme for the approximate solution of the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation is proposed. The scheme is based on the hybridization of Exp-function method with nature inspired algorithm. The given nonlinear partial differential equation (NPDE) through substitution is converted into a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (NODE). The travelling wave solution is approximated by the Exp-function method with unknown parameters. The unknown parameters are estimated by transforming the NODE into an equivalent global error minimization problem by using a fitness function. The popular genetic algorithm (GA) is used to solve the minimization problem, and to achieve the unknown parameters. The proposed scheme is successfully implemented to solve the generalized Burgers'-Fisher equation. The comparison of numerical results with the exact solutions, and the solutions obtained using some traditional methods, including adomian decomposition method (ADM), homotopy perturbation method (HPM), and optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), show that the suggested scheme is fairly accurate and viable for solving such problems. PMID:25811858
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casavant, D.; Brodsky, I.; MacDougall, G. J.
Many important details regarding magnetism in a material can be inferred from the magnetic excitation spectrum, and in this context, general calculations of the classical spinwave spectrum are often necessary. Beyond the simplest of lattices, however, it is difficult to numerically determine the full spinwave spectrum, due primarily to the non-linearity of the problem. In this talk, I will present MATLAB code, developed over the last few years at the University of Illinois, that calculates the dispersions of spinwave excitations out of an arbitrarily defined ordered spin system. The calculation assumes a standard Heisenberg exchange Hamiltonian with the incorporation of a single-ion anisotropy term which can be varied site-by-site and can also simulate the application of an applied field. An overview of the calculation method and the structure of the code will be given, with emphasis on its general applicability. Extensions to the code enable the simulation of both single-crystal and powder-averaged neutron scattering intensity patterns. As a specfic example, I will present the calculated neutron scattering spectrum for powders of CoV2O4, where good agreement between the simulated and experimental data suggests a self-consistent picture of the low-temperature magnetism.
Free vibrations of delaminated beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, M.-H. H.; Grady, J. E.
1992-01-01
Free vibration of laminated composite beams is studied. The effect of interply delaminations on natural frequencies and mode shapes is evaluated both analytically and experimentally. A generalized vibrational principle is used to formulate the equation of motion and associated boundary conditions for the free vibration of a composite beam with a delamination of arbitrary size and location. The effect of coupling between longitudinal vibration and bending vibration is considered. This coupling effect is shown to significantly affect the calculated natural frequencies and mode shapes of the delaminated beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noori, M.; Davoodi, H.; Saffar, A.
1988-12-01
The cumulant-neglect closure scheme independently developed by Ibrahim and Lin is extended for determining the stationary and non-stationary response of non-linear systems with hysteric restoring force characteristics. The method is applied to the analysis of a hysteresis and model with strength and/or stiffness degradation capabilities. This model has been studied in the past by Baber and Wen for the analysis of hysterically degrading systems using equivalent linearization. The same model has also been used for stochastic seismic performance evaluation of reinforced concrete buildings. Response statistics obtained for the model by using this closure scheme are compared with results of equivalent linearization via Monte Carlo simulation. The study performed, for a wide range of degradation parameters and input power spectral density levels, shows that the Gaussian responses obtained by this approach are identical with the linearized results. This general approximation technique, however, can provide information on higher order statistics for hysteretic systems. These non-Gaussian statistics have not been made available so far by the existing approximation techniques. In this paper the Gaussian statistics are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borromeo, M.; Marchesoni, F.
2006-01-01
Transport in one-dimensional symmetric devices can be activated by the combination of thermal noise and a biharmonic drive. For the study case of an overdamped Brownian particle diffusing on a periodic one-dimensional substrate, we distinguish two apparently different biharmonic regimes: (i) Harmonic mixing, where the two drive frequencies are commensurate and of the order of some intrinsic relaxation rate. Earlier predictions based on perturbation expansions seem inadequate to interpret our simulation results; (ii) Vibrational mixing, where one harmonic drive component is characterized by high frequency but finite amplitude-to-frequency ratio. Its effect on the device response to either a static or a low-frequency additional input signal is accurately reproduced by rescaling each spatial Fourier component of the substrate potential, separately. Contrary to common wisdom, based on the linear response theory, we show that extremely high-frequency modulations can indeed influence the response of slowly (or dc) operated devices, with potential applications in sensor technology and cellular physiology. Finally, the mixing of two high-frequency beating signal is also investigated both numerically and analytically.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Feng; Chen, Wen-Li; Xiao, Yi-Qing; Li, Hui; Ou, Jin-Ping
2014-01-01
In the present paper, the commercial CFD code "Fluent" was employed to perform 2-D simulations of an entire process that included the flow around a fixed circular cylinder, the oscillating cylinder (vortex-induced vibration, VIV) and the oscillating cylinder subjected to shape control by a traveling wave wall (TWW) method. The study mainly focused on using the TWW control method to suppress the VIV of an elastically supported circular cylinder with two degrees of freedom at a low Reynolds number of 200. The cross flow (CF) and the inline flow (IL) displacements, the centroid motion trajectories and the lift and drag forces of the cylinder that changed with the frequency ratios were analyzed in detail. The results indicate that a series of small-scale vortices will be formed in the troughs of the traveling wave located on the rear part of the circular cylinder; these vortices can effectively control the flow separation from the cylinder surface, eliminate the oscillating wake and suppress the VIV of the cylinder. A TWW starting at the initial time or at some time halfway through the time interval can significantly suppress the CF and IL vibrations of the cylinder and can remarkably decrease the fluctuations of the lift coefficients and the average values of the drag coefficients; however, it will simultaneously dramatically increase the fluctuations of the drag coefficients.
Formulation of numerical procedures for dynamic analysis of spinning structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, K. K.
1986-01-01
The paper presents the descriptions of recently developed numerical algorithms that prove to be useful for the solution of the free vibration problem of spinning structures. First, a generalized procedure for the computation of nodal centrifugal forces in a finite element owing to any specified spin rate is derived in detail. This is followed by a description of an improved eigenproblem solution procedure that proves to be economical for the free vibration analysis of spinning structures. Numerical results are also presented which indicate the efficacy of the currently developed procedures.
Numerical study of the structural and vibrational properties of amorphous Ta2O5 and TiO2-doped Ta2O5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damart, T.; Coillet, E.; Tanguy, A.; Rodney, D.
2016-05-01
Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we synthesized amorphous Ta2O5 and amorphous TiO2-doped Ta2O5. We show that Ta2O5 is composed primarily of six-folded Ta atoms forming octahedra that are either organized in chain-like structures or share edges or faces. When Ta2O5 is doped with TiO2, Ti atoms form equally five- and six-folded polyhedra that perturb but do not break the network structure of the glass. Performing a vibrational eigenmode analysis and projecting the eigenmodes on the rocking, stretching, and bending motions of the Ta-2O and Ta-3O bonds, we provide an atomic-scale analysis that substantiates the interpretations of Raman spectra of amorphous Ta2O5. This eigenmode analysis also reveals the key role played by Ti atoms in the 5 to 12 THz range.
Torsional vibration of aircraft engines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lurenbaum, Karl
1932-01-01
Exhaustive torsional-vibration investigations are required to determine the reliability of aircraft engines. A general outline of the methods used for such investigations and of the theoretical and mechanical means now available for this purpose is given, illustrated by example. True vibration diagrams are usually obtained from vibration measurements on the completed engine. Two devices for this purpose and supplementing each other, the D.V.L. torsiograph and the D.V.L. torsion recorder, are described in this report.
Numerical simulation of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations by an ocean general circulation model.
Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi
2003-01-01
We simulated the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations in the ocean by using the ocean general circulation model which was developed by National Center of Atmospheric Research. These nuclides are introduced into seawaters from global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The distribution of radioactive deposition on the world ocean is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute in Japan and several observed points in New Zealand. Radionuclides from global fallout have been transported by advection, diffusion and scavenging, and this concentration reduces by radioactive decay in the ocean. We verified the results of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu in seawater with the observed values included in the Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the HAM database, which has been constructed by the Meteorological Research Institute. The vertical distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement and are in good agreement with the observed profiles in the 1960s up to 250 m, in the 1970s up to 500 m, in the 1980s up to 750 m and in the 1990s up to 750 m. However, the calculated 137Cs concentrations were underestimated compared with the observed 137Cs at the deeper layer. This may suggest other transport processes of 137Cs to deep waters. The horizontal distributions of 137Cs concentrations in surface water could be simulated. A numerical tracer release experiment was performed to explain the horizontal distribution pattern. A maximum (239,240)Pu concentration layer occurs at an intermediate depth for both observed and calculated values, which is formed by particle scavenging. The horizontal distributions of the calculated (239,240)Pu concentrations in surface water could be simulated by considering the scavenging effect. PMID:12860090
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bastin, Paul
1990-01-01
Viewgraphs on vibration isolation are presented. Techniques to control and isolate centrifuge disturbances were identified. Topics covered include: disturbance sources in the microgravity environment; microgravity assessment criteria; life sciences centrifuge; flight support equipment for launch; active vibration isolation system; active balancing system; and fuzzy logic control.
Hauth, J.J.
1962-07-01
A method of compacting a powder in a metal container is described including the steps of vibrating the container at above and below the resonant frequency and also sweeping the frequency of vibration across the resonant frequency several times thereby following the change in resonant frequency caused by compaction of the powder. (AEC)
2011-01-01
By homing in on the distribution patterns of electrons around an atom, a team of scientists team with Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry showed how certain vibrations from benzene thiol cause electrical charge to "slosh" onto a gold surface (left), while others do not (right). The vibrations that cause this "sloshing" behavior yield a stronger SERS signal.
A shell model for tyre belt vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecomte, C.; Graham, W. R.; Dale, M.
2010-05-01
We present a new formulation for the prediction of tyre belt vibrations in the frequency range 0-500 Hz. Our representation includes the effects of belt width, curvature and anisotropy, and also explicitly models the tyre sidewalls. Many of the associated numerical parameters are fixed by physical considerations; the remainder require empirical input. A systematic and general approach to this problem is developed, and illustrated for the specific example of a Goodyear Wrangler tyre. The resulting predictions for the radial response to radial forcing show good correspondence with experiment up to 300 Hz, and satisfactory agreement up to 1 kHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malagnini, Luca; Dreger, Douglas S.
2016-03-01
Although optimal, computing the moment tensor solution is not always a viable option for the calculation of the size of an earthquake, especially for small events (say, below MW 2.0). Here we show an alternative approach to the calculation of the moment-rate spectra of small earthquakes, and thus of their scalar moments, that uses a network-based calibration of crustal wave propagation. The method works best when applied to a relatively small crustal volume containing both the seismic sources and the recording sites. In this study we present the calibration of the crustal volume monitored by the High Resolution Seismic Network (HRSN), along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Parkfield. After the quantification of the attenuation parameters within the crustal volume under investigation, we proceed to the spectral correction of the observed Fourier amplitude spectra for the 100 largest events in our data set. Multiple estimates of seismic moment for the all events (1811 events total) are obtained by calculating the ratio of rms-averaged spectral quantities based on the peak values of the ground velocity in the time domain, as they are observed in narrowband-filtered time series. The mathematical operations allowing the described spectral ratios are obtained from Random Vibration Theory (RVT). Due to the optimal conditions of the HRSN, in terms of signal-to-noise ratios, our network-based calibration allows the accurate calculation of seismic moments down to MW< 0. However, because the HRSN is equipped only with borehole instruments, we define a frequency-dependent Generalized Free-Surface Effect (GFSE), to be used instead of the usual free-surface constant F = 2. Our spectral corrections at Parkfield need a different GFSE for each side of the SAF, which can be quantified by means of the analysis of synthetic seismograms. The importance of the GFSE of borehole instruments increases for decreasing earthquake's size, because for smaller earthquakes the bandwidth available
Mobile high frequency vibrator system
Fair, D.W.; Buller, P.L.
1985-01-08
A carrier mounted seismic vibrator system that is primarily adapted for generation of high force, high frequency seismic energy into an earth medium. The apparatus includes first and second vibrators as supported by first and second lift systems disposed in tandem juxtaposition generally centrally in said vehicle, and the lift systems are designed to maintain equal hold-down force on the vibrator coupling baseplates without exceeding the weight of the carrier vehicle. The juxtaposed vibrators are then energized in synchronized relationship to propagate increased amounts of higher frequency seismic energy into an earth medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussein, M. F. M.; Hunt, H. E. M.
2009-03-01
This paper presents a new method for modelling floating-slab tracks with discontinuous slabs in underground railway tunnels. The track is subjected to a harmonic load moving with a constant velocity. The model consists of two sub-models. The first is an infinite track with periodic double-beam unit formulated as a periodic infinite structure. The second is modelled with a new version of the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) model that accounts for a tunnel wall embedded in a half-space. The two sub-models are coupled by writing the force transmitted from the track to the tunnel as a continuous function using Fourier series representation and satisfying the compatibility condition. The displacements at the free surface are calculated for a track with discontinuous slab and compared with those of a track with continuous slab. The results show that the far-field vibration can be significantly increased due to resonance frequencies of slabs for tracks with discontinuous slabs.
Lerwill, W.E.
1980-09-16
Apparatus for generating vibrations in a medium, such as the ground, comprises a first member which contacts the medium, means , preferably electromagnetic, which includes two relatively movable members for generating vibrations in the apparatus and means operatively connecting the said two members to said first member such that the relatively amplitudes of the movements of said three members can be adjusted to match the impedances of the apparatus and the medium.
14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b)...
14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine vibration. 27.907 Section 27.907... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 27.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The addition of...
14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b)...
14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine vibration. 27.907 Section 27.907... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 27.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The addition of...
49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample...
14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b)...
49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample...
49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample...
14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine vibration. 27.907 Section 27.907... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 27.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b) The addition of...
14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b)...
49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vibration test. 178.985 Section 178.985... Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample...
14 CFR 29.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine vibration. 29.907 Section 29.907... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.907 Engine vibration. (a) Each engine must be installed to prevent the harmful vibration of any part of the engine or rotorcraft. (b)...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh
2003-10-01
Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, Devin A.; Gong, Justin Z.; Stanton, John F.
2014-06-01
The derivation of analytic expressions for vibrational and rovibrational constants, for example the anharmonicity constants χij and the vibration-rotation interaction constants α^B_r, from second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) can be accomplished with pen and paper and some practice. However, the corresponding quantities from fourth-order perturbation theory (VPT4) are considerably more complex, with the only known derivations by hand extensively using many layers of complicated intermediates and for rotational quantities requiring specialization to orthorhombic cases or the form of Watson's reduced Hamiltonian. We present an automatic computer program for generating these expressions with full generality based on the adaptation of an existing numerical program based on the sum-over-states representation of the energy to a computer algebra context. The measures taken to produce well-simplified and factored expressions in an efficient manner are discussed, as well as the framework for automatically checking the correctness of the generated equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Yiding; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won Soon
1989-01-01
An enthalpy transforming scheme is proposed to convert the energy equation into a nonlinear equation with the enthalpy, E, being the single dependent variable. The existing control-volume finite-difference approach is modified so it can be applied to the numerical performance of Stefan problems. The model is tested by applying it to a three-dimensional freezing problem. The numerical results are in agreement with those existing in the literature. The model and its algorithm are further applied to a three-dimensional moving heat source problem showing that the methodology is capable of handling complicated phase-change problems with fixed grids.
Force Limited Vibration Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.
2005-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip
2010-01-01
Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malagnini, Luca; Dreger, Douglas S.
2016-07-01
Although optimal, computing the moment tensor solution is not always a viable option for the calculation of the size of an earthquake, especially for small events (say, below Mw 2.0). Here we show an alternative approach to the calculation of the moment-rate spectra of small earthquakes, and thus of their scalar moments, that uses a network-based calibration of crustal wave propagation. The method works best when applied to a relatively small crustal volume containing both the seismic sources and the recording sites. In this study we present the calibration of the crustal volume monitored by the High-Resolution Seismic Network (HRSN), along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) at Parkfield. After the quantification of the attenuation parameters within the crustal volume under investigation, we proceed to the spectral correction of the observed Fourier amplitude spectra for the 100 largest events in our data set. Multiple estimates of seismic moment for the all events (1811 events total) are obtained by calculating the ratio of rms-averaged spectral quantities based on the peak values of the ground velocity in the time domain, as they are observed in narrowband-filtered time-series. The mathematical operations allowing the described spectral ratios are obtained from Random Vibration Theory (RVT). Due to the optimal conditions of the HRSN, in terms of signal-to-noise ratios, our network-based calibration allows the accurate calculation of seismic moments down to Mw < 0. However, because the HRSN is equipped only with borehole instruments, we define a frequency-dependent Generalized Free-Surface Effect (GFSE), to be used instead of the usual free-surface constant F = 2. Our spectral corrections at Parkfield need a different GFSE for each side of the SAF, which can be quantified by means of the analysis of synthetic seismograms. The importance of the GFSE of borehole instruments increases for decreasing earthquake's size because for smaller earthquakes the bandwidth available
Digital vibration control techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chapman, P.; Kim, B. K.; Boctor, W.
1974-01-01
Analog vibration control techniques are reviewed and are compared with digital techniques. The advantages of the digital methods over the analog methods are demonstrated. The following topics are covered: (1) methods of computer-controlled random vibration and reverberation acoustic testing; (2) methods of computer-controlled sinewave vibration testing; and (3) methods of computer-controlled shock testing. Basic concepts are stressed rather than specific techniques or equipment. General algorithms are described in the form of block diagrams and flow diagrams. Specific problems and potential problems are discussed. The material is computer sciences oriented but is kept at a level that facilitates an understanding of the basic concepts of computer-controlled induced environmental test systems.
Electron-vibration relaxation in oxygen plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laporta, V.; Heritier, K. L.; Panesi, M.
2016-06-01
An ideal chemical reactor model is used to study the vibrational relaxation of oxygen molecules in their ground electronic state, X3 Σg-, in presence of free electrons. The model accounts for vibrational non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules. The vibrational levels of the molecules are treated as separate species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their population. The electron and vibrational temperatures are varied in the range [0-20,000] K. Numerical results show a fast energy transfer between oxygen molecules and free electron, which causes strong deviation of the vibrational distribution function from Boltzmann distribution, both in heating and cooling conditions. Comparison with Landau-Teller model is considered showing a good agreement for electron temperature range [2000-12,000] K. Finally analytical fit of the vibrational relaxation time is given.
Optimum vibration control of flexible beams by piezo-electric actuators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baz, A.; Poh, S.
1987-01-01
The utilization of piezoelectric actuators in controlling the structural vibrations of flexible beams is examined. A Modified Independent Modal Space Control (MIMSC) method is devised to enable the selection of the optimal location, control gains and excitation voltage of the piezoelectric actuators in a way that would minimize the amplitudes of vibrations of beams to which these actuators are bonded, as well as the input control energy necessary to suppress these vibrations. The developed method accounts for the effects that the piezoelectric actuators have on changing the elastic and inertial properties of the flexible beams. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the developed MIMSC method in minimizing the structural vibrations of beams of different materials when subjected to different loading and end conditions using ceramic or polymeric piezoelectric actuators. The obtained results emphasize the importance of the devised method in designing more realistic active control systems for flexible beams, in particular, and large flexible structures in general.
Liu, J.; Strzalka, J; Tronin, A; Johansson, J; Blasie, J
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that cyano-phenylalanine (PheCN) can be utilized to probe the binding of the inhalational anesthetic halothane to an anesthetic-binding, model ion channel protein hbAP-PheCN. The Trp to PheCN mutation alters neither the a-helical conformation nor the 4-helix bundle structure. The halothane binding properties of this PheCN mutant hbAP-PheCN, based on fluorescence quenching, are consistent with those of the prototype, hbAP1. The dependence of fluorescence lifetime as a function of halothane concentration implies that the diffusion of halothane in the nonpolar core of the protein bundle is one-dimensional. As a consequence, at low halothane concentrations, the quenching of the fluorescence is dynamic, whereas at high concentrations the quenching becomes static. The 4-helix bundle structure present in aqueous detergent solution and at the air-water interface, is preserved in multilayer films of hbAP-PheCN, enabling vibrational spectroscopy of both the protein and its nitrile label (-CN). The nitrile groups' stretching vibration band shifts to higher frequency in the presence of halothane, and this blue-shift is largely reversible. Due to the complexity of this amphiphilic 4-helix bundle model membrane protein, where four PheCN probes are present adjacent to the designed cavity forming the binding site within each bundle, all contributing to the infrared absorption, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is required to interpret the infrared results. The MD simulations indicate that the blue-shift of -CN stretching vibration induced by halothane arises from an indirect effect, namely an induced change in the electrostatic protein environment averaged over the four probe oscillators, rather than a direct interaction with the oscillators. hbAP-PheCN therefore provides a successful template for extending these investigations of the interactions of halothane with the model membrane protein via vibrational spectroscopy, using cyano-alanine residues to form the
Liu, Jing; Strzalka, Joseph; Tronin, Andrey; Johansson, Jonas S.; Blasie, J. Kent
2009-01-01
We demonstrate that cyano-phenylalanine (PheCN) can be utilized to probe the binding of the inhalational anesthetic halothane to an anesthetic-binding, model ion channel protein hbAP-PheCN. The Trp to PheCN mutation alters neither the α-helical conformation nor the 4-helix bundle structure. The halothane binding properties of this PheCN mutant hbAP-PheCN, based on fluorescence quenching, are consistent with those of the prototype, hbAP1. The dependence of fluorescence lifetime as a function of halothane concentration implies that the diffusion of halothane in the nonpolar core of the protein bundle is one-dimensional. As a consequence, at low halothane concentrations, the quenching of the fluorescence is dynamic, whereas at high concentrations the quenching becomes static. The 4-helix bundle structure present in aqueous detergent solution and at the air-water interface, is preserved in multilayer films of hbAP-PheCN, enabling vibrational spectroscopy of both the protein and its nitrile label (-CN). The nitrile groups' stretching vibration band shifts to higher frequency in the presence of halothane, and this blue-shift is largely reversible. Due to the complexity of this amphiphilic 4-helix bundle model membrane protein, where four PheCN probes are present adjacent to the designed cavity forming the binding site within each bundle, all contributing to the infrared absorption, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is required to interpret the infrared results. The MD simulations indicate that the blue-shift of -CN stretching vibration induced by halothane arises from an indirect effect, namely an induced change in the electrostatic protein environment averaged over the four probe oscillators, rather than a direct interaction with the oscillators. hbAP-PheCN therefore provides a successful template for extending these investigations of the interactions of halothane with the model membrane protein via vibrational spectroscopy, using cyano-alanine residues to form the
Parameter Reconstruction of Vibration Systems from Partial Eigeninformation
Lin, Matthew M.
2013-01-01
Quadratic matrix polynomials are fundamental to vibration analysis. Because of the predetermined interconnectivity among the constituent elements and the mandatory nonnegativity of the physical parameters, most given vibration systems will impose some inherent structure on the coefficients of the corresponding quadratic matrix polynomials. In the inverse problem of reconstructing a vibration system from its observed or desirable dynamical behavior, respecting the intrinsic structure becomes important and challenging both theoretically and practically. The issue of whether a structured inverse eigenvalue problem is solvable is problem dependent and has to be addressed structure by structure. In an earlier work, physical systems that can be modeled under the paradigm of a serially linked mass-spring system have been considered via specifically formulated inequality systems. In this paper, the framework is generalized to arbitrary generally linked systems. In particular, given any configuration of interconnectivity in a mass-spring system, this paper presents a mechanism that systematically and automatically generates a corresponding inequality system. A numerical approach is proposed to determine whether the inverse problem is solvable and, if it is so, computes the coefficient matrices while providing an estimate of the residual error. The most important feature of this approach is that it is problem independent, that is, the approach is general and robust for any kind of physical configuration. The ideas discussed in this paper have been implemented into a software package by which some numerical experiments are reported. PMID:23966750
Development of a numerical procedure to map a general 3-d body onto a near-circle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hommel, M. J.
1986-01-01
Conformal mapping is a classical technique utilized for solving problems in aerodynamics and hydrodynamics. Conformal mapping is utilized in the construction of grids around airfoils, engine inlets and other aircraft configurations. These shapes are transformed onto a near-circle image for which the equations of fluid motion are discretized on the mapped plane and solved numerically by utilizing the appropriate techniques. In comparison to other grid-generation techniques such as algerbraic or differential type, conformal mapping offers an analytical and accurate form even if the grid deformation is large. One of the most appealing features is that the grid can be constrained to remain orthogonal to the body after the transformation. Hence, the grid is suitable for analyzing the supersonic flow past a blunt object. The associated shock as a coordinate surface adjusts its position in the course of computation until convergence is reached. The present work applied conformal mapping to 3-D bodies with no axis of symmetry such as the Aerobraking Flight Experiment (AFE) vehicle, transforming the AFE shape onto a near-circle image. A numerical procedure and code are used to generate grids around the AFE body.
Natural vibration dynamics of Rainbow Bridge, Utah
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, J. R.; Thorne, M. S.; Wood, J. R.; Doyle, S.; Stanfield, E.; White, B.
2015-12-01
We measured resonant frequencies of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, one of the world's longest rock spans, during a field experiment recording ambient vibration data. Measurements were generated over 20 hours on March 23-24, 2015 using two broadband three-component seismometers placed on the bridge, and compared to concurrent data from nearby reference stations 20 and 220 m distant. We identified seven distinct modes of vibration for Rainbow Bridge between 1 and 6 Hz. Data for each resonant frequency was then analyzed to determine the frequency-dependent polarization vector in an attempt to clarify mode shapes; e.g. the fundamental mode represents out-of-plane horizontal flexure. We compared experimental data to results of 3D numerical modal analysis, using a new photogrammetric model of Rainbow Bridge generated in this study imported into COMSOL Multiphysics. Results compare well with measured data for seven of the first eight modeled modes, matching vibrational frequencies and polarization orientations generally within 10%. Only predicted mode 6 was not explicitly apparent in our experimental data. Large site-to-reference spectral ratios resolved from experimental data indicate high amplification on the bridge as compared to nearby bedrock.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)
1990-01-01
The invention relates to monitoring circuitry for the real time detection of vibrations of a predetermined frequency and which are greater than a predetermined magnitude. The circuitry produces an instability signal in response to such detection. The circuitry is particularly adapted for detecting instabilities in rocket thrusters, but may find application with other machines such as expensive rotating machinery, or turbines. The monitoring circuitry identifies when vibration signals are present having a predetermined frequency of a multi-frequency vibration signal which has an RMS energy level greater than a predetermined magnitude. It generates an instability signal only if such a vibration signal is identified. The circuitry includes a delay circuit which responds with an alarm signal only if the instability signal continues for a predetermined time period. When used with a rocket thruster, the alarm signal may be used to cut off the thruster if such thruster is being used in flight. If the circuitry is monitoring tests of the thruster, it generates signals to change the thruster operation, for example, from pulse mode to continuous firing to determine if the instability of the thruster is sustained once it is detected.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moura, A. D.; Shukla, J.
1981-01-01
The establishment of a thermally direct local circulation which has its ascending branch at about 10 deg N and its descending branch over northeast Brazil and the adjoining oceanic region is proposed as a possible mechanism for the occurrence of severe droughts over this Brazilian region. The driving for this anomalous circulation is provided by enhanced moist convection due to the effect of warmer sea surface anomalies over the northern tropical Atlantic and cooling associated with colder sea surface temperature anomalies in the southern tropical Atlantic. A simple primitive equation model is used to calculate the frictionally-controlled and thermally-driven circulation due to a prescribed heating function in a resting atmosphere, and a series of numerical experiments are carried out to test the sensitivity of the Goddard Laboratory's model to prescribed sea surface temperature anomalies over the tropical Atlantic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makinde, O. D.; Onyejekwe, O. O.
2011-11-01
The steady flow and heat transfer of an electrically conducting fluid with variable viscosity and electrical conductivity between two parallel plates in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated. It is assumed that the flow is driven by combined action of axial pressure gradient and uniform motion of the upper plate. The governing nonlinear equations of momentum and energy transport are solved numerically using a shooting iteration technique together with a sixth-order Runge-Kutta integration algorithm. Solutions are presented in graphical form and given in terms of fluid velocity, fluid temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rate for various parametric values. Our results reveal that the combined effect of magnetic field, viscosity, exponents of variable properties, various fluid and heat transfer dimensionless quantities and the electrical conductivity variation, have significant impact on the hydromagnetic and electrical properties of the fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremin, M.; Makarov, P.
2016-04-01
The results of 2D modelling of rock mass elements fracture are shown in the article. The results of modelling are in a good agreement with empirical and theoretical estimations of roof caving steps for the flat-dipping coal seams when the horizons are not so deep (less than 600 m). The estimations of the general and set steps of roof caving are given for the lava conditions at different lengths of the main roof containing sandstone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
May, V.
2002-12-01
To fully account for electron-vibrational coupling and vibrational relaxation in the course of electron motion through a molecular wire a density operator approach is utilized. If combined with a particular projection operator technique a generalized master equation can be derived which governs the populations of the electronic wire states. The respective memory kernels are determined beyond any perturbation theory with respect to the electron-vibrational coupling and can be classified via so-called Liouville space pathways. An ordering of the different contributions to the current-voltage characteristics becomes possible by introducing an electron transmission coefficient which describes ballistic as well as inelastic electron transport through the wire. The general derivations are illustrated by numerical calculations which demonstrate the drastic influence of the electron-vibrational coupling on the wire transmission coefficient as well as on the current-voltage characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geroyannis, Vassilis; Tzelati, Eleftheria
In this paper we compute general-relativistic polytropic models simulating rigidly rotating, pulsating neutron stars. These relativistic compact objects, with a radius of $\\sim 10 \\, \\mathrm{km}$ and mass between $\\sim 1.4$ and $3.2$ solar masses, are closely related to pulsars. We emphasize on computing the change in the pulsation eigenfrequencies owing to a rigid rotation, which, in turn, is a decisive issue for studying stability of such objects. In our computations, we keep rotational perturbation terms of up to second order in the angular velocity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2001-01-01
A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) sponsorship from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, assisted MetroLaser, of Irvine, California, in the development of a self-aligned laser vibrometer system. VibroMet, capable of measuring surface vibrations in a variety of industries, provides information on the structural integrity and acoustical characteristics of manufactured products. This low-cost, easy-to-use sensor performs vibration measurement from distances of up to three meters without the need for adjustment. The laser beam is simply pointed at the target and the system then uses a compact laser diode to illuminate the surface and to subsequently analyze the reflected light. The motion of the surface results in a Doppler shift that is measured with very high precision. VibroMet is considered one of the many behind-the-scenes tools that can be relied on to assure the quality, reliability and safety of everything from airplane panels to disk brakes
Benedetti, Andrea; Platt, Robert; Atherton, Juli
2014-01-01
Background Over time, adaptive Gaussian Hermite quadrature (QUAD) has become the preferred method for estimating generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. However, penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) is still used frequently. In this work, we systematically evaluated whether matching results from PQL and QUAD indicate less bias in estimated regression coefficients and variance parameters via simulation. Methods We performed a simulation study in which we varied the size of the data set, probability of the outcome, variance of the random effect, number of clusters and number of subjects per cluster, etc. We estimated bias in the regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters as estimated via PQL and QUAD. We ascertained if similarity of estimated regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters predicted less bias. Results Overall, we found that the absolute percent bias of the odds ratio estimated via PQL or QUAD increased as the PQL- and QUAD-estimated odds ratios became more discrepant, though results varied markedly depending on the characteristics of the dataset Conclusions Given how markedly results varied depending on data set characteristics, specifying a rule above which indicated biased results proved impossible. This work suggests that comparing results from generalized linear mixed models estimated via PQL and QUAD is a worthwhile exercise for regression coefficients and variance components obtained via QUAD, in situations where PQL is known to give reasonable results. PMID:24416249
Gakh, G. I.; Rekalo, A. P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Boucher, J.; Gakh, A. G.
2011-02-15
A general formalism is developed to calculate the cross section and the polarization observables for the reaction N-bar+N{yields}{pi}+l{sup +}+l{sup -}. The matrix element and the observables are expressed in terms of six scalar amplitudes (complex functions of three kinematical variables) that determine the reaction dynamics. The numerical predictions are given in the frame of a particular model in the kinematical range accessible in the antiproton annihilation at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR).
Optimal active vibration absorber - Design and experimental results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.
1993-01-01
An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.
Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.
1992-01-01
An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.
Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin
1992-01-01
A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far-field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far-field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.
Sekiguchi, Yu-ichirou; Shibata, Masaru
2005-04-15
We perform axisymmetric simulations for gravitational collapse of a massive iron core to a black hole in full general relativity. The iron cores are modeled by {gamma}=4/3 equilibrium polytrope for simplicity. The hydrodynamic equations are solved using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme with a parametric equation of state. The Cartoon method is adopted for solving the Einstein equations. Simulations are performed for a wide variety of initial conditions changing the mass ({approx_equal}2.0-3.0M{sub {center_dot}}), the angular momentum, the rotational velocity profile of the core, and the parameters of the equations of state which are chosen so that the maximum mass of the cold spherical polytrope is {approx_equal}1.6M{sub {center_dot}}. Then, the criterion for the prompt black hole formation is clarified in terms of the mass and the angular momentum for several rotational velocity profile of the core and equations of state. It is found that (i) with the increase of the thermal energy generated by shocks, the threshold mass for the prompt black hole formation is increased by 20-40%, (ii) the rotational centrifugal force increases the threshold mass by < or approx. 25%, (iii) with the increase of the degree of differential rotation, the threshold mass is also increased, and (iv) the amplification factors shown in the results (i)-(iii) depend sensitively on the equation of state. We also find that the collapse dynamics and the structure of the shock formed at the bounce depend strongly on the stiffness of the adopted equation of state. In particular, as a new feature, a strong bipolar explosion is observed for the collapse of rapidly rotating iron cores with an equation of state which is stiff in subnuclear density and soft in supranuclear density. Gravitational waves are computed in terms of a quadrupole formula. It is also found that the waveform depends sensitively on the equations of state.
Reduced elbow extension torque during vibrations.
Friesenbichler, Bernd; Coza, Aurel; Nigg, Benno M
2012-08-31
Impact sports and vibration platforms trigger vibrations within soft tissues and the skeleton. Although the long-term effects of vibrations on the body have been studied extensively, the acute effects of vibrations are little understood. This study determined the influence of acute vibrations at different frequencies and elbow angles on maximal isometric elbow extension torque and muscle activity. Vibrations were generated by a pneumatic vibrator attached to the lever of a dynamometer, and were applied on the forearm of 15 healthy female subjects. The subjects were instructed to push maximally against the lever at three different elbow angles, while extension torque and muscle activity were quantified and compared between vibration and non-vibration (control) conditions. A change in vibration frequency had no significant effects on torque and muscle activity although vibrations in general decreased the maximal extension torque relative to the control by 1.8% (±5.7%, p>0.05), 7.4% (±7.9%, p<0.01), and 5.0% (±8.2%, p<0.01) at elbow angles of 60°, 90°, and 120°, respectively. Electromyographic activity increased significantly between ∼30% and 40% in both triceps and biceps with vibrations. It is speculated that a similar increase in muscle activity between agonist and antagonist, in combination with an unequal increase in muscle moment arms about the elbow joint, limit the maximal extension torque during exposure to vibrations. This study showed that maximal extension torque decreased during vibration exposure while muscle activity increased and suggests that vibrations may be counterproductive during activities requiring maximal strength but potentially beneficial for strength training. PMID:22771229
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2009-01-01
Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.
Eckart frame vibration-rotation Hamiltonians: Contravariant metric tensor
Pesonen, Janne
2014-02-21
Eckart frame is a unique embedding in the theory of molecular vibrations and rotations. It is defined by the condition that the Coriolis coupling of the reference structure of the molecule is zero for every choice of the shape coordinates. It is far from trivial to set up Eckart kinetic energy operators (KEOs), when the shape of the molecule is described by curvilinear coordinates. In order to obtain the KEO, one needs to set up the corresponding contravariant metric tensor. Here, I derive explicitly the Eckart frame rotational measuring vectors. Their inner products with themselves give the rotational elements, and their inner products with the vibrational measuring vectors (which, in the absence of constraints, are the mass-weighted gradients of the shape coordinates) give the Coriolis elements of the contravariant metric tensor. The vibrational elements are given as the inner products of the vibrational measuring vectors with themselves, and these elements do not depend on the choice of the body-frame. The present approach has the advantage that it does not depend on any particular choice of the shape coordinates, but it can be used in conjunction with all shape coordinates. Furthermore, it does not involve evaluation of covariant metric tensors, chain rules of derivation, or numerical differentiation, and it can be easily modified if there are constraints on the shape of the molecule. Both the planar and non-planar reference structures are accounted for. The present method is particular suitable for numerical work. Its computational implementation is outlined in an example, where I discuss how to evaluate vibration-rotation energies and eigenfunctions of a general N-atomic molecule, the shape of which is described by a set of local polyspherical coordinates.
Eckart frame vibration-rotation Hamiltonians: contravariant metric tensor.
Pesonen, Janne
2014-02-21
Eckart frame is a unique embedding in the theory of molecular vibrations and rotations. It is defined by the condition that the Coriolis coupling of the reference structure of the molecule is zero for every choice of the shape coordinates. It is far from trivial to set up Eckart kinetic energy operators (KEOs), when the shape of the molecule is described by curvilinear coordinates. In order to obtain the KEO, one needs to set up the corresponding contravariant metric tensor. Here, I derive explicitly the Eckart frame rotational measuring vectors. Their inner products with themselves give the rotational elements, and their inner products with the vibrational measuring vectors (which, in the absence of constraints, are the mass-weighted gradients of the shape coordinates) give the Coriolis elements of the contravariant metric tensor. The vibrational elements are given as the inner products of the vibrational measuring vectors with themselves, and these elements do not depend on the choice of the body-frame. The present approach has the advantage that it does not depend on any particular choice of the shape coordinates, but it can be used in conjunction with all shape coordinates. Furthermore, it does not involve evaluation of covariant metric tensors, chain rules of derivation, or numerical differentiation, and it can be easily modified if there are constraints on the shape of the molecule. Both the planar and non-planar reference structures are accounted for. The present method is particular suitable for numerical work. Its computational implementation is outlined in an example, where I discuss how to evaluate vibration-rotation energies and eigenfunctions of a general N-atomic molecule, the shape of which is described by a set of local polyspherical coordinates. PMID:24559332
Vibrational Control of a Nonlinear Elastic Panel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, P. L.; Maestrello, L.
1998-01-01
The paper is concerned with the stabilization of the nonlinear panel oscillation by an active control. The control is actuated by a combination of additive and parametric vibrational forces. A general method of vibrational control is presented for stabilizing panel vibration satisfying a nonlinear beam equation. To obtain analytical results, a perturbation technique is used in the case of weak nonlinearity. Possible application to other types of problems is briefly discussed.
Optimization of a vacuum chamber for vibration measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Danyluk, Mike; Dhingra, Anoop
2011-10-01
A 200 °C high vacuum chamber has been built to improve vibration measurement sensitivity. The optimized design addresses two significant issues: (i) vibration measurements under high vacuum conditions and (ii) use of design optimization tools to reduce operating costs. A test rig consisting of a cylindrical vessel with one access port has been constructed with a welded-bellows assembly used to seal the vessel and enable vibration measurements in high vacuum that are comparable with measurements in air. The welded-bellows assembly provides a force transmissibility of 0.1 or better at 15 Hz excitation under high vacuum conditions. Numerical results based on design optimization of a larger diameter chamber are presented. The general constraints on the new design include material yield stress, chamber first natural frequency, vibration isolation performance, and forced convection heat transfer capabilities over the exterior of the vessel access ports. Operating costs of the new chamber are reduced by 50% compared to a preexisting chamber of similar size and function.
Microgravity vibration isolation: Optimal preview and feedback control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hampton, R. D.; Knospe, C. R.; Grodsinsky, C. M.; Allaire, P. E.; Lewis, D. W.
1992-01-01
In order to achieve adequate low-frequency vibration isolation for certain space experiments an active control is needed, due to inherent passive-isolator limitations. Proposed here are five possible state-space models for a one-dimensional vibration isolation system with a quadratic performance index. The five models are subsets of a general set of nonhomogeneous state space equations which includes disturbance terms. An optimal control is determined, using a differential equations approach, for this class of problems. This control is expressed in terms of constant, Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) feedback gains and constant feedforward (preview) gains. The gains can be easily determined numerically. They result in a robust controller and offers substantial improvements over a control that uses standard LQR feedback alone.
Damping in micro-scale generalized thermoelastic circular plate resonators.
Sharma, J N; Sharma, R
2011-04-01
The out-of-plane vibrations of a generalized thermoelastic circular plate are studied under different environmental temperature, plate dimensions and boundary conditions. The analytical expressions for thermoelastic damping of vibration and phase velocity of circumferential surface wave modes are obtained. It is noticed that the damping of vibrations and phase velocities of circumferential surface wave modes significantly depend on thermal relaxation time in addition to thermoelastic coupling in circular plates under resonance conditions. The surface conditions also impose significant effects on the vibrations of such resonators. The expressions for displacement and temperature fields in the plate resonator are also derived and obtained. Some numerical results have also been presented for illustration purpose in case of silicon material plate. PMID:21168892
Diagrammatic Vibrational Coupled-Cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faucheaux, Jacob A.; Hirata, So
2015-06-01
A diagrammatic vibrational coupled-cluster method for calculation of zero-point energies and an equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method for calculation of anharmonic vibrational frequencies are developed. The methods, which we refer to as XVCC and EOM-XVCC respectively, rely on the size-extensive vibrational self-consistient field (XVSCF) method for reference wave functions. The methods retain the efficiency advantages of XVSCF making them suitable for applications to large molecules and solids, while they are numerically shown to accurately predict zero-point energies and frequencies of small molecules as well. In particular, EOM-XVCC is shown to perform well for modes which undergo Fermi resonance where traditional perturbative methods fail. Rules for the systematic generation and interpretation of the XVCC and EOM-XVCC diagrams to any order are presented.
Nieh, C.D.; Zengyan, H.
1986-04-01
Based on the classical beam theory, a simple method for calculating the natural frequency of unequally spanned tubes is presented. The method is suitable for various boundary conditions. Accuracy of the calculations is sufficient for practical applications. This method will help designers and operators estimate the vibration of tubular exchangers. In general, there are three reasons why a tube vibrates in cross flow: vortex shedding, fluid elasticity and turbulent buffeting. No matter which is the cause, the basic reason is that the frequency of exciting force is approximately the same as or equal to the natural frequency of the tube. To prevent the heat exchanger from vibrating, it is necessary to select correctly the shell-side fluid velocity so that the frequency of exciting force is different from the natural frequency of the tube, or to vary the natural frequency of the heat exchanger tube. So precisely determining the natural frequency of the heat exchanger, especially its foundational frequency under various supporting conditions, is of significance.
Vibrational Dynamics of Tricyanomethanide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidinger, Daniel; Houchins, Cassidy; Owrutsky, Jeffrey C.
2011-06-01
Time-resolved and steady-state IR spectroscopy have been used to characterize vibrational spectra and energy relaxation dynamics of the CN stretching band of the tricyanomethanide (TCM, C(CN)3-) anion near 2170 Cm-1 in solutions of water, heavy water, methanol, formamide, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]). The band intensity is strong (˜1500 M-1Cm-1) and the vibrational energy relaxation times are relatively long (˜5 ps in water, 12 ps in heavy water, and ˜30 ps in DMSO and [BMIM][BF4]). They are longer than those previously reported for dicyanamide in the same solvents. Although the static TCM frequency generally shifts to higher frequency with more strongly interacting solvents, the shift does not follow the same trend as the vibrational dynamics. The results for the experimental frequencies and intensities agree well with results from ab initio calculations. Proton and electron affinities for TCM are also calculated because they are relevant to potential applications of this anion in low viscosity ionic liquids.
49 CFR 178.985 - Vibration test.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.985 Vibration test. (a) General. All rigid Large Packaging and flexible Large Packaging design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test. (b) Test method. (1) A sample Large Packaging, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for shipment. Large...
Li, Junjie; Li, Xiaohu; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2014-06-10
agreement with experiments. Spectroscopic features are computed using a unified velocity/flux autocorrelation function and include vibrational fundamentals and combination bands. These agree well with experiments and other theories. PMID:26580749
Chaotic vortex induced vibrations
Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J.; Leontini, J. S.; Lo Jacono, D.
2014-12-15
This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.
Structural Acoustics and Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaigne, Antoine
This chapter is devoted to vibrations of structures and to their coupling with the acoustic field. Depending on the context, the radiated sound can be judged as desirable, as is mostly the case for musical instruments, or undesirable, like noise generated by machinery. In architectural acoustics, one main goal is to limit the transmission of sound through walls. In the automobile industry, the engineers have to control the noise generated inside and outside the passenger compartment. This can be achieved by means of passive or active damping. In general, there is a strong need for quieter products and better sound quality generated by the structures in our daily environment.
Vibration-Torsion Dynamics of Ethane-like Molecules in Degenerate Vibrational States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dilauro, C.; Lattanzi, F.; Avellino, R.
1994-10-01
We examine the mechanisms of interaction between the deformations of the two identical halves of ethane-like molecules in degenerate vibrational states, in order to determine the most convenient symmetries of the degenerate vibrational wavefunctions, in the molecular symmetry group G36( EM). In moderate barrier molecules this is related to the problem of the vibration-torsion symmetry labeling of the tunneling split components, in the order of increasing energies, in given rotational states. Numerical calculations have been performed as a guide to explore several different situations. It has been proved that the torsional splittings in degenerate vibrational states of molecules with a moderate barrier depend dramatically on the value of the γ-Coriolis coefficient and, unlike the splittings in nondegenerate vibrational states, are not determined only by the effective torsional potential function. Theory and numerical predictions support the experimental result that all normal modes of ethane behave as E1 d, E2 d pairs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tornabene, Francesco; Liverani, Alfredo; Caligiana, Gianni
2012-10-01
The Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ) method is applied to study the dynamic behavior of anisotropic doubly-curved shells and panels of revolution with a free-form meridian. The First-order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) is used to analyze the above mentioned moderately thick structural elements. In order to include the effect of the initial curvature in the evaluation of the stress resultants three different approaches, specifically Qatu approach, Toorani-Lakis approach and Reissner-Mindlin approach, are considered and compared. An improvement of the Classical Reissner-Mindlin Theory (CRMT) using a different kinematical model is considered. By so doing a generalization of the theory of anisotropic doubly-curved shells and panels of revolution is proposed. Four different anisotropic shell theories, namely General First-order Shear Deformation Theory by Qatu (GFSDTQ), General First-order Shear Deformation Theory by Toorani-Lakis (GFSDTTL), General First-order Shear Deformation Theory by Reissner-Mindlin (GFSDTRM) and Classical Reissner-Mindlin Theory (CRMT), are compared in order to show the differences and the accuracy of these theories. The solution is given in terms of generalized displacement components of points lying on the middle surface of the shell. Simple Rational Bézier curves are used to define the meridian curve of the revolution structures. Results are obtained taking the meridian and circumferential coordinates into account, without using the Fourier modal expansion methodology. Furthermore, GDQ results are compared with those obtained by using commercial programs such as Abaqus, Ansys, Nastran, Straus and Pro/Mechanica. Very good agreement is observed.
Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.
1994-01-01
Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.
Transverse and longitudinal vibrations in amorphous silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beltukov, Y. M.; Fusco, C.; Tanguy, A.; Parshin, D. A.
2015-12-01
We show that harmonic vibrations in amorphous silicon can be decomposed to transverse and longitudinal components in all frequency range even in the absence of the well defined wave vector q. For this purpose we define the transverse component of the eigenvector with given ω as a component, which does not change the volumes of Voronoi cells around atoms. The longitudinal component is the remaining orthogonal component. We have found the longitudinal and transverse components of the vibrational density of states for numerical model of amorphous silicon. The vibrations are mostly transverse below 7 THz and above 15 THz. In the frequency interval in between the vibrations have a longitudinal nature. Just this sudden transformation of vibrations at 7 THz from almost transverse to almost longitudinal ones explains the prominent peak in the diffusivity of the amorphous silicon just above 7 THz.
Maneuver and vibration control of flexible manipulators using variable-speed control moment gyros
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Quan; Zhang, Jingrui
2015-08-01
In this paper, the variable-speed control moment gyros (VS-CMGs) are adopted as actuators for vibration suppression of space flexible manipulators. They are directly mounted on the flexible links of the manipulator. Such system can be viewed as a flexible multibody system in chain topology actuated by both joint motors and VS-CMGs. We first develop a general approach for establishing the system equations of motion through Kane's method. Then, two controllers are designed for trajectory tracking and vibration suppression: one is an inverse dynamics control, whereas the other is based on the singular perturbation method. The proposed two control strategies are applied to a free-flying platform with a flexible manipulator. Sample numerical results show that the VS-CMGs can significantly suppress the induced vibration of the flexible links during the large angle maneuver.
Blevins, R.D.
1990-01-01
This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.
Analytical and experimental study of vibrations in a gear transmission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, Fred B.; Coy, J. J.
1991-01-01
An analytical simulation of the dynamics of a gear transmission system is presented and compared to experimental results from a gear noise test rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The analytical procedure developed couples the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing-gear system with the response of the gearbox structure. The modal synthesis method is used in solving the overall dynamics of the system. Locally each rotor-gear stage is modeled as an individual rotor-bearing system using the matrix transfer technique. The dynamics of each individual rotor are coupled with other rotor stages through the nonlinear gear mesh forces and with the gearbox structure through bearing support systems. The modal characteristics of the gearbox structure are evaluated using the finite element procedure. A variable time steping integration routine is used to calculate the overall time transient behavior of the system in modal coordinates. The global dynamic behavior of the system is expressed in a generalized coordinate system. Transient and steady state vibrations of the gearbox system are presented in the time and frequency domains. The vibration characteristics of a simple single mesh gear noise test rig is modeled. The numerical simulations are compared to experimental data measured under typical operating conditions. The comparison of system natural frequencies, peak vibration amplitudes, and gear mesh frequencies are generally in good agreement.
Space shuttle main engine vibration data base
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewallen, Pat
1986-01-01
The Space Shuttle Main Engine Vibration Data Base is described. Included is a detailed description of the data base components, the data acquisition process, the more sophisticated software routines, and the future data acquisition methods. Several figures and plots are provided to illustrate the various output formats accessible to the user. The numerous vibration data recall and analysis capabilities available through automated data base techniques are revealed.
Vibration and noise analysis of a gear transmission system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, F. K.; Qian, W.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, F. B.
1993-01-01
This paper presents a comprehensive procedure to predict both the vibration and noise generated by a gear transmission system under normal operating conditions. The gearbox vibrations were obtained from both numerical simulation and experimental studies using a gear noise test rig. In addition, the noise generated by the gearbox vibrations was recorded during the experimental testing. A numerical method was used to develop linear relationships between the gearbox vibration and the generated noise. The hypercoherence function is introduced to correlate the nonlinear relationship between the fundamental noise frequency and its harmonics. A numerical procedure was developed using both the linear and nonlinear relationships generated from the experimental data to predict noise resulting from the gearbox vibrations. The application of this methodology is demonstrated by comparing the numerical and experimental results from the gear noise test rig.
Aeolic vibration of aerial electricity transmission cables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avila, A.; Rodriguez-Vera, Ramon; Rayas, Juan A.; Barrientos, Bernardino
2005-02-01
A feasibility study for amplitude and frequency vibration measurement in aerial electricity transmission cable has been made. This study was carried out incorporating a fringe projection method for the experimental part and horizontal taut string model for theoretical one. However, this kind of model ignores some inherent properties such as cable sag and cable inclination. Then, this work reports advances on aeolic vibration considering real cables. Catenary and sag are considered in our theoretical model in such a way that an optical theodolite for measuring has been used. Preliminary measurements of the catenary as well as numerical simulation of a sagged cable vibration are given.
Vibration modeling and supression in tennis racquets.
Farrar, C. R.; Buechler, M. A.; Espino, Luis; Thompson, G. A.
2003-01-01
The size of the 'sweet spot' is one measure of tennis racquet performance. In terms of vibration, the sweet spot is determined by the placement of nodal lines across the racquet head. In this studx the vibrational characteristics of a tennis racquet are explorod to discover the size and location of the sweet spot. A numerical model of the racquet is developed using finite element analysis and the model is verified using the results from an experimental modal analysis. The affects of string tension on the racquet's sweet spot and mode shapes are then quantified. An investigation is also carried out to determine how add-on vibrational datnpers affect the sweet spot.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svalbonas, V.
1973-01-01
The User's manual for the shell theory automated for rotational structures (STARS) 2B and 2V (buckling, vibrations) is presented. Several features of the program are: (1) arbitrary branching of the shell meridians, (2) arbitrary boundary conditions, (3) minimum input requirements to describe a complex, practical shell of revolution structure, and (4) accurate analysis capability using a minimum number of degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koide, Shinji; Shibata, Kazunari; Kudoh, Takahiro
1999-09-01
Relativistic jets are observed in both active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and ``microquasars'' in our Galaxy. It is believed that these relativistic jets are ejected from the vicinity of black holes. To investigate the formation mechanism of these jets, we have developed a new general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) code. We report on the basic methods and test calculations to check whether the code reproduces some analytical solutions, such as a standing shock and a Keplerian disk with a steady state infalling corona or with a corona in hydrostatic equilibrium. We then apply the code to the formation of relativistic MHD jets, investigating the dynamics of an accretion disk initially threaded by a uniform poloidal magnetic field in a nonrotating corona (either in a steady state infall or in hydrostatic equilibrium) around a nonrotating black hole. The numerical results show the following: as time goes on, the disk loses angular momentum as a result of magnetic braking and falls into the black hole. The infalling motion of the disk, which is faster than in the nonrelativistic case because of general relativistic effects below 3rS (rS is the Schwarzschild radius), is strongly decelerated around r=2rS by centrifugal force to form a shock inside the disk. The magnetic field is tightly twisted by the differential rotation, and plasma in the shocked region of the disk is accelerated by the JXB force to form bipolar relativistic jets. In addition, and interior to, this magnetically driven jet, we also found a gas-pressure-driven jet ejected from the shocked region by the gas-pressure force. This two-layered jet structure is formed not only in the hydrostatic corona case but also in the steady state falling corona case.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Vibration Sensors
Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz
2011-01-01
In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors.
Filipiak, Jerzy; Solarz, Lech; Steczko, Grzegorz
2011-01-01
In the paper a feasibility study on the use of surface acoustic wave (SAW) vibration sensors for electronic warning systems is presented. The system is assembled from concatenated SAW vibration sensors based on a SAW delay line manufactured on a surface of a piezoelectric plate. Vibrations of the plate are transformed into electric signals that allow identification of the sensor and localization of a threat. The theoretical study of sensor vibrations leads us to the simple isotropic model with one degree of freedom. This model allowed an explicit description of the sensor plate movement and identification of the vibrating sensor. Analysis of frequency response of the ST-cut quartz sensor plate and a damping speed of its impulse response has been conducted. The analysis above was the basis to determine the ranges of parameters for vibrating plates to be useful in electronic warning systems. Generally, operation of electronic warning systems with SAW vibration sensors is based on the analysis of signal phase changes at the working frequency of delay line after being transmitted via two circuits of concatenated four-terminal networks. Frequencies of phase changes are equal to resonance frequencies of vibrating plates of sensors. The amplitude of these phase changes is proportional to the amplitude of vibrations of a sensor plate. Both pieces of information may be sent and recorded jointly by a simple electrical unit. PMID:22247694
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radhakrishnan, Krishnan
1994-01-01
LSENS, the Lewis General Chemical Kinetics and Sensitivity Analysis Code, has been developed for solving complex, homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems and contains sensitivity analysis for a variety of problems, including nonisothermal situations. This report is part 1 of a series of three reference publications that describe LENS, provide a detailed guide to its usage, and present many example problems. Part 1 derives the governing equations and describes the numerical solution procedures for the types of problems that can be solved. The accuracy and efficiency of LSENS are examined by means of various test problems, and comparisons with other methods and codes are presented. LSENS is a flexible, convenient, accurate, and efficient solver for chemical reaction problems such as static system; steady, one-dimensional, inviscid flow; reaction behind incident shock wave, including boundary layer correction; and perfectly stirred (highly backmixed) reactor. In addition, the chemical equilibrium state can be computed for the following assigned states: temperature and pressure, enthalpy and pressure, temperature and volume, and internal energy and volume. For static problems the code computes the sensitivity coefficients of the dependent variables and their temporal derivatives with respect to the initial values of the dependent variables and/or the three rate coefficient parameters of the chemical reactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-08-01
We present a method to integrate the gravitational field for general three-dimensional objects. By adopting the spherical polar coordinates centered at the evaluation point as the integration variables, we numerically compute the volume integral representation of the gravitational potential and of the acceleration vector. The variable transformation completely removes the algebraic singularities of the original integrals. The comparison with exact solutions reveals around 15 digits accuracy of the new method. Meanwhile, the 6 digit accuracy of the integrated gravitational field is realized by around 106 evaluations of the integrand per evaluation point, which costs at most a few seconds at a PC with Intel Core i7-4600U CPU running at 2.10 GHz clock. By using the new method, we show the gravitational field of a grand design spiral arm structure as an example. The computed gravitational field shows not only spiral shaped details but also a global feature composed of a thick oblate spheroid and a thin disc. The developed method is directly applicable to the electromagnetic field computation by means of Coulomb's law, the Biot-Savart law, and their retarded extensions. Sample FORTRAN 90 programs and test results are electronically available.
Dynamic vibration absorbers for vibration control within a frequency band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Cheng; Li, Deyu; Cheng, Li
2011-04-01
The use of dynamic vibration absorbers to control the vibration of a structure in both narrow and broadbands is discussed in this paper. As a benchmark problem, a plate incorporating multiple vibration absorbers is formulated, leading to an analytical solution when the number of absorbers yields one. Using this analytical solution, control mechanisms of the vibration absorber in different frequency bandwidths are studied; the coupling properties due to the introduction of the absorber into the host structure are analyzed; and the control performance of the absorber in different control bandwidths is examined with respect to its damping and location. It is found that the interaction between the plate and the absorber by means of the reaction force from the absorber plays a dominant role in a narrow band control, while in a relatively broadband control the dissipation by the absorber damping governs the control performance. When control bandwidth further enlarges, the optimal locations of the absorbers are not only affected by the targeted mode, but also by the other plate modes. These locations need to be determined after establishing a trade-off between the targeted mode and other modes involved in the coupling. Finally, numerical findings are assessed based on a simply-supported plate and a fair agreement between the predicted and measured results is obtained.
Study of the vibration of bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shells by laser-based methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Ninghui
The first part of this dissertation work deals with an experimental study of the vibration behavior of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells by using laser-based vibration measurement methods. Holographic interferometry and laser speckle photography are first demonstrated on revealing the dynamic behavior of a 22 ft long cylindrical shell. These methods are thereafter further explored to study the vibration characteristic of cylindrical shells with different stiffeners such as a full bulkhead or a partial bulkhead. Many experimentally obtained holograms and specklegrams reveal interesting features of the vibration of bulkhead stiffened cylindrical shells. The experimentally obtained results are compared with those obtained from a finite element model developed by General Dynamic Electric Boat Division, and the finite element model is generally validated. Mode localization theory is used to explain some interesting findings in experiments and the reason of some discrepancies between the finite element analysis and experiment results. The presence of irregularities in a weakly coupled structure such as a bulkhead-stiffened cylindrical shell is shown to be able to localize the modes of vibration and inhibit the propagation of vibration within the shell. A numerical simulation based on the finite element modal analysis indicates the validation of this explanation of the experimental findings. Thereafter, the eigensolutions of disordered, plate-stiffened cylindrical shell stiffened are derived by the use of receptance method. Numerical calculations are thereafter performed based upon this model and indeed reveal the exist of localized vibration in this kind of structure. This analytical study provides physical insights into the mode localization phenomenon in stiffened cylindrical shell type of structures from a more systematic manner. The conditions and the effect of mode localization on natural frequencies and mode shapes of cylindrical shell structure are also
Non-Linear Vibration Characteristics of Clamped Laminated Shallow Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ABE, A.; KOBAYASHI, Y.; YAMADA, G.
2000-07-01
This paper examines non-linear free vibration characteristics of first and second vibration modes of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. Non-linear equations of motion for the shells based on the first order shear deformation and classical shell theories are derived by means of Hamilton's principle. We apply Galerkin's procedure to the equations of motion in which eigenvectors for first and second modes of linear vibration obtained by the Ritz method are employed as trial functions. Then simultaneous non-linear ordinary differential equations are derived in terms of amplitudes of the first and second vibration modes. Backbone curves for the first and second vibration modes are solved numerically by the Gauss-Legendre integration method and the shooting method respectively. The effects of lamination sequences and transverse shear deformation on the behavior are discussed. It is also shown that the motion of the first vibration mode affects the response for the second vibration mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, M. Amin; Inman, Daniel J.
2011-11-01
A unified approximation method is derived to illustrate the effect of electro-mechanical coupling on vibration-based energy harvesting systems caused by variations in damping ratio and excitation frequency of the mechanical subsystem. Vibrational energy harvesters are electro-mechanical systems that generate power from the ambient oscillations. Typically vibration-based energy harvesters employ a mechanical subsystem tuned to resonate with ambient oscillations. The piezoelectric or electromagnetic coupling mechanisms utilized in energy harvesters, transfers some energy from the mechanical subsystem and converts it to an electric energy. Recently the focus of energy harvesting community has shifted toward nonlinear energy harvesters that are less sensitive to the frequency of ambient vibrations. We consider the general class of hybrid energy harvesters that use both piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting mechanisms. Through using perturbation methods for low amplitude oscillations and numerical integration for large amplitude vibrations we establish a unified approximation method for linear, softly nonlinear, and bi-stable nonlinear energy harvesters. The method quantifies equivalent changes in damping and excitation frequency of the mechanical subsystem that resembles the backward coupling from energy harvesting. We investigate a novel nonlinear hybrid energy harvester as a case study of the proposed method. The approximation method is accurate, provides an intuitive explanation for backward coupling effects and in some cases reduces the computational efforts by an order of magnitude.
Steyn-Ross, D A; Steyn-Ross, M L; Wilcocks, L C; Sleigh, J W
2001-07-01
In our two recent papers [M.L. Steyn-Ross et al., Phys. Rev. E 60, 7299 (1999); 64, 011917 (2001)] we presented clinical evidence for a general anesthetic-induced phase change in the cerebral cortex, and showed how the significant features of the cortical phase change (biphasic power surge, spectral energy redistribution, "heat capacity" divergence), could be explained using a stochastic single-macrocolumn model of the cortex. The model predictions were based on rather strong "adiabatic" assumptions which assert that the mean-field excitatory and inhibitory macrocolumn voltages are "slow" variables whose equilibration times are much longer than those of the input "currents" that drive the macrocolumn. In the present paper we test the adiabatic assumption by running numerical simulations of the stochastic differential equations. These simulations confirm the number and nature of the steady-state solutions, the growth of fluctuation power at transition, and the redistribution of spectral energy towards lower frequencies. We use spectral entropy to quantify these changes in the power spectral density, and to show that the spectral entropy should decrease markedly at the point of transition. This prediction agrees with recent clinical findings by Viertiö-Oja and colleagues [J. Clinical Monitoring Computing 16, 60 (2000)]. Our modeling work shows that there is an inverse relationship between spectral entropy H and correlation time T of the soma-voltage fluctuations: H inversely proportional to (ln T). In a theoretical analysis we prove that this proportionality becomes exact for an ideal Lorentzian process. These findings suggest that by monitoring the changes in EEG correlation time, it should be possible to track changes in the state of patient consciousness. PMID:11461299
Analytic calculations of anharmonic infrared and Raman vibrational spectra.
Cornaton, Yann; Ringholm, Magnus; Louant, Orian; Ruud, Kenneth
2016-02-01
Using a recently developed recursive scheme for the calculation of high-order geometric derivatives of frequency-dependent molecular properties [Ringholm et al., J. Comp. Chem., 2014, 35, 622], we present the first analytic calculations of anharmonic infrared (IR) and Raman spectra including anharmonicity both in the vibrational frequencies and in the IR and Raman intensities. In the case of anharmonic corrections to the Raman intensities, this involves the calculation of fifth-order energy derivatives-that is, the third-order geometric derivatives of the frequency-dependent polarizability. The approach is applicable to both Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham density functional theory. Using generalized vibrational perturbation theory to second order, we have calculated the anharmonic infrared and Raman spectra of the non- and partially deuterated isotopomers of nitromethane, where the inclusion of anharmonic effects introduces combination and overtone bands that are observed in the experimental spectra. For the major features of the spectra, the inclusion of anharmonicities in the calculation of the vibrational frequencies is more important than anharmonic effects in the calculated infrared and Raman intensities. Using methanimine as a trial system, we demonstrate that the analytic approach avoids errors in the calculated spectra that may arise if numerical differentiation schemes are used. PMID:26784673
Reliability design for impact vibration of hydraulic pressure pipeline systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxiao; Liu, Xinhui
2013-09-01
The research of reliability design for impact vibration of hydraulic pressure pipeline systems is still in the primary stage, and the research of quantitative reliability of hydraulic components and system is still incomplete. On the condition of having obtained the numerical characteristics of basic random parameters, several techniques and methods including the probability statistical theory, hydraulic technique and stochastic perturbation method are employed to carry out the reliability design for impact vibration of the hydraulic pressure system. Considering the instantaneous pressure pulse of hydraulic impact in pipeline, the reliability analysis model of hydraulic pipeline system is established, and the reliability-based optimization design method is presented. The proposed method can reflect the inherent reliability of hydraulic pipe system exactly, and the desired result is obtained. The reliability design of hydraulic pipeline system is achieved by computer programs and the reliability design information of hydraulic pipeline system is obtained. This research proposes a reliability design method, which can solve the problem of the reliability-based optimization design for the hydraulic pressure system with impact vibration practically and effectively, and enhance the quantitative research on the reliability design of hydraulic pipeline system. The proposed method has generality for the reliability optimization design of hydraulic pipeline system.
Structural Acoustics and Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaigne, Antoine
This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, D. F.; Li, J.; Hansen, C. H.
2011-11-01
Track-induced self-excited vibration is commonly encountered in EMS (electromagnetic suspension) maglev systems, and a solution to this problem is important in enabling the commercial widespread implementation of maglev systems. Here, the coupled model of the steel track and the magnetic levitation system is developed, and its stability is investigated using the Nyquist criterion. The harmonic balance method is employed to investigate the stability and amplitude of the self-excited vibration, which provides an explanation of the phenomenon that track-induced self-excited vibration generally occurs at a specified amplitude and frequency. To eliminate the self-excited vibration, an improved LMS (Least Mean Square) cancellation algorithm with phase correction (C-LMS) is employed. The harmonic balance analysis shows that the C-LMS cancellation algorithm can completely suppress the self-excited vibration. To achieve adaptive cancellation, a frequency estimator similar to the tuner of a TV receiver is employed to provide the C-LMS algorithm with a roughly estimated reference frequency. Numerical simulation and experiments undertaken on the CMS-04 vehicle show that the proposed adaptive C-LMS algorithm can effectively eliminate the self-excited vibration over a wide frequency range, and that the robustness of the algorithm suggests excellent potential for application to EMS maglev systems.
Low Dimensional Models of Shell Vibrations. Parametrically Excited Vibrations of Cylinder Shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A. A.; Thompson, J. M. T.; McRobie, F. A.
1998-01-01
Vibrations of cylindrical shells parametrically excited by axial forcing are considered. The governing system of two coupled non-linear partial differential equations is discretized by using Lagrange equations. The computation is simplified significantly by the application of computer algebra and as a result low dimensional models of shell vibrations are readily obtained. After applying numerical continuation techniques and ideas from dynamical systems theory, complete bifurcation diagrams are constructed. The principal aim is to investigate the interaction between different modes of shell vibration. Results for system models with two of the lowest modes are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckenzie, R. L.
1976-01-01
A semiclassical collision model is applied to the study of energy transfer rates between a vibrationally excited diatomic molecule and a structureless atom. The molecule is modeled as an anharmonic oscillator with a multitude of dynamically coupled vibrational states. Three main aspects in the prediction of vibrational energy transfer rates are considered. The applicability of the semiclassical model to an anharmonic oscillator is first evaluated for collinear encounters. Second, the collinear semiclassical model is applied to obtain numerical predictions of the vibrational energy transfer rate dependence on the initial vibrational state quantum number. Thermally averaged vibration-translation rate coefficients are predicted and compared with CO-He experimental values for both ground and excited initial states. The numerical model is also used as a basis for evaluating several less complete but analytic models. Third, the role of rational motion in the dynamics of vibrational energy transfer is examined. A three-dimensional semiclassical collision model is constructed with coupled rotational motion included. Energy transfer within the molecule is shown to be dominated by vibration-rotation transitions with small changes in angular momentum. The rates of vibrational energy transfer in molecules with rational frequencies that are very small in comparison to their vibrational frequency are shown to be adequately treated by the preceding collinear models.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kwak, D.
1994-01-01
INS3D computes steady-state solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The INS3D approach utilizes pseudo-compressibility combined with an approximate factorization scheme. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code has been verified on problems such as flow through a channel, flow over a backwardfacing step and flow over a circular cylinder. Three dimensional cases include flow over an ogive cylinder, flow through a rectangular duct, wind tunnel inlet flow, cylinder-wall juncture flow and flow through multiple posts mounted between two plates. INS3D uses a pseudo-compressibility approach in which a time derivative of pressure is added to the continuity equation, which together with the momentum equations form a set of four equations with pressure and velocity as the dependent variables. The equations' coordinates are transformed for general three dimensional applications. The equations are advanced in time by the implicit, non-iterative, approximately-factored, finite-difference scheme of Beam and Warming. The numerical stability of the scheme depends on the use of higher-order smoothing terms to damp out higher-frequency oscillations caused by second-order central differencing. The artificial compressibility introduces pressure (sound) waves of finite speed (whereas the speed of sound would be infinite in an incompressible fluid). As the solution converges, these pressure waves die out, causing the derivation of pressure with respect to time to approach zero. Thus, continuity is satisfied for the incompressible fluid in the steady state. Computational efficiency is achieved using a diagonal algorithm. A block tri-diagonal option is also available. When a steady-state solution is reached, the modified continuity equation will satisfy the divergence-free velocity field condition. INS3D is capable of handling several different types of boundaries encountered in numerical simulations, including solid-surface, inflow and outflow, and far
Vibration ride comfort criteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.
1976-01-01
Results are presented for an experimental study directed to derive equal vibration discomfort curves, to determine the influence of vibration masking in order to account for the total discomfort of any random vibration, and to develop a scale of total vibration discomfort in the case of human response to whole-body vertical vibration. Discomfort is referred to as a subjective discomfort associated with the acceleration level of a particular frequency band. It is shown that passenger discomfort to whole-body vibration increases linearly with acceleration level for each frequency. Empirical data provide a mechanism for determining the degree of masking (or summation) of the discomfort of multiple frequency vibration. A scale for the prediction of passenger discomfort is developed.
Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W
2015-03-01
For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. PMID:25381184
Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.
2013-03-01
This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.
Prediction of vibrations induced by underground railway traffic in Beijing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, S.; Liu, W. F.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.; Liu, W. N.
2008-02-01
This paper examines the problem of subway induced vibrations on line 4 of Beijing metro, which is currently under construction and is planned to pass in close proximity of the Physics Laboratory of Beijing University. The laboratory has a lot of equipment that is very sensitive to traffic induced vibrations and future operation of metro line 4 is a matter of concern. Hence, it is important to study the influence of subway induced vibrations inside the laboratory and to propose a viable solution to mitigate the vibrations. In this paper, the tunnel north of Chengfulu station is modelled using a coupled periodic FE-BE model and the free-field response due to moving trains is predicted. In addition, vibration measurements have been performed on the site of the Physics Laboratory to estimate the existing vibration levels due to road traffic. The predicted and measured vibrations are superimposed to assess the vibrations due to the combined effect of road and railway traffic in the vicinity of the Physics Laboratory. Apart from the numerical investigations, vibration measurements have also been performed on a similar site at line 1 of Beijing metro to substantiate the estimated results on metro line 4. Finally, it is studied how the vibrations can be controlled using a floating slab track, which is widely used as an effective measure of vibration isolation in tunnels. The efficiency of a 7.9 Hz floating slab track as a vibration countermeasure is assessed in this paper. This study demonstrates the applicability of the numerical model for the relevant assessment of subway induced vibrations and its use to study the performance of different track structures in the tunnel.
Characteristics of steady vibration in a rotating hub-beam system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhen; Liu, Caishan; Ma, Wei
2016-02-01
A rotating beam features a puzzling character in which its frequencies and modal shapes may vary with the hub's inertia and its rotating speed. To highlight the essential nature behind the vibration phenomena, we analyze the steady vibration of a rotating Euler-Bernoulli beam with a quasi-steady-state stretch. Newton's law is used to derive the equations governing the beam's elastic motion and the hub's rotation. A combination of these equations results in a nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) that fully reflects the mutual interaction between the two kinds of motion. Via the Fourier series expansion within a finite interval of time, we reduce the PDE into an infinite system of a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) in spatial domain. We further nondimensionalize the ODE and discretize it via a difference method. The frequencies and modal shapes of a general rotating beam are then determined numerically. For a low-speed beam where the ignorance of geometric stiffening is feasible, the beam's vibration characteristics are solved analytically. We validate our numerical method and the analytical solutions by comparing with either the past experiments or the past numerical findings reported in existing literature. Finally, systematic simulations are performed to demonstrate how the beam's eigenfrequencies vary with the hub's inertia and rotating speed.
Application of impact dampers in vibration control of flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akl, Fred A.; Butt, Aamir S.
1995-01-01
Impact dampers belong to the category of passive vibration devices used to attenuate the vibration of discrete and continuous systems. An impact damper generally consists of a mass which is allowed to travel freely between two defined stops. Under the right conditions, the vibration of the structure to which the impact damper is attached will cause the mass of the impact damper to strike the structure. Previous analytical and experimental research work on the effect of impact dampers in attenuating the vibration of discrete and continuous systems have demonstrated their effectiveness. It has been shown in this study that impact dampers can increase the intrinsic damping of a lightly-damped flexible structure. The test structure consists of a slender flexible beam supported by a pin-type support at one end and supported by a linear helical flexible spring at another location. Sinusoidal excitation spanning the first three natural frequencies was applied in the horizontal plane. The orientation of the excitation and the test structure in the horizontal plane minimizes the effect of gravity on the behavior of the test structure. The excitation was applied using a linear sine sweep technique. The span of the test structure, the mass of the impact damper, the distance of travel, and the location of the impact damper along the span of the test structure were varied. The damping ratio are estimated for sixty test configurations. The results show that the impact damper significantly increases the damping ratio of the test structure. Statistical analysis of the results using the method of multiple linear regression indicates that a reasonable fit has been accomplished. It is concluded that additional experimental analysis of flexible structures in microgravity environment is needed in order to achieve a better understanding of the behavior of impact damper under conditions of microgravity. Numerical solution of the behavior of flexible structures equipped with impact
Equations for the vibration of a slewing flexible spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinn, R. D.; Meirovitch, L.
1986-01-01
The derivation of the equations describing the vibration of a flexible spacecraft is presented in the context of a perturbation method permitting a maneuver strategy independent of the vibration control. A straightforward open-loop minimum-time rotational maneuver strategy is developed for the spacecraft regarded as a rigid body. Actuator dynamics are considered in the formulation. A maneuver force distribution is developed which excites the least amount of elastic deformation of the flexible parts of the spacecraft. An efficient technique for simulating structural vibrations during a maneuver is presented. Numerical results demonstrate the maneuver strategy and highlight the vibration caused by rotational maneuvers.
Vibration of perforated cylindrical shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cousseau, Peter L.
For a credible design of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target chamber, the vibration characteristics of the chamber must be completely understood. Target chambers are usually cylindrical or spherical in shape and contain hundreds of perforations (called ports) to allow access to the inside of the chamber. The fusion reaction within the chamber creates a uniform impulsive loading, which the chamber walls must be designed to contain. Also prior to an implosion, a delicate alignment process of the drivers and diagnostics takes place. The vibration of the chamber from rotating machinery, e.g., vacuum pumps, and ambient sources must be completely understood and accounted for during these alignment procedures. This dissertation examines the vibration characteristics of perforated cylindrical shells. Because the target chambers' thickness-to-radius ratio is small, such chambers can be modeled as thin shells. Included in the text is a literature review of perforated plates and shells and examples of the use of perforated structures in constructed and proposed ICF target chambers. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of perforated and unperforated cylindrical shells are studied analytically, numerically (via finite elements) and experimentally. Conclusions and comparisons between the different solution methods are made for both the perforated and unperforated cases. In addition, the dynamic response of perforated cylindrical shells to an axisymmetric impulsive loading has been identified. A demonstration showing how the convolution integral can be used to determine the response of a cylinder to a non-impulsive loading is presented.
Vibration balanced miniature loudspeaker
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schafer, David E.; Jiles, Mekell; Miller, Thomas E.; Thompson, Stephen C.
2002-11-01
The vibration that is generated by the receiver (loudspeaker) in a hearing aid can be a cause of feedback oscillation. Oscillation can occur if the microphone senses the receiver vibration at sufficient amplitude and appropriate phase. Feedback oscillation from this and other causes is a major problem for those who manufacture, prescribe, and use hearing aids. The receivers normally used in hearing aids are of the balanced armature-type that has a significant moving mass. The reaction force from this moving mass is the source of the vibration. A modification of the balanced armature transducer has been developed that balances the vibration of its internal parts in a way that significantly reduces the vibration force transmitted outside of the receiver case. This transducer design concept, and some of its early prototype test data will be shown. The data indicate that it should be possible to manufacture transducers that generate less vibration than equivalent present models by 15-30 dB.
Tao, Wei-Kuo; Houze, Robert, A., Jr.; Zeng, Xiping
2013-03-14
This three-year project, in cooperation with Professor Bob Houze at University of Washington, has been successfully finished as planned. Both ARM (the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program) data and cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations were used to identify the water budgets of clouds observed in two international field campaigns. The research results achieved shed light on several key processes of clouds in climate change (or general circulation models), which are summarized below. 1. Revealed the effect of mineral dust on mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) Two international field campaigns near a desert and a tropical coast provided unique data to drive and evaluate CRM simulations, which are TWP-ICE (the Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment) and AMMA (the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis). Studies of the two campaign data were contrasted, revealing that much mineral dust can bring about large MCSs via ice nucleation and clouds. This result was reported as a PI presentation in the 3rd ASR Science Team meeting held in Arlington, Virginia in March 2012. A paper on the studies was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2013). 2. Identified the effect of convective downdrafts on ice crystal concentration Using the large-scale forcing data from TWP-ICE, ARM-SGP (the Southern Great Plains) and other field campaigns, Goddard CRM simulations were carried out in comparison with radar and satellite observations. The comparison between model and observations revealed that convective downdrafts could increase ice crystal concentration by up to three or four orders, which is a key to quantitatively represent the indirect effects of ice nuclei, a kind of aerosol, on clouds and radiation in the Tropics. This result was published in the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences (Zeng et al. 2011) and summarized in the DOE/ASR Research Highlights Summaries (see http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/RMjY5/view). 3. Used radar
Effects of vibrations on dynamics of miscible liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaponenko, Yu.; Shevtsova, V.
2010-01-01
We report on a numerical study of the mixing of two miscible fluids in gravitationally stable configuration. In the absence of external forces the diffusion process leads to the mixing of species. The aim of this study is to analyze the physical mechanism by which vibrations affect the mixing characteristic of two stratified miscible fluids. The translational periodic vibrations of a rigid cell filled with different mixtures of water-isopropanol are imposed. The vibrations with a constant frequency and amplitude are directed along the interface. In absence of gravity vibration-induced mass transport is incomparably faster than in diffusion regime. Our results highlight the strong interplay between gravity and vibrational impact, the relative weight of each effect is determined by ratio vibrational and classical Rayleigh numbers.
Vibrating fuel grapple. [LMFBR
Chertock, A.J.; Fox, J.N.; Weissinger, R.B.
A reactor refueling method is described which utilizes a vibrating fuel grapple for removing spent fuel assemblies from a reactor core. It incorporates a pneumatic vibrator in the grapple head which allows additional withdrawal capability without exceeding the allowable axial force limit. The only moving part in the vibrator is a steel ball, pneumatically driven by a gas, such as argon, around a track, with centrifugal force created by the ball being transmitted through the grapple to the assembly handling socket.
Chertock, deceased, Alan J.; Fox, Jack N.; Weissinger, Robert B.
1982-01-01
A reactor refueling method utilizing a vibrating fuel grapple for removing spent fuel assemblies from a reactor core which incorporates a pneumatic vibrator in the grapple head, enabling additional withdrawal capability without exceeding the allowable axial force limit. The only moving part in the vibrator is a steel ball, pneumatically driven by a gas, such as argon, around a track, with centrifugal force created by the ball being transmitted through the grapple to the assembly handling socket.
Vibration Testing of an Operating Stirling Convertor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Mark E.; Goodnight, Thomas W.
2000-01-01
The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Department of Energy are currently developing a Stirling convertor for use as an advanced spacecraft power system for future NASA deep-space missions. As part of this development, a Stirling Technology Demonstrator Convertor (TDC) was recently tested to verify its survivability and capability of withstanding its expected launch random vibration environment. The TDC was fully operational (producing power) during the random vibration testing. The output power of the convertor was measured during the testing, and these results are discussed in this paper. Numerous accelerometers and force gauges were also present which provided information on the dynamic characteristics of the TDC and an indication of any possible damage due to vibration. These measurements will also be discussed in this paper. The vibration testing of the Stirling TDC was extremely successful. The TDC survived all its vibration testing with no structural damage or functional performance degradation. As a result of this testing, the Stirling convertor's capability to withstand vibration has been demonstrated, enabling its usage in future spacecraft power systems.
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
that leads to splitting (fluid separation). We investigate the interaction of these prominent interfacial instabilities in the absence of gravity, concentrating on harmonically vibrated rectangular containers of fluid. We compare vibroequilibria theory with direct numerical simulations and consider the effect of surfaces waves, which can excite sloshing motion of the vibroequilibria. We systematically investigate the saddle-node bifurcation experienced by a symmetric singly connected vibroequilibria solution, for sufficiently deep containers, as forcing is increased. Beyond this instability, the fluid rapidly separates into (at least) two distinct masses. Pronounced hysteresis is associated with this transition, even in the presence of gravity. The interaction of vibroequilibria and frozen waves is investigated in two-fluid systems. Preparations for a parabolic flight experiment on fluids vibrated at high frequencies are discussed.
Adaptive vibration energy harvesting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Behrens, Sam; Ward, John; Davidson, Josh
2007-04-01
By scavenging energy from their local environment, portable electronic devices such as mobile phones, radios and wireless sensors can achieve greater run-times with potentially lower weight. Vibration energy harvesting is one such approach where energy from parasitic vibrations can be converted into electrical energy, through the use of piezoelectric and electromagnetic transducers. Parasitic vibrations come from a range of sources such as wind, seismic forces and traffic. Existing approaches to vibration energy harvesting typically utilise a rectifier circuit, which is tuned to the resonant frequency of the harvesting structure and the dominant frequency of vibration. We have developed a novel approach to vibration energy harvesting, including adaption to non-periodic vibrations so as to extract the maximum amount of vibration energy available. Experimental results of an experimental apparatus using off-the-shelf transducer (i.e. speaker coil) show mechanical vibration to electrical energy conversion efficiencies of 27 - 34%. However, simulations of a more electro-mechanical efficient and lightly damped transducer show conversion efficiencies in excess of 80%.
Relaxation paths for single modes of vibrations in isolated molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papoular, R.
2006-06-01
A numerical simulation of vibrational excitation of molecules was devised and used to excite computational models of common molecules into a prescribed, pure, normal vibration mode in the ground electronic state, with varying, controllable energy content. The redistribution of this energy (either non-chaotic or irreversible IVR) within the isolated, free molecule is then followed in time with a view to determining the coupling strength between modes. This work was triggered by the need to predict the general characters of the infrared spectra to be expected from molecules in interstellar space, after being excited by photon absorption or reaction with a radical. It is found that IVR from a pure normal mode is very 'restricted' indeed at energy contents of one mode quantum or so. However, as this is increased, or when the excitation is localized, our approach allows us to isolate, describe and quantify a number of interesting phenomena, known to chemists and in nonlinear mechanics, but difficult to demonstrate experimentally: frequency dragging, mode locking or quenching or, still, instability near a potential surface crossing, the first step to generalized chaos as the energy content per mode is increased.
VIBRATION DAMPING AND SHOCK MOUNT
Stevens, D.J.; Forman, G.W.
1963-12-10
A shock absorbing mount in which vibrations are damped by an interference fit between relatively movable parts of the mount is described. A pair of generally cup-shaped parts or members have skirt portions disposed in an oppositely facing nesting relationship with the skirt of one member frictionally engaging the skirt of the other. The outermost skirt may be slotted to provide spring-like segments which embrace the inner skirt for effecting the interference fit. Belleville washers between the members provide yieldable support for a load carried by the mount. When a resonant frequency of vibration forces acting upon the moumt attains a certain level the kinetic energy of these forces is absorbed by sliding friction between the parts. (AEC)
A Comparison of Molecular Vibrational Theory to Huckel Molecular Orbital Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keeports, David
1986-01-01
Compares the similar mathematical problems of molecular vibrational calculations (at any intermediate level of sophistication) and molecular orbital calculations (at the Huckel level). Discusses how the generalizations of Huckel treatment of molecular orbitals apply to vibrational theory. (TW)
DNS of vibrating grid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khujadze, G.; Oberlack, M.
Direct numerical simulation of the turbulence generated at a grid vibrating normally to itself using spectral code [1] is presented. Due to zero mean shear there is no production of turbulence apart from the grid. Action of the grid is mimiced by the function implemented in the middle of the simulation box:f_i (x_1 ,x_2 ) = {n^2 S}/2left\\{ {left| {{δ _{i3} }/4\\cos left( {{2π }/Mx_1 } right)\\cos left. {left( {{2π }/Mx_2 } right)} right|} right.sin (nt) + {β _i }/4} right\\}, where M is the mesh size, S/2 - amplitude or stroke of the grid, n - frequency. β i are random numbers with uniform distribution. The simulations were performed for the following parameters: x 1, x 2 ∈ [-π; π], x 3 ∈ [-2π; 2π]; Re = nS 2/? = 1000; S/M = 2; Numerical grid: 128 × 128 × 256.
DNS of vibrating grid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khujadze, G.; Oberlack, M.
Direct numerical simulation of the turbulence generated at a grid vibrating normally to itself using spectral code [1] is presented. Due to zero mean shear there is no production of turbulence apart from the grid. Action of the grid is mimiced by the function implemented in the middle of the simulation box:f_i (x_1 ,x_2 ) = {n^2 S}/2left{ {left| {{δ _{i3} }/4\\cos left( {{2π }/Mx_1 } right)\\cos left. {left( {{2π }/Mx_2 } right)} right|} right.sin (nt) + {β _i }/4} right}, where M is the mesh size, S/2 - amplitude or stroke of the grid, n - frequency. β i are random numbers with uniform distribution. The simulations were performed for the following parameters: x 1, x 2 ∈ [-π; π], x 3 ∈ [-2π; 2π]; Re = nS 2/? = 1000; S/M = 2; Numerical grid: 128 × 128 × 256.
Development of battering ram vibrator system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, F.; Chen, Z.; Lin, J.; Tong, X.
2012-12-01
This paper researched the battering ram vibrator system, by electric machinery we can control oil system of battering ram, we realized exact control of battering ram, after analyzed pseudorandom coding, code "0" and "1" correspond to rest and shake of battering ram, then we can get pseudorandom coding which is the same with battering ram vibrator. After testing , by the reference trace and single shot record, when we using pseudorandom coding mode, the ratio of seismic wavelet to correlation interfere is about 68 dB, while the general mode , the ratio of seismic wavelet to correlation interfere only is 27.9dB, by battering ram vibrator system, we can debase the correlation interfere which come from the single shaking frequency of battering ram, this system advanced the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data, which can give direction of the application of battering ram vibrator in metal mine exploration and high resolving seismic exploration.
Random vibrations measurements with isolated accelerometers
Paez, T.L.; Gibson, B.W.
1992-04-01
Isolated accelerometer measurement systems are used to measure environments composed of a wide spectrum of frequencies including the natural frequency of the isolated accelerometer. Because the isolated accelerometer measurement system is a nonlinear system, it is subject to the potential for chaotic vibrations. it is clear that this potential if realized, affects the response of the measurement system to vibration input and perhaps to shock input also. This paper explores the effects that the potential for chaotic vibrations and nonlinear response, in general, has on the random vibration response of the isolated accelerometer measurement system. Specifically, the system response to white noise is investigated and assessed in terms of response histogram and response spectral density. 6 refs.
Random vibrations measurements with isolated accelerometers
Paez, T.L. ); Gibson, B.W. )
1992-01-01
Isolated accelerometer measurement systems are used to measure environments composed of a wide spectrum of frequencies including the natural frequency of the isolated accelerometer. Because the isolated accelerometer measurement system is a nonlinear system, it is subject to the potential for chaotic vibrations. it is clear that this potential if realized, affects the response of the measurement system to vibration input and perhaps to shock input also. This paper explores the effects that the potential for chaotic vibrations and nonlinear response, in general, has on the random vibration response of the isolated accelerometer measurement system. Specifically, the system response to white noise is investigated and assessed in terms of response histogram and response spectral density. 6 refs.
Adaptive structural vibration control of acoustic deflector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Dagys, Donatas; Janusas, Giedrius
2004-06-01
Vehicle interior acoustics became an important design criterion. Both legal restrictions and the growing demand for comfort, force car manufacturers to optimize the vibro-acoustic behavior of their products. The main source of noise is, of course, the engine, but sometimes some ill-designed cover or other shell structure inside the car resonates and makes unpredicted noise. To avoid this, we must learn the genesis mechanism of such vibrations, having as subject complex 3D shells. The swift development of computer technologies opens the possibility to numerically predict and optimize the vibrations and noises.
Vibration protection of radioelectronic equipment by polymer compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelenev, Iu. V.; Kirilin, A. A.; Slobodnik, E. B.; Talitskii, E. N.
The use of well damped structures in combination with traditional methods provides a way to solve the problem of protecting radioelectronic equipment against vibration over a wide frequency range. An attempt is made here to generalize the available theoretical and experimental data on the use of polymer compounds for dispersing vibrational energy in the structures of radioelectronic equipment. Recommendations concerning the selection and design of single- and multilayer vibration-damping coatings and shock absorbers are given.
Force limited vibration testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry D.
1991-01-01
A new method of conducting lab vibration tests of spacecraft equipment was developed to more closely simulate the vibration environment experienced when the spacecraft is launched on a rocket. The improved tests are tailored to identify equipment design and workmanship problems without inducing artificial failures that would not have occurred at launch. These new, less destructive types of vibration tests are essential to JPL's protoflight test approach in which lab testing is conducted using the flight equipment, often one of a kind, to save time and money. In conventional vibration tests, only the input vibratory motion is specified; the feedback, or reaction force, between the test item and the vibration machine is ignored. Most test failures occur when the test item goes into resonance, and the reaction force becomes very large. It has long been recognized that the large reaction force is a test artifact which does not occur with the lightweight, flexible mounting structures characteristic of spacecraft and space vehicles. In new vibration tests, both the motion and the force provided to the test item by the vibration machine are controlled, so that the vibration ride experienced by the test item is as in flight.
Multiple direction vibration fixture
Cericola, F.; Doggett, J.W.; Ernest, T.L.
1991-08-27
An apparatus is discussed for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 {degrees} around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.
Multiple direction vibration fixture
Cericola, F.; Doggett, J.W.; Ernest, T.L.; Priddy, T.G.
1990-03-21
An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis. 1 fig.
[Vibration on agricultural tractors].
Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio
2013-01-01
In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed. PMID:24303716
Multiple direction vibration fixture
Cericola, Fred; Doggett, James W.; Ernest, Terry L.; Priddy, Tommy G.
1991-01-01
An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kis, Z.; Janszky, J.; Vinogradov, An. V.; Kobayashi, T.
1996-01-01
The optical Schroedinger cat states are simple realizations of quantum states having nonclassical features. It is shown that vibrational analogues of such states can be realized in an experiment of double pulse excitation of vibrionic transitions. To track the evolution of the vibrational wave packet we derive a non-unitary time evolution operator so that calculations are made in a quasi Heisenberg picture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Xiu-ping; Yang, Jian-chun; Zhang, Li
2010-10-01
General rubber damping materials used in noise and vibrations attenuating system can not adapt large optical telescope's working temperatures and environments. While Metal Rubber material which has loose, reticulate structures can endure high or low temperatures, rigorous space environments, erosions, aging, volatilization and radiations due to its metallic properties because it is made of stainless steel wires of φ 0.1~0.3 mm. When the MR damping component is uploaded with vibrating force, the displacement will cause intense frictions between wires' surfaces which will dissipate abundant energy and thus it can serve as dampers like natural rubbers. Since Metal Rubber components are prepared by compression moulding, various complex shapes of dampers can be produced conveniently to fulfill large optical telescope's noise and vibrations attenuating tasks. Based on the Metal Rubber component's four preparation approaches, helix-making, planar roughcast-weaving, planar roughcast-rolling and 3D roughcast punching, a ring-shaped 3D parametrical numerical model is founded by CAD technology. Definitely, this modeling research work may support the optimization of the current trial and try preparation of MR component and it will provide necessary foundations for its further application in noise and vibrations attenuating system in large optical telescopes.
Vibration control in accelerators
Montag, C.
2011-01-01
In the vast majority of accelerator applications, ground vibration amplitudes are well below tolerable magnet jitter amplitudes. In these cases, it is necessary and sufficient to design a rigid magnet support structure that does not amplify ground vibration. Since accelerator beam lines are typically installed at an elevation of 1-2m above ground level, special care has to be taken in order to avoid designing a support structure that acts like an inverted pendulum with a low resonance frequency, resulting in untolerable lateral vibration amplitudes of the accelerator components when excited by either ambient ground motion or vibration sources within the accelerator itself, such as cooling water pumps or helium flow in superconducting magnets. In cases where ground motion amplitudes already exceed the required jiter tolerances, for instance in future linear colliders, passive vibration damping or active stabilization may be considered.
Tennant, R.A.
1985-01-01
Vibrations induced in accelerator structures can cause particle-beam jitter and alignment difficulties. Sources of these vibrations may include pump oscillations, cooling-water turbulence, and vibrations transmitted through the floor to the accelerator structure. Drift tubes (DT) in a drift tube linac (DTL) are components likely to affect beam jitter and alignment because they normally have a heavy magnet structure on the end of a long and relatively small support stem. The natural vibrational frequencies of a drift tube have been compared with theoretical predictions. In principle, by knowing natural frequencies of accelerator components and system vibrational frequncies, an accelerator can be designed that does not have these frequencies coinciding. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.
2009-01-01
Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER
Isogeometric analysis of free vibration of simple shaped elastic samples.
Kolman, Radek; Sorokin, Sergey; Bastl, Bohumír; Kopačka, Ján; Plešek, Jiří
2015-04-01
The paper is devoted to numerical solution of free vibration problems for elastic bodies of canonical shapes by means of a spline based finite element method (FEM), called Isogeometric Analysis (IGA). It has an advantage that the geometry is described exactly and the approximation of unknown quantities is smooth due to higher-order continuous shape functions. IGA exhibits very convenient convergence rates and small frequency errors for higher frequency spectrum. In this paper, the IGA strategy is used in computation of eigen-frequencies of a block and cylinder as benchmark tests. Results are compared with the standard FEM, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, and available experimental data. The main attention is paid to the comparison of convergence rate, accuracy, and time-consumption of IGA against FEM and also to show a spline order and parameterization effects. In addition, the potential of IGA in Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy measurements of elastic properties of general anisotropy solids is discussed. PMID:25920859
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fetterman, Timothy L.; Noor, Ahmed K.
1987-01-01
Computational procedures are presented for evaluating the sensitivity derivatives of the vibration frequencies and eigenmodes of framed structures. Both a displacement and a mixed formulation are used. The two key elements of the computational procedure are: (a) Use of dynamic reduction techniques to substantially reduce the number of degrees of freedom; and (b) Application of iterative techniques to improve the accuracy of the derivatives of the eigenmodes. The two reduction techniques considered are the static condensation and a generalized dynamic reduction technique. Error norms are introduced to assess the accuracy of the eigenvalue and eigenvector derivatives obtained by the reduction techniques. The effectiveness of the methods presented is demonstrated by three numerical examples.
Performance, robustness and sensitivity analysis of the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detroux, T.; Habib, G.; Masset, L.; Kerschen, G.
2015-08-01
The nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) is a recently developed nonlinear absorber which generalizes Den Hartog's equal peak method to nonlinear systems. If the purposeful introduction of nonlinearity can enhance system performance, it can also give rise to adverse dynamical phenomena, including detached resonance curves and quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Through the combination of numerical continuation of periodic solutions, bifurcation detection and tracking, and global analysis, the present study identifies boundaries in the NLTVA parameter space delimiting safe, unsafe and unacceptable operations. The sensitivity of these boundaries to uncertainty in the NLTVA parameters is also investigated.
Optimal design of thin walled I beams for extreme natural frequency of torsional vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szymczak, C.
1983-01-01
The optimal design of thin-walled I beams so as to extremize the natural frequency of torsional vibration is considered. It is assumed that only one dimension of the cross-section, except for the web height, may be variable in given limits, along the axis of the beam. The optimality condition for the variable dimension is settled by means of Pontryagin's maximum principle. The effect of the constant, axial loads is also included. the solution of the problem formulated is generally found in an iterative way. Some numerical examples of optimization of the I beam with variable widt of flanges are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mercan, Kadir; Demir, Çiğdem; Civalek, Ömer
2016-01-01
In the present manuscript, free vibration response of circular cylindrical shells with functionally graded material (FGM) is investigated. The method of discrete singular convolution (DSC) is used for numerical solution of the related governing equation of motion of FGM cylindrical shell. The constitutive relations are based on the Love's first approximation shell theory. The material properties are graded in the thickness direction according to a volume fraction power law indexes. Frequency values are calculated for different types of boundary conditions, material and geometric parameters. In general, close agreement between the obtained results and those of other researchers has been found.
A scaling approach for the prediction of high-frequency mean responses of vibrating systems.
Li, Xianhui
2010-05-01
This analysis presents a scaling approach to predict high-frequency mean responses of vibrating systems. The basis of the approach lies in the dynamic similitude between the original systems and the scaled models. A general scaling law is formulated using Skudrzyk's mean-value theorem and its specific form is derived for the case of a flexural plate. Modal density is scaled down to reduce the computational cost in the high-frequency mean response prediction. Different scaling procedures are numerically experimented and some insights are given about the accuracy of the scaling approach as compared with a dense finite element analysis. PMID:21117716
Flux-split algorithms for flows with non-equilibrium chemistry and vibrational relaxation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossman, B.; Cinnella, P.
1990-01-01
The present consideration of numerical computation methods for gas flows with nonequilibrium chemistry thermodynamics gives attention to an equilibrium model, a general nonequilibrium model, and a simplified model based on vibrational relaxation. Flux-splitting procedures are developed for the fully-coupled inviscid equations encompassing fluid dynamics and both chemical and internal energy-relaxation processes. A fully coupled and implicit large-block structure is presented which embodies novel forms of flux-vector split and flux-difference split algorithms valid for nonequilibrium flow; illustrative high-temperature shock tube and nozzle flow examples are given.
Nozzle flow with vibrational nonequilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heinbockel, J. H.; Landry, J. G.
1995-01-01
This research concerns the modeling and numerical solutions of the coupled system of compressible Navier-Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates under conditions of equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The problem considered was the modeling of a high temperature diatomic gas N2 flowing through a converging-diverging high expansion nozzle. The problem was modeled in two ways. The first model uses a single temperature with variable specific heats as functions of this temperature. For the second model we assume that the various degrees of freedom all have a Boltzmann distribution and that there is a continuous redistribution of energy among the various degrees of freedom as the gas passes through the nozzle. Each degree of freedom is assumed to have its own temperature and, consequently, each system state can be characterized by these temperatures. This suggests that formulation of a second model with a vibrational degree of freedom along with a rotational-translation degree of freedom, each degree of freedom having its own temperature. Initially the vibrational degree of freedom is excited by heating the gas to a high temperature. As the high temperature gas passes through the nozzle throat there is a sudden drop in temperature along with a relaxation time for the vibrational degree of freedom to achieve equilibrium with the rotational-translation degree of freedom. That is, we assume that the temperature change upon passing through the throat is so great that the changes in the vibrational degree of freedom occur at a much slower pace and consequently lags behind the rotational-translational energy changes. This lag results in a finite relaxation time. In this context the term nonequilibrium is used to denote the fact that the energy content of the various degrees of freedom are characterized by two temperatures. We neglect any chemical reactions which could also add nonequilibrium effects. We develop the energy equations for the nonequilibrium model
14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...
14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...
14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...
14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...
14 CFR 23.907 - Propeller vibration and fatigue.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller vibration and fatigue. 23.907... General § 23.907 Propeller vibration and fatigue. This section does not apply to fixed-pitch wood propellers of conventional design. (a) The applicant must determine the magnitude of the propeller...
Placement Of Exciters And Sensors To Measure Vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salama, Moktar A.; Rose, Theodore L.; Garba, John A.
1989-01-01
Report discusses use of simulated-annealing algorithm to place exciters and sensors of vibrations at nearly optimal positions in complicated structure. Because there are generally fewer exciters and sensors than degrees of freedom in structure, optimal-placement algorithm needed to maximize value of resulting incomplete set of measurements for verification of amplitudes and frequencies of previously-computed vibrational modes.
Dielectric elastomers for active vibration control applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herold, S.; Kaal, W.; Melz, T.
2011-04-01
Dielectric elastomers (DE) have proved to have high potential for smart actuator applications in many laboratory setups and also in first commercially available components. Because of their large deformation capability and the inherent fast response to external stimulation they proffer themselves to applications in the field of active vibration control, especially for lightweight structures. These structures typically tend to vibrate with large amplitudes even at low excitation forces. Here, DE actuators seem to be ideal components for setting up control loops to suppress unwanted vibrations. Due to the underlying physical effect DE actuators are generally non-linear elements with an approximately quadratic relationship between in- and output. Consequently, they automatically produce higher-order frequencies. This can cause harmful effects for vibration control on structures with high modal density. Therefore, a linearization technique is required to minimize parasitic effects. This paper shows and quantifies the nonlinearity of a commercial DE actuator and demonstrates the negative effects it can have in technical applications. For this purpose, two linearization methods are developed. Subsequently, the actuator is used to implement active vibration control for two different mechanical systems. In the first case a concentrated mass is driven with the controlled actuator resulting in a tunable oscillator. In the second case a more complex mechanical structure with multiple resonances is used. Different control approaches are applied likewise and their impact on the whole system is demonstrated. Thus, the potential of DE actuators for vibration control applications is highlighted.
Electrorheological vibration system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korobko, Evguenia V.; Shulman, Zinovy P.; Korobko, Yulia O.
2001-07-01
The present paper is devoted to de3velopment and testing of an active vibration system. The system is intended for providing efficient motion of a piston in a hydraulic channel for creation of shocks and periodic vibrations in a low frequency range by means of the ER-valves based on an electrosensitive working me dium, i.e. electrorheological fluids. The latter manifests the electrorheological (ER) effect, i.e. a reversible change in the rheological characteristics of weak-conducting disperse compositions in the presence of constant and alternating electric fields. As a result of the experimental study of the dependence of viscoelastic properties of the ER-fluid on the magnitude and type of an electric field, the optimum dimensions of the vibrator and the its valves characteristics of the optimal electrical signal are determined. For control of an ER- vibrator having several valves we have designed a special type of a high-voltage two-channel impulse generator. Experiments were conducted at the frequencies ranged from 1- 10 Hz. It has been shown, that a peak force made 70% of the static force exercised by the vibrator rod. A phase shift between the input voltage and the load acceleration was less than 45 degree(s)C which allowed servocontrol and use of the vibrator for attendant operations. It was noted that a response of the vibrator to a stepwise signal has a delay only of several milliseconds.
Analysis of vibration effects on holographic data storage system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, Toshiki; Shimada, Ken-ichi; Hoshizawa, Taku; Takashima, Yuzuru
2015-09-01
It is crucial to understand the effects of random mechanical vibration on holographic data storage system, but such effects have not yet been formalized. Therefore, we developed a generalized formalization of vibration effects using a concept of time-averaged holography. Normalized intensity as a function of a statistical measure of vibration waveforms is simulated by simple harmonic oscillation, then normalized intensity is predicted well even for random vibration waveforms. Servo and mechanical systems will be designed solely by specifying the required signal level, which enables efficient product development.
Vibrations of cylindrical objects obstructing a Poiseuille-type flow.
Jiang, Renjie; Lin, Jianzhong; Chen, Zhongli
2013-08-01
Using the lattice Boltzmann equation, we numerically studied the dynamics of a physical model system, the Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations (PFIV). At a moderate Reynolds number, for flows past a cylinder that is free to move in the cross-flow direction while being fixed in the streamwise direction, between two parallel walls, a variety of distinct vibration regimes involving symmetrical periodic vibration, deflective quasiperiodic vibration, and deflective periodic vibration with corresponding wake states were observed. The data analysis shows that the distribution of the lift coefficient depending on the blockage ratio plays an important role in such a system. A further study of the case of two side-by-side identical cylinders demonstrates the existence of two distinct cooperative vibrations of the cylinders, e.g., in-phase-synchronized vibration (IPSV) and anti-phase-synchronized vibration (APSV). The result reveals that there is a critical blockage ratio, beyond which a phase transition between IPSV and APSV occurs. For the phenomena observed here, PFIV can be considered a new type of vortex-induced vibration, and such a system is expected to find applications in fluid mixing. PMID:24032926
Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Study for Rotating Composite Fan Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Choi, Benjamin B.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Kray, Nicholas
2012-01-01
Resonant vibrations of aircraft engine blades cause blade fatigue problems in engines, which can lead to thicker and aerodynamically lower performing blade designs, increasing engine weight, fuel burn, and maintenance costs. In order to mitigate undesirable blade vibration levels, active piezoelectric vibration control has been investigated, potentially enabling thinner blade designs for higher performing blades and minimizing blade fatigue problems. While the piezoelectric damping idea has been investigated by other researchers over the years, very little study has been done including rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. The particular objectives of this study were: (a) to develop and analyze a multiphysics piezoelectric finite element composite blade model for harmonic forced vibration response analysis coupled with a tuned RLC circuit for rotating engine blade conditions, (b) to validate a numerical model with experimental test data, and (c) to achieve a cost-effective numerical modeling capability which enables simulation of rotating blades within the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Dynamic Spin Rig Facility. A numerical and experimental study for rotating piezoelectric composite subscale fan blades was performed. It was also proved that the proposed numerical method is feasible and effective when applied to the rotating blade base excitation model. The experimental test and multiphysics finite element modeling technique described in this paper show that piezoelectric vibration damping can significantly reduce vibrations of aircraft engine composite fan blades.
Natural vibration characteristics of gravity structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chugh, Ashok K.
2007-04-01
A forced vibration procedure is presented to estimate fundamental and higher frequencies of vibrations and associated mode shapes of gravity structures. The gravity structures considered are retaining walls and gravity dams. The validity of the proposed procedure is tested on three test problems of varying complexity for which the natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes either have known analytical solutions or have been determined via numerical means/field tests by others. Also included are the results of natural vibration frequencies and associated mode shapes for a spillway control structure located near the abutment end of an embankment dam obtained using the proposed procedure. For all problems considered, fundamental frequency and mode shape results using the proposed procedure are compared with the results obtained using an alternative procedure in which static deflections due to the structure's own weight are used as the starting point for free vibrations by setting the gravity vector to zero. All results compare well. The merits of the proposed procedure are discussed. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Structural source identification using a generalized Tikhonov regularization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aucejo, M.
2014-10-01
This paper addresses the problem of identifying mechanical exciting forces from vibration measurements. The proposed approach is based on a generalized Tikhonov regularization that allows taking into account prior information on the measurement noise as well as on the main characteristics of sources to identify like its sparsity or regularity. To solve such a regularization problem efficiently, a Generalized Iteratively Reweighted Least-Squares (GIRLS) algorithm is introduced. Proposed numerical and experimental validations reveal the crucial role of prior information in the quality of the source identification and the performance of the GIRLS algorithm.
The development of interior noise and vibration criteria
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.
1990-01-01
A generalized model was developed for estimating passenger discomfort response to combined noise and vibration. This model accounts for broadband noise and vibration spectra and multiple axes of vibration as well as the interactive effects of combined noise and vibration. The model has the unique capability of transforming individual components of noise/vibration environment into subjective comfort units and then combining these comfort units to produce a total index of passenger discomfort and useful sub-indices that typify passenger comfort within the environment. An overview of the model development is presented including the methodology employed, major elements of the model, model applications, and a brief description of a commercially available portable ride comfort meter based directly upon the model algorithms. Also discussed are potential criteria formats that account for the interactive effects of noise and vibration on human discomfort response.
PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahman, Talat S.
2011-12-01
This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of
Modeling of tape tether vibration and vibration sensing using smart film sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunugi, Kouta; Kojima, Hirohisa; Trivailo, Pavel M.
2015-02-01
Tape-tethered satellite systems use long and flexible tape tethers, the bending and torsional vibrations of which affect the positions and attitude of attached satellites and climbers. Owing to the distribution characteristics of a tape tether, ordinary point sensors and actuators cannot be used easily to control the vibrations. Other types of sensors and actuators are required for this purpose. The flexibility and deformability of smart materials make them particularly suitable for integration into a tape-tethered system. Thus, in this paper, we propose a method for modeling the bending and torsional vibrations of a tape tether, and report our investigation into the feasibility of using smart film sensors to distinguish between the two vibration types. We formulate equations of motion for the tape tether using multibody dynamics techniques, and perform numerical simulations to study the behavior of the bending and torsional vibrations. The results of our experiments show that the bending and torsional vibrations of a tape tether can be measured using smart film sensors attached to the tether.
Low-frequency vibration control of floating slab tracks using dynamic vibration absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Shengyang; Yang, Jizhong; Yan, Hua; Zhang, Longqing; Cai, Chengbiao
2015-09-01
This study aims to effectively and robustly suppress the low-frequency vibrations of floating slab tracks (FSTs) using dynamic vibration absorbers (DVAs). First, the optimal locations where the DVAs are attached are determined by modal analysis with a finite element model of the FST. Further, by identifying the equivalent mass of the concerned modes, the optimal stiffness and damping coefficient of each DVA are obtained to minimise the resonant vibration amplitudes based on fixed-point theory. Finally, a three-dimensional coupled dynamic model of a metro vehicle and the FST with the DVAs is developed based on the nonlinear Hertzian contact theory and the modified Kalker linear creep theory. The track irregularities are included and generated by means of a time-frequency transformation technique. The effect of the DVAs on the vibration absorption of the FST subjected to the vehicle dynamic loads is evaluated with the help of the insertion loss in one-third octave frequency bands. The sensitivities of the mass ratio of DVAs and the damping ratio of steel-springs under the floating slab are discussed as well, which provided engineers with the DVA's adjustable room for vibration mitigation. The numerical results show that the proposed DVAs could effectively suppress low-frequency vibrations of the FST when tuned correctly and attached properly. The insertion loss due to the attachment of DVAs increases as the mass ratio increases, whereas it decreases with the increase in the damping ratio of steel-springs.
Damping Vibration at an Impeller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hager, J. A.; Rowan, B. F.
1982-01-01
Vibration of pump shaft is damped at impeller--where vibration-induced deflections are greatest--by shroud and seal. Damping reduces vibrational motion of shaft at bearings and load shaft places on them. Flow through clearance channel absorbs vibration energy.
Vibration Analysis and the Accelerometer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hammer, Paul
2011-01-01
Have you ever put your hand on an electric motor or motor-driven electric appliance and felt it vibrate? Ever wonder why it vibrates? What is there about the operation of the motor, or the object to which it is attached, that causes the vibrations? Is there anything "regular" about the vibrations, or are they the result of random causes? In this…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Mikkel Bo; Christiansen, Ove; Hättig, Christof
2009-10-01
Quadratic response functions are derived and implemented for a vibrational configuration interaction state. Combined electronic and vibrational quadratic response functions are derived using Born-Oppenheimer vibronic product wave functions. Computational tractable expressions are derived for determining the total quadratic response contribution as a sum of contributions involving both electronic and vibrational linear and quadratic response functions. In the general frequency-dependent case this includes a new and more troublesome type of electronic linear response function. Pilot calculations for the FH, H2O, CH2O, and pyrrole molecules demonstrate the importance of vibrational contributions for accurate comparison to experiment and that the vibrational contributions in some cases can be very large. The calculation of transition properties between vibrational states is combined with sum-over-states expressions for analysis purposes. On the basis of this some simple analysis methods are suggested. Also, a preliminary study of the effect of finite lifetimes on quadratic response functions is presented.
Spontaneous and stimulated Raman studies of vibrational dephasing in condensed phases
Cornelius, P.A.
1980-05-01
Vibrational dephasing in condensed phases is studied from both a theoretical and experimental standpoint. A theory is presented which describes the dynamics of motional or exchange processes in weakly perturbed systems. This general formalism, which has been previously used to describe motional narrowing in magnetic resonance, is applied to vibrational spectroscopy. The model treats the case of a high frequency vibration anharmonically coupled to a low-frequency vibration. Intermolecular exchange of low frequency vibrational quanta results in a temperature dependent broadening and frequency shift of the high frequency vibration. Analysis of experimental data by this model yields both the exchange rates and the anharmonic couplings.
Active vibration control of civil structures
Farrar, C.; Baker, W.; Fales, J.; Shevitz, D.
1996-11-01
This is a final report of a one year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Active vibration control (AVC) of structural and mechanical systems is one of the rapidly advancing areas of engineering research. The multifaceted nature of AVC covers many disciplines, such as sensors and instrumentation, numerical modeling, experimental mechanics, and advanced power systems. This work encompassed a review of the literature on active control of structures focusing both on active control hardware and on control algorithms, a design of an isolation systems using magneto-rheological fluid-filled (MRF) dampers and numerical simulations to study the enhanced vibration mitigation effects of this technology.
Suppression of friction by mechanical vibrations.
Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Vezzani, Alessandro; Zapperi, Stefano
2009-08-21
Mechanical vibrations are known to affect frictional sliding and the associated stick-slip patterns causing sometimes a drastic reduction of the friction force. This issue is relevant for applications in nanotribology and to understand earthquake triggering by small dynamic perturbations. We study the dynamics of repulsive particles confined between a horizontally driven top plate and a vertically oscillating bottom plate. Our numerical results show a suppression of the high dissipative stick-slip regime in a well-defined range of frequencies that depends on the vibrating amplitude, the normal applied load, the system inertia and the damping constant. We propose a theoretical explanation of the numerical results and derive a phase diagram indicating the region of parameter space where friction is suppressed. Our results allow to define better strategies for the mechanical control of friction. PMID:19792738
Vibration harvesting in traffic tunnels to power wireless sensor nodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wischke, M.; Masur, M.; Kröner, M.; Woias, P.
2011-08-01
Monitoring the traffic and the structural health of traffic tunnels requires numerous sensors. Powering these remote and partially embedded sensors from ambient energies will reduce maintenance costs, and improve the sensor network performance. This work reports on vibration levels detected in railway and road tunnels as a potential energy source for embedded sensors. The measurement results showed that the vibrations at any location in the road tunnel and at the wall in the railway tunnel are too small for useful vibration harvesting. In contrast, the railway sleeper features usable vibrations and sufficient mounting space. For this application site, a robust piezoelectric vibration harvester was designed and equipped with a power interface circuit. Within the field test, it is demonstrated that sufficient energy is harvested to supply a microcontroller with a radio frequency (RF) interface.
Molecular vibrational trapping revisited: a case study with D2+
Badankó, Péter; Halász, Gábor J.; Vibók, Ágnes
2016-01-01
The present theoretical study is concerned with the vibrational trapping or bond hardening, which is a well-known phenomenon predicted by a dressed state representation of small molecules like and in an intense laser field. This phenomenon is associated with a condition where the energy of the light induced, vibrational level coincides with one of the vibrational levels on the field-free potential curve, which at the same time maximizes the wave function overlap between these two levels. One-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to investigate this phenomenon in a more quantitative way than has been done previously by calculating the photodissociation probability of for a wide range of photon energy. The obtained results undoubtedly show that the nodal structure of the field-free vibrational wave functions plays a decisive role in the vibrational trapping, in addition to the current understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:27550642
Molecular vibrational trapping revisited: a case study with D2.
Badankó, Péter; Halász, Gábor J; Vibók, Ágnes
2016-01-01
The present theoretical study is concerned with the vibrational trapping or bond hardening, which is a well-known phenomenon predicted by a dressed state representation of small molecules like and in an intense laser field. This phenomenon is associated with a condition where the energy of the light induced, vibrational level coincides with one of the vibrational levels on the field-free potential curve, which at the same time maximizes the wave function overlap between these two levels. One-dimensional numerical simulations were performed to investigate this phenomenon in a more quantitative way than has been done previously by calculating the photodissociation probability of for a wide range of photon energy. The obtained results undoubtedly show that the nodal structure of the field-free vibrational wave functions plays a decisive role in the vibrational trapping, in addition to the current understanding of this phenomenon. PMID:27550642
NIF Ambient Vibration Measurements
Noble, C.R.; Hoehler, M.S., S.C. Sommer
1999-11-29
LLNL has an ongoing research and development project that includes developing data acquisition systems with remote wireless communication for monitoring the vibrations of large civil engineering structures. In order to establish the capability of performing remote sensing over an extended period of time, the researchers needed to apply this technology to a real structure. The construction of the National Ignition Facility provided an opportunity to test the data acquisition system on a large structure to monitor whether the facility is remaining within the strict ambient vibration guidelines. This document will briefly discuss the NIF ambient vibration requirements and summarize the vibration measurements performed during the Spring and Summer of 1999. In addition, a brief description of the sensors and the data acquisition systems will be provided in Appendix B.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J.-H.
1985-01-01
This paper examines the vibrational excitation rate processes expected in the flow field of aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTVs). An analysis of the multiple-quantum vibrational excitation processes by electron impact is made to predict the vibrational excitation cross sections, rate coefficients, and relaxation times which control vibrational temperature. The expression for the rate of electron-vibration energy transfer is derived by solving the system of master equations which account for the multiple-level transitions. The vibrational excitation coefficients, which are the prerequisite physical quantities in solving the obtained vibrational equation, are calculated based on the theoretically predicted cross sections. These cross sections are obtained from quantum mechanical calculations, based on the concept that vibrational excitation of molecules by electron impact occurs through formation of an intermediate negative ion state. Finally, the modified Landau-Teller-type rate equation, which is suitable for the numerical calculations for the AOTV flow fields, is suggested.
Shaft vibrations in turbomachinery excited by cracks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grabowski, B.
1982-01-01
During the past years the dynamic behavior of rotors with cracks has been investigated mainly theoretically. This paper deals with the comparison of analytical and experimental results of the dynamics of a rotor with an artificial crack. The experimental results verify the crack model used in the analysis. They show the general possibility to determine a crack by extended vibration control.
Vibration and stability of cracked hollow-sectional beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, D. Y.; Fan, S. C.
2003-10-01
This paper presents simple tools for the vibration and stability analysis of cracked hollow-sectional beams. It comprises two parts. In the first, the influences of sectional cracks are expressed in terms of flexibility induced. Each crack is assigned with a local flexibility coefficient, which is derived by virtue of theories of fracture mechanics. The flexibility coefficient is a function of the depth of a crack. The general formulae are derived and expressed in integral form. It is then transformed to explicit form through 128-point Gauss quadrature. According to the depth of the crack, the formulae are derived under two scenarios. The first is for shallow cracks, of which the penetration depth is contained within the top solid-sectional region. The second is for deeper penetration, in which the crack goes into the middle hollow-sectional region. The explicit formulae are best-fitted equations generated by the least-squares method. The best-fitted curves are presented. From the curves, the flexibility coefficients can be read out easily, while the explicit expressions facilitate easy implementation in computer analysis. In the second part, the flexibility coefficients are employed in the vibration and stability analysis of hollow-sectional beams. The cracked beam is treated as an assembly of sub-segments linked up by rotational springs. Division of segments are made coincident with the location of cracks or any abrupt change of sectional property. The crack's flexibility coefficient then serves as that of the rotational spring. Application of the Hamilton's principle leads to the governing equations, which are subsequently solved through employment of a simple technique. It is a kind of modified Fourier series, which is able to represent any order of continuity of the vibration/buckling modes. Illustrative numerical examples are included.
Passive and Active Vibration Control With Piezoelectric Fiber Composites
Vigier, Yves; Agbossou, Amen; Richard, Claude
2002-07-01
The possibility of dissipating mechanical energy with piezoelectric fiber composites (PFC) is investigated. The techniques for manufacturing an active beam with integrated (PFC) are presented and applied to a cantilevered beam experiment. We evaluated experimentally the performances of the active beam in passive energy dissipation. Three vibration cases were analysed: electrodes of the PFCs are (i) in open circuit, (ii) short circuit and (iii) shunted with electrical impedance designed to dissipate the electrical energy, which has been converted from the beam mechanical energy by the PFCs. Then we presented numerical models to analyze the vibration of active beams connect to electrical impedance. The proposed models point out with an accurate order of magnitude the change in vibration amplitude of the analysed beam. Hence we validate experimentally and numerically the concept of vibration control with PFCs and point out some new contributions of PFCs in active or passive damping. (authors)
Philip J. Reid
2009-09-21
The conference focuses on using vibrational spectroscopy to probe structure and dynamics of molecules in gases, liquids, and interfaces. The goal is to bring together a collection of researchers who share common interests and who will gain from discussing work at the forefront of several connected areas. The intent is to emphasize the insights and understanding that studies of vibrations provide about a variety of systems.
A Study of Vibration Reduction of Rolling Piston Type Rotary Compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshimura, Takao; Koyama, Takashi; Morita, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Uetuji, Toshio
In general,the vibration of rolling piston type rotary compressors is greater than that of reciprocating compressors because the compressor-motor unit is fixed to the shell. It is therefore necessary that refrigerators utilizing rotary compressors incorporated a vibration-proof design. This paper refers to the experimental vibration reduction study of rotary compressors (horizontally installed) for household refrigerators and other appliances. The vibration of rotary compressors consists of the rotational vibration caused by the speed variation of the shaft and of the imbalance vibration caused by the mass imbalance in the rotation system. There are various methods for reducing the rotational vibration. This study researched the dynamic damper. It will be shown that the dynamic damper,using a helical extension spring applied to the outside of the shell,is effective in reducing vibration. In regards to the imbalance vibration,this paper researched the influence of the number of correction planes and the accuracy of the balancing.
[The assessment of the vibration load in tractor drivers].
Goranova, L; Ivanovich, E
1990-01-01
The assessment of the vibration loading of a group of tractor-drivers from the enterprise for melioration and erosion control is made on the basis of: measurement of general and local vibrations and noise of 5 tractors type C 100, C 100M and T 130; determination of the total vibration loading on the basis of data of measurements and average weekly hour individual engagement; comparison of the admissible values of vibration loading with the real determined at work with machines of different vibration characters at different hour engagement. A surpass of the admissible vibration loading is established which reaches up to 3.3 (at average weekly exposure to 30 hrs.) and to 4.7 hrs (at average weekly exposure 42.5 hrs.) with the tractors with higher surpass of MAC for the general vibrations. An admissible exposure for 1 day and for 1 year work for the separate tractors is determined in relation to the data for general and local vibrations and individual hour engagement. PMID:2099465
Seminar on Understanding Digital Control and Analysis in Vibration Test Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1975-01-01
The advantages of the digital methods over the analog vibration methods are demonstrated. The following topics are covered: (1) methods of computer-controlled random vibration and reverberation acoustic testing, (2) methods of computer-controlled sinewave vibration testing, and (3) methods of computer-controlled shock testing. General algorithms are described in the form of block diagrams and flow diagrams.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckenzie, R. L.
1976-01-01
A semiclassical model of the inelastic collision between a vibrationally excited anharmonic oscillator and a structureless atom is used to predict the variation of thermally averaged vibrational-translational rate coefficients with temperature and initial-state quantum number. Multiple oscillator states are included in a numerical solution for collinear encounters. The results are compared with CO-He experimental values for both ground and excited initial states using several simplified forms of the interaction potential. The numerical model is also used as a basis for evaluating several less complete, but analytic, models. Two computationally simple analytic approximations are found that successfully reproduce the numerical rate coefficients for a wide range of molecular properties and collision partners. Their limitations are identified, and the relative rates of multiple-quantum transitions from excited states are evaluated for several molecular types.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mckenzie, R. L.
1975-01-01
A semiclassical model of the inelastic collision between a vibrationally excited anharmonic oscillator and a structureless atom was used to predict the variation of thermally averaged vibration-translation rate coefficients with temperature and initial-state quantum number. Multiple oscillator states were included in a numerical solution for collinear encounters. The results are compared with CO-He experimental values for both ground and excited initial states using several simplified forms of the interaction potential. The numerical model was also used as a basis for evaluating several less complete but analytic models. Two computationally simple analytic approximations were found that successfully reproduced the numerical rate coefficients for a wide range of molecular properties and collision partners. Their limitations were also identified. The relative rates of multiple-quantum transitions from excited states were evaluated for several molecular types.
Vibrational dynamics of the CH4·F- complex.
Wodraszka, Robert; Palma, Juliana; Manthe, Uwe
2012-11-26
Motivated by recent photodetachment experiments studying resonance structures in the transition-state region of the F + CH(4) → HF + CH(3) reaction, the vibrational dynamics of the precursor complex CH(4)·F(-) is investigated. Delocalized vibrational eigenstates of CH(4)·F(-) are computed in full dimensionality employing the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) approach and a recently developed iterative diagonalization approach for general multiwell systems. Different types of stereographic coordinates are used, and a corresponding general N-body kinetic energy operator is given. The calculated tunneling splittings of the ground and the lower vibrational excited states of the CH(4)·F(-) complex do not significantly exceed 1 cm(-1). Comparing the converged MCTDH results for localized vibrational excitations with existing results obtained by normal-mode-based (truncated) vibrational configuration interaction calculations, significantly lower frequencies are found for excitations in the intermolecular modes. PMID:22731911
Intramolecular vibrational dephasing obeys a power law at intermediate times
Gruebele, M.
1998-01-01
Experimental intramolecular vibrational dephasing transients for several large organic molecules are reanalyzed. Fits to the experimental data, as well as full numerical quantum calculations with a factorized potential surface for all active degrees of freedom of fluorene indicate that power law decays, not exponentials, occur at intermediate times. The results support a proposal that power law decays describe vibrational dephasing dynamics in large molecules at intermediate times because of the local nature of energy flow. PMID:9600900
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozhevnikov, I. F.
2012-03-01
We investigate vibrations of an unloaded and loaded tyre rolling at constant speed without slipping in the contact area. A previously proposed analytical model of a reinforced tyre is considered. The surface of the tyre is represented by flexible tread, combined with parts of two tori (sidewalls of the tyre). The contact between the wheel and the ground plane occurs by the part of the tread. The natural frequencies (NF) and mode shapes (MS) are determined analytically for unloaded tyre and numerically for loaded tyre. The results were compared with experiments for the non-rotating tyre. In the case of loaded rotating tyre, the increasing of the angular velocity of rotation implies that NF decrease. Moreover, a phenomenon of frequency loci veering is visible here: NF as functions of angular velocity approach each other and then veer away instead of crossing. The MS interact in veering region and, as a result, interchange.
Flow-induced vibration of a steam control valve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yonezawa, Koichi; Ogawa, Ryohei; Ogi, Kanako; Takino, Tomofumi; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu; Endo, Takahide; Tezuka, Kenichi; Morita, Ryo; Inada, Fumio
2012-11-01
Main steam control valves in power plants are required to operate underwide ranges of valve openings and pressure ratios. In the present paper, experimental and numerical investigations are conducted using rigid and flexible valve head supports to clarify the mechanisms of valve head vibrations that are caused by unsteady flows around the valve. The results obtained using the rigid support without valve head vibration show that the unsteady flow around the valve head causes pressure fluctuations on the valve head surface with random and impulsive wave forms. When using the flexible support, the valve head vibrates near the natural frequency of the valve head support system, and vibrations are excited around the operating conditions where the pressure fluctuation becomes greater when using the rigidly supported valve head. When the valve head vibration increases, the pressure fluctuation becomes periodic with the same frequency as the valve head vibration. The numerical results show that the response of the separated jet lags behind the valve head motion. As a result, the lateral fluid force adds negative damping on the vibration on the valve head.
Transverse Vibrations of Single Bellows Expansion Joint Restrained Against Rotation
Kameswara, Rao C.; Radhakrishna, M.
2002-07-01
The paper presents the results of investigation of transverse vibrations of single bellows expansion joint restrained against rotation on either end. A theoretical model is developed based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and includes added mass of the fluid flowing inside the pipe-bellow-pipe assembly. Neglecting effects of shear and rotary inertia an exact frequency equation is derived for the transverse vibrations of single bellows expansion joint including the effects of end elastic restraints against rotation. Numerical results are presented for an example bellow showing the effects of variation of elastic restraints and internal pressure on the first four modes of vibration. (authors)
Transverse Vibrations of Double Bellows Expansion Joint Restrained Against Rotation
Kameswara, Rao C.; Radhakrishna, M.
2002-07-01
The paper presents the results of investigation of transverse vibrations of double bellows expansion joint restrained against rotation on either end. A theoretical model is developed based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and includes added mass of the fluid flowing inside the pipe-bellow-pipe assembly. Neglecting effect of shear, an exact frequency equation is derived for the transverse vibrations of double bellows expansion joint including the effects of end elastic restraints against rotation. Numerical results are presented for an example bellow showing the effects of variation of elastic restraints and internal pressure on the first two modes of vibration. (authors)
Vibration suppression in MEMS devices using electrostatic forces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haddad Khodaparast, Hamed; Madinei, Hadi; Friswell, Michael I.; Adhikari, Sondipon
2016-04-01
This paper investigates the use of electrostatic forces for vibration control of MEMS devices. A micro beam subject to electrostatic loading is considered. The electrostatic forces cause softening nonlinearity and their amplitudes are proportional to the square of applied DC voltages. An optimization problem is set up to minimize the vibration level of the micro-beam at given excitation frequencies. A new method based on incrementing nonlinear control parameters of the system and Harmonic Balance is used to obtain the required DC voltages that suppress unwanted vibration of the micro-beam. The results are illustrated using numerical simulations
Attosecond Probing of Vibrational Dynamics with High-Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lein, Manfred
2005-02-01
The numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for vibrating hydrogen molecules in few-cycle laser pulses shows that high-harmonic generation is sensitive to the laser-induced vibrational motion. More intense harmonics are generated in heavier isotopes, the difference increasing with the harmonic frequency. Analytical theory reveals a dependence of the harmonics on the vibrational autocorrelation function. With the help of a genetic algorithm, the nuclear motion can be reconstructed from the harmonic spectra with sub-fs time resolution.
Coupling analysis of linear vibration energy harvesting systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Watkins, Simon
2016-03-01
This paper has disclosed the relationship of vibration energy harvester performance with dimensionless force factor. Numerical ranges of the dimensionless force factor have been defined for cases of weak, moderate and strong coupling. The relationships of coupling loss factor, dimensionless force factor, critical coupling strength, coupling quotient, electro-mechanical coupling factor, damping loss factor and modal densities have been established in linear vibration energy harvester systems. The new contribution of this paper is to determine a frequency range where the vibration energy harvesting systems are in a weak coupling and the statistical energy analysis is applicable.
Dissipative surface stress effects on free vibrations of nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasheminejad, Seyyed M.; Gheshlaghi, Behnam
2010-12-01
A dissipative surface stress model is adopted to study the effect of size-dependent surface dissipation on natural frequencies of vibrating elastic nanowires (NWs). Euler-Bernoulli beam theory along with the classic Zener model for interior friction in the presence of an initial surface tension [C. Zener, Elasticity and Anelasticity of Metals (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1948)] are employed to derive a fifth order differential equation of motion describing the flexural vibrations of the NW. Numerical results include the natural frequencies of vibration for selected nanowire lengths ranging from nanometers to microns, for three common boundary conditions: simply supported, cantilever, and fully clamped.
Robert A. Houze, Jr.
2013-11-13
We examined cloud radar data in monsoon climates, using cloud radars at Darwin in the Australian monsoon, on a ship in the Bay of Bengal in the South Asian monsoon, and at Niamey in the West African monsoon. We followed on with a more in-depth study of the continental MCSs over West Africa. We investigated whether the West African anvil clouds connected with squall line MCSs passing over the Niamey ARM site could be simulated in a numerical model by comparing the observed anvil clouds to anvil structures generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model at high resolution using six different ice-phase microphysical schemes. We carried out further simulations with a cloud-resolving model forced by sounding network budgets over the Niamey region and over the northern Australian region. We have devoted some of the effort of this project to examining how well satellite data can determine the global breadth of the anvil cloud measurements obtained at the ARM ground sites. We next considered whether satellite data could be objectively analyzed to so that their large global measurement sets can be systematically related to the ARM measurements. Further differences were detailed between the land and ocean MCS anvil clouds by examining the interior structure of the anvils with the satellite-detected the CloudSat Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR). The satellite survey of anvil clouds in the Indo-Pacific region was continued to determine the role of MCSs in producing the cloud pattern associated with the MJO.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.
2016-01-01
In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…
Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.
1981-01-01
Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.
Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.
1981-09-01
Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.
Continuous Vibrational Cooling of Ground State Rb2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tallant, Jonathan; Marcassa, Luis
2014-05-01
The process of photoassociation generally results in a distribution of vibrational levels in the electronic ground state that is energetically close to the dissociation limit. Several schemes have appeared that aim to transfer the population from the higher vibrational levels to lower ones, especially the ground vibrational state. We demonstrate continuous production of vibrationally cooled Rb2 using optical pumping. The vibrationally cooled molecules are produced in three steps. First, we use a dedicated photoassociation laser to produce molecules in high vibrational levels of the X1Σg+ state. Second, a broadband fiber laser at 1071 nm is used to transfer the molecules to lower vibrational levels via optical pumping through the A1Σu+ state. This process transfers the molecules from vibrational levels around ν ~= 113 to a distribution of levels where ν < 35. The molecules may then be further cooled using a broadband superluminescent diode near 685 nm that has its frequency spectrum shaped. The resulting vibrational distributions are probed using resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization with a pulsed dye laser near 670 nm. The results are presented and compared with theoretical simulations. This work was supported by Fapesp and INCT-IQ.
Vibration damage mechanism analysis on rotor of diesel generating set with rigid coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bing; Shi, Weizhen; Hua, Chunrong; Liu, Jingming; Dong, Dawei; Chen, Jun
2015-07-01
The crankshaft output end is generally connected with generator rotor through the coupling in diesel generating set. When using rigid coupling, the attachments and connecting parts of generator rotor (especially at larger gyration radius) are vulnerable to fatigue damage even if the vibration level of the generating set does not exceed the acceptable “usual value”. In order to investigate the reasons, the torsional vibration of the rotor in the diesel generating set was calculated and measured in this paper, which shows that using high rigidity coupling would result in large torsional vibration on the generator rotor, and that the linear vibration (the tangential vibration) value induced by torsional vibration at larger gyration radius of generator motor is almost the same as the vibration level of the generating set. Then, the vibration level of generating set was obtained, and the maximum vibration velocities of the generator are below the permissible value regulated by ISO 8528-9. But the velocities of synthetic vibration of the generating set vibration and the linear vibration induced by torsional vibration at larger gyration radius are much higher than permissible value 2(28mm/s) regulated by ISO 8528-9, which may be the reason of the mechanical damage of the attachments and connecting parts at larger gyration radius of generator motor caused by exceeded vibration.
Xu, Bin; Zhou, Yang; Zou, Degao
2014-01-01
After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Zipingpu concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD) was found slabs dislocation between different stages slabs and the maximum value reached 17 cm. This is a new damage pattern and did not occur in previous seismic damage investigation. Slabs dislocation will affect the seepage control system of the CFRD gravely and even the safety of the dam. Therefore, investigations of the slabs dislocation's mechanism and development might be meaningful to the engineering design of the CFRD. In this study, based on the previous studies by the authors, the slabs dislocation phenomenon of the Zipingpu CFRD was investigated. The procedure and constitutive model of materials used for finite element analysis are consistent. The water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints were among major variables of investigation. The results indicated that the finite element procedure based on a modified generalized plasticity model and a perfect elastoplastic interface model can be used to evaluate the dislocation damage of face slabs of concrete faced rockfill dam during earthquake. The effects of the water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints are issues of major design concern under seismic loading. PMID:25013857
Xu, Bin; Zou, Degao
2014-01-01
After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Zipingpu concrete faced rockfill dam (CFRD) was found slabs dislocation between different stages slabs and the maximum value reached 17 cm. This is a new damage pattern and did not occur in previous seismic damage investigation. Slabs dislocation will affect the seepage control system of the CFRD gravely and even the safety of the dam. Therefore, investigations of the slabs dislocation's mechanism and development might be meaningful to the engineering design of the CFRD. In this study, based on the previous studies by the authors, the slabs dislocation phenomenon of the Zipingpu CFRD was investigated. The procedure and constitutive model of materials used for finite element analysis are consistent. The water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints were among major variables of investigation. The results indicated that the finite element procedure based on a modified generalized plasticity model and a perfect elastoplastic interface model can be used to evaluate the dislocation damage of face slabs of concrete faced rockfill dam during earthquake. The effects of the water elevation, the angel, and the strength of the construction joints are issues of major design concern under seismic loading. PMID:25013857
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramachandran, Narayanan
2000-01-01
Normal vibrational modes on large spacecraft are excited by crew activity, operating machinery, and other mechanical disturbances. Periodic engine burns for maintaining vehicle attitude and random impulse type disturbances also contribute to the acceleration environment of a Spacecraft. Accelerations from these vibrations (often referred to as g-jitter) are several orders of magnitude larger than the residual accelerations from atmospheric drag and gravity gradient effects. Naturally, the effects of such accelerations have been a concern to prospective experimenters wishing to take advantage of the microgravity environment offered by spacecraft operating in low Earth orbit and the topic has been studied extensively, both numerically and analytically. However, these studies have not produced a general theory that predicts the effects of multi-spectral periodic accelerations on a general class of experiments nor have they produced scaling laws that a prospective experimenter could use to assess how his/her experiment might be affected by this acceleration environment. Furthermore, there are no actual flight experimental data that correlates heat or mass transport with measurements of the periodic acceleration environment. The present investigation approaches this problem with carefully conducted terrestrial experiments and rigorous numerical modeling thereby providing comparative theoretical and experimental data. The modeling, it is hoped will provide a predictive tool that can be used for assessing experiment response to Spacecraft vibrations.
Vibration suppression of advanced space cryocoolers: an overview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Ronald G., Jr.
2003-07-01
Mechanical cryocoolers represent a significant enabling technology for precision space instruments by providing cryogenic temperatures for sensitive infrared, gamma-ray, and x-ray detectors. However, the vibration generated by the cryocooler's refrigeration compressor has long been identified as a critical integration issue. The key sensitivity is the extent to which the cooler's vibration harmonics excite spacecraft resonances and prevent on-board sensors from achieving their operational goals with respect to resolution and pointing accuracy. To reduce the cryocooler's vibration signature to acceptable levels, a variety of active vibration suppression technologies have been developed and implemented over the past 15 years. At this point, nearly all space cryocoolers have active vibration suppression systems built into their drive electronics that reduce the peak unbalanced forces to less than 1% of their original levels. Typical systems of today individually control the vibration in each of the cryocoolers lowest drive harmonics, with some controlling as many as 16 harmonics. A second vibration issue associated with cryocoolers is surviving launch. Here the same pistons and coldfingers that generate vibration during operation are often the most critical elements in terms of surviving high input acceleration levels. Since electrical power is generally not available during launch, passive vibration suppression technologies have been developed. Common vibration damping techniques include electrodynamic braking via shorted motor coils and the use of particle dampers on sensitive cryogenic elements. This paper provides an overview of the vibration characteristics of typical linear-drive space cryocoolers, outlines their history of development, and presents typical performance of the various active and passive vibration suppression systems being used.
Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters
Pugliano, N.
1992-11-01
The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm[sup [minus]1] intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d[sub 4]. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K[sub a][double prime]=0 and terminate in either K[sub a][prime]=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A[prime] rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K[sub a][prime] quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a[prime] symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the [nu][sub 12] acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D[sub 2]O-DOH isotopomer.
Vibration-rotation-tunneling dynamics in small water clusters
Pugliano, N.
1992-11-01
The goal of this work is to characterize the intermolecular vibrations of small water clusters. Using tunable far infrared laser absorption spectroscopy, large amplitude vibration-rotation-tunneling (VRT) dynamics in vibrationally excited states of the water dimer and the water trimer are investigated. This study begins with the measurement of 12 VRT subbands, consisting of approximately 230 transitions, which are assigned to an 82.6 cm{sup {minus}1} intermolecular vibration of the water dimer-d{sub 4}. Each of the VRT subbands originate from K{sub a}{double_prime}=0 and terminate in either K{sub a}{prime}=0 or 1. These data provide a complete characterization of the tunneling dynamics in the vibrationally excited state as well as definitive symmetry labels for all VRT energy levels. Furthermore, an accurate value for the A{prime} rotational constant is found to agree well with its corresponding ground state value. All other excited state rotational constants are fitted, and discussed in terms of the corresponding ground state constants. In this vibration, the quantum tunneling motions are determined to exhibit large dependencies with both the K{sub a}{prime} quantum number and the vibrational coordinate, as is evidenced by the measured tunneling splittings. The generalized internal-axis-method treatment which has been developed to model the tunneling dynamics, is considered for the qualitative description of each tunneling pathway, however, the variation of tunneling splittings with vibrational excitation indicate that the high barrier approximation does not appear to be applicable for this vibrational coordinate. The data are consistent with a motion possessing a{prime} symmetry, and the vibration is assigned as the {nu}{sub 12} acceptor bending coordinate. This assignment is in agreement with the vibrational symmetry, the resultsof high level ab initio calculations, and preliminary data assigned to the analogous vibration in the D{sub 2}O-DOH isotopomer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, BinQiang; Zhang, ZhouSuo; Zi, YanYang; He, ZhengJia; Sun, Chuang
2013-10-01
Detecting transient vibration signatures is of vital importance for vibration-based condition monitoring and fault detection of the rotating machinery. However, raw mechanical signals collected by vibration sensors are generally mixtures of physical vibrations of the multiple mechanical components installed in the examined machinery. Fault-generated incipient vibration signatures masked by interfering contents are difficult to be identified. The fast kurtogram (FK) is a concise and smart gadget for characterizing these vibration features. The multi-rate filter-bank (MRFB) and the spectral kurtosis (SK) indicator of the FK are less powerful when strong interfering vibration contents exist, especially when the FK are applied to vibration signals of short duration. It is encountered that the impulsive interfering contents not authentically induced by mechanical faults complicate the optimal analyzing process and lead to incorrect choosing of the optimal analysis subband, therefore the original FK may leave out the essential fault signatures. To enhance the analyzing performance of FK for industrial applications, an improved version of fast kurtogram, named as "fast spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis kurtogram", is presented. In the proposed technique, discrete quasi-analytic wavelet tight frame (QAWTF) expansion methods are incorporated as the detection filters. The QAWTF, constructed based on dual tree complex wavelet transform, possesses better vibration transient signature extracting ability and enhanced time-frequency localizability compared with conventional wavelet packet transforms (WPTs). Moreover, in the constructed QAWTF, a non-dyadic ensemble wavelet subband generating strategy is put forward to produce extra wavelet subbands that are capable of identifying fault features located in transition-band of WPT. On the other hand, an enhanced signal impulsiveness evaluating indicator, named "spatial-spectral ensemble kurtosis" (SSEK), is put forward and utilized
Focal vibration in neurorehabilitation.
Murillo, N; Valls-Sole, J; Vidal, J; Opisso, E; Medina, J; Kumru, H
2014-04-01
During the last decade, many studies have been carried out to understand the effects of focal vibratory stimuli at various levels of the central nervous system and to study pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders as well as the therapeutic effects of focal vibration in neurorehabilitation. This review aimed to describe the effects of focal vibratory stimuli in neurorehabilitation including the neurological diseases or disorders like stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's' disease and dystonia. In conclusion, focal vibration stimulation is well tolerated, effective and easy to use, and it could be used to reduce spasticity, to promote motor activity and motor learning within a functional activity, even in gait training, independent from etiology of neurological pathology. Further studies are needed in the future well-designed trials with bigger sample size to determine the most effective frequency, amplitude and duration of vibration application in the neurorehabilitation. PMID:24842220
Gray, D.C.; Tillery, M.I.
1981-09-01
A Government Accounting Office review of coal mine dust sampling procedures recommended studies be performed to determine accuracy and precision of dust measurements taken with current equipment. The effects of vibration on the 10-mm Dorr-Oliver nylon cyclone run at a flow rate of 2 L/min were investigated. A total of 271 samples were taken during 95 tests. All tests lasted about 7 h each and were performed inside a 19 l capacity aerosol chamber. Coal dust concentrations of about 2 mg/m/SUP/3 in air and a respirable fraction of 25-30% were used. The effects of a variety of vibration frequencies and stroke lengths were tested in two modes (horizontal and vertical). At most frequencies and stroke lengths, vibration was found to have an insignificant effect on cyclone performance.
Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.
1995-01-10
A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.
Dooley, Joseph B.; Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Tobin, Kenneth W.
1995-01-01
A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.
Externally tuned vibration absorber
Vincent, Ronald J.
1987-09-22
A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.
Vortex-induced vibrations under oblique shedding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bourguet, Remi; Karniadakis, George; Triantafyllou, Michael
2014-11-01
A slender flexible body with bluff cross-section placed at normal incidence within a current may be subjected to vortex-induced vibrations (VIV). In practical applications, the structures (e.g. marine risers, towing cables) are often inclined with respect to the direction of the oncoming flow, sometimes at large angles. The vibrations that may appear in such configurations are investigated in the present work on the basis of direct numerical simulation results. We find that a flexible cylinder inclined at 80 degrees exhibits regular large-amplitude vibrations and that the structural responses are excited under the lock-in condition, i.e. synchronization between body oscillation and vortex formation, which is the central mechanism of VIV. We show that the lock-in condition may involve parallel vortex shedding, where the vortex rows are aligned with the body axis, but also oblique vortex shedding patterns. The excited structural wavenumber and the spanwise wavenumber of the obliquely shed vortices coincide; therefore, the flexible structure and the wake are locked both temporally and spatially. In addition, we find that the VIV occurring under oblique shedding may reach very high frequencies compared to the vibrations observed under parallel shedding.
Vibration damping for the Segmented Mirror Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maly, Joseph R.; Yingling, Adam J.; Griffin, Steven F.; Agrawal, Brij N.; Cobb, Richard G.; Chambers, Trevor S.
2012-09-01
The Segmented Mirror Telescope (SMT) at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey is a next-generation deployable telescope, featuring a 3-meter 6-segment primary mirror and advanced wavefront sensing and correction capabilities. In its stowed configuration, the SMT primary mirror segments collapse into a small volume; once on location, these segments open to the full 3-meter diameter. The segments must be very accurately aligned after deployment and the segment surfaces are actively controlled using numerous small, embedded actuators. The SMT employs a passive damping system to complement the actuators and mitigate the effects of low-frequency (<40 Hz) vibration modes of the primary mirror segments. Each of the six segments has three or more modes in this bandwidth, and resonant vibration excited by acoustics or small disturbances on the structure can result in phase mismatches between adjacent segments thereby degrading image quality. The damping system consists of two tuned mass dampers (TMDs) for each of the mirror segments. An adjustable TMD with passive magnetic damping was selected to minimize sensitivity to changes in temperature; both frequency and damping characteristics can be tuned for optimal vibration mitigation. Modal testing was performed with a laser vibrometry system to characterize the SMT segments with and without the TMDs. Objectives of this test were to determine operating deflection shapes of the mirror and to quantify segment edge displacements; relative alignment of λ/4 or better was desired. The TMDs attenuated the vibration amplitudes by 80% and reduced adjacent segment phase mismatches to acceptable levels.
Vibrational spectroscopy of resveratrol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billes, Ferenc; Mohammed-Ziegler, Ildikó; Mikosch, Hans; Tyihák, Ernő
2007-11-01
In this article the authors deal with the experimental and theoretical interpretation of the vibrational spectra of trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy- trans-stilbene) of diverse beneficial biological activity. Infrared and Raman spectra of the compound were recorded; density functional calculations were carried out resulting in the optimized geometry and several properties of the molecule. Based on the calculated force constants, a normal coordinate analysis yielded the character of the vibrational modes and the assignment of the measured spectral bands.
Active damping of modal vibrations by force apportioning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hallauer, W. L., Jr.
1980-01-01
Force apportioning, a method of active structural damping based on that used in modal vibration testing of isolating modes by multiple shaker excitation, was analyzed and numerically simulated. A distribution of as few forces as possible on the structure is chosen so as to maximally affect selected vibration modes while minimally exciting all other modes. The accuracy of numerical simulations of active damping, active damping of higher-frequency modes, and studies of imperfection sensitivity are discussed. The computer programs developed are described and possible refinements of the research are examined.
Hydrogen Bonds and Vibrations of Water on (110) Rutile
Kumar, Nitin; Neogi, Sanghamitra; Kent, Paul R; Bandura, Andrei V.; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Sofo, Jorge O.
2009-01-01
We study the relation between hydrogen bonding and the vibrational frequency spectra of water on the (110) surface of rutile (α-TiO2) with three structural layers of adsorbed water. Using ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations at 280, 300 and 320K, we find strong, crystallographically-controlled adsorption sites, in general agreement with synchrotron X-ray and classical MD simulations. We demonstrate that these sites are produced by strong hydrogen bonds formed between the surface oxygen atoms and sorbed water molecules. The strength of these bonds is manifested by substantial broadening of the stretching mode vibrational band. The overall vibrational spectrum obtained from our simulations is in good agreement with inelastic neutron scattering experiments. We correlate the vibrational spectrum with different bonds at the surface in order to transform these vibrational measurements into a spectroscopy of surface interactions.
Fault diagnosis of planetary gearboxes via torsional vibration signal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhipeng; Zuo, Ming J.
2013-04-01
Torsional vibration signals are theoretically free from the amplitude modulation effect caused by time variant vibration transfer paths due to the rotation of planet carrier and sun gear, and therefore their spectral structure are simpler than transverse vibration signals. Thus, it is potentially easy and effective to diagnose planetary gearbox faults via torsional vibration signal analysis. We give explicit equations to model torsional vibration signals, considering both distributed gear faults (like manufacturing or assembly errors) and local gear faults (like pitting, crack or breakage of one tooth), and derive the characteristics of both the traditional Fourier spectrum and the proposed demodulated spectra of amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency. These derivations are not only effective to diagnose single gear fault of planetary gearboxes, but can also be generalized to detect and locate multiple gear faults. We validate experimentally the signal models, as well as the Fourier spectral analysis and demodulation analysis methods.
Vibration Propagation in Spider Webs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatton, Ross; Otto, Andrew; Elias, Damian
Due to their poor eyesight, spiders rely on web vibrations for situational awareness. Web-borne vibrations are used to determine the location of prey, predators, and potential mates. The influence of web geometry and composition on web vibrations is important for understanding spider's behavior and ecology. Past studies on web vibrations have experimentally measured the frequency response of web geometries by removing threads from existing webs. The full influence of web structure and tension distribution on vibration transmission; however, has not been addressed in prior work. We have constructed physical artificial webs and computer models to better understand the effect of web structure on vibration transmission. These models provide insight into the propagation of vibrations through the webs, the frequency response of the bare web, and the influence of the spider's mass and stiffness on the vibration transmission patterns. Funded by NSF-1504428.
Vibration analysis of annular-like plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, L.; Li, Y. Y.; Yam, L. H.
2003-05-01
The existence of eccentricity of the central hole for an annular plate results in a significant change in the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, the vibration analysis of annular-like plates is presented based on numerical and experimental approaches. Using the finite element analysis code Nastran, the effects of the eccentricity, hole size and boundary condition on vibration modes are investigated systematically through both global and local analyses. The results show that analyses for perfect symmetric conditions can still roughly predict the mode shapes of "recessive" modes of the plate with a slightly eccentric hole. They will, however, lead to erroneous results for "dominant" modes. In addition, the residual displacement mode shape is verified as an effective parameter for identifying damage occurring in plate-like structures. Experimental modal analysis on a clamped-free annular-like plate is performed, and the results obtained reveal good agreement with those obtained by numerical analysis. This study provides guidance on modal analysis, vibration measurement and damage detection of plate-like structures.
Vibration-free stirling cryocooler for high definition microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riabzev, S. V.; Veprik, A. M.; Vilenchik, H. S.; Pundak, N.; Castiel, E.
2009-12-01
The normal operation of high definition Scanning Electronic and Helium Ion microscope tools often relies on maintaining particular components at cryogenic temperatures. This has traditionally been accomplished by using liquid coolants such as liquid Nitrogen. This inherently limits the useful temperature range to above 77 K, produces various operational hazards and typically involves elevated ownership costs, inconvenient logistics and maintenance. Mechanical coolers, over-performing the above traditional method and capable of delivering required (even below 77 K) cooling to the above cooled components, have been well-known elsewhere for many years, but their typical drawbacks, such as high purchasing cost, cooler size, low reliability and high power consumption have so far prevented their wide-spreading. Additional critical drawback is inevitable degradation of imagery performance originated from the wideband vibration export as typical for the operation of the mechanical cooler incorporating numerous movable components. Recent advances in the development of reliable, compact, reasonably priced and dynamically quiet linear cryogenic coolers gave rise to so-called "dry cooling" technologies aimed at eventually replacing the traditional use of outdated liquid Nitrogen cooling facilities. Although much improved these newer cryogenic coolers still produce relatively high vibration export which makes them incompatible with modern high definition microscopy tools. This has motivated further research activity towards developing a vibration free closed-cycle mechanical cryocooler. The authors have successfully adapted the standard low vibration Stirling cryogenic refrigerator (Ricor model K535-LV) delivering 5 W@40 K heat lift for use in vibration-sensitive high definition microscopy. This has been achieved by using passive mechanical counterbalancing of the main portion of the low frequency vibration export in combination with an active feed-forward multi
Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Isayeva, Elena V.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.
2014-12-21
The second-order vibrational Hamiltonian of a semi-rigid polyatomic molecule when resonances are present can be reduced to a quasi-diagonal form using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. Obtaining exact vibrational energy levels requires subsequent numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix including the first- and second-order resonance coupling coefficients. While the first-order Fermi resonance constants can be easily calculated, the evaluation of the second-order Darling-Dennison constants requires more complicated algebra for seven individual cases with different numbers of creation-annihilation vibrational quanta. The difficulty in precise evaluation of the Darling-Dennison coefficients is associated with the previously unrecognized interference with simultaneously present Fermi resonances that affect the form of the canonically transformed Hamiltonian. For the first time, we have presented the correct form of the general expression for the evaluation of the Darling-Dennison constants that accounts for the underlying effect of Fermi resonances. The physically meaningful criteria for selecting both Fermi and Darling-Dennison resonances are discussed and illustrated using numerical examples.
Modeling and dynamic properties of dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture vibration isolator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, F. S.; Chen, Q.; Zhou, J. H.
2016-07-01
The dual-chamber solid and liquid mixture (SALiM) vibration isolator, mainly proposed for vibration isolation of heavy machines with low frequency, consists of four principle parts: SALiM working media including elastic elements and incompressible oil, multi-layers bellows container, rigid reservoir and the oil tube connecting the two vessels. The isolation system under study is governed by a two-degrees-of-freedom (2-DOF) nonlinear equation including quadratic damping. Simplifying the nonlinear damping into viscous damping, the equivalent stiffness and damping model is derived from the equation for the response amplitude. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation reveal that the isolator's stiffness and damping have multiple properties with different parameters, among which the effects of exciting frequency, vibrating amplitude, quadratic damping coefficient and equivalent stiffness of the two chambers on the isolator's dynamics are discussed in depth. Based on the boundary characteristics of stiffness and damping and the main causes for stiffness hardening effect, improvement strategies are proposed to obtain better dynamic properties. At last, experiments were implemented and the test results were generally consistent with the theoretical ones, which verified the reliability of the nonlinear dynamic model.
Zhao, Xin; Geng, Qian; Li, Yueming
2013-03-01
This paper is a study of the vibration and acoustic response characteristics of orthotropic laminated composite plate with simple supported boundary conditions excited by a harmonic concentrated force in a hygroscopic environment. First the natural vibration of the plate with the in-plane forces induced by hygroscopic stress is obtained analytically. Secondly, the sound pressure distribution of the plate at the far field is obtained using the Rayleigh integral. Furthermore, the sound radiation efficiency is deduced. Third, different ratios of elastic modulus in material principal directions are set to research the effects of increasing stiffness of the orthotropic plate on the vibration and acoustic radiation characteristics. Finally, to verify the theoretical solution, numerical simulations are also carried out with commercial finite software. It is found that the natural frequencies decrease with the increase of the moisture content and the first two order modes interconvert at high moisture content. The dynamic response and sound pressure level float to lower frequencies with elevated moisture content. Acoustic radiation efficiency generally floats to the low frequencies and decreases with an increase of moisture content. The dynamic and acoustic responses reduce and the coincidence frequency decreases with the enhanced stiffness. PMID:23464015
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leissa, A. W.
1973-01-01
The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.
Moore, Craig D.; Johnson, Todd; Martens, Mike; Syphers, Mike; McCrory, E.; McGee, Mike; Reilly, Rob; /Fermilab
1999-08-01
This is an attempt to document some of the measurements and analysis relating to the modulation of the spill due to the vibration of the magnets in the new C0 area. Not all of the relevant graphs were saved at the time, however an attempt has been made to show representative illustrations albeit not in the proper chronological order.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)
2014-01-01
A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.
Polyatomic molecule vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Polyatomic molecule vibrations are analyzed as harmonic vibrations along normal coordinates. The energy eigenvalues are found for linear and nonlinear symmetric triatomic molecules for valence bond models of the potential function with arbitrary coupling coefficients; such models can usually be fitted to observed energy levels with reasonably good accuracy. Approximate normal coordinates for the H2O molecule are discussed. Degenerate vibrational modes such as occur in CO2 are analyzed and expressions for Fermi resonance between close-lying states of the same symmetry are developed. The bending modes of linear triatomic molecules are expressed in terms of Laguerre polynomials in cylindrical coordinates as well as in terms of Hermite polynomials in Cartesian coordinates. The effects of large-amplitude bending such as occur in the C3 molecule are analyzed, along with anharmonic effects, which split the usually degenerate bending mode energy levels. Finally, the vibrational frequencies, degeneracies, and symmetry properties of XY3, X2Y2, and XY4 type molecules are discussed.
Blade Vibration Measurement System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platt, Michael J.
2014-01-01
The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.
Nonlinear vibrational microscopy
Holtom, Gary R.; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Zumbusch, Andreas
2000-01-01
The present invention is a method and apparatus for microscopic vibrational imaging using coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering or Sum Frequency Generation. Microscopic imaging with a vibrational spectroscopic contrast is achieved by generating signals in a nonlinear optical process and spatially resolved detection of the signals. The spatial resolution is attained by minimizing the spot size of the optical interrogation beams on the sample. Minimizing the spot size relies upon a. directing at least two substantially co-axial laser beams (interrogation beams) through a microscope objective providing a focal spot on the sample; b. collecting a signal beam together with a residual beam from the at least two co-axial laser beams after passing through the sample; c. removing the residual beam; and d. detecting the signal beam thereby creating said pixel. The method has significantly higher spatial resolution then IR microscopy and higher sensitivity than spontaneous Raman microscopy with much lower average excitation powers. CARS and SFG microscopy does not rely on the presence of fluorophores, but retains the resolution and three-dimensional sectioning capability of confocal and two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Complementary to these techniques, CARS and SFG microscopy provides a contrast mechanism based on vibrational spectroscopy. This vibrational contrast mechanism, combined with an unprecedented high sensitivity at a tolerable laser power level, provides a new approach for microscopic investigations of chemical and biological samples.
High-Temperature Vibration Damper
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Alan; Litwin, Joel; Krauss, Harold
1987-01-01
Device for damping vibrations functions at temperatures up to 400 degrees F. Dampens vibrational torque loads as high as 1,000 lb-in. but compact enough to be part of helicopter rotor hub. Rotary damper absorbs energy from vibrating rod, dissipating it in turbulent motion of viscous hydraulic fluid forced by moving vanes through small orifices.
Vibration characteristics of ultrasonic complex vibration for hole machining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru
2012-05-01
Complex vibration sources that use diagonal slits as a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter have been applied to ultrasonic motors, ultrasonic rock drilling, and ultrasonic welding. However, there are few examples of the application of these sources to ultrasonic machining in combination with an abrasive. Accordingly, a new method has been developed for machining of holes in brittle materials by using the ultrasonic longitudinal and torsional vibration of a hollow-type stepped horn with a diagonal slit vibration converter. In this paper, we compared vibration of a uniform rod and a hollow-type stepped horn, both with diagonal slits, when the conditions of the diagonal slits are constant.
Inaudible temporomandibular joint vibrations.
Widmalm, Sven E; Bae, Hanna E K; Djurdjanovic, Dragan; McKay, Duane C
2006-07-01
The aim was to test the hypothesis that inaudible vibrations with significant amounts of energy increasing during jaw movements can be recorded in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area. Twenty one subjects, who could perform wide opening movements without feeling discomfort, 12 with and 9 without TMJ sounds audible at conventional auscultation with a stethoscope, were included. Recordings were made during opening-closing, 2/s without tooth contact, and during mandibular rest, using accelerometers with a flat frequency response between the filter cutoff frequencies 0.1 Hz and 1000 Hz. The signals were digitized using a 24 bits card and sampled with the rate 96000 Hz. Power spectral analyses, and independent and paired samples t-tests were used in the analysis of the vibration power observed in frequency bands corresponding to audible and inaudible frequencies. An alpha-level of 5% was chosen for accepting a difference as being significant. In the group with audible sounds, about 47% of the total vibration energy was in the inaudible area below 20 Hz during opening-closing and about 76% during mandibular rest. In the group without audible sounds, the corresponding proportions were significantly different, 85% vs. 69%. The energy content of the vibrations, both those below and those above 20 Hz, increased significantly during jaw movement in both groups. Furthermore, percentage of signal energy above 20 Hz showed a noticeable increase in the group of subjects with audible sounds. This can physically be explained by decreased damping properties of damaged tissues surrounding the TMJ. Vibrations in the TMJ area can be observed with significant portions in the inaudible area below 20 Hz both during mandibular rest and during jaw movements whether or not the subjects have audible joint sounds. Further studies are needed to identify sources and evaluate possible diagnostic value. PMID:16933462
Vibration analysis of large centrifugal pump rotors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Y Zhao, W.; Ge, J. G.; Ma, D.; Li, C. M.; Bao, S. B.
2013-12-01
Through the critical speed of centrifugal pumps, internal flow field and the force of the impeller, we analyze centrifugal pump vibration. Using finite element analysis software ANSYS to calculate the natural frequency of the rotor system and the critical speed; with the help of the Fluent software to simulate pump internal flow field, we conclude that speed increase will not cause intense vibration of the fluid in the pump. Using unsteady numerical simulation we discovered that in an impeller suffering transient radial force cyclical change periodically, as well as the frequency size determined by the product of the impeller speed and number of blades, resonance phenomena should make impeller to transient radial force frequency. If wanting to avoid pump resonance when it is running away, the transient radial force frequency should avoid the frequency range which can cause resonance.
Active control of vibration transmission through struts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelinescu, Ion; Balachandran, Balakumar
1998-07-01
In this work, analytical investigations into active control of longitudinal and flexural vibrations transmitted through a cylindrical strut are conducted. A mechanics based model for a strut fitted with a piezoelectric actuator is developed. For harmonic disturbances, a linear dynamic formulation describing the motion of the actuator is integrated with the formulation describing wave transmission through the strut, and the resulting system is studied in the frequency domain. Open-loop studies are conducted with the aid of numerical simulations, and the potential of active control schemes to attenuate the transmitted vibrations over the frequency range of 10 Hz to 6000 Hz is examined. The relevance of the current work to control of helicopter cabin interior noise is also discussed.
Poiseuille flow-induced vibrations of two cylinders in tandem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Jianzhong; Jiang, Renjie; Chen, Zhongli; Ku, Xiaoke
2013-07-01
Laminar flows past two tandem cylinders which are free to move transversely in a parallel-wall channel were studied numerically by the lattice Boltzmann method. With fixed Reynolds number Re=100, blockage ratio β=1/4 and structural damping ξ=0, the effect of streamwise separation between two cylinders at a range of S/D=[1.1, 10] on the motions of cylinders and fluids was studied for both mass ratios of m(*)=1 and m(*)=0.1. A variety of distinct vibration regimes involving periodic, quasi-periodic and non-periodic vibrations with corresponding flow patterns were observed. A detailed analysis of the vibration amplitudes, vibration frequencies and relative equilibrium positions for both mass ratios demonstrated that as S/D increases, the interaction of the two cylinders first enhances and then reduces. In the strong coupling regime, both cylinders oscillate periodically around the centerline of the channel with large vibration amplitudes and high vibration frequencies. By comparing with the case of an isolated cylinder, a further study indicated that the gap flow plays an important role in such a dynamic system, and the vortex cores formation behind the front cylinder causes the interaction of the cylinders decouple rapidly. Based on the present observations, such a dynamic model system can be considered as a novel type of vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) and is expected to find applications in fluid mixing and heat transfer.
Vibrational Conical Intersections: Implications for Ultrafast Vibrational Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawadi, Mahesh; Prasad Thapaliya, Bishnu; Bhatta, Ram; Perry, David
2015-03-01
The presence of conical intersections (CIs) between electronic potential energy surfaces is known to play a key role in ultrafast electronic relaxation in diverse circumstances. Recent reports have documented the existence of vibrational CIs connecting vibrationally adiabatic surfaces. Just as electronic CIs are now appreciated to be ubiquitous, controlling the rates of many photochemical processes, the present work on methanol and methyl mercaptan suggests that vibrational CIs may also be widespread, possibly controlling the outcome of some high-energy processes where vibrationally excited species are present. Other examples of vibrational CIs include the vibrational Jahn-Teller effect in C3V organic molecules and transition metal complexes. While the present work addresses only the couplings within bound molecules, the concept of vibrational CIs providing pathways for ultrafast relaxation also applies to molecular collisions. This work is supported by DOE (DEFG02-90ER14151).
Active vibration control of structures undergoing bending vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor)
1995-01-01
An active vibration control subassembly for a structure (such as a jet engine duct or a washing machine panel) undergoing bending vibrations caused by a source (such as the clothes agitator of the washing machine) independent of the subassembly. A piezoceramic actuator plate is vibratable by an applied electric AC signal. The plate is connected to the structure such that vibrations in the plate induced by the AC signal cause canceling bending vibrations in the structure and such that the plate is compressively pre-stressed along the structure when the structure is free of any bending vibrations. The compressive prestressing increases the amplitude of the canceling bending vibrations before the critical tensile stress level of the plate is reached. Preferably, a positive electric DC bias is also applied to the plate in its poling direction.
Improved estimation of random vibration loads in launch vehicles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, R.; Erwin, E.; Suryanarayan, S.; Krishna, Murali M. R.
1993-01-01
Random vibration induced load is an important component of the total design load environment for payload and launch vehicle components and their support structures. The current approach to random vibration load estimation is based, particularly at the preliminary design stage, on the use of Miles' equation which assumes a single degree-of-freedom (DOF) system and white noise excitation. This paper examines the implications of the use of multi-DOF system models and response calculation based on numerical integration using the actual excitation spectra for random vibration load estimation. The analytical study presented considers a two-DOF system and brings out the effects of modal mass, damping and frequency ratios on the random vibration load factor. The results indicate that load estimates based on the Miles' equation can be significantly different from the more accurate estimates based on multi-DOF models.
Magnetic Vibration Simulator with Magnetic Levitation for EDS Maglev
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murai, Toshiaki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Kashiwagi, Takayuki
A magnetic vibration simulator is one of the most important test tools to evaluate the basic performance of superconducting magnet (SCM) for EDS maglev. In this paper, we propose a new magnetic vibration simulator which can also suspend car and bogie mounted with the SCMs to evaluate the performance of not only SCMs but also vehicle dynamics with levitation. This system is composed of magnetic exciting coils which can simultaneously suspend and vibrate the SCMs and inverters which can simultaneously control 3-phase and zero-phase currents. This paper describes the principle, analytical method and control method of this system, and using numerical example, the vehicle dynamics and the vibration response of SCM are revealed.
Vibration suppression of composite laminated plate with nonlinear energy sink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ye-Wei; Zhang, Hao; Hou, Shuai; Xu, Ke-Fan; Chen, Li-Qun
2016-06-01
The composite laminated plate is widely used in supersonic aircraft. So, there are many researches about the vibration suppression of composite laminated plate. In this paper, nonlinear energy sink (NES) as an effective method to suppress vibration is studied. The coupled partial differential governing equations of the composite laminated plate with the nonlinear energy sink (NES) are established by using the Hamilton principle. The fourth-order Galerkin discrete method is used to truncate the partial differential equations, which are solved by numerical integration method. Meanwhile study about the precise effectiveness of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) by discussing the different installation location of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) at the same speed. The results indicate that the nonlinear energy sink (NES) can significantly suppress the severe vibration of the composite laminated plate with speed wind loadings in to protect the composite laminated plate from excessive vibration.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmalhofer, Joseph; Faghri, Amir
1993-01-01
The wall and centerline vapor temperatures and heat output are determined experimentally for a low-temperature copper-water heat pipe under uniform circumferential heating and block heating. The time required to reach a vapor temperature of 60 C from an initial ambient temperature of 21 C is determined for both modes of heating. The experimental capillary limit of the heat pipe is compared to the generalized capillary limits for block-heated pipes over a range of vapor temperatures. A three-dimensional numerical model is then developed for determining the temperature, pressure, and velocity distributions in the entire domain of a circumferentially heated and a block-heated pipe. The problem is formulated as a conjugate problem, without the assumption of a uniform vapor temperature. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.
The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration
Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.
2015-01-01
Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new
Vibration sensing method and apparatus
Barna, Basil A.
1989-04-25
A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration.
Vibration sensing method and apparatus
Barna, B.A.
1989-04-25
A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure are disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.
Vibration sensing method and apparatus
Barna, B.A.
1987-07-07
A method and apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of a structure is disclosed. Resonant audio frequency vibrations are excited in the structure to be evaluated and the vibrations are measured and characterized to obtain information about the structure. The vibrations are measured and characterized by reflecting a laser beam from the vibrating structure and directing a substantial portion of the reflected beam back into the laser device used to produce the beam which device is capable of producing an electric signal containing information about the vibration. 4 figs.
Low vibration high numerical aperture automated variable temperature Raman microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yao; Reijnders, Anjan A.; Osterhoudt, Gavin B.; Valmianski, Ilya; Ramirez, J. G.; Urban, Christian; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Gu, Genda; Henslee, Isaac; Burch, Kenneth S.
2016-04-01
Raman micro-spectroscopy is well suited for studying a variety of properties and has been applied to a wide range of areas. Combined with tuneable temperature, Raman spectra can offer even more insights into the properties of materials. However, previous designs of variable temperature Raman microscopes have made it extremely challenging to measure samples with low signal levels due to thermal and positional instabilities as well as low collection efficiencies. Thus contemporary Raman microscope has found limited applicability to probing the subtle physics involved in phase transitions and hysteresis. This paper describes a new design of a closed-cycle, Raman microscope with full polarization rotation. High collection efficiency, thermal stability, and mechanical stability are ensured by both deliberate optical, cryogenic, and mechanical design. Measurements on two samples, Bi2Se3 and V2O3, which are challenging due to low thermal conductivities, low signal levels, and/or hysteretic effects, are measured with previously undemonstrated temperature resolution.
Low vibration high numerical aperture automated variable temperature Raman microscope.
Tian, Yao; Reijnders, Anjan A; Osterhoudt, Gavin B; Valmianski, Ilya; Ramirez, J G; Urban, Christian; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John; Gu, Genda; Henslee, Isaac; Burch, Kenneth S
2016-04-01
Raman micro-spectroscopy is well suited for studying a variety of properties and has been applied to a wide range of areas. Combined with tuneable temperature, Raman spectra can offer even more insights into the properties of materials. However, previous designs of variable temperature Raman microscopes have made it extremely challenging to measure samples with low signal levels due to thermal and positional instabilities as well as low collection efficiencies. Thus contemporary Raman microscope has found limited applicability to probing the subtle physics involved in phase transitions and hysteresis. This paper describes a new design of a closed-cycle, Raman microscope with full polarization rotation. High collection efficiency, thermal stability, and mechanical stability are ensured by both deliberate optical, cryogenic, and mechanical design. Measurements on two samples, Bi2Se3 and V2O3, which are challenging due to low thermal conductivities, low signal levels, and/or hysteretic effects, are measured with previously undemonstrated temperature resolution. PMID:27131652
Low vibration high numerical aperture automated variable temperature Raman microscope
Tian, Y.; Reijnders, A. A.; Osterhoudt, G. B.; Valmianski, I.; Ramirez, J. G.; Urban, C.; Zhong, R.; Schneeloch, J.; Gu, G.; Henslee, I.; et al
2016-04-05
Raman micro-spectroscopy is well suited for studying a variety of properties and has been applied to wide- ranging areas. Combined with tuneable temperature, Raman spectra can offer even more insights into the properties of materials. However, previous designs of variable temperature Raman microscopes have made it extremely challenging to measure samples with low signal levels due to thermal and positional instability as well as low collection efficiencies. Thus, contemporary Raman microscope has found limited applicability to probing the subtle physics involved in phase transitions and hysteresis. This paper describes a new design of a closed-cycle, Raman microscope with full polarizationmore » rotation. High collection efficiency, thermal and mechanical stability are ensured by both deliberate optical, cryogenic, and mechanical design. Measurements on two samples, Bi2Se3 and V2O3, which are known as challenging due to low thermal conductivities, low signal levels and/or hysteretic effects, are measured with previously undemonstrated temperature resolution.« less
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sozio, Gerry
2009-01-01
Senior secondary students cover numerical integration techniques in their mathematics courses. In particular, students would be familiar with the "midpoint rule," the elementary "trapezoidal rule" and "Simpson's rule." This article derives these techniques by methods which secondary students may not be familiar with and an approach that…
Suppressing phase errors from vibration in phase-shifting interferometry
Deck, Leslie L.
2009-07-10
A general method for reducing the influence of vibrations in phase-shifting interferometry corrects the surface phase map through a spectral analysis of a ''phase-error pattern,'' a plot of the interference intensity versus the measured phase, for each phase-shifted image. The method is computationally fast, applicable to any phase-shifting algorithm and interferometer geometry, has few restrictions on surface shape, and unlike spatial Fourier methods, high density spatial carrier fringes are not required, although at least a fringe of phase departure is recommended. Over a 100x reduction in vibrationally induced surface distortion is achieved for small amplitude vibrations on real data.
Animal Communications Through Seismic Vibrations
Hill, Peggy
2001-05-02
Substrate vibration has been important to animals as a channel of communication for millions of years, but our literature on vibration in this context of biologically relevant information is only decades old. The jaw mechanism of the earliest land vertebrates allowed them to perceive substrate vibrations as their heads lay on the ground long before airborne sounds could be heard. Although the exact mechanism of vibration production and the precise nature of the wave produced are not always understood, recent development of affordable instrumentation to detect and measure vibrations has allowed researchers to answer increasingly sophisticated questions about how animals send and receive vibration signals. We now know that vibration provides information used in predator defense, prey detection, recruitment to food, mate choice, intrasexual competition, and maternal/brood social interactions in a variety of insect orders, spiders, crabs, scorpions, chameleons, frogs, golden moles, mole rats, kangaroos rats, wallabies, elephants and bison.
Mixed finite element models for free vibrations of thin-walled beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.; Min, Byung-Jin
1989-01-01
Simple, mixed finite element models are developed for the free vibration analysis of curved thin-walled beams with arbitrary open cross section. The analytical formulation is based on a Vlasov's type thin-walled beam theory with the effects of flexural-torsional coupling, transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia included. The fundamental unknowns consist of seven internal forces and seven generalized displacements of the beam. The element characteristic arrays are obtained by using a perturbed Lagrangian-mixed variational principle. Only C(sup o) continuity is required for the generalized displacements. The internal forces and the Lagrange multiplier are allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the high accuracy and effectiveness of the elements developed. The standard of comparison is taken to be the solutions obtained by using 2-D plate/shell models for the beams.
On vibration control of tethered satellite systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xu, D. M.; Misra, A. K.; Modi, V. J.
1983-01-01
The general dynamics of a shuttle supported tethered subsatellite system taking into account the longitudinal and three dimensional transverse vibrations is considered. It is noted that control of inherently unstable dynamics during retrieval of the subsatellite can be carried out by letting the rate of change length depend on the state variables in an appropriate manner. Control laws using linear feedback of inplane state variables and nonlinear feedback of out-of-plane state variables are proposed.
Frontiers in Numerical Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Charles R.; Finn, Lee S.; Hobill, David W.
2011-06-01
Preface; Participants; Introduction; 1. Supercomputing and numerical relativity: a look at the past, present and future David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 2. Computational relativity in two and three dimensions Stuart L. Shapiro and Saul A. Teukolsky; 3. Slowly moving maximally charged black holes Robert C. Ferrell and Douglas M. Eardley; 4. Kepler's third law in general relativity Steven Detweiler; 5. Black hole spacetimes: testing numerical relativity David H. Bernstein, David W. Hobill and Larry L. Smarr; 6. Three dimensional initial data of numerical relativity Ken-ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 7. Initial data for collisions of black holes and other gravitational miscellany James W. York, Jr.; 8. Analytic-numerical matching for gravitational waveform extraction Andrew M. Abrahams; 9. Supernovae, gravitational radiation and the quadrupole formula L. S. Finn; 10. Gravitational radiation from perturbations of stellar core collapse models Edward Seidel and Thomas Moore; 11. General relativistic implicit radiation hydrodynamics in polar sliced space-time Paul J. Schinder; 12. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics in spherically symmetric spacetimes A. Mezzacappa and R. A. Matzner; 13. Constraint preserving transport for magnetohydrodynamics John F. Hawley and Charles R. Evans; 14. Enforcing the momentum constraints during axisymmetric spacelike simulations Charles R. Evans; 15. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity Matthew W. Choptuik; 16. The multigrid technique Gregory B. Cook; 17. Finite element methods in numerical relativity P. J. Mann; 18. Pseudo-spectral methods applied to gravitational collapse Silvano Bonazzola and Jean-Alain Marck; 19. Methods in 3D numerical relativity Takashi Nakamura and Ken-ichi Oohara; 20. Nonaxisymmetric rotating gravitational collapse and gravitational radiation Richard F. Stark; 21. Nonaxisymmetric neutron star collisions: initial results using smooth particle hydrodynamics
Thermoelastic vibration test techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kehoe, Michael W.; Snyder, H. Todd
1991-01-01
The structural integrity of proposed high speed aircraft can be seriously affected by the extremely high surface temperatures and large temperature gradients throughout the vehicle's structure. Variations in the structure's elastic characteristics as a result of thermal effects can be observed by changes in vibration frequency, damping, and mode shape. Analysis codes that predict these changes must be correlated and verified with experimental data. The experimental modal test techniques and procedures used to conduct uniform, nonuniform, and transient thermoelastic vibration tests are presented. Experimental setup and elevated temperature instrumentation considerations are also discussed. Modal data for a 12 by 50 inch aluminum plate heated to a temperature of 475 F are presented. These data show the effect of heat on the plate's modal characteristics. The results indicated that frequency decreased, damping increased, and mode shape remained unchanged as the temperature of the plate was increased.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoang, N.; Zhang, N.; Du, H.
2011-01-01
During the transient stage of acceleration, the powertrain experiences a period of high level vibration because the engine speed passes through one or several powertrain natural frequencies. This paper presents a concept design of an adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA) using a new magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) for powertrain transient vibration reduction. The MRE material used to develop the ATVA is a new one, which is synthesized from a highly elastic polymer and carbonyl iron particles of 3-5 and 40-50 µm. Under a magnetic field of 0.3 T, the MRE material has a giant increase, which is more than two orders, in both the storage and loss moduli. To facilitate the ATVA design, effective formulae for the storage modulus and loss factor were derived as explicit functions of the applied magnetic field density. With the derived formulae, ATVA parameters such as the stiffness and damping coefficients were converted effectively from the magnetic field density. Thus, the ATVA frequency can be tuned properly according to the excitation frequency. Numerical simulations of a powertrain system fitted with the ATVA were conducted to examine the ATVA proposed design. By using the MRE-based ATVA, the powertrain natural frequencies can be actively tuned far away from the resonant area of excitation frequency. Also, the time histories of powertrain frequencies depending on the magnetic field density before and after installing the ATVA have been compared to show that the resonant phenomena have been dealt with completely. As a result, the powertrain transient vibration response is significantly suppressed. In addition, the effect of the ATVA's moment of inertia, stiffness and damping on the ATVA's effectiveness during the transient stage was investigated to choose the ATVA's optimal parameters. The MRE-based ATVA will be a novel device for powertrain vibration control not only for the steady stage but also for transient vibration.
Vibration white finger: a follow up study.
Ekenvall, L; Carlsson, A
1987-01-01
To study the course of vibration white finger (VWF) 55 men were re-examined three and a half to six years after the first examination. The patients were interviewed and finger systolic pressure after general body and local finger cooling was measured. The test results at the two examinations were compared. At the follow up examination some patients experienced a subjective improvement of VWF symptoms but not until more than three years had passed after they had stopped working with vibrating tools. To study the effect of diminished cold exposure on subjective symptoms, vibration exposed outdoor workers who changed to unexposed indoor work were studied separately. In this subgroup also improvement was reported only when more than three years has passed after the change of work, indicating that diminished cold exposure is not the primary explanation for the improvement. The cold provocation test, however, showed no tendency towards a diminished reaction of the vessels to cooling. Patients who continue to work with vibrating tools report a subjective increase in symptoms. This subjective impairment was reflected in an increased reaction to cold as measured in the cold provocation test. PMID:3620371
Analysis of real-time vibration data
Safak, E.
2005-01-01
In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.
The growth of railway ground vibration problems - A review.
Connolly, David P; Marecki, Grzegorz P; Kouroussis, Georges; Thalassinakis, Ioannis; Woodward, Peter K
2016-10-15
Ground-borne noise and vibration from railway lines can cause human distress/annoyance, and also negatively affect real estate property values. Therefore this paper analyses a collection of technical ground-borne noise and vibration reports, detailing commercial vibration assessments undertaken at 1604 railway track sections, in 9 countries across the world. A wide range of rail projects are considered including light rail, tram lines, underground/tunnelled lines, freight, conventional rail and high speed rail. It documents the rise in ground-borne vibration problems and trends in the prediction industry, with the aim of informing the current research area. Firstly, the reports are analysed chronologically and it is found that railway vibration is a growing global concern, and as such, assessments have become more prevalent. International assessment metrics are benchmarked and it is found that velocity decibels (VdB), vibration dose value (VDV) and peak particle velocity (PPV) are the most commonly used methods of assessment. Furthermore, to predict vibration levels, the physical measurement of frequency transfer functions is preferential to numerical modelling. Results from the reports show that ground vibration limits are exceeded in 44% of assessments, and that ground-borne noise limits are exceeded in 31%. Moreover, mitigation measures were required on approximately 50% of projects, revealing that ground-borne noise and vibration is a widespread railroad engineering challenge. To solve these problems, the most commonly used abatement strategy is a modification of the railtrack structure (active mitigation), rather than the implementation of a more passive solution in the far-field. PMID:26493344
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowman, L. M.
1986-01-01
Dynamic behaviors of structures analyzed interactively. Interactive steadystate vibration-response program, VIBRA, developed. Frequency-response analyses commonly used in evaluating dynamic behaviors of structures subjected to cyclic external forces. VIBRA calculates frequency response using modalsuperposition approach. Method applicable to single or multiple forces applied to linear, proportionally damped structure in which damping is viscous or structural. VIBRA written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive execution.
Vibrational stability of graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao
2013-05-01
The mechanical stability of graphene as temperature rises is analyzed based on three different self-consistent phonon (SCP) models. Compared with three-dimensional (3-D) materials, the critical temperature Ti at which instability occurs for graphene is much closer to its melting temperature Tm obtained from Monte Carlo simulation (Ti ≃ 2Tm, K. V. Zakharchenko, A. Fasolino, J. H. Los, and M. I. Katsnelson, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 23, 202202). This suggests that thermal vibration plays a significant role in melting of graphene while melting for 3-D materials is often dominated by topologic defects. This peculiar property of graphene derives from its high structural anisotropy, which is characterized by the vibrational anisotropic coefficient (VAC), defined upon its Lindermann ratios in different directions. For any carbon based material with a graphene-like structure, the VAC value must be smaller than 5.4 to maintain its stability. It is also found that the high VAC value of graphene is responsible for its negative thermal expansion coefficient at low temperature range. We believe that the VAC can be regarded as a new criterion concerning the vibrational stability of any low-dimensional (low-D) materials.
Vibration isolation mounting system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, Sam D. (Inventor); Bastin, Paul H. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
A system is disclosed for mounting a vibration producing device onto a spacecraft structure and also for isolating the vibration forces thereof from the structure. The system includes a mount on which the device is securely mounted and inner and outer rings. The rings and mount are concentrically positioned. The system includes a base (secured to the structure) and a set of links which are interconnected by a set of torsion bars which allow and resist relative rotational movement therebetween. The set of links are also rotatably connected to a set of brackets which are rigidly connected to the outer ring. Damped leaf springs interconnect the inner and outer rings and the mount allow relative translational movement therebetween in X and Y directions. The links, brackets and base are interconnected and configured so that they allow and resist translational movement of the device in the Z direction so that in combination with the springs they provide absorption of vibrational energy produced by the device in all three dimensions while providing rotational stiffness about all three axes to prevent undesired rotational motions.
Concorde noise-induced building vibrations: John F. Kennedy International Airport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mayes, W. H.; Stephens, D. G.; Deloach, R.; Cawthorn, J. M.; Holmes, H. K.; Lewis, R. B.; Holliday, B. G.; Ward, D. W.; Miller, W. T.
1978-01-01
Outdoor and indoor noise levels resulting from aircraft flyovers and certain nonaircraft events were recorded at eight homesites and a school along with the associated vibration levels in the walls, windows, and floors at these test sites. Limited subjective tests were conducted to examine the human detection and annoyance thresholds for building vibration and rattle caused by aircraft noise. Both vibration and rattle were detected subjectively in several houses for some operations of both the Concorde and subsonic aircraft. Seated subjects more readily detected floor vibrations than wall or window vibrations. Aircraft noise generally caused more window vibrations than common nonaircraft events such as walking and closing doors. Nonaircraft events and aircraft flyovers resulted in comparable wall vibration levels, while floor vibrations were generally greater for nonaircraft events than for aircraft flyovers. The relationship between structural vibration and aircraft noise is linear, with vibration levels being accurately predicted from overall sound pressure levels (OASPL) measured near the structure. Relatively high levels of structural vibration measured during Concorde operations are due more to higher OASPL levels than to unique Concorde-source characteristics.
Vibration mounts for noise and vibration control
Mullins, P.
1995-04-01
Isolating noise and vibration is of major importance in engine applications whether on board ship or land. Ulstein Bergen, for instance, has virtually standardized on Metalastik D Series mounts for its range of lean-burn, gas engines used in power generation and cogeneration plants. In the largest engine installations, the Metalastik suspension system can carry as much as 47 tons, total weight. The system is designed to isolate the forces generated by a three megawatt engine able to develop full power within 10 seconds of starting. In setups of this size, as many as 24 mounts are arranged underneath the baseplate of the power unit. Metalastik recently announced an entirely new and innovative mounting for marine applications. The new Cushymount K mounting incorporates four separate rubber/metal spring elements housed between top and bottom iron castings. The design combines three-way control of engine movement with relatively large deflection in the rubber. The new design is claimed to be robust and easy to install by means of four bolt holes on the top and bottom castings. Other recommended applications include compressors, exhaust gas silencers, refrigeration/air-conditioning plant and similar ancillary equipment. 2 figs.
Self-reported back pain in tractor drivers exposed to whole-body vibration.
Boshuizen, H C; Bongers, P M; Hulshof, C T
1990-01-01
A postal questionnaire on symptoms of ill health and exposure to whole-body vibration was completed by 577 workers (response rate 79%) who were employed in certain functions by two companies 11 years before. The relation between the occupational history of driving vibrating vehicles (mainly agricultural tractors) and back pain has been analyzed. The prevalence of reported back pain is approximately 10% higher in the tractor drivers than in workers not exposed to vibration. The increase is mainly due to more pain in the lower back and more pain lasting at least several days. A vibration dose was calculated by assigning each vehicle driven a vibration magnitude, estimated on the base of vibration measurements. The prevalence of back pain increases with the vibration dose. The highest prevalence odds ratios are found for the more severe types of back pain. These prevalence odds ratios do not increase with the vibration dose. This might be due to health-related selection which is more pronounced for severe back pain than for back pain in general. The two components of the vibration dose, duration of exposure and estimated mean vibration magnitude, have also been considered separately. Back pain increases with duration of exposure but it does not increase with the estimated mean magnitude of vibration. This is probably due to the inaccuracy of this estimate. The higher prevalence of back pain in tractor drivers might be (partly) caused by whole-body vibration, but prolonged sitting and posture might also be of influence. PMID:2139012
Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.
2013-11-14
In the theory of anharmonic vibrations of a polyatomic molecule, mixing the zero-order vibrational states due to cubic, quartic and higher-order terms in the potential energy expansion leads to the appearance of more-or-less isolated blocks of states (also called polyads), connected through multiple resonances. Such polyads of states can be characterized by a common secondary integer quantum number. This polyad quantum number is defined as a linear combination of the zero-order vibrational quantum numbers, attributed to normal modes, multiplied by non-negative integer polyad coefficients, which are subject to definition for any particular molecule. According to Kellman's method [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6630 (1990)], the corresponding formalism can be conveniently described using vector algebra. In the present work, a systematic consideration of polyad quantum numbers is given in the framework of the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT) and its numerical-analytic operator implementation for reducing the Hamiltonian to the quasi-diagonal form, earlier developed by the authors. It is shown that CVPT provides a convenient method for the systematic identification of essential resonances and the definition of a polyad quantum number. The method presented is generally suitable for molecules of significant size and complexity, as illustrated by several examples of molecules up to six atoms. The polyad quantum number technique is very useful for assembling comprehensive basis sets for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian after removal of all non-resonance terms by CVPT. In addition, the classification of anharmonic energy levels according to their polyad quantum numbers provides an additional means for the interpretation of observed vibrational spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.
2013-11-01
In the theory of anharmonic vibrations of a polyatomic molecule, mixing the zero-order vibrational states due to cubic, quartic and higher-order terms in the potential energy expansion leads to the appearance of more-or-less isolated blocks of states (also called polyads), connected through multiple resonances. Such polyads of states can be characterized by a common secondary integer quantum number. This polyad quantum number is defined as a linear combination of the zero-order vibrational quantum numbers, attributed to normal modes, multiplied by non-negative integer polyad coefficients, which are subject to definition for any particular molecule. According to Kellman's method [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6630 (1990)], the corresponding formalism can be conveniently described using vector algebra. In the present work, a systematic consideration of polyad quantum numbers is given in the framework of the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT) and its numerical-analytic operator implementation for reducing the Hamiltonian to the quasi-diagonal form, earlier developed by the authors. It is shown that CVPT provides a convenient method for the systematic identification of essential resonances and the definition of a polyad quantum number. The method presented is generally suitable for molecules of significant size and complexity, as illustrated by several examples of molecules up to six atoms. The polyad quantum number technique is very useful for assembling comprehensive basis sets for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian after removal of all non-resonance terms by CVPT. In addition, the classification of anharmonic energy levels according to their polyad quantum numbers provides an additional means for the interpretation of observed vibrational spectra.
Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V; Stepanov, Nikolay F
2013-11-14
In the theory of anharmonic vibrations of a polyatomic molecule, mixing the zero-order vibrational states due to cubic, quartic and higher-order terms in the potential energy expansion leads to the appearance of more-or-less isolated blocks of states (also called polyads), connected through multiple resonances. Such polyads of states can be characterized by a common secondary integer quantum number. This polyad quantum number is defined as a linear combination of the zero-order vibrational quantum numbers, attributed to normal modes, multiplied by non-negative integer polyad coefficients, which are subject to definition for any particular molecule. According to Kellman's method [J. Chem. Phys. 93, 6630 (1990)], the corresponding formalism can be conveniently described using vector algebra. In the present work, a systematic consideration of polyad quantum numbers is given in the framework of the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory (CVPT) and its numerical-analytic operator implementation for reducing the Hamiltonian to the quasi-diagonal form, earlier developed by the authors. It is shown that CVPT provides a convenient method for the systematic identification of essential resonances and the definition of a polyad quantum number. The method presented is generally suitable for molecules of significant size and complexity, as illustrated by several examples of molecules up to six atoms. The polyad quantum number technique is very useful for assembling comprehensive basis sets for the matrix representation of the Hamiltonian after removal of all non-resonance terms by CVPT. In addition, the classification of anharmonic energy levels according to their polyad quantum numbers provides an additional means for the interpretation of observed vibrational spectra. PMID:24320248
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Unruh, Oliver
2016-09-01
In order to reduce noise emitted by vibrating structures additional damping treatments such as constraint layer damping or embedded elastomer layers can be used. To save weight and cost, the additional damping is often placed at some critical locations of the structure, what leads to spatially inhomogeneous distribution of damping. This inhomogeneous distribution of structural damping leads to an occurrence of complex vibration modes, which are no longer dominated by pure standing waves, but by a superposition of travelling and standing waves. The existence of complex vibration modes raises the question about their influence on sound radiation. Previous studies on the sound radiation of complex modes of rectangular plates reveal, that, depending on the direction of travelling waves, the radiation efficiency of structural modes can slightly decrease or significantly increase. These observations have been made using a rectangular plate with a simple inhomogeneous damping configuration which includes a single plate boundary with a higher structural damping ratio. In order to answer the question about the influence of other possible damping configurations on the sound radiation properties, this paper addresses the self- and mutual-radiation efficiencies of the resulting complex vibration modes. Numerical simulations are used for the calculation of complex structural modes of different inhomogeneous damping configurations with varying geometrical form and symmetry. The evaluation of self- and mutual-radiation efficiencies reveals that primarily the symmetry properties of the inhomogeneous damping distribution affect the sound radiation characteristics. Especially the asymmetric distributions of inhomogeneous damping show a high influence on the investigated acoustic metrics. The presented study also reveals that the acoustic cross-coupling between structural modes, which is described by the mutual-radiation efficiencies, generally increases with the presence of
Ultrasonic vibration assisted electro-discharge machining of microholes in Nitinol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, H.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, H. Y.
2003-09-01
An ultrasonic vibration has been superposed on the normal electrode movement to increase the flushing effect during a micro electro-discharge machining (EDM) process. A systematic study on the effects of ultrasonic vibration on the EDM performance for fabricating microholes in Nitinol has been completed. The introduction of ultrasonic vibration to the micro-EDM process has increased the machining efficiency more than 60 times, without significantly increasing the electrode wear. Numerical simulation reveals that the efficiency improvement is attributed to the strong stirring effect caused by ultrasonic vibration, which results in an excellent flushing in the micro-EDM process.
The isolation limits of stochastic vibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knopse, C. R.; Allaire, P. E.
1993-01-01
The vibration isolation problem is formulated as a 1D kinematic problem. The geometry of the stochastic wall trajectories arising from the stroke constraint is defined in terms of their significant extrema. An optimal control solution for the minimum acceleration return path determines a lower bound on platform mean square acceleration. This bound is expressed in terms of the probability density function on the significant maxima and the conditional fourth moment of the first passage time inverse. The first of these is found analytically while the second is found using a Monte Carlo simulation. The rms acceleration lower bound as a function of available space is then determined through numerical quadrature.
Vibrational relaxation in hypersonic flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meador, Willard E.; Miner, Gilda A.; Heinbockel, John H.
1993-01-01
Mathematical formulations of vibrational relaxation are derived from first principles for application to fluid dynamic computations of hypersonic flow fields. Relaxation within and immediately behind shock waves is shown to be substantially faster than that described in current numerical codes. The result should be a significant reduction in nonequilibrium radiation overshoot in shock layers and in radiative heating of hypersonic vehicles; these results are precisely the trends needed to bring theoretical predictions more in line with flight data. Errors in existing formulations are identified and qualitative comparisons are made.
Approaches to Numerical Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
d'Inverno, Ray
2005-07-01
Introduction Ray d'Inverno; Preface C. J. S. Clarke; Part I. Theoretical Approaches: 1. Numerical relativity on a transputer array Ray d'Inverno; 2. Some aspects of the characteristic initial value problem in numerical relativity Nigel Bishop; 3. The characteristic initial value problem in general relativity J. M. Stewart; 4. Algebraic approachs to the characteristic initial value problem in general relativity Jõrg Frauendiener; 5. On hyperboidal hypersurfaces Helmut Friedrich; 6. The initial value problem on null cones J. A. Vickers; 7. Introduction to dual-null dynamics S. A. Hayward; 8. On colliding plane wave space-times J. B. Griffiths; 9. Boundary conditions for the momentum constraint Niall O Murchadha; 10. On the choice of matter model in general relativity A. D. Rendall; 11. A mathematical approach to numerical relativity J. W. Barrett; 12. Making sense of the effects of rotation in general relativity J. C. Miller; 13. Stability of charged boson stars and catastrophe theory Franz E. Schunck, Fjodor V. Kusmartsev and Eckehard W. Mielke; Part II. Practical Approaches: 14. Numerical asymptotics R. Gómez and J. Winicour; 15. Instabilities in rapidly rotating polytropes Scott C. Smith and Joan M. Centrella; 16. Gravitational radiation from coalescing binary neutron stars Ken-Ichi Oohara and Takashi Nakamura; 17. 'Critical' behaviour in massless scalar field collapse M. W. Choptuik; 18. Goudunov-type methods applied to general relativistic gravitational collapse José Ma. Ibánez, José Ma. Martí, Juan A. Miralles and J. V. Romero; 19. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves and neutrinos Silvano Bonazzola, Eric Gourgoulhon, Pawel Haensel and Jean-Alain Marck; 20. Gravitational radiation from triaxial core collapse Jean-Alain Marck and Silvano Bonazzola; 21. A vacuum fully relativistic 3D numerical code C. Bona and J. Massó; 22. Solution of elliptic equations in numerical relativity using multiquadrics M. R. Dubal, S. R. Oliveira and R. A. Matzner; 23
Free Vibration of Uncertain Unsymmetrically Laminated Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kapania, Rakesh K.; Goyal, Vijay K.
2001-01-01
Monte Carlo Simulation and Stochastic FEA are used to predict randomness in the free vibration response of thin unsymmetrically laminated beams. For the present study, it is assumed that randomness in the response is only caused by uncertainties in the ply orientations. The ply orientations may become random or uncertain during the manufacturing process. A new 16-dof beam element, based on the first-order shear deformation beam theory, is used to study the stochastic nature of the natural frequencies. Using variational principles, the element stiffness matrix and mass matrix are obtained through analytical integration. Using a random sequence a large data set is generated, containing possible random ply-orientations. This data is assumed to be symmetric. The stochastic-based finite element model for free vibrations predicts the relation between the randomness in fundamental natural frequencies and the randomness in ply-orientation. The sensitivity derivatives are calculated numerically through an exact formulation. The squared fundamental natural frequencies are expressed in terms of deterministic and probabilistic quantities, allowing to determine how sensitive they are to variations in ply angles. The predicted mean-valued fundamental natural frequency squared and the variance of the present model are in good agreement with Monte Carlo Simulation. Results, also, show that variations between plus or minus 5 degrees in ply-angles can affect free vibration response of unsymmetrically and symmetrically laminated beams.
CFD Simulations of Vibration Induced Droplet Ejection.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, Ashley; Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari
1998-11-01
Vibration-induced droplet ejection is a process that occurs when a liquid droplet is placed on a vibrating membrane. Above a critical value of the excitation amplitude, Faraday waves form on the surface of the drop. As the amplitude is increased secondary drops are ejected from the wave crests. A Navier-Stokes solver designed to simulate the transient fluid mechanics of the process is presented. The solver is based on a MAC method on a staggered grid. A volume of fluid method is implemented to track the free surface. The volume fraction is advected via a second-order, unsplit method that minimizes numerical diffusion of the interface. Surface tension is incorporated as a continuum surface force. This work is intended to provide a comprehensive description of the fluid dynamics involved in vibration-induced droplet ejection, with the aim of understanding the mechanism behind the ejection process. The evolution of the interface through droplet ejection will be simulated. The dependence of the ejection process on the driving parameters will be evaluated and the resonance characteristics of the drop will be determined. The results of the computations will be compared with experimental results.
Multi-modal vibration amplitudes of taut inclined cables due to direct and/or parametric excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Macdonald, J. H. G.
2016-02-01
Cables are often prone to potentially damaging large amplitude vibrations. The dynamic excitation may be from external loading or motion of the cable ends, the latter including direct excitation, normally from components of end motion transverse to the cable, and parametric excitation induced by axial components of end motion causing dynamic tension variations. Geometric nonlinearity can be important, causing stiffening behaviour and nonlinear modal coupling. Previous analyses of the vibrations, often neglecting sag, have generally dealt with direct and parametric excitation separately or have reverted to numerical solutions of the responses. Here a nonlinear cable model is adopted, applicable to taut cables such as on cable-stayed bridges, that allows for cable inclination, small sag (such that the vibration modes are similar to those of a taut string), multiple modes in both planes and end motion and/or external forcing close to any natural frequency. Based on the method of scaling and averaging it is found that, for sinusoidal inputs and positive damping, non-zero steady state responses can only occur in the modes in each plane with natural frequencies close to the excitation frequency and those with natural frequencies close to half this frequency. Analytical solutions, in the form of non-dimensional polynomial equations, are derived for the steady state vibration amplitudes in up to three modes simultaneously: the directly excited mode, the corresponding nonlinearly coupled mode in the orthogonal plane and a parametrically excited mode with half the natural frequency. The stability of the solutions is also identified. The outputs of the equations are consistent with previous results, where available. Example results from the analytical solutions are presented for a typical inclined bridge cable subject to vertical excitation of the lower end, and they are validated by numerical integration of the equations of motion and against some previous experimental
Vibrational characteristics of harp soundboards.
Waltham, Chris; Kotlicki, Andrzej
2008-09-01
Harps exist in different forms, from large factory-made concert harps to small hand-made folk harps. This variety presents both a challenge and an opportunity for acousticians. The musical quality of a harp depends on many factors, but key among these is the soundboard. This work sets out to define some general desirable qualities of a harp soundboard. First, in order to understand the relationship between the vibrational behavior of a bare soundboard and that of a completed instrument, a 36-string harp was built from scratch. Measurements were made at each stage of construction, and the results showed how the bare soundboard properties affect those of the finished harp. Second, the soundboards of several harps of different sizes were assessed by measuring the admittances along the string bar. These data showed that one relationship crucial to the quality of the soundboard is that between the modal shapes and modal frequencies of the soundboard, and the position and fundamental frequencies of the strings attached to it. A general statement is made about this relationship, one which should be of use to harp makers. PMID:19045667
Improved Modal Dynamics of Wind Turbines to Avoid Stall-induced Vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, M. H.
2003-04-01
Stall-induced edgewise blade vibrations have occasionally been observed on three-bladed wind turbines over the last decade. Experiments and numerical simulations have shown that these blade vibrations are related to certain vibration modes of the turbines. A recent experiment with a 600 kW turbine has shown that a backward whirling mode associated with edgewise blade vibrations is less aerodynamically damped than the corresponding forward whirling mode. In this article the mode shapes of the particular turbine are analysed, based on a simplified turbine model described in a multi-blade formulation. It is shown that the vibrations of the blades for the backward and forward edgewise whirling modes are different, which can explain the measured difference in aerodynamic damping. The modal dynamics of the entire turbine is important for stability assessments; blade-only analysis can be misleading. In some cases the modal dynamics may even be improved to avoid stall-induced vibrations.
Design method of planar vibration system for specified ratio of energy peaks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jun Woo; Lee, Sungon; Choi, Yong Je
2015-05-01
The magnitudes of the resonant peaks should be considered in the design stage of any bandwidth-relevant applications to widen the working bandwidth. This paper presents a new design method for a planar vibration system that satisfies any desired ratio of peak magnitudes at target resonant frequencies. An important geometric property of a modal triangle formed from three vibration centers representing vibration modes is found. Utilizing the property, the analytical expressions for the vibration energy generated by external forces are derived in terms of the geometrical data of vibration centers. When any desired ratio of peak magnitudes is specified, the locations of the vibration centers are found from their analytical relations. The corresponding stiffness matrix can be determined and realized accordingly. The systematic design methods for direct- and base-excitation systems are developed, and one numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed design method.
Compound hydraulic seismic source vibrator
Myers, W.J.
1989-12-05
This patent describes a compound seismic source vibrator. It comprises: a housing having an upper section and a low frequency radiating section; a low frequency means for vibrating the low frequency radiating section; a high frequency radiating section flexibly connected to the low frequency radiating section; and a high frequency means rigidly secured to the low frequency radiating section for separately vibrating the high frequency radiating section.
Au-Yang, M.K.; Chen, S.S.
1987-01-01
This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: Acoustic resonance in heat exchanger tube bundles--Part 1. Physical nature of the phenomenon; Theoretical and experimental studies on heat exchanger U-bend tube bundle vibration characteristics; Experimental model analysis of metallic pipeline conveying fluid; Leakage flow-induced vibration of an eccentric tube-in-tube slip joint; and A study on the vibrations of pipelines caused by internal pulsating flows.
Vibration damping method and apparatus
Redmond, James M.; Barney, Patrick S.; Parker, Gordon G.; Smith, David A.
1999-01-01
The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof.
Vibration damping method and apparatus
Redmond, J.M.; Barney, P.S.; Parker, G.G.; Smith, D.A.
1999-06-22
The present invention provides vibration damping method and apparatus that can damp vibration in more than one direction without requiring disassembly, that can accommodate varying tool dimensions without requiring re-tuning, and that does not interfere with tool tip operations and cooling. The present invention provides active dampening by generating bending moments internal to a structure such as a boring bar to dampen vibration thereof. 38 figs.
Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery
Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.
1999-06-28
Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.
Theoretical and experimental study of vibration, generated by monorail trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rybak, Samuil A.; Makhortykh, Sergey A.; Kostarev, Stanislav A.
2002-11-01
Monorail transport as all other city transport vehicles is the source of high noise and vibration levels. It is less widespread than cars or underground transport but its influence in modern cities enhances. Now in Moscow the first monorail road with trains on tires is designed, therefore the problem of vibration and noise assessments and prediction of its impact on the residential region appears. To assess the levels of generated vibration a physical model of interaction in the system wagon-tire-road coating-viaduct-soil has been proposed and then numerically analyzed. The model is based on the known from publications facts of automobile transport vibration and our own practice concerning underground trains vibration generation. To verify computer simulation results and adjust model parameters the series of measurements of noise and vibration near experimental monorail road was carried out. In the report the results of calculations and measurements will be presented and some outcomes of possible acoustical ecologic situation near monorail roads will be proposed.
Harmonic Motion Detection in a Vibrating Scattering Medium
Urban, Matthew W.; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.
2008-01-01
Elasticity imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality that seeks to map the spatial distribution of tissue stiffness. Ultrasound radiation force excitation and motion tracking using pulse-echo ultrasound have been used in numerous methods. Dynamic radiation force is used in vibrometry to cause an object or tissue to vibrate, and the vibration amplitude and phase can be measured with exceptional accuracy. This paper presents a model that simulates harmonic motion detection in a vibrating scattering medium incorporating 3-D beam shapes for radiation force excitation and motion tracking. A parameterized analysis using this model provides a platform to optimize motion detection for vibrometry applications in tissue. An experimental method that produces a multifrequency radiation force is also presented. Experimental harmonic motion detection of simultaneous multifrequency vibration is demonstrated using a single transducer. This method can accurately detect motion with displacement amplitude as low as 100 to 200 nm in bovine muscle. Vibration phase can be measured within 10° or less. The experimental results validate the conclusions observed from the model and show multifrequency vibration induction and measurements can be performed simultaneously. PMID:18986892
Railway ground vibrations induced by wheel and rail singular defects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kouroussis, Georges; Connolly, David P.; Alexandrou, Georgios; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos
2015-10-01
Railway local irregularities are a growing source of ground-borne vibration and can cause negative environmental impacts, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this paper analyses the effect of railway track singular defects (discontinuities) on ground vibration generation and propagation. A vehicle/track/soil numerical railway model is presented, capable of accurately predicting vibration levels. The prediction model is composed of a multibody vehicle model, a flexible track model and a finite/infinite element soil model. Firstly, analysis is undertaken to assess the ability of wheel/rail contact models to accurately simulate the force generation at the wheel/rail contact, in the presence of a singular defect. It is found that, although linear contact models are sufficient for modelling ground vibration on smooth tracks, when singular defects are present higher accuracy wheel/rail models are required. Furthermore, it is found that the variation in wheel/rail force during the singular defect contact depends on the track flexibility, and thus requires a fully coupled vehicle/track/foundation model. Next, a parametric study of ground vibrations generated by singular rail and wheel defects is undertaken. Six shapes of discontinuity are modelled, representing various defect types such as transition zones, switches, crossings, rail joints and wheel flats. The vehicle is modelled as an AM96 train set and it is found that ground vibration levels are highly sensitive to defect height, length and shape.
Application of gradient elasticity to benchmark problems of beam vibrations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kateb, K. M.; Almitani, K. H.; Alnefaie, K. A.; Abu-Hamdeh, N. H.; Papadopoulos, P.; Askes, H.; Aifantis, E. C.
2016-04-01
The gradient approach, specifically gradient elasticity theory, is adopted to revisit certain typical configurations on mechanical vibrations. New results on size effects and scale-dependent behavior not captured by classical elasticity are derived, aiming at illustrating the usefulness of this approach to applications in advanced technologies. In particular, elastic prismatic straight beams in bending are discussed using two different governing equations: the gradient elasticity bending moment equation (fourth order) and the gradient elasticity deflection equation (sixth order). Different boundary/support conditions are examined. One problem considers the free vibrations of a cantilever beam loaded by an end force. A second problem is concerned with a simply supported beam disturbed by a concentrated force in the middle of the beam. Both problems are solved analytically. Exact free vibration frequencies and mode shapes are derived and presented. The difference between the gradient elasticity solution and its classical counterpart is revealed. The size ratio c/L (c denotes internal length and L is the length of the beam) induces significant effects on vibration frequencies. For both beam configurations, it turns out that as the ratio c/L increases, the vibration frequencies decrease, a fact which implies lower beam stiffness. Numerical examples show this behavior explicitly and recover the classical vibration behavior for vanishing size ratio c/L.
Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.
2011-01-01
Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.
Computer analysis of railcar vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vlaminck, R. R.
1975-01-01
Computer models and techniques for calculating railcar vibrations are discussed along with criteria for vehicle ride optimization. The effect on vibration of car body structural dynamics, suspension system parameters, vehicle geometry, and wheel and rail excitation are presented. Ride quality vibration data collected on the state-of-the-art car and standard light rail vehicle is compared to computer predictions. The results show that computer analysis of the vehicle can be performed for relatively low cost in short periods of time. The analysis permits optimization of the design as it progresses and minimizes the possibility of excessive vibration on production vehicles.
Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liebers, Fritz
1932-01-01
On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.
Measuring Vibrations With Nonvibration Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
Information about vibrations of structure and/or of nonvibration sensor attached to structure extracted from output of sensor. Sensor operated in usual way except, output fed to power-spectral-density analyzer. Vibrational components easily distinguishable in analyzer output because they have frequencies much higher than those of more-slowly-varying temperature, pressure, or other normally desired components. Spectral-analysis technique applied successfully to high-frequency resistance changes in output of platinum-wire resistance thermometer: vibrational peaks in resistance frequency spectrum confirmed by spectrum from accelerometer. Technique also showed predicted 17-kHz vibrational resonance in strain-guage-supporting beam in pressure sensor.
Turbine blade vibration dampening
Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.
1997-07-08
The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.
Turbine blade vibration dampening
Cornelius, Charles C.; Pytanowski, Gregory P.; Vendituoli, Jonathan S.
1997-07-08
The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.
Buckling and vibration of a rotating beam†
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nachman, A.
1986-09-01
The equations for the vibration of a rotating beam, such as a helicopter blade, are exhibited. The beam is elastic (in general non-linearly so), the description is geometrically exact, the axis of rotation does not necessarily pass through the beam's clamped end (precession) and cross-sectional shearing is accounted for by using a director theory. Particular attention is paid to the impossibility of vibration (or buckling) confined to a plane making an angle β to the axis of rotation unless β=π/2 (orπ/2 or 0) or rotatory inertia is neglected. For purposed of illustration the analysis is specialized to describe Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams.
Vibration damping using four-layer sandwich
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, Binod P.
2008-11-01
This paper discusses vibration damping using four-layer sandwich beam. The present work deals with the analysis of vibration of the primary system having a mass and rubber spring mounted on a four-layer viscoelastic simply supported symmetrically arranged sandwich beam. The equation of motion of a general four-layer with alternate elastic layer and viscoelastic layer simply supported sandwich beam is first derived using the method of equilibrium of forces and beam theory. The above differential equation has been solved for harmonically force excited sandwich beam by applying suitable boundary conditions to get the impedance of the sandwich beam. This impedance is then combined with the impedance of the primary system to obtain the expression for the response of harmonically excited mass and then the expression for transmissibility is obtained. The effectiveness of geometrical and physical parameters in minimizing response and transmissibility for central mounting of the primary system is evaluated.
Surface Vibrational Modes on Ni(977)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kara, Abdelkader; Durukanoglu, Sondan; Rahman, Talat S.
1996-03-01
Using the Embedded Atom Method for the interatomic interaction potential, and the Real Space Green's function for calculating the Local Vibrational Densities of States, we present a detailed analysis of the surface phonons of Ni(977). We find that, in general, the step row phonons are softened ( shifted toward low frequencies) as compared to the ones corresponding to the terrace atoms in excellent agreement with the recent He scattering measurments. ( L. Niu, D. J. Gaspar and S. J. Sibner, Science, Vol. 268 , 1995, p 847.) We explore the polarization and the frequencies of these step vibrational modes and relate the softening of the frequencies to the changes in the force constants associated with the surface atoms.
Integrated passive/active vibration absorber for multi-story buildings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Glauser, Gina J.; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Horta, Lucas G.
1995-01-01
Passive isolator, active vibration absorber, and an integrated passive/active (hybrid) control are studied for their effectiveness in reducing structural vibration under seismic excitations. For the passive isolator, a laminated rubber bearing base isolator which has been studied and used extensively by researchers and seismic designers is considered. An active vibration absorber concept, which can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability with minimum knowledge of the controlled system, is used to reduce the passive isolator displacement and to suppress the top floor vibration. A three-story building model is used for the numerical simulation. The performance of an active vibration absorber and a hybrid vibration controller in reducing peak structural responses is compared with the passively isolated structural response and with absence of vibration control systems under the N00W component of El Centro 1940 and N90W component of the Mexico City earthquake excitation records. The results show that the integrated passive/active vibration control system is most effective in suppressing the peak structural acceleration for the El Centro 1940 earthquake when compared with the passive or active vibration absorber alone. The active vibration absorber, however, is the only system that suppresses the peak acceleration of the structure for the Mexico City 1985 earthquake.
Suppression of Vortex Induced Vibrations by Fairings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yue; Yan, Hongmei; Constantinides, Yiannis; Oakley, Owen; Karniadakis, George
2013-11-01
Fairings are nearly-neutrally buoyant devices, which are fitted along the axis of long circular risers to suppress vortex induced vibrations (VIV) and possibly reduce the drag force. Here we study numerically how VIV can be practically eliminated by using free-to-rotate fairings. Since the mass ratio and rotational inertia are both low for the fairings, direct numerical simulations based on standard flow-structure interaction algorithms fail because of the so-called added mass effect. To resolve this problem we introduce fictitious methods and successfully stabilize the simulations. In particular, we investigate the effect of rotational friction Cf on the stabilization effect of the fairings. We found that there exists a critical value for the rotational friction, and when Cf is close to this value, large oscillations and unsymmetrical trajectories can be observed for the riser but for smaller Cf values VIV are suppressed substantially.
Vibrationally mediated transport in molecular transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santamore, D. H.; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco
2013-02-01
We investigate the steady-state electronic transport through a suspended dimer molecule coupled to leads. When strongly coupled to a vibrational mode, the electron transport is enhanced at the phonon resonant frequency and higher order resonances. The temperature and bias determine the nature of the phonon-assisted resonances, with clear absorption and emission peaks. The strong coupling also induces a Frank-Condon-like blockade, suppressing the current between the resonances. We compare an analytical polaron transformation method to two exact numerical methods: the Hierarchy equations of motion and an exact diagonalization in the Fock basis. In the steady state, our two numerical results are an exact match and qualitatively reflect the main features of the polaron treatment. Our results indicate the possibility of a new type of molecular transistor or sensor where the current can be extremely sensitive to small changes in the energies of the electronic states in the dimer.
Effect of the vibration profile on shallow granular systems.
Cordero, Patricio; Risso, Dino; Soto, Rodrigo
2015-12-13
We describe the collective behaviour of a system of many inelastic spherical particles inside a box which is being periodically vibrated. The box is shallow, with large horizontal dimensions, while the height is less than two particle diameters. The vibrations are not symmetric: the time the box is moving up is, in general, different from the time it is moving down. The limit cycles of isolated grains are largely affected by the asymmetry of the vibration mode, increasing the size in phase space of the chaotic regions. When many grains are placed in the box, the phase separation between dense, solid-like regions, coexisting with fluid-like regions takes place at smaller global densities for asymmetric vibration profiles. Besides, the order parameter of the transition takes larger values when asymmetric forcing is used. PMID:26527810
Vibration Transmission through Bearings with Application to Gearboxes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, David P.
2007-01-01
Cabin noise has become a major concern to manufacturers and users of helicopters. Gear noise is the largest part of this unwanted sound. The crucial noise path is generally considered to be from the gears through the gear-supporting shafts and bearings into the gearbox case, and from there either through the gearbox mounts or the surrounding air to the helicopter cabin. If the noise, that is, the gear and shaft vibration, can be prevented from traveling through the gearbox bearings, then the noise cannot make its way into the helicopter cabin. Thus the vibration-transmitting properties of bearings are of paramount importance. This paper surveys the literature concerning evaluation of properties for the types of bearings used in helicopter gearboxes. A simple model is proposed to evaluate vibration transmission, using measured or calculated bearing stiffness and damping. Less-commonly used types of gearbox bearings (e.g., fluid film) are evaluated for their potential in reducing vibration transmission.
Investigation of Vibrational Control of the Bridgman Crystal Growth Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fedoseyev, Alexandre I.; Alexander, J. I. D.; Feigelson, R. S.; Zharikov, E. V.; Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Kansa, E. J.; Friedman, M. J.
2001-01-01
The character of natural buoyant convection in rigidly contained inhomogeneous fluids can be drastically altered by vibrating the container. Vibrations are expected to play a crucial influence on heat and mass transfer onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is becoming evident that substantial vibrations will exist on the ISS in the wide frequency spectrum. In general, vibrational flows are very complex and governed by many parameters. In many terrestrial crystal growth situations, convective transport of heat and constituent components is dominated by buoyancy driven convection arising from compositional and thermal gradients. Thus, it may be concluded that vibro-convective flow can potentially be used to influence and even control transport in some crystal growth situations.
Numerical simulations in combustion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chung, T. J.
1989-01-01
This paper reviews numerical simulations in reacting flows in general and combustion phenomena in particular. It is shown that use of implicit schemes and/or adaptive mesh strategies can improve convergence, stability, and accuracy of the solution. Difficulties increase as turbulence and multidimensions are considered, particularly when finite-rate chemistry governs the given combustion problem. Particular attention is given to the areas of solid-propellant combustion dynamics, turbulent diffusion flames, and spray droplet vaporization.
A MEMS vibration energy harvester for automotive applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Schaijk, R.; Elfrink, R.; Oudenhoven, J.; Pop, V.; Wang, Z.; Renaud, M.
2013-05-01
The objective of this work is to develop MEMS vibration energy harvesters for tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), they can be located on the rim or on the inner-liner of the car tire. Nowadays TPMS modules are powered by batteries with a limited lifetime. A large effort is ongoing to replace batteries with small and long lasting power sources like energy harvesters [1]. The operation principle of vibration harvesters is mechanical resonance of a seismic mass, where mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. In general, vibration energy harvesters are of specific interest for machine environments where random noise or repetitive shock vibrations are present. In this work we present the results for MEMS based vibration energy harvesting for applying on the rim or inner-liner. The vibrations on the rim correspond to random noise. A vibration energy harvester can be described as an under damped mass-spring system acting like a mechanical band-pass filter, and will resonate at its natural frequency [2]. At 0.01 g2/Hz noise amplitude the average power can reach the level that is required to power a simple wireless sensor node, approximately 10 μW [3]. The dominant vibrations on the inner-liner consist mainly of repetitive high amplitude shocks. With a shock, the seismic mass is displaced, after which the mass will "ring-down" at its natural resonance frequency. During the ring-down period, part of the mechanical energy is harvested. On the inner-liner of the tire repetitive (one per rotation) high amplitude (few hundred g) shocks occur. The harvester enables an average power of a few tens of μW [4], sufficient to power a more sophisticated wireless sensor node that can measure additional tire-parameters besides pressure. In this work we characterized MEMS vibration energy harvesters for noise and shock excitation. We validated their potential for TPMS modules by measurements and simulation.
A new vibrational level of the H2+ molecular ion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbonell, J.; Lazauskas, R.; Delande, D.; Hilico, L.; Kiliç, S.
2003-11-01
A new vibrational level of the H2+ molecular ion with binding energy of 1.09 × 10-9 a.u. approx 30 neV below the first dissociation limit is predicted, using highly accurate numerical non-relativistic quantum calculations, which go beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. It is the first-excited vibrational level v = 1 of the 2pσu electronic state, antisymmetric with respect to the exchange of the two protons, with orbital angular momentum L = 0. It manifests itself as a huge p-H scattering length of a = 750 ± 5 Bohr radii.
Intermolecular Vibrational Modes Speed Up Singlet Fission in Perylenediimide Crystals.
Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C
2015-02-01
We report numerical simulations based on a non-Markovian density matrix propagation scheme of singlet fission (SF) in molecular crystals. Ab initio electronic structure calculations were used to parametrize the exciton and phonon Hamiltonian as well as the interactions between the exciton and the intramolecular and intermolecular vibrational modes. We demonstrate that the interactions of the exciton with intermolecular vibrational modes are highly sensitive to the stacking geometry of the crystal and can, in certain cases, significantly accelerate SF. This result may help in understanding the fast SF experimentally observed in a broad range of molecular crystals and offers a new direction for the engineering of efficient SF sensitizers. PMID:26261948
Vibration of Stiffened Plates Using Hierarchical Trigonometric Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrette, Michel; Berry, Alain; Beslin, Olivier
2000-08-01
The vibration analysis of stiffened plates using hierarchical finite elements with a set of local trigonometric interpolation functions is presented. The local functions extend on the plate domain comprised between consecutive stiffeners, thereby allowing a coarse discretization of the global structure. Convergence studies as well as comparison of the present approach with the literature and experimental results are presented. The great numerical stability of the trigonometric functions and their readiness for symbolic manipulations make them potentially attractive for vibration and sound radiation analysis in the mid-frequency range.
Vibrational analysis of single-layered graphene sheets.
Sakhaee-Pour, A; Ahmadian, M T; Naghdabadi, R
2008-02-27
A molecular structural mechanics method has been implemented to investigate the vibrational behavior of single-layered graphene sheets. By adopting this approach, mode shapes and natural frequencies are obtained. Vibrational analysis is performed with different chirality and boundary conditions. Numerical results from the atomistic modeling are employed to develop predictive equations via a statistical nonlinear regression model. With the proposed equations, fundamental frequencies of single-layered graphene sheets with considered boundary conditions can be predicted within 3% difference with respect to the atomistic simulation. PMID:21730733
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramakrishna, S.; Willig, F.; May, V.
2001-08-01
Photo-induced electron transfer from a surface attached dye molecule to the band levels of a semiconductor is modeled via an electronic-vibronic quasicontinuum. The description enables one to obtain a fairly accurate expression for the decay of the excited molecular state, including initial vibronic coherences. The model accounts for (a) the effect of a finite band width, (b) variations in reorganization energy and electronic coupling, (c) various energetic positions for the injecting level, (d) different initial vibrational wave packets in the excited state, and (e) two vibrational modes participating in the electron transfer process. Most cases are studied numerically and can be reasonably well understood from the obtained decay expression.
Melt Stirring by Horizontal Crucible Vibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, M. F.; Elwell, D.; Feigelson, R. S.
1985-01-01
Horizontal vibration suggested as technique for more effective stirring of melts in crystal-growth apparatus. Vibrational technique may replace accelerated crucible rotation. Potential superiority of vibrational technique shown by preliminary experiments in which ink stirred into water.
14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... engine to excessive vibration stresses. This must be shown by a vibration investigation. (c) No part of the rotor drive system may be subjected to excessive vibration stresses. Rotor Drive System...
14 CFR 27.907 - Engine vibration.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... engine to excessive vibration stresses. This must be shown by a vibration investigation. (c) No part of the rotor drive system may be subjected to excessive vibration stresses. Rotor Drive System...
Studies Of Vibrations In Gearboxes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choy, Fred K.; Ruan, Yeefeng F.; Tu, Yu K.; Zakrajsek, James J.; Oswald, Fred B.; Coy, John J.; Townsend, Dennis P.
1994-01-01
Three NASA technical memorandums summarize studies of vibrations in gearboxes. Directed toward understanding and reducing gearbox noise caused by coupling of vibrations from meshing gears, through gear shafts and their bearings, to surfaces of gearbox housings. Practical systems in which understanding and reduction of gearbox noise beneficial include helicopter, car, and truck transmissions; stationary geared systems; and gear-driven actuator systems.
Vibration Response of Airplane Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G
1935-01-01
This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Drillstring vibrations create crooked holes
Dareing, D.W.
1984-01-01
Boreholes in hard formations sometimes deviate when the drillstring runs rough or the kelly bounces severely. This article explains how drillstring vibrations produce crooked holes in hard formations. It shows how to reduce dog-leg severity through vibration control. Dog-legs are known to produce cyclic bending-type fatigue loads in drill pipe and collars. Longitudinal and torsional vibrational stresses are additive to rotational bending and further reduce the life of drillstring tubulars. Vibration-induced dog-legs are therefore more damaging to drillstrings than other dog-leg producing mechanisms because total cyclic fatigue loading is the combined effect of bending stress reversal due to rotation plus vibrational stress variations. The vibration-induced dog-leg concept is based on overall vibration response of drillstrings, resultant dynamic displacements of roller cone drill bits, and corresponding dynamic forces between bit and formation. The concept explains how dynamic forces generated by roller cone rock bits might produce helical bore holes in hard homogeneous formations. Dog-legs in hard formations may be due in part to drillstring vibrations. The wellbore deviation concept relates only to roller cone rock bits and is based on dynamically reorienting three-lobed formation pattern hammered out by bottomhole assembly resonance. Analytical studies are needed to determine the effect of bit force impact point location on chip formation and rock removal. Field studies of various bottom hole assemblies operating at critical rotary speeds coupled with directional surveys are needed to test the validity of this theory.
Longitudinally-vibrating surgical microelectrode
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feldstein, C.; Crawford, D.; Kawabus, E. W.
1977-01-01
Microelectrode attached to cone of loudspeaker imparting longitudinal vibrations, penetrates relatively tough tissue of arterial walls easier and with more precise depth control because dimpling is eliminated. Vibrating microelectrode has been successfully used to make accurate oxygen-content measurements in arterial walls.
The origins of vibration theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimarogonas, A. D.
1990-07-01
The Ionian School of natural philosophy introduced the scientific method of dealing with natural phenomena and the rigorous proofs for abstract propositions. Vibration theory was initiated by the Pythagoreans in the fifth century BC, in association with the theory of music and the theory of acoustics. They observed the natural frequency of vibrating systems and proved that it is a system property and that it does not depend on the excitation. Pythagoreans determined the fundamental natural frequencies of several simple systems, such as vibrating strings, pipes, vessels and circular plates. Aristoteles and the Peripatetic School founded mechanics and developed a fundamental understanding of statics and dynamics. In Alexandrian times there were substantial engineering developments in the field of vibration. The pendulum as a vibration, and probably time, measuring device was known in antiquity, and was further developed by the end of the first millennium AD.
Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry D.
1997-01-01
The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.
Vibration analysis using digital correlation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, John A.; Lehner, David L.; Dudderar, T. Dixon; Matthys, Donald R.
1988-01-01
This paper demonstrates the use of a computer-based optical method for locating the positions of nodes and antinodes in vibrating members. Structured light patterns are projected at an angle onto the vibrating surface using a 35 mm slide projector. The vibrating surface and the projected images are captured in a time averaged photograph which is subsequently digitized. The inherent fringe patterns are filtered to determine amplitudes of vibration, and computer programs are used to compare the time averaged images to images recorded prior to excitation to locate nodes and antinodes. Some of the influences of pattern regularity on digital correlation are demonstrated, and a speckle-based method for determining the mode shapes and the amplitudes of vibration with variable sensitivity is suggested.
Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter
Payne, W. Vance; Geist, Jon
2007-01-01
This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device. PMID:27110459
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X. Q.; Li, R. Q.; Dong, F.; Chen, P. H.; Jiang, R. P.
2015-01-01
The dynamic simulation of casting ultrasonic vibration system were studied based on dynamic characteristics of the system and numerical simulation of ultrasonic sound pressure field under different vibration depths in water was performed. According to the simulation results, the cavitation region was estimated, and the experiment of cavitation erosion of aluminum foil in water and amplitude test were done to verify simulation results. The results showed that the longitudinal vibration at the end of face was the major vibration of ultrasonic radiation, while there was a strong vibration on cylindrical surface. Results of amplitude test are consistent with simulation results. Cavitation region caused by ultrasonic vibration mainly below the end face of radiation. The scope and intensity of cavitation were inversely related to the distance from the end face of radiation. With the vibrating depth increased, some small cavitation regions were found at the side of radiation, cavitation region distributed uncontinuously below radiation. Cavitation field measurement and simulation results were basically consistent.
Refinement of non-synchronous vibrations prediction in axial compressors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drolet, Martin
2011-12-01
Non-Synchronous Vibrations (NSV), along with classical flutter, are part of the Flow-Induced Vibrations (FIV) family observed in turbomachineries. FIV are typically caused by the interaction of the unsteady aerodynamic loading on a structure and the structure itself and can be generally classified into two categories, which are Forced Responses and Fluid-Elastic Instabilities. The latter regroups NSV and classical flutter. A number of NSV cases have been reported in the industry, in the front stages of axial compressors, and are typically known to cause high-cycle fatigue damages. However, the physical mechanism underlying NSV is not yet fully understood and universally accepted. Previous studies have suggested that the tip clearance flow oscillations, which are more likely to occur at large tip clearances and high aerodynamic blade loading, could explain NSV. It was also suggested that NSV could arise from the impingement of the tip clearance flow leakage on the blade pressure side and that the study of the dynamics of impinging jets could explain NSV. A model to predict the critical speed at which NSV are likely to occur was derived, based on the resonant impinging jet analogy. The model was statistically verified and experimentally demonstrated. Although the proposed model provides a very good approximation of the critical NSV speed, it was found very sensitive to what was defined as the "instability convection coefficient" (k). It was found from experiments that the proposed NSV model can only yield accurate predictions of the critical NSV speed if the k parameter is known. This work investigates NSV based on the proposed model and the resonant impinging jet analogy, mainly using CFD, to improve the critical NSV speed predictions. The results showed that the k parameter is influenced by both the tip clearance size and operating temperature. However, the dominant effect appears to come from the tip clearance size while the effect of temperature on k can be
Flow-induced vibration of circular cylindrical structures
Chen, S.S.
1987-01-01
This book presents the flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders in quiescent fluid, axial flow, and crossflow, and applications of the analytical methods and experimental data in design evaluation of various system components consisting of circular cylinders. The information is organized into five general topical areas: Introduction: Chapter 1 presents an overview of flow-induced vibration of circular cylinders. It includes examples of flow-induced vibration, various fluid force components, and nondimensional parameters as well as different excitation mechanisms. The general principles are applicable under different flow conditions. Quiescent Fluid: Fluid inertia and fluid damping are discussed in Chapters 2, 3 and 4. Various flow theories are applied in different situations. Axial Flow: Axial flow can cause subcritical vibration and instability. Chapter 5 summarizes the results for internal flow, while Chapter 6 considers external flow. Both theoretical results and experimental data are examined. Crossflow: Different excitation mechanisms can be dominant in different conditions for crossflow. Those include turbulent buffeting, acoustic resonance, vortex excitation, and dynamic instability. Design Considerations: Applications of the general methods of analysis in the design evaluation of system components are described and various techniques to avoid detrimental vibration are presented.
Active control of panel vibrations induced by a boundary layer flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, Pao-Liu
1995-01-01
The problems of active and passive control of sound and vibration has been investigated by many researchers for a number of years. However, few of the articles are concerned with the sound and vibration with flow-structure interaction. Experimental and numerical studies on the coupling between panel vibration and acoustic radiation due to flow excitation have been done by Maestrello and his associates at NASA/Langley Research Center. Since the coupled system of nonlinear partial differential equations is formidable, an analytical solution to the full problem seems impossible. For this reason, we have to simplify the problem to that of the nonlinear panel vibration induced by a uniform flow or a boundary-layer flow with a given wall pressure distribution. Based on this simplified model, we have been able to consider the control and stabilization of the nonlinear panel vibration, which have not been treated satisfactorily by other authors. Although the sound radiation has not been included, the vibration suppression will clearly reduce the sound radiation power from the panel. The major research findings are presented in three sections. In section two we describe results on the boundary control of nonlinear panel vibration, with or without flow excitation. Sections three and four are concerned with some analytical and numerical results in the optimal control of the linear and nonlinear panel vibrations, respectively, excited by the flow pressure fluctuations. Finally, in section five, we draw some conclusions from research findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bromirski, P. D.; Diez, A.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.
2015-09-01
Broadband seismic stations were deployed across the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) in November 2014 to study ocean gravity wave-induced vibrations. Initial data from three stations 100 km from the RIS front and within 10 km of each other show both dispersed infragravity (IG) wave and ocean swell-generated signals resulting from waves that originate in the North Pacific. Spectral levels from 0.001 to 10 Hz have the highest accelerations in the IG band (0.0025-0.03 Hz). Polarization analyses indicate complex frequency-dependent particle motions, with energy in several frequency bands having distinctly different propagation characteristics. The dominant IG band signals exhibit predominantly horizontal propagation from the north. Particle motion analyses indicate retrograde elliptical particle motions in the IG band, consistent with these signals propagating as Rayleigh-Lamb (flexural) waves in the ice shelf/water cavity system that are excited by ocean wave interactions nearer the shelf front.
Gough, Colin E
2012-05-01
The modal frequencies and bending mode shapes of a freely supported tapered violin bow are investigated by finite element analysis and direct measurement, with and without tensioned bow hair. Such computations are used with analytic models to model the admittance presented to the stretched bow hairs at the ends of the bow and to the string at the point of contact with the bow. Finite element computations are also used to demonstrate the influence of the lowest stick mode vibrations on the low frequency bouncing modes, when the hand-held bow is pressed against the string. The possible influence of the dynamic stick modes on the sound of the bowed instrument is briefly discussed. PMID:22559386