Marusic, Ivan
Use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) data to investigate spatial resolution issues of direct numerical simulation (DNS) data to investigate spatial resolution issues in measurements of wall-dimensional energy spectra from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow at Re 950. Various
High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent collision of inertial particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosa, Bogdan; Parishani, Hossein; Wang, Lian-Ping; Grabowski, Wojciech
2008-11-01
In this talk we discuss an MPI implementation of turbulent collision and high-resolution DNS results using this MPI code. DNS is limited to relatively small flow Reynolds number or equivalently a small physical domain size at a given flow dissipation rate in a turbulent cloud. Here we are aimed at systematically extending the computational domain size by increasing the grid resolution. The MPI implementation requires parallelization of fluid velocity interpolation at the particle position, Lagrangian particle tracking, and collision detection in addition to the flow parallelization. Domain decomposition has been previously utilized for efficient MPI implementation of FFT in the pseudo-spectral simulation of fluid turbulence. Such a strategy is not naturally in line with the Lagrangian particle dynamics. Two general MPI issues for particle dynamics must be efficiently solved: the gathering of information in a finite region surrounding a particle and travelling of a particle through the boundaries of a subdomain. Our MPI results are carefully validated against a previous OpenMP implementation. Finally, turbulent collision statistics of inertial particles at grid resolution up to 512^3 with O(10^6) particles will be presented.
A numerical method for DNS of turbulent reacting flows using complex chemistry
Mahesh, Krishnan
A numerical method for DNS of turbulent reacting flows using complex chemistry Rajapandiyan reacting flows.1 Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are very accurate the capability to perform DNS/LES of turbulent reacting flows in complex geometries. The challenge in simulating
Direct Numerical Simulation DNS: Maximum Error as a Function of Mode Number
Jameson, L.
2000-06-01
Numerical errors can be characterized in terms of algebraic polynomial approximation of a sine wave. The magnitude of the error will, therefore, depend on the energy at each mode in a Fourier expansion. Flows with a great deal of energy in the highest modes, such as Turbulence, are therefore the most difficult to approximate.
Martín, Pino
of Numerical Methods for DNS of Shockwave/Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction M. Wu and M.P. Martin Mechanical and experimental data of Bookey et al.2 are investigated. Deficiencies of current numerical methods for DNS of error for the discrepancy between previous direct numerical simulation (DNS) results of Wu et al.1
A Numerical Method for DNS/LES of Turbulent Reacting Flows Jeff Doom, Yucheng Hou & Krishnan Mahesh
Mahesh, Krishnan
A Numerical Method for DNS/LES of Turbulent Reacting Flows Jeff Doom, Yucheng Hou & Krishnan Mahesh, 226: 11361151 Abstract A spatially non-dissipative, implicit numerical method to simulate turbulent mechanisms are presented. Keywords: DNS; LES; Turbulent reacting flows; Non-dissipative; Implicit 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishay, Peter L.; Dong, Leiting; Atluri, Satya N.
2014-11-01
Conceptually simple and computationally most efficient polygonal computational grains with voids/inclusions are proposed for the direct numerical simulation of the micromechanics of piezoelectric composite/porous materials with non-symmetrical arrangement of voids/inclusions. These are named "Multi-Physics Computational Grains" (MPCGs) because each "mathematical grain" is geometrically similar to the irregular shapes of the physical grains of the material in the micro-scale. So each MPCG element represents a grain of the matrix of the composite and can include a pore or an inclusion. MPCG is based on assuming independent displacements and electric-potentials in each cell. The trial solutions in each MPCG do not need to satisfy the governing differential equations, however, they are still complete, and can efficiently model concentration of electric and mechanical fields. MPCG can be used to model any generally anisotropic material as well as nonlinear problems. The essential idea can also be easily applied to accurately solve other multi-physical problems, such as complex thermal-electro-magnetic-mechanical materials modeling. Several examples are presented to show the capabilities of the proposed MPCGs and their accuracy.
An Accurate Numerical Method for DNS of Turbulent Pipe Flow
J. G. M. Kuerten
2010-01-01
\\u000a In contrast with channel flow, there are only few numerical methods for DNS of turbulent pipe flow [1]. The reason for this\\u000a is the singularity at the pipe axis, which results from transformation of the governing equations to cylindrical coordinates.\\u000a Most numerical methods which are presently being used can be divided in two classes. In the first class [2–4] use
SIMULATION NUMERIQUE DIRECTE (DNS) DU CHANGEMENT DE PHASE LIQUIDE-VAPEUR
Faccanoni, Gloria
SIMULATION NUM´ERIQUE DIRECTE (DNS) DU CHANGEMENT DE PHASE LIQUIDE-VAPEUR Contribution à l'étude de multiphasique 4 Méthode numérique 5 Résultats numériques 6 On going & To do G. Faccanoni DNS DU CHANGEMENT DE numérique 5 Résultats numériques 6 On going & To do G. Faccanoni DNS DU CHANGEMENT DE PHASE LIQUIDE-VAPEUR 3
Numerical Errors in DNS: Total Run-Time Error
Jameson, L.
2000-06-06
Understanding numerical errors in simulations is critical for many reasons. First and foremost, one must some estimate concerning the reliability of the final result. Simply put, numerical errors add up over time and in most cases the increase is a linear process. It is quite possible that running a code for a very long time can lead to a solution which is completely meaningless even though it may look reasonable. This manuscript will begin a technical discussion on these issues.
Mahesh, Krishnan
in the DNS, the numerical method, computa- tional grid, and jet param on turbulent jets is experimen- tal. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) of spatially evolving turbulent jets is relatively recent. Boersma, Brethouwer, and Nieuwstadt11 have performed one of the early DNS to study
Detailed characteristics of drop-laden mixing layers: LES predictions compared to DNS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Okong'o, N.; Leboissetier, A.; Bellan, J.
2004-01-01
Results have been compared from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of a temporal mixing layer laden with evaporating drops, to assess the ability of LES to reproduce detailed characteristics of DNS.
Turbulent partially premixed combustion: DNS analysis and RANS simulation
Ruan, S.
2013-03-12
distribution is found to give reasonable results for their marginal PDFs and a bivariate lognormal distribution is a good approximation for their joint PDF. Four mean reaction rate closures based on presumed PDF and flamelets are assessed a priori using DNS... joint PDF model which includes the correlation between mixture fraction and progress variable using a “copula” method shows excellent agreement with DNS results while their statistical independence does not hold in the burning regions of this partially...
Discussion of DNS: Past, Present, and Future
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, Ronald D.
1997-01-01
This paper covers the review, status, and projected future of direct numerical simulation (DNS) methodology relative to the state-of-the-art in computer technology, numerical methods, and the trends in fundamental research programs.
Numerical simulation of turbulent jet primary breakup in Diesel engines
Helluy, Philippe
Numerical simulation of turbulent jet primary breakup in Diesel engines Peng Zeng1 Marcus Herrmann" IRMA Strasbourg, 23.Jan.2008 #12;Introduction DNS of Primary Breakup in Diesel Injection Phase Transition Modeling Turbulence Modeling Summary Outline 1 Introduction 2 DNS of Primary Breakup in Diesel
DNS of autoignition in turbulent diffusion H2/air and Krishnan Mahesh
Mahesh, Krishnan
DNS of autoignition in turbulent diffusion H2/air flames Jeff Doom and Krishnan Mahesh University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study auto and diffusion, then autoignite due to the high temperatures of the oxidizer. Direct numerical simulation (DNS
Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows Using Spectral Methods
Jacobs, Gustaaf "Guus"
categories: theory, physical experiments and numerical simulation. The explosive growth of computational of representation of the physics and accuracy, into direct numerical simulation (DNS), large-eddy simulation (LESDirect Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows Using Spectral Methods K. Sengupta, and F. Mashayek
Detonation shock dynamics and comparisons with direct numerical simulation
Aslam, Tariq
. Scott Stewart + August 17, 1998 Abstract Comparisons between direct numerical simulation (DNS) of deto]. The engineering method of DSD does not solve the reactive Euler equations, but rather it solves the intrinsic PDE
Detonation shock dynamics and comparisons with direct numerical simulation
Aslam, Tariq
. Scott Stewart August 17, 1998 Abstract Comparisons between direct numerical simulation (DNS) of deto velocity, Dn, the normal acceleration, Dn, and the total curvature, [12]. The engineering method of DSD
Progress in direct numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer
Kasagi, Nobuhide; Iida, Oaki
1999-07-01
With high performance computers, reliable numerical methods and efficient post-processing environment, direct numerical simulation (DNS) offers valuable numerical experiments for turbulent heat transfer research. In particular, one can extensively study the turbulence dynamics and transport mechanism by visualizing any physical variable in space and time. It is also possible to establish detailed database of various turbulence statistics of turbulent transport phenomena, while systematically changing important flow and scalar field parameters. The present paper illustrates these novelties of DNS by introducing several examples in recent studies. Future directions of DNS for turbulence and heat transfer research are also discussed.
Raman, Venkat
discretization. In this work, a novel coupled direct numerical simulation DNS -LES a posteriori method is used using the unique information provided by the combined DNS-LES simulation method. Overall, transport scalar methods for large eddy simulation LES of nonpremixed turbulent combustion.13 In these approaches
Martín, Pino
turbulent length scales and time scales must be resolved by the numerical method. Thus, DNS requires May 2006 Available online 12 July 2006 Abstract Two new formulations of a symmetric WENO method the conservation of mass, momen- tum and energy equations. For direct numerical simulations (DNS) all possible
Predictive Inner-Outer Model for Turbulent Boundary Layers Applied to Hypersonic DNS Data
Martín, Pino
Predictive Inner-Outer Model for Turbulent Boundary Layers Applied to Hypersonic DNS Data Clara numerical simulation (DNS) data of supersonic and hypersonic turbulent boundaries with Mach 3 and Mach 7, and Martin1214 on DNS of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers demonstrates the existence of large scale
MODELING OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION EFFECTS USING DNS OF TURBULENT CHANNEL FLOW
Marusic, Ivan
MODELING OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION EFFECTS USING DNS OF TURBULENT CHANNEL FLOW C. Chin1 , N. Hutchins1- tra from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbu- lent channel flow at Re 934. Various spanwise-length is in- creased and the filtered DNS results show good agree- ment. It is shown that small-scale energy
Efficient Parallel Algorithm For Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, Stuti; Gatski, Thomas B.
1997-01-01
A distributed algorithm for a high-order-accurate finite-difference approach to the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of transition and turbulence in compressible flows is described. This work has two major objectives. The first objective is to demonstrate that parallel and distributed-memory machines can be successfully and efficiently used to solve computationally intensive and input/output intensive algorithms of the DNS class. The second objective is to show that the computational complexity involved in solving the tridiagonal systems inherent in the DNS algorithm can be reduced by algorithm innovations that obviate the need to use a parallelized tridiagonal solver.
Xiaolin Zhong
1998-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) has become a powerful tool in studying fundamental phenomena of laminar-turbulent transition of high-speed boundary layers. Previous DNS studies of supersonic and hypersonic boundary layer transition have been limited to perfect-gas flow over flat-plate boundary layers without shock waves. For hypersonic boundary layers over realistic blunt bodies, DNS studies of transition need to consider the effects
LES versus DNS: A comparative study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.
1992-01-01
We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.
Hydroacoustic forcing function modeling using DNS database
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zawadzki, I.; Gershfield, J. L.; Na, Y.; Wang, M.
1996-01-01
A wall pressure frequency spectrum model (Blake 1971 ) has been evaluated using databases from Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of a turbulent boundary layer (Na & Moin 1996). Good agreement is found for moderate to strong adverse pressure gradient flows in the absence of separation. In the separated flow region, the model underpredicts the directly calculated spectra by an order of magnitude. The discrepancy is attributed to the violation of the model assumptions in that part of the flow domain. DNS computed coherence length scales and the normalized wall pressure cross-spectra are compared with experimental data. The DNS results are consistent with experimental observations.
Martín, Pino
number L. Duan , I. Beekman , M. P. Mart´in In this paper, the effects of freestream Mach number numer- ical simulations(DNS). DNS of turbulent boundary layers with nominal freestream Mach number number considered. Com- pressibility effects are enhanced with increasing freestream Mach number
35th Fluid Dynamics Meeting,Toronto, Canada, June 2005 Assessment of STBLI DNS Data and Comparison
Martín, Pino
35th Fluid Dynamics Meeting,Toronto, Canada, June 2005 Assessment of STBLI DNS Data and Comparison experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction (STBLI) under, as observed experimentally,5, 6 are found in the DNS data. Namely, the 24 compression corner produces the same
Direct numerical simulation of hot jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacob, Marc C.
1993-01-01
The ultimate motivation of this work is to investigate the stability of two dimensional heated jets and its implications for aerodynamic sound generation from data obtained with direct numerical simulations (DNS). As pointed out in our last report, these flows undergo two types of instabilities, convective or absolute, depending on their temperature. We also described the limits of earlier experimental and theoretical studies and explained why a numerical investigation could give us new insight into the physics of these instabilities. The aeroacoustical interest of these flows was also underlined. In order to reach this goal, we first need to succeed in the DNS of heated jets. Our past efforts have been focused on this issue which encountered several difficulties. Our numerical difficulties are directly related to the physical problem we want to investigate since these absolutely or almost absolutely unstable flows are by definition very sensitive to the smallest disturbances and are very likely to reach nonlinear saturation through a numerical feedback mechanism. As a result, it is very difficult to compute a steady laminar solution using a spatial DNS. A steady state was reached only for strongly co-flowed jets, but these flows are almost equivalent to two independent mixing layers. Thus they are far from absolute instability and have much lower growth rates.
Martín, Pino
36th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, June 58, 2006/San Francisco,California New DNS Results Department Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 In previous direct numerical simulations1 (DNS) of shockwave and turbulent boundary layer interactions we found significant discrepancies between the DNS
A numerical method for DNS/LES of turbulent reacting flows
Doom, Jeff; Hou, Yucheng; Mahesh, Krishnan
2007-09-10
A spatially non-dissipative, implicit numerical method to simulate turbulent reacting flows over a range of Mach numbers, is described. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are rescaled so that the zero Mach number equations are discretely recovered in the limit of zero Mach number. The dependent variables are co-located in space, and thermodynamic variables are staggered from velocity in time. The algorithm discretely conserves kinetic energy in the incompressible, inviscid, non-reacting limit. The chemical source terms are implicit in time to allow for stiff chemical mechanisms. The algorithm is readily extended to complex chemical mechanisms. Numerical examples using both simple and complex chemical mechanisms are presented.
CoDNS: Improving DNS Performance and Reliability via Cooperative Lookups
Pai, Vivek
CoDNS: Improving DNS Performance and Reliability via Cooperative Lookups KyoungSoo Park, Vivek S The Domain Name System (DNS) is a ubiquitous part of everyday computing, translating human-friendly ma- chine names to numeric IP addresses. Most DNS re- search has focused on server-side infrastructure
Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1989-01-01
An overview of historical and current numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS) is given. The capabilities and goals of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility are outlined. Emphasis is given to numerical flow visualization and its applications to structural analysis of aircraft and spacecraft bodies. The uses of NAS in computational chemistry, engine design, and galactic evolution are mentioned.
Martín, Pino
simulations (DNS), all possible length scales and time scales must be resolved by the numerical method. ThusA parallel implicit method for the direct numerical simulation of wall-bounded compressible is presented. The formulation of the implicit method and the corresponding tunable parameters are introduced
Direct numerical simulation of a reacting turbulent channel flow with thermo-chemical ablation
Nicoud, Franck
metal oxide particles such as Al2O3(l)). The description of surface ablation is consequently veryDirect numerical simulation of a reacting turbulent channel flow with thermo-chemical ablation presents the results obtained by performing a set of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of periodic channel
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Large Domain
Martín, Pino
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Large Domain Stephan Priebe , M. Pino Mart´in The direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially-developing hypersonic There are few studies of hypersonic flows at Mach number greater than 5 and few involve the measurement of mean
Low-Frequency Unsteadiness in the DNS of a Compression Ramp Shockwave and Turbulent
Martín, Pino
Low-Frequency Unsteadiness in the DNS of a Compression Ramp Shockwave and Turbulent Boundary Layer Interaction Stephan Priebe , M. Pino Mart´in The direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a compression ramp shockwave and turbulent boundary layer interaction (STBLI) is presented. The ramp angle is 24
Terascale Direct Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Combustion: Capabilities and Limits (PReSS Talk)
Yoo, Chun Sang (Combustion Research Facility, SNL) [Combustion Research Facility, SNL
2009-03-26
The rapid growth in computational capabilities has provided great opportunities for direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent combustion, a type of simulations without any turbulence model. With the help of terascale high performance supercomputing (HPC) resources, we are now able to provide fundamental insight into turbulence-chemistry interaction in simple laboratory-scale turbulent flames with detailed chemistry using three-dimensional (3D) DNS. However, the actual domain size of 3D-DNS is still limited within {approx} O(10 cm{sup 3}) due to its tremendously high grid resolution required to resolve the smallest turbulent length scale as well as flame structures. Moreover, 3D-DNS will require more computing powers to investigate next-generation engines, of which operating conditions will be characterized by higher pressures, lower temperatures, and higher levels of dilution. In this talk, I will discuss the capabilities and limits of DNS of turbulent combustion and present some results of ignition/extinction characteristics of a highly diluted hydrogen flame counter-flowing against heated air. The results of our recent 3D-DNS of a spatially-developing turbulent lifted hydrogen jet flame in heated coflow will also be presented. The 3D-DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 11,000 with {approx} 1 billion grid points, which required 3.5 million CPU hours on Cray XT3/XT4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratories.
PDF turbulence modeling and DNS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsu, A. T.
1992-01-01
The problem of time discontinuity (or jump condition) in the coalescence/dispersion (C/D) mixing model is addressed in probability density function (pdf). A C/D mixing model continuous in time is introduced. With the continuous mixing model, the process of chemical reaction can be fully coupled with mixing. In the case of homogeneous turbulence decay, the new model predicts a pdf very close to a Gaussian distribution, with finite higher moments also close to that of a Gaussian distribution. Results from the continuous mixing model are compared with both experimental data and numerical results from conventional C/D models. The effect of Coriolis forces on compressible homogeneous turbulence is studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The numerical method used in this study is an eight order compact difference scheme. Contrary to the conclusions reached by previous DNS studies on incompressible isotropic turbulence, the present results show that the Coriolis force increases the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and that anisotropy develops as the Coriolis force increases. The Taylor-Proudman theory does apply since the derivatives in the direction of the rotation axis vanishes rapidly. A closer analysis reveals that the dissipation rate of the incompressible component of the turbulent kinetic energy indeed decreases with a higher rotation rate, consistent with incompressible flow simulations (Bardina), while the dissipation rate of the compressible part increases; the net gain is positive. Inertial waves are observed in the simulation results.
Significance of DNS in combustion science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeno, Tadao; Mizobuchi, Yasuhiro
2006-08-01
The recent advancement in numerical calculations provides us with a new scientific approach to combustion phenomena, that is, numerical experiment. The authors have succeeded in capturing a hydrogen jet lifted flame by DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) approach with detailed chemistry and exact transport properties. The simulation made clear that the flame is not a single flame, but a complex flame composed of three flame elements. Some aspects of the flame elements showed the properties of laminar flames and some showed very complicated and unsteady nature of turbulent flames that cannot be described by the conventional laminar flame theory. In this article, the problems of this kind of study are identified and the direction of study is suggested throughout the DNS studies on the hydrogen jet lifted flame. To cite this article: T. Takeno, Y. Mizobuchi, C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).
Rocket engine numerical simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Ken
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: a rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS) definition; objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusion.
Rocket engine numerical simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidian, Ken
1993-01-01
The topics are presented in view graph form and include the following: a definition of the rocket engine numerical simulator (RENS); objectives; justification; approach; potential applications; potential users; RENS work flowchart; RENS prototype; and conclusions.
Resistance Welding Numerical Simulation
Thomas Dupuy; Chainarong Srikunwong
2004-01-01
Among welding processes, resistance welding numerical simulation offers the advantage of a direct computation of heat sources through electro-thermal coupling. On the other hand, rare contact input data have to be found or measured. As for other welding processes, the general difficulty in numerical modelling is the availability of input data at all temperatures from room temperature to beyond melting
Direct numerical simulation of nonpremixed flame-wall interactions
Wang, Yi; Trouve, Arnaud
2006-02-01
The objective of the present study is to use detailed numerical modeling to obtain basic information on the interaction of nonpremixed flames with cold wall surfaces. The questions of turbulent fuel-air-temperature mixing, flame extinction, and wall-surface heat transfer are studied using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The DNS configuration corresponds to an ethylene-air diffusion flame stabilized in the near-wall region of a chemically inert solid surface. Simulations are performed with adiabatic or isothermal wall boundary conditions and with different turbulence intensities. The simulations feature flame extinction events resulting from excessive wall cooling and convective heat transfer rates up to 90 kW/m{sup 2}. The structure of the simulated wall flames is studied in terms of a classical mass-mixing variable, the fuel-air based mixture fraction, and a less familiar heat loss variable, the excess enthalpy variable, introduced to provide a measure of nonadiabatic behavior due to wall cooling. In addition to the flame structure, extinction events are also studied in detail and a modified flame extinction criterion that combines the concepts of mixture fraction and excess enthalpy is proposed and then tested against the DNS data. (author)
Direct Numerical Simulation and Theories of Wall Turbulence with a Range of Pressure Gradients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, G. N.; Garbaruk, A.; Spalart, P. R.
2014-01-01
A new Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of Couette-Poiseuille flow at a higher Reynolds number is presented and compared with DNS of other wall-bounded flows. It is analyzed in terms of testing semi-theoretical proposals for universal behavior of the velocity, mixing length, or eddy viscosity in pressure gradients, and in terms of assessing the accuracy of two turbulence models. These models are used in two modes, the traditional one with only a dependence on the wall-normal coordinate y, and a newer one in which a lateral dependence on z is added. For pure Couette flow and the Couette-Poiseuille case considered here, this z-dependence allows some models to generate steady streamwise vortices, which generally improves the agreement with DNS and experiment. On the other hand, it complicates the comparison between DNS and models.
Direct numerical simulations of convective heat transfer
Pointel, G.; Acharya, S.; Sharma, C.
1996-11-01
This paper deals with the development of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) code for solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation using higher order finite difference schemes. The time dependent Navier Stokes equation has been discretized using semi-implicit second order time splitting scheme, which requires the solution of pressure Poisson equation. For this purpose a Galerkin Fourier transform in the spanwise direction and a matrix diagonalization technique is used. The convection terms are formulated in non-conservative form on a collocated grid. A fifth order upwind biased scheme is used for this purpose. Diffusion terms are differenced using a sixth order central difference scheme. The algorithm is implemented on the MasPar MP-1, a Single Instruction Multiple Data computer where efficient data parallelization is used to get DNS results. The code has been used to get results for smooth channel flow at Re{sub {tau}} = 180. Results are now being obtained for the energy equation and for flow in a periodic ribbed channel.
Numerical simulation of fracture
Margolin, L.G.; Adams, T.F.
1982-01-01
The Bedded Crack Model (BCM) is a constitutive model for brittle materials. It is based on effective modulus theory and makes use of a generalized Griffith criterion for crack growth. It is used in a solid dynamic computer code to simulate stress wave propagation and fracture in rock. A general description of the model is given and then the theoretical basis for it is presented. Some effects of finite cell size in numerical simulations are discussed. The use of the BCM is illustrated in simulations of explosive fracture of oil shale. There is generally good agreement between the calculations and data from field experiments.
Direct numerical simulation of surface ablation by turbulent convection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crocker, Ryan; Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher
2009-11-01
Rapid erosion by a turbulent flow creates complex flow/surface phenomena arising from the evolving surface topography and its interaction with a turbulent flow that transports the erosive agent onto the surface. The non-equilibrium nature of the problem poses major challenges to current turbulent models and boundary conditions used in direct numerical simulation (DNS) algorithms. A generalized algorithm for turbulent erosion processes based on level-set and immersed boundary methods has been developed in a DNS flow solver to investigate the action of various erosive agents (heat, particles, chemical species) on erodible surfaces. This algorithm is applied to the ablation of a slab of ice by natural and forced convection of water. The study focuses on the characterization of the surface topography in relation to the evolution of coherent structures in the flow, as ablation proceeds.
Large eddy simulations and direct numerical simulations of high speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman; Madnia, C. K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Tsai, A.
1991-01-01
This research is involved with the implementations of advanced computational schemes based on large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) to study the phenomenon of mixing and its coupling with chemical reactions in compressible turbulent flows. In the efforts related to LES, a research program was initiated to extend the present capabilities of this method for the treatment of chemically reacting flows, whereas in the DNS efforts, focus was on detailed investigations of the effects of compressibility, heat release, and nonequilibrium kinetics modeling in high speed reacting flows. The efforts to date were primarily focussed on simulations of simple flows, namely, homogeneous compressible flows and temporally developing hign speed mixing layers. A summary of the accomplishments is provided.
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Complex Geometries using the Coherent Vortex
École Normale Supérieure
Roussel, and Kai Schneider Abstract Applications of the wavelet based coherent vortex extraction method the developed adaptive multiresolution method for evolutionary PDEs. Then we show first fully adaptive are necessary because Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of fullydeveloped turbu- lent flows is up to now
Acceleration Statistics of Inertial Particles from High Resolution DNS Turbulence
Cencini, Massimo
Acceleration Statistics of Inertial Particles from High Resolution DNS Turbulence Federico Toschi1 the statistics of particle acceleration. We focus on the probability density function of the normalised acceleration. 2 Heavy Particle Dynamics and Numerical Simulations The equations of motion of a small, rigid
Dynamic stiffness removal for direct numerical simulations
Lu, Tianfeng; Law, Chung K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Yoo, Chun Sang; Chen, Jacqueline H. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)
2009-08-15
A systematic approach was developed to derive non-stiff reduced mechanisms for direct numerical simulations (DNS) with explicit integration solvers. The stiffness reduction was achieved through on-the-fly elimination of short time-scales induced by two features of fast chemical reactivity, namely quasi-steady-state (QSS) species and partial-equilibrium (PE) reactions. The sparse algebraic equations resulting from QSS and PE approximations were utilized such that the efficiency of the dynamic stiffness reduction is high compared with general methods of time-scale reduction based on Jacobian decomposition. Using the dimension reduction strategies developed in our previous work, a reduced mechanism with 52 species was first derived from a detailed mechanism with 561 species. The reduced mechanism was validated for ignition and extinction applications over the parameter range of equivalence ratio between 0.5 and 1.5, pressure between 10 and 50 atm, and initial temperature between 700 and 1600 K for ignition, and worst-case errors of approximately 30% were observed. The reduced mechanism with dynamic stiffness removal was then applied in homogeneous and 1-D ignition applications, as well as a 2-D direct numerical simulation of ignition with temperature inhomogeneities at constant volume with integration time-steps of 5-10 ns. The integration was numerically stable and good accuracy was achieved. (author)
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Naiman, Cynthia
2006-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with the aerospace industry, other government agencies, and academia, is leading the effort to develop an advanced multidisciplinary analysis environment for aerospace propulsion systems called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS is a framework for performing analysis of complex systems. The initial development of NPSS focused on the analysis and design of airbreathing aircraft engines, but the resulting NPSS framework may be applied to any system, for example: aerospace, rockets, hypersonics, power and propulsion, fuel cells, ground based power, and even human system modeling. NPSS provides increased flexibility for the user, which reduces the total development time and cost. It is currently being extended to support the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Fundamental Aeronautics Program and the Advanced Virtual Engine Test Cell (AVETeC). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, and heat transfer with numerical zooming on component codes. Zooming is the coupling of analyses at various levels of detail. NPSS development includes capabilities to facilitate collaborative engineering. The NPSS will provide improved tools to develop custom components and to use capability for zooming to higher fidelity codes, coupling to multidiscipline codes, transmitting secure data, and distributing simulations across different platforms. These powerful capabilities extend NPSS from a zero-dimensional simulation tool to a multi-fidelity, multidiscipline system-level simulation tool for the full development life cycle.
Direct numerical simulation of incompressible axisymmetric flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loulou, Patrick
1994-01-01
In the present work, we propose to conduct direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible turbulent axisymmetric jets and wakes. The objectives of the study are to understand the fundamental behavior of axisymmetric jets and wakes, which are perhaps the most technologically relevant free shear flows (e.g. combuster injectors, propulsion jet). Among the data to be generated are various statistical quantities of importance in turbulence modeling, like the mean velocity, turbulent stresses, and all the terms in the Reynolds-stress balance equations. In addition, we will be interested in the evolution of large-scale structures that are common in free shear flow. The axisymmetric jet or wake is also a good problem in which to try the newly developed b-spline numerical method. Using b-splines as interpolating functions in the non-periodic direction offers many advantages. B-splines have local support, which leads to sparse matrices that can be efficiently stored and solved. Also, they offer spectral-like accuracy that are C(exp O-1) continuous, where O is the order of the spline used; this means that derivatives of the velocity such as the vorticity are smoothly and accurately represented. For purposes of validation against existing results, the present code will also be able to simulate internal flows (ones that require a no-slip boundary condition). Implementation of no-slip boundary condition is trivial in the context of the b-splines.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tryggvason, Gretar
2013-03-01
Many natural and industrial processes, such as rain and gas exchange between the atmosphere and oceans, boiling heat transfer, atomization and chemical reactions in bubble columns, involve multiphase flows. Often the mixture can be described as a disperse flow where one phase consists of bubbles or drops. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of disperse flow have recently been used to study the dynamics of multiphase flows with a large number of bubbles and drops, often showing that the collective motion results in relatively simple large-scale structure. Here we review simulations of bubbly flows in vertical channels where the flow direction, as well as the bubble deformability, has profound implications on the flow structure and the total flow rate. Results obtained so far are summarized and open questions identified. The resolution for DNS of multiphase flows is usually determined by a dominant scale, such as the average bubble or drop size, but in many cases much smaller scales are also present. These scales often consist of thin films, threads, or tiny drops appearing during coalescence or breakup, or are due to the presence of additional physical processes that operate on a very different time scale than the fluid flow. The presence of these small-scale features demand excessive resolution for conventional numerical approaches. However, at small flow scales the effects of surface tension are generally strong so the interface geometry is simple and viscous forces dominate the flow and keep it simple also. These are exactly the conditions under which analytical models can be used and we will discuss efforts to combine a semi-analytical description for the small-scale processes with a fully resolved simulation of the rest of the flow. We will, in particular, present an embedded analytical description to capture the mass transfer from bubbles in liquids where the diffusion of mass is much slower than the diffusion of momentum. This results in very thin mass-boundary layers that are difficult to resolve, but the new approach allows us to simulate the mass transfer from many freely evolving bubbles and examine the effect of the interactions of the bubbles with each other and the flow. We will conclude by attempting to summarize the current status of DNS of multiphase flows. Many natural and industrial processes, such as rain and gas exchange between the atmosphere and oceans, boiling heat transfer, atomization and chemical reactions in bubble columns, involve multiphase flows. Often the mixture can be described as a disperse flow where one phase consists of bubbles or drops. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of disperse flow have recently been used to study the dynamics of multiphase flows with a large number of bubbles and drops, often showing that the collective motion results in relatively simple large-scale structure. Here we review simulations of bubbly flows in vertical channels where the flow direction, as well as the bubble deformability, has profound implications on the flow structure and the total flow rate. Results obtained so far are summarized and open questions identified. The resolution for DNS of multiphase flows is usually determined by a dominant scale, such as the average bubble or drop size, but in many cases much smaller scales are also present. These scales often consist of thin films, threads, or tiny drops appearing during coalescence or breakup, or are due to the presence of additional physical processes that operate on a very different time scale than the fluid flow. The presence of these small-scale features demand excessive resolution for conventional numerical approaches. However, at small flow scales the effects of surface tension are generally strong so the interface geometry is simple and viscous forces dominate the flow and keep it simple also. These are exactly the conditions under which analytical models can be used and we will discuss efforts to combine a semi-analytical description for the small-scale processes with a fully resolved simulation of the rest of the flow. We will, in parti
The Use of DNS in Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mansour, Nagi N.; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The use of Direct numerical simulations (DNS) data in developing and testing turbulence models is reviewed. The data is used to test turbulence models at all levels: algebraic, one-equation, two-equation and full Reynolds stress models were tested. Particular examples on the development of models for the dissipation rate equation are presented. Homogeneous flows are used to test new scaling arguments for the various terms in the dissipation rate equation. The channel flow data is used to develop modifications to the equation model that take into account near-wall effects. DNS of compressible flows under mean compression are used in testing new compressible modifications to the two-equation models.
Perlekar, Prasad; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul
2010-12-01
We carry out a direct numerical simulation (DNS) study that reveals the effects of polymers on statistically steady, forced, homogeneous, and isotropic fluid turbulence. We find clear manifestations of dissipation-reduction phenomena: on the addition of polymers to the turbulent fluid, we obtain a reduction in the energy dissipation rate; a significant modification of the fluid-energy spectrum, especially in the deep-dissipation range; and signatures of the suppression of small-scale structures, including a decrease in small-scale vorticity filaments. We also compare our results with recent experiments and earlier DNS studies of decaying fluid turbulence with polymer additives. PMID:21230740
Prasad Perlekar; Dhrubaditya Mitra; Rahul Pandit
2011-01-29
We carry out a direct numerical simulation (DNS) study that reveals the effects of polymers on statistically steady, forced, homogeneous, isotropic fluid turbulence. We find clear manifestations of dissipation-reduction phenomena: On the addition of polymers to the turbulent fluid, we obtain a reduction in the energy dissipation rate, a significant modification of the fluid energy spectrum, especially in the deep-dissipation range, a suppression of small-scale intermittency, and a decrease in small-scale vorticity filaments. We also compare our results with recent experiments and earlier DNS studies of decaying fluid turbulence with polymer additives.
Using DNS to Understand Aerosol Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collins, Lance
2003-11-01
In recent years, direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been increasingly used to investigate aerosol processes in turbulent flows. Most of these studies are based on solving the fluid velocity on an Eulerian mesh and tracking the particles in a Lagrangian frame of reference, with appropriate interpolation to bring the two representations together. We have used simulations of this kind to study turbulent coagulation of particles with small, but finite inertia. Inertia causes particles to cluster outside regions of high rotation (Maxey 1987), causing the collision frequency to increase by as much as two orders of magnitude. An effect of this size has profound implications for a broad range of aerosol processes, from the growth of nucleated water droplets in a cloud to powder manufacturing processes. Earlier work has shown that the effect of clustering on collision is captured by the two-particle radial distribution function (RDF) evaluated at contact. We have used DNS to systematically explore the dependence of the RDF on the particle Stokes number (ratio of particle response time to the Kolmogorov time scale), size parameter (ratio of the particle diameter to the Kolmogorov length scale) and Reynolds number. We will summarize those findings. In the latter part of the talk, we will discuss recent experiments by H. Meng's group using holographic imaging to determine the three-dimensional position of suspended particles in a turbulence box. We will show comparisons between the DNS and the experimentally measured RDF.
Double-diffusive interfaces in Lake Kivu reproduced by direct numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sommer, Tobias; Carpenter, Jeffrey R.; Wüest, Alfred
2014-07-01
Double diffusion transforms uniform background gradients of temperature and salinity into "staircases" of homogeneous mixed layers that are separated by high-gradient interfaces. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) and microstructure measurements are two independent methods of estimating double-diffusive fluxes. By performing DNS under similar conditions as found in our measurements in Lake Kivu, we are able to compare results from both methods for the first time. We find that (i) the DNS reproduces the measured interface thicknesses of in situ microstructure profiles, (ii) molecular heat fluxes through interfaces capture the total vertical heat fluxes for density ratios larger than three, and (iii) the commonly used heat flux parameterization underestimates the total fluxes by a factor of 1.3 to 2.2.
Entropy Splitting for High Order Numerical Simulation of Compressible Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandham, N. D.; Yee, H. C.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A stable high order numerical scheme for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of shock-free compressible turbulence is presented. The method is applicable to general geometries. It contains no upwinding, artificial dissipation, or filtering. Instead the method relies on the stabilizing mechanisms of an appropriate conditioning of the governing equations and the use of compatible spatial difference operators for the interior points (interior scheme) as well as the boundary points (boundary scheme). An entropy splitting approach splits the inviscid flux derivatives into conservative and non-conservative portions. The spatial difference operators satisfy a summation by parts condition leading to a stable scheme (combined interior and boundary schemes) for the initial boundary value problem using a generalized energy estimate. A Laplacian formulation of the viscous and heat conduction terms on the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations is used to ensure that any tendency to odd-even decoupling associated with central schemes can be countered by the fluid viscosity. A special formulation of the continuity equation is used, based on similar arguments. The resulting methods are able to minimize spurious high frequency oscillation producing nonlinear instability associated with pure central schemes, especially for long time integration simulation such as DNS. For validation purposes, the methods are tested in a DNS of compressible turbulent plane channel flow at a friction Mach number of 0.1 where a very accurate turbulence data base exists. It is demonstrated that the methods are robust in terms of grid resolution, and in good agreement with incompressible channel data, as expected at this Mach number. Accurate turbulence statistics can be obtained with moderate grid sizes. Stability limits on the range of the splitting parameter are determined from numerical tests.
AIAA 033464 Preliminary Work on DNS and LES
Martín, Pino
AIAA 033464 Preliminary Work on DNS and LES of STBLI M. Pino Martin, Sheng Xu and Minwei Wu4344 #12;Preliminary Work on DNS and LES of STBLI M. Pino Martin, Sheng Xu and Minwei Wu Department simulation (DNS) and large-eddy simulation (LES). In addition, the initialization procedure and boundary
Application and validation of direct numerical simulation for ICF implosion stability analysis
Hoffman, N.M.; Swenson, F.J.; Varnum, W.S.
1996-07-01
We have recently been applying a powerful computational tool, direct numerical simulation (DNS), to evaluate the stability of imploding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules designed for the National Ignition Facility. In DNS, we explicitly calculate the evolution of realistic surface perturbations far into their nonlinear regimes, using a 2D Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code. Because the mesh may become greatly distorted during the calculation, requiring frequent application of an automatic rezoner, and because we use a 2D code to represent 3D perturbations whose nonlinear behavior is shape- dependent, we have been seeking to assess the accuracy of DNS in as many regimes as possible. For this purpose, we have conducted experimental campaigns to observe the instability of radiatively driven imploding cylinders, deuterated-shell spherical capsules, and radiatively accelerated flat foils perturbed on the unheated surface (``feedout`` experiments). We have compared DNS calculations to data from these experiments, and to theoretical predictions for incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability, with satisfactory agreement. Thus we are gradually accumulating confidence in the validity of DNS as applied to ICF.
T. Gastine; B. Dintrans
2008-09-29
We present a purely-radiative hydrodynamic model of the kappa-mechanism that sustains radial oscillations in Cepheid variables. We determine the physical conditions favourable for the kappa-mechanism to occur by the means of a configurable hollow in the radiative conductivity profile. By starting from these most favourable conditions, we complete nonlinear direct numerical simulations (DNS) and compare them with the results given by a linear-stability analysis of radial modes. We find that well-defined instability strips are generated by changing the location and shape of the conductivity hollow. For a given position in the layer, the hollow amplitude and width stand out as the key parameters governing the appearance of unstable modes driven by the kappa-mechanism. The DNS confirm both the growth rates and structures of the linearly-unstable modes. The nonlinear saturation that arises is produced by intricate couplings between the excited fundamental mode and higher damped overtones. These couplings are measured by projecting the DNS fields onto an acoustic subspace built from regular and adjoint eigenvectors and a 2:1 resonance is found to be responsible for the saturation of the kappa-mechanism instability.
A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness
Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew
2015-01-01
We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...
Starck, Jean-Luc
´ERIE PERRIER Abstract. We present a numerical method based on divergence-free wavelets to solve- tions in various engineering and environmental problems. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulence in the DNS of industrial problems. DNS of homogeneous turbulent flows has been performed extensively
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selle, L. C.; Bellan, Josette
2006-01-01
Transitional databases from Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of three-dimensional mixing layers for single-phase flows and two-phase flows with evaporation are analyzed and used to examine the typical hypothesis that the scalar dissipation Probability Distribution Function (PDF) may be modeled as a Gaussian. The databases encompass a single-component fuel and four multicomponent fuels, two initial Reynolds numbers (Re), two mass loadings for two-phase flows and two free-stream gas temperatures. Using the DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF, it is shown, consistent with existing experimental information on single-phase flows, that the Gaussian is a modest approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly poor in the range of the high scalar-dissipation values, which are significant for turbulent reaction rate modeling in non-premixed flows using flamelet models. With the same DNS calculated moments of the scalar-dissipation PDF and making a change of variables, a model of this PDF is proposed in the form of the (beta)-PDF which is shown to approximate much better the DNS-extracted PDF, particularly in the regime of the high scalar-dissipation values. Several types of statistical measures are calculated over the ensemble of the fourteen databases. For each statistical measure, the proposed (beta)-PDF model is shown to be much superior to the Gaussian in approximating the DNS-extracted PDF. Additionally, the agreement between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF even improves when the comparison is performed for higher initial Re layers, whereas the comparison with the Gaussian is independent of the initial Re values. For two-phase flows, the comparison between the DNS-extracted PDF and the (beta)-PDF also improves with increasing free-stream gas temperature and mass loading. The higher fidelity approximation of the DNS-extracted PDF by the (beta)-PDF with increasing Re, gas temperature and mass loading bodes well for turbulent reaction rate modeling.
Numerical simulation of dusty plasmas
Winske, D.
1995-09-01
The numerical simulation of physical processes in dusty plasmas is reviewed, with emphasis on recent results and unresolved issues. Three areas of research are discussed: grain charging, weak dust-plasma interactions, and strong dust-plasma interactions. For each area, we review the basic concepts that are tested by simulations, present some appropriate examples, and examine numerical issues associated with extending present work.
Direct numerical simulation of superfluid turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Karla
At low temperatures, as quantum effects become increasingly apparent, helium (He4) transforms into a superfluid. The motion of superfluid helium (He II) can be decomposed into two interpenetrating components: (1) an inviscid (superfluid) liquid containing line vortices with quantized circulation and (2) a (normal fluid) gas of elementary thermal excitations. At sufficiently high driving velocities, the motion of He II becomes unstable and transitions to turbulence, commonly termed superfluid turbulence or quantum turbulence. A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that the macroscopic statistical behavior of quantum turbulence closely matches that of classical turbulence despite considerable differences in the physics at the mesoscopic scale of the inter-vortex spacing and the microscopic scale of the vortex core diameters [47,50]. Although a commonly used phenomenology involving quantum-vortex/normal-vortex locking has achieved some success in explaining the macroscopic similarities, current laboratory measurements lack sufficient spatial resolution to verify vortex locking. The work presented here investigates the detailed mechanisms underlying quantum turbulence via direct numerical simulations (DNS) of superfluid vortex interactions with interpenetrating normal fluid turbulence. The driving fluid is the normal component which behaves as a statistically homogeneous isotropic turbulent flow, and both forced and decaying cases are simulated. The data obtained from the simulation is analyzed using wavelet transforms and velocity correlations. The normal fluid calculation employs a Navier-Stokes (NS) solver developed by Rouson and Xu [31] in a manner that facilitates rapid integration of new physics by expressing dynamical equations in forms very closely mirroring their analytical expression. The superfluid calculation employs a vortex filament method originated by Schwarz [39,40,41]. The Navier-Stokes and vortex filament equations are marched in time using a software module developed by Rouson, Morris and Xu [33] which facilitates rapid implementation of time advancement algorithms for coupled multi-physics problems.
Turbulence analysis of rough wall channel flows based on direct numerical simulation
Mishra, A. V.; Bolotnov, I. A. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State Univ., Campus Box 7909, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)
2012-07-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of rough wall channel flows was performed for various surface roughnesses. The goal of the presented research is to investigate the effect of nucleating bubbles in subcooled boiling conditions on the turbulence. The nucleating bubbles are represented by hemispherical roughness elements at the wall. The stabilized finite element based code, PHASTA, is used to perform the simulations. Validation against theoretical, experimental and numerical data is performed for smooth channel flow and rectangular rod type of roughness. The presence of roughness elements affects the flow structure within the roughness sublayer, which is estimated to be 5 times the height of roughness elements. DNS observations are consistent with this result and demonstrate the flow homogeneity above 50 viscous units. The influence of roughness elements layout and density on the turbulence parameters is also demonstrated and analyzed. (authors)
DNS of Turbulent Boundary Layers under Highenthalpy Conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Lian; Martín, Pino
2010-11-01
To study real-gas effects and turbulence-chemistry interaction, direct numerical simulations (DNS) of hypersonic boundary layers are conducted under typical hypersonic conditions. We consider the boundary layer on a lifting-body consisting of a flat plate at an angle of attack, which flies at altitude 30km with a Mach number 21. Two different inclined angles, 35^o and 8^o, are considered,representing blunt and slender bodies. Both noncatalytic and supercatalytic wall conditions are considered. The DNS data are studied to assess the validity of Morkovin's hypothesis, the strong Reynolds analogy, as well as the behaviors of turbulence structures under high-enthalpy conditions.Relative to low-enthalpy conditions [1], significant differences in typical scalings are observed. [4pt] [1] L. Duan and I. Beekman and M. P. Mart'in, Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. Part 2: Effect of temperature, J. Fluid Mech. 655 (2010), 419-445.
Numerical simulation of shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biringen, Sedat; Hatay, Ferhat F.
1993-01-01
Most flows of aerodynamic interest are compressible and turbulent. However, our present knowledge on the structures and mechanisms of turbulence is mostly based on incompressible flows. In the present work, compressibility effects in turbulent, high-speed, boundary layer flows are systematically investigated using the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach. Three-dimensional, time-dependent, fully nonlinear, compressible Navier-Stokes equations were numerically integrated by high-order finite-difference methods; no modeling for turbulence is used during the solution because the available resolution is sufficient to capture the relevant scales. The boundary layer problem deals with fully-turbulent compressible flows over flat geometries. Apart from its practical relevance to technological flows, turbulent compressible boundary layer flow is the simplest experimentally realizable turbulent compressible flow. Still, measuring difficulties prohibit a detailed experimental description of the flow, especially in the near-wall region. DNS studies provide a viable means to probe the physics of compressible turbulence in this region. The focus of this work is to explore the paths of energy transfer through which compressible turbulence is sustained. The structural similarities and differences between the incompressible and compressible turbulence are also investigated. The energy flow patterns or energy cascades are found to be directly related to the evolution of vortical structures which are generated in the near-wall region. Near-wall structures, and mechanisms which are not readily accessible through physical experiments are analyzed and their critical role on the evolution and the behavior of the flow is documented extensively.
Resilience of helical fields to turbulent diffusion - II. Direct numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhat, Pallavi; Blackman, Eric G.; Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2014-03-01
Blackman and Subramanian (Paper I) found that sufficiently strong large-scale helical magnetic fields are resilient to turbulent diffusion, decaying on resistively slow rather than turbulently fast time-scales. This bolsters fossil field origins for magnetic fields in some astrophysical objects. Here, we study direct numerical simulations (DNS) of decaying large-scale helical magnetic fields in the presence of non-helical turbulence for two cases: (1) the initial helical field is large enough to decay resistively but transitions to fast decay; (2) the case of Paper I, wherein the transition energy for the initial helical field to decay fast directly is sought. Simulations and two-scale modelling (based on Paper 1) reveal the transition energy, Ec1 to be independent of the turbulent forcing scale, within a small range of RM. For case (2), the two-scale theory predicts a large-scale helical transition energy of Ec2 = (k1/kf)2Meq, where k1 and kf are the large-scale and small turbulent forcing scale, respectively, and Meq is the equipartition magnetic energy. The DNS agree qualitatively with this prediction but the RM, currently achievable, is too small to satisfy a condition 3/RM ? (k1/kf)2, necessary to robustly reveal the transition, Ec2. That two-scale theory and DNS agree wherever they can be compared suggests that Ec2 of Paper I should be identifiable at higher RM in DNS.
A fluctuating lattice-Boltzmann model for direct numerical simulation of particle Brownian motion
Deming Nie; Jianzhong Lin
2009-01-01
A single-relaxation-time fluctuating lattice-Boltzmann (LB) model for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of particle Brownian motion is established by adding a fluctuating component to the lattice-Boltzmann equations (LBEs). The fluctuating term is proved to be the random stress tensor in fluctuating hydrodynamics by recovering Navier–Stokes equations from LBEs through a Chapman–Enskog expansion. A three-dimensional implementation of the model is also presented,
Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing
Warner, Joseph Barnes
1987-01-01
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A Thesis by JOSEPH BARNES WARNER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1987 Maj or Subj ect...: Petroleum Engineering NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING A Thesis by JOSEPH BARNES WARNER Approved as to style and content by: S. A. Holditch (Chairman of Committee) D. D. Van Fleet (member) J. E. Russell (m be ) W. D. Von onten ( ead...
DNS and LES of Turbulent Backward-Facing Step Flow Using 2ND-and 4TH-Order Discretization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meri, Adnan; Wengle, Hans
Results are presented from a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) of turbulent flow over a backward-facing step (Reh=3300) with a fully developed channel flow (Rc?=180) utilized asatime-dependent inflow condition. Numerical solutions using a fourth-order compact (Hermitian) scheme, which was formulated directly for anon-equidistant and staggered grid in [1] are compared with numerical solutions using the classical second-order central scheme. There sults from LES (using the dynamic subgrid scale model) are evaluated against a corresponding DNS reference data set (fourth-order solution).
Numerical simulation of fracture
Margolin, L.G.
1983-01-01
A constructive model for brittle, and quasi-brittle materials is described. The Bedded Crack Model contains a microphysical description of fracture based on Griffith theory. The effect of cracks on material properties is described by effective modulus theory. Underlying the model is a statistical framework in which the evolution in time of a statistical distribution of cracks is calculated. The theory upon which the model is based is described. The model is implemented in a finite difference computer code. Our model is contrasted with the phenomenologic models usually found in computer codes. A computational simulation of the strain rate dependence of failure stress is presented and compared with laboratory data. A simulation of a gas gun experiment is presented, and the mechanism of spall described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, R. D.; Streett, C. L.; Chang, C.-L.
1991-01-01
A study of instabilities in incompressible boundary-layer flow on a flat plate is conducted by spatial direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. Here, the DNS results are used to critically evaluate the results obtained using parabolized stability equations (PSE) theory and to study mechanisms associated with breakdown from laminar to turbulent flow. Three test cases are considered: two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting wave propagation, subharmonic instability breakdown, and oblique-wave break-down. The instability modes predicted by PSE theory are in good quantitative agreement with the DNS results, except a small discrepancy is evident in the mean-flow distortion component of the 2-D test problem. This discrepancy is attributed to far-field boundary- condition differences. Both DNS and PSE theory results show several modal discrepancies when compared with the experiments of subharmonic breakdown. Computations that allow for a small adverse pressure gradient in the basic flow and a variation of the disturbance frequency result in better agreement with the experiments.
Masada, Youhei [Department of Computational Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sano, Takayoshi, E-mail: ymasada@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sano@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2014-10-10
The mechanism of large-scale dynamos in rigidly rotating stratified convection is explored by direct numerical simulations (DNS) in Cartesian geometry. A mean-field dynamo model is also constructed using turbulent velocity profiles consistently extracted from the corresponding DNS results. By quantitative comparison between the DNS and our mean-field model, it is demonstrated that the oscillatory ?{sup 2} dynamo wave, excited and sustained in the convection zone, is responsible for large-scale magnetic activities such as cyclic polarity reversal and spatiotemporal migration. The results provide strong evidence that a nonuniformity of the ?-effect, which is a natural outcome of rotating stratified convection, can be an important prerequisite for large-scale stellar dynamos, even without the ?-effect.
Numerical simulations of fission
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durisen, R. H.; Gingold, R. A.; Scott, E. H.
1984-01-01
Hydrodynamic simulation techniques to the fission problem of the lunar origin were applied. It is indicated that, for fluids with the compressibility of stars, dynamic fission instabilities lead to spiral arm ejection of mass and angular momentum in the form of a ring or disk of debris, not as a single body. Some quantitative aspects of these results seem favorable to lunar origin by fission. Fission instabilities in fluid objects with a smaller degree of compressibility, more closely approximating terrestrial material are considered. Although the qualitative features are similar, there are significant quantitative differences for the stiffer equation of state. The implications of the results for the fission hypothesis of lunar origin are discussed. Evolutions illustrating possible approaches to instability are presented.
High speed turbulent reacting flows: DNS and LES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman
1990-01-01
Work on understanding the mechanisms of mixing and reaction in high speed turbulent reacting flows was continued. Efforts, in particular, were concentrated on taking advantage of modern computational methods to simulate high speed turbulent flows. In doing so, two methodologies were used: large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). In the work related with LES the objective is to study the behavior of the probability density functions (pdfs) of scalar properties within the subgrid in reacting turbulent flows. The data base obtained by DNS for a detailed study of the pdf characteristics within the subgrid was used. Simulations are performed for flows under various initializations to include the effects of compressibility on mixing and chemical reactions. In the work related with DNS, a two-dimensional temporally developing high speed mixing layer under the influence of a second-order non-equilibrium chemical reaction of the type A + B yields products + heat was considered. Simulations were performed with different magnitudes of the convective Mach numbers and with different chemical kinetic parameters for the purpose of examining the isolated effects of the compressibility and the heat released by the chemical reactions on the structure of the layer. A full compressible code was developed and utilized, so that the coupling between mixing and chemical reactions is captured in a realistic manner.
Fish Pectoral Fin Hydrodynamics; Part II: Numerical Simulations and Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, H.; Madden, P. G.
2005-11-01
High-fidelity numerical simulations are being used to examine the key hydrodynamic features and thrust performance of the pectoral fin of a bluegill sunfish which is moving at a constant forward velocity. The numerical modeling approach employs a parallelized immersed boundary solver which can perform direct (DNS) or large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow past highly deformable bodies such as fish pectoral fins. The three-dimensional, time-dependent fin kinematics is obtained via a stereo-videographic technique and experiments also provide PIV data which is used to validate the numerical simulations. The primary objectives of the CFD effort are to quantify the thrust performance of the bluegill sunfish pectoral fin as well as to establish the mechanisms responsible for thrust production. Simulations show that the pectoral fin produces a relatively large amount of thrust at all phases in the fin motion while limiting the magnitude of the transverse forces. The motion of the fin produces a distinct system of connected vortices which are examined in detail in order to gain insight into the thrust producing mechanisms.
An electrowetting microvalve: numerical simulation.
Mohseni, Kamran; Dolatabadi, Ali
2006-09-01
Numerical simulation of a zero-leakage microvalve is investigated where a liquid droplet is used as a gate to regulate the flow in a T junction. The droplet gate is activated by changing its surface tension via an applied electric field. Numerical simulation of the droplet actuation is considered where the effect of electrowetting is imposed in the form of a modified boundary condition at the contact line. Numerical simulation is used to predict the droplet behavior and to design the valve. It is found that the pressure breakdown of the microvalve is significantly affected by the geometry of the T junction corners. It is expected that such a microvalve design will improve the sensitivity and performance of a wide variety of microfluidic devices. PMID:17124138
Direct numerical simulation of flow past cactus--shaped cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babu, Pradeep; Mahesh, Krishnan
2006-11-01
The Saguaro cacti are tall, have short root systems and can withstand high wind velocities (Bulk 1984, Talley et al. 2002). Their trunks are essentially cylindrical with V--shaped longitudinal cavities. The size and number of cavities on the Saguaro cacti vary so that they have a near--constant fraction cavity depth (l/D ratio of about 0.07, Geller & Nobel 1984). Direct numerical simulations is used to assess the aerodynamic effect of the grooves on the cactus. DNS is performed for cactus shaped cylinders with l/d ratio's of 0.07 and 0.105, and smooth cylinders (l/d=0) at the same Reynolds number. Presence of the V--shaped cavities is found to decrease the drag on the cylindrical trunk as well as affect the fluctuating lift forces. The talk will quantify these differences, and discuss the physical mechanisms by which V--shaped cavities on the surface influence the flow.
Estimating uncertainties in statistics computed from direct numerical simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliver, Todd A.; Malaya, Nicholas; Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert D.
2014-03-01
Rigorous assessment of uncertainty is crucial to the utility of direct numerical simulation (DNS) results. Uncertainties in the computed statistics arise from two sources: finite statistical sampling and the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. Due to the presence of non-trivial sampling error, standard techniques for estimating discretization error (such as Richardson extrapolation) fail or are unreliable. This work provides a systematic and unified approach for estimating these errors. First, a sampling error estimator that accounts for correlation in the input data is developed. Then, this sampling error estimate is used as part of a Bayesian extension of Richardson extrapolation in order to characterize the discretization error. These methods are tested using the Lorenz equations and are shown to perform well. These techniques are then used to investigate the sampling and discretization errors in the DNS of a wall-bounded turbulent flow at Re? ? 180. Both small (Lx/? × Lz/? = 4? × 2?) and large (Lx/? × Lz/? = 12? × 4?) domain sizes are investigated. For each case, a sequence of meshes was generated by first designing a "nominal" mesh using standard heuristics for wall-bounded simulations. These nominal meshes were then coarsened to generate a sequence of grid resolutions appropriate for the Bayesian Richardson extrapolation method. In addition, the small box case is computationally inexpensive enough to allow simulation on a finer mesh, enabling the results of the extrapolation to be validated in a weak sense. For both cases, it is found that while the sampling uncertainty is large enough to make the order of accuracy difficult to determine, the estimated discretization errors are quite small. This indicates that the commonly used heuristics provide adequate resolution for this class of problems. However, it is also found that, for some quantities, the discretization error is not small relative to sampling error, indicating that the conventional wisdom that sampling error dominates discretization error for this class of simulations needs to be reevaluated.
Terascale direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion using S3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, J. H.; Choudhary, A.; de Supinski, B.; DeVries, M.; Hawkes, E. R.; Klasky, S.; Liao, W. K.; Ma, K. L.; Mellor-Crummey, J.; Podhorszki, N.; Sankaran, R.; Shende, S.; Yoo, C. S.
2009-01-01
Computational science is paramount to the understanding of underlying processes in internal combustion engines of the future that will utilize non-petroleum-based alternative fuels, including carbon-neutral biofuels, and burn in new combustion regimes that will attain high efficiency while minimizing emissions of particulates and nitrogen oxides. Next-generation engines will likely operate at higher pressures, with greater amounts of dilution and utilize alternative fuels that exhibit a wide range of chemical and physical properties. Therefore, there is a significant role for high-fidelity simulations, direct numerical simulations (DNS), specifically designed to capture key turbulence-chemistry interactions in these relatively uncharted combustion regimes, and in particular, that can discriminate the effects of differences in fuel properties. In DNS, all of the relevant turbulence and flame scales are resolved numerically using high-order accurate numerical algorithms. As a consequence terascale DNS are computationally intensive, require massive amounts of computing power and generate tens of terabytes of data. Recent results from terascale DNS of turbulent flames are presented here, illustrating its role in elucidating flame stabilization mechanisms in a lifted turbulent hydrogen/air jet flame in a hot air coflow, and the flame structure of a fuel-lean turbulent premixed jet flame. Computing at this scale requires close collaborations between computer and combustion scientists to provide optimized scaleable algorithms and software for terascale simulations, efficient collective parallel I/O, tools for volume visualization of multiscale, multivariate data and automating the combustion workflow. The enabling computer science, applied to combustion science, is also required in many other terascale physics and engineering simulations. In particular, performance monitoring is used to identify the performance of key kernels in the DNS code, S3D and especially memory intensive loops in the code. Through the careful application of loop transformations, data reuse in cache is exploited thereby reducing memory bandwidth needs, and hence, improving S3D's nodal performance. To enhance collective parallel I/O in S3D, an MPI-I/O caching design is used to construct a two-stage write-behind method for improving the performance of write-only operations. The simulations generate tens of terabytes of data requiring analysis. Interactive exploration of the simulation data is enabled by multivariate time-varying volume visualization. The visualization highlights spatial and temporal correlations between multiple reactive scalar fields using an intuitive user interface based on parallel coordinates and time histogram. Finally, an automated combustion workflow is designed using Kepler to manage large-scale data movement, data morphing, and archival and to provide a graphical display of run-time diagnostics.
DNS of MHD turbulent flow via the HELIOS supercomputer system at IFERC-CSC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satake, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Masato; Yoshimori, Hajime; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Takase, Kazuyuki
2014-06-01
The simulation plays an important role to estimate characteristics of cooling in a blanket for such high heating plasma in ITER-BA. An objective of this study is to perform large -scale direct numerical simulation (DNS) on heat transfer of magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) turbulent flow on coolant materials assumed from Flibe to lithium. The coolant flow conditions in ITER-BA are assumed to be Reynolds number and Hartmann number of a higher order. The maximum target of the DNS assumed by this study based on the result of the benchmark of Helios at IFERC-CSC for Project cycle 1 is 116 TB (2048 nodes). Moreover, we tested visualization by ParaView to visualize directly the large-scale computational result. If this large-scale DNS becomes possible, an essential understanding and modelling of a MHD turbulent flow and a design of nuclear fusion reactor contributes greatly.
Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 DNS of the thermal effects of laser energy
Mahesh, Krishnan
Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 DNS of the thermal effects of laser energy with isotropic turbulence is studied using numerical simulations. The simulations use air as the working fluid experiences strong compression due to the shock wave and strong expansion in the core. This behav- ior
A high-order photon Monte Carlo method for radiative transfer in direct numerical simulation
Wu, Y.; Modest, M.F.; Haworth, D.C. . E-mail: dch12@psu.edu
2007-05-01
A high-order photon Monte Carlo method is developed to solve the radiative transfer equation. The statistical and discretization errors of the computed radiative heat flux and radiation source term are isolated and quantified. Up to sixth-order spatial accuracy is demonstrated for the radiative heat flux, and up to fourth-order accuracy for the radiation source term. This demonstrates the compatibility of the method with high-fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) for chemically reacting flows. The method is applied to address radiative heat transfer in a one-dimensional laminar premixed flame and a statistically one-dimensional turbulent premixed flame. Modifications of the flame structure with radiation are noted in both cases, and the effects of turbulence/radiation interactions on the local reaction zone structure are revealed for the turbulent flame. Computational issues in using a photon Monte Carlo method for DNS of turbulent reacting flows are discussed.
Mueschke, N; Schilling, O
2008-07-23
A 1152 x 760 x 1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) using initial conditions, geometry, and physical parameters chosen to approximate those of a transitional, small Atwood number Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment [Mueschke, Andrews and Schilling, J. Fluid Mech. 567, 27 (2006)] is presented. The density and velocity fluctuations measured just off of the splitter plate in this buoyantly unstable water channel experiment were parameterized to provide physically-realistic, anisotropic initial conditions for the DNS. The methodology for parameterizing the measured data and numerically implementing the resulting perturbation spectra in the simulation is discussed in detail. The DNS model of the experiment is then validated by comparing quantities from the simulation to experimental measurements. In particular, large-scale quantities (such as the bubble front penetration hb and the mixing layer growth parameter {alpha}{sub b}), higher-order statistics (such as velocity variances and the molecular mixing parameter {theta}), and vertical velocity and density variance spectra from the DNS are shown to be in favorable agreement with the experimental data. Differences between the quantities obtained from the DNS and from experimental measurements are related to limitations in the dynamic range of scales resolved in the simulation and other idealizations of the simulation model. This work demonstrates that a parameterization of experimentally-measured initial conditions can yield simulation data that quantitatively agrees well with experimentally-measured low- and higher-order statistics in a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer. This study also provides resolution and initial conditions implementation requirements needed to simulate a physical Rayleigh-Taylor mixing experiment. In Part II [Mueschke and Schilling, Phys. Fluids (2008)], other quantities not measured in the experiment are obtained from the DNS and discussed, such as the integral- and Taylor-scale Reynolds numbers, Reynolds stress anisotropy and two-dimensional density and velocity variance spectra, hypothetical chemical product formation measures, other local and global mixing parameters, and the statistical composition of mixed fluid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkinson, S. D.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Allison, P. A.
2014-05-01
High resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier-Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE) DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two, and three-dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring mesh performance in capturing the range of dynamics. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. Use of discontinuous discretisations and adaptive unstructured meshing technologies, which reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude, results in high resolution DNS models of turbidity currents at a fraction of the cost of traditional FE models. The benefits of this technique will enable simulation of turbidity currents in complex and large domains where DNS modelling was previously unachievable.
Numerical Simulation of Secondary Instability in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whang, Chong; Zhong, Xiaolin
2001-11-01
Secondary Gortler instability in a Mach 15 flow over a blunt wedge with a concave surface is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Initial forcing disturbances in the simulation are obtained from linear stability theory (LST), and subsequent linear and nonlinear development of the hypersonic Gortler vortices and their secondary instability are studied by computing the full Navier-Stokes equations using a fifth order finite difference upwind scheme and a shock fitting method. The nonlinear development of Gortler vortices distorts the mean flow and leads to highly inflectional profiles not only in wall normal direction, but also in spanwise direction which induce the secondary instability. In the break-down process of Gortler vortices, unsteady fluctuations appear in the vortices. Such a process is through a secondary instability mechanism. Nonlinear development of Gortler vortices in the Mach 15 flow has been studied by imposing strong disturbances obtained from LST at the inlet of computational domain. A two-dimensional linear stability code is applied for the distorted mean flow in order to find secondary modes of hypersonic Gortler vortices. The mode obtained by linear stability analysis is imposed at the entrance of the computational domain. Subsequent development of the secondary mode is carried out by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical results of nonlinear development of hypersonic gortler vortices show the inflectional profiles in boundary layers. The numerical results of secondary instability show that the interaction of Görtler vortices with the strong varicose mode leads to the development of a horseshoe vortex.
Numerical simulation of Faraday waves
Nicolas Périnet; Damir Juric; Laurette S. Tuckerman
2009-01-01
We simulate numerically the full dynamics of Faraday waves in three dimensions for two incompressible and immiscible viscous fluids. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite-difference projection method coupled with a front-tracking method for the interface between the two fluids. The domain of calculation is periodic in the horizontal directions and bounded in the vertical direction by two rigid
A Review of Direct Numerical Simulations of Astrophysical Detonations and Their Implications
Parete-Koon, Suzanne T; Messer, Bronson; Smith, Chris R; Papatheodore, Thomas L
2013-01-01
Multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of astrophysical detonations in degenerate matter have revealed that the nuclear burning is typically characterized by cellular structure caused by transverse instabilities in the detonation front. Type Ia supernova modelers often use one- dimensional DNS of detonations as inputs or constraints for their whole star simulations. While these one-dimensional studies are useful tools, the true nature of the detonation is multi-dimensional. The multi-dimensional structure of the burning influences the speed, stability, and the composition of the detonation and its burning products, and therefore, could have an impact on the spectra of Type Ia supernovae. Considerable effort has been expended modeling Type Ia supernovae at densities above 1 107 g cm 3 where the complexities of turbulent burning dominate the flame propagation. However, most full star models turn the nuclear burning schemes off when the density falls below 1 107 g cm 3 and distributed burning begins. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is believed to occur at just these densities and consequently they are the densities important for studying the properties of the subsequent detonation. This work will review the status of DNS studies of detonations and their possible implications for Type Ia supernova models. It will cover the development of Detonation theory from the first simple Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation models to the current models based on the time-dependent, compressible, reactive flow Euler equations of fluid dynamics.
A review of direct numerical simulations of astrophysical detonations and their implications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parete-Koon, Suzanne T.; Smith, Christopher R.; Papatheodore, Thomas L.; Messer, O. E. Bronson
2013-04-01
Multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of astrophysical detonations in degenerate matter have revealed that the nuclear burning is typically characterized by cellular structure caused by transverse instabilities in the detonation front. Type Ia supernova modelers often use onedimensional DNS of detonations as inputs or constraints for their whole star simulations.While these one-dimensional studies are useful tools, the true nature of the detonation is multi-dimensional. The multi-dimensional structure of the burning influences the speed, stability, and the composition of the detonation and its burning products, and therefore, could have an impact on the spectra of Type Ia supernovae. Considerable effort has been expended modeling Type Ia supernovae at densities above 1×107 g·cm-3 where the complexities of turbulent burning dominate the flame propagation. However, most full star models turn the nuclear burning schemes off when the density falls below 1×107 g·cm-3 and distributed burning begins. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is believed to occur at just these densities and consequently they are the densities important for studying the properties of the subsequent detonation. This work will review the status of DNS studies of detonations and their possible implications for Type Ia supernova models. It will cover the development of Detonation theory from the first simple Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation models to the current models based on the time-dependent, compressible, reactive flow Euler equations of fluid dynamics.
DNS of the kappa-mechanism. I. Radial modes in the purely radiative case
T. Gastine; B. Dintrans
2008-03-19
Context: Hydrodynamical model of the kappa-mechanism in a purely radiative case. Aims: First, to determine the physical conditions propitious to kappa-mechanism in a layer with a configurable conductivity hollow and second, to perform the (nonlinear) direct numerical simulations (DNS) from the most favourable setups. Methods: A linear stability analysis applied to radial modes using a spectral solver and DNS thanks to a high-order finite difference code are compared. Results: Changing the hollow properties (location and shape) lead to well-defined instability strips. For a given position in the layer, the amplitude and width of the hollow appear to be the key parameters to get unstable modes driven by kappa-mechanism. The DNS achieved from these more auspicious configurations confirm the growth rates as well as structures of linearly unstable modes. The nonlinear saturation follows through intricate couplings between the excited fundamental mode and higher damped overtones.
Simulating Reionization in Numerical Cosmology
Aaron Sokasian; Tom Abel; Lars E. Hernquist
2001-05-10
The incorporation of radiative transfer effects into cosmological hydrodynamical simulations is essential for understanding how the intergalactic medium (IGM) makes the transition from a neutral medium to one that is almost fully ionized. Here, we present an approximate numerical method designed to study in a statistical sense how a cosmological density field is ionized by a set of discrete point sources. A diffuse background radiation field is also computed self-consistently in our procedure. The method requires relatively few time steps and can be employed with simulations having high resolution. We describe the details of the algorithm and provide a description of how the method can be applied to the output from a pre-existing cosmological simulation to study the systematic reionization of a particular ionic species. As a first application, we compute the reionization of He II by quasars in the redshift range 3 to 6.
DNS of Flows over Periodic Hills using a Discontinuous-Galerkin Spectral-Element Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent compressible flows is performed using a higher-order space-time discontinuous-Galerkin finite-element method. The numerical scheme is validated by performing DNS of the evolution of the Taylor-Green vortex and turbulent flow in a channel. The higher-order method is shown to provide increased accuracy relative to low-order methods at a given number of degrees of freedom. The turbulent flow over a periodic array of hills in a channel is simulated at Reynolds number 10,595 using an 8th-order scheme in space and a 4th-order scheme in time. These results are validated against previous large eddy simulation (LES) results. A preliminary analysis provides insight into how these detailed simulations can be used to improve Reynoldsaveraged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling
A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, D.; Chan, L.; MacDonald, M.; Hutchins, N.; Ooi, A.
2015-06-01
We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for characterising hydraulic resistance directly from profilometry data of rough surfaces.
K. L. Tse; A. Mahalov; B. Nicolaenko; B. Joseph
2004-01-01
Shear-convective turbulence is studied using a high resolution 3D direct numerical simulation (DNS). Flow configuration consisting of a modeled jet capping a thermally unstable layer is simulated and the results are compared with the reference situation where only the convective layer is present. Quasi-equilibrium turbulent datasets, in which the turbulent energy budgets are nearly balanced, are obtained. A ‘mechanical’ barrier
Numerical Simulations in Particle Physics
F. Karsch; E. Laermann
1993-04-14
Numerical simulations have become an important tool to understand and predict non-perturbative phenomena in particle physics. In this article we attempt to present a general overview over the field. First, the basic concepts of lattice gauge theories are described, including a discussion of currently used algorithms and the reconstruction of continuum physics from lattice results. We then proceed to present some results for QCD, both at low energies and at high temperatures, as well as for the electro-weak sector of the standard model.
DNS of turbulent heat transfer in channel flow with low to medium-high Prandtl number fluid
Hiroshi Kawamura; Kouichi Ohsaka; Hiroyuki Abe; Kiyoshi Yamamoto
1998-01-01
The direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the turbulent heat transfer for various Prandtl numbers ranging from 0.025 to 5 are performed to obtain statistical quantities such as turbulent heat flux, temperature variance and their budget terms. The configuration is the fully developed channel flow with uniform heating from both walls. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and the
On locating the obstruction in the upper airway via numerical simulation.
Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, S
2014-03-01
The fluid dynamical properties of the air flow in the upper airway (UA) are not fully understood at present due to the three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific complex geometry of the airway, flow transition from laminar to turbulent and flow-structure interaction during the breathing cycle. It is quite difficult at present to experimentally measure the instantaneous velocity and pressure at specific points in the human airway. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation (DNS) can predict all the flow properties and resolve all its relevant length- and time-scales. We developed a DNS solver with the state-of-the-art lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and used it to investigate the flow in two patient-specific UAs reconstructed from CT scan data. Inspiration and expiration flows through these two airways are studied. The time-averaged first spatial derivative of pressure (pressure gradient), ?p/?z, is used to locate the region of the UA obstruction. But the time-averaged second spatial derivative, ?(2)p/?z(2), is used to pinpoint the exact location of the obstruction. The present results show that the DNS-LBM solver can be used to obtain accurate flow details in the UA and is a powerful tool to locate its obstruction. PMID:24389271
On locating the obstruction in the upper airway via numerical simulation
Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, S.
2014-01-01
The fluid dynamical properties of the air flow in the upper airway (UA) are not fully understood at present due to the three-dimensional (3D) patient-specific complex geometry of the airway, flow transition from laminar to turbulent and flow-structure interaction during the breathing cycle. It is quite difficult at present to experimentally measure the instantaneous velocity and pressure at specific points in the human airway. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation (DNS) can predict all the flow properties and resolve all its relevant length- and time-scales. We developed a DNS solver with the state-of-the-art lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and used it to investigate the flow in two patient-specific UAs reconstructed from CT scan data. Inspiration and expiration flows through these two airways are studied. The time-averaged first spatial derivative of pressure (pressure gradient), ?p/?z, is used to locate the region of the UA obstruction. But the time-averaged second spatial derivative, ?2p/?z2, is used to pinpoint the exact location of the obstruction. The present results show that the DNS-LBM solver can be used to obtain accurate flow details in the UA and is a powerful tool to locate its obstruction. PMID:24389271
Stochastic Game-Based Analysis of the DNS Bandwidth Amplification Attack Using Probabilistic
Katsaros, Panagiotis
Stochastic Game-Based Analysis of the DNS Bandwidth Amplification Attack Using Probabilistic Model (DNS) is an Internet- wide, hierarchical naming system used to translate domain names into numeric IP addresses. Any disruption of DNS service can have serious consequences. We present a formal game
Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction
Perlekar, Prasad
2008-01-01
We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.
Statistically Steady Turbulence in Soap Films: Direct Numerical Simulations with Ekman Friction
Prasad Perlekar; Rahul Pandit
2008-11-09
We present a detailed direct numerical simulation (DNS) designed to investigate the combined effects of walls and Ekman friction on turbulence in forced soap films. We concentrate on the forward-cascade regime and show how to extract the isotropic parts of velocity and vorticity structure functions and thence the ratios of multiscaling exponents. We find that velocity structure functions display simple scaling whereas their vorticity counterparts show multiscaling; and the probability distribution function of the Weiss parameter $\\Lambda$, which distinguishes between regions with centers and saddles, is in quantitative agreement with experiments.
Wallace, J.M.; Bernard, P.S.; Balint, J.L.; Ong, L.
1992-01-01
Laboratory experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar contaminant dispersal in bounded shear flows have been carrried out. Both mass and heat transport have been experimentally studied. Statistical results for the temperature plume which develops from a line heat source at the wall are compared to the DNS results. The DNS results for this case and for the case of a uniform source with constant temperature boundaries are also compared to various model predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ziazi, R. M.; He, X.; Finn, J.; Patil, V. A.; Apte, S.; Liburdy, J.; Wood, B. D.
2014-12-01
Two different experimental and computational methods implemented to investigate the flow through porous media. The porous media flow is a highly demanding field in industry and academia that has not been largely studied due to its complexities based on multi-phase geometry and ability to resolve scales over a reasonably large domain. In the proposed study, two-component particle image velocimetry which collects the velocity field vectors under accurate consideration of refractive index matching is compared statistically and visually with the modeled velocity field emanated from direct numerical simulation to evaluate both methods for consistency. The characteristics of the porous media used in this experiment is controlled by a randomly packed bed using uniformly sized spherical particles. There are many challenges that made this work interesting to be considered as an accurate comparison between computation and experimentation that includes refractive index matching errors, magnification uncertainties, and the uncertainties in identifying of the proper geometry of the beads as well as, the arduousness, of matching the geometry, grid resolution particularly near solid contact points, and proper boundary conditions in DNS. Detailed analogy of different resolutions in numerical simulation with PIV measurements are visualized by attention paid to the statistical distribution of velocities, and the deviations of DNS estimations from the measured values. There is accurate and reasonable matching the velocity fields except for some regions of constricted flow. The axial velocity results are within 6-7 percent (for different DNS resolutions) and the normal velocity within 4-6 %. Streamline details show that both methods are within the good range of agreement. This study is a comprehensive study of matching experiment with numerical results in a very low Reynolds number range for porous media flows.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Polygonal Particles Sedimentation with Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wachs, Anthony; Chhabra, Rajendra; Dan, Calin
2008-07-01
An original Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) method to tackle the problem of particulate flows at moderate to high concentration and finite Reynolds number is presented. Our method is built on the framework established by Glowinski and his coworkers [1] in the sense that we use their Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) formulation and their operator-splitting idea but differs in the treatment of particle collisions. The novelty of our contribution relies on replacing the simple artificial repulsive force based collision model usually employed in the literature by an efficient Discrete Element Method (DEM) granular solver. The use of our DEM solver enables us to consider particles of arbitrary shape (at least convex) and to account for actual contacts, in the sense that particles actually touch each other, in contrast with the simple repulsive force based collision model. Results on the 2D sedimentation of isometric polygonal particles with collisions are presented. These new results underline the promising capabilities of GRIFF (Grains In Fluid Flow), our numerical code, to study a wide range of particulate flow problems and for the first time to examine the effect of particle shape.
Relativistic Positioning Systems: Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sáez, Diego; Puchades, Neus
2013-11-01
The motion of satellite constellations similar to GPS and Galileo is numerically simulated and, then, the region where bifurcation (double positioning) occurs is appropriately represented. In the cases of double positioning, the true location may be found using additional information (angles or times). The zone where the Jacobian, J, of the transformation from inertial to emission coordinates vanishes is also represented and interpreted. It is shown that the uncertainties in the satellite world lines produce positioning errors, which depend on the value of |J|. The smaller this quantity the greater the expected positioning errors. Among all the available 4-tuples of satellites, the most appropriate one –for a given location– should minimize positioning errors (large enough |J| values) avoiding bifurcation. Our study is particularly important to locate objects which are far away from Earth, e.g., satellites.
Zonal embedded grids for numerical simulations of wall-bounded turbulent flows
Kravchenko, A.G.; Moin, P.; Moser, R.
1996-09-01
A B-spline based numerical method on a zonal embedded grid has been developed. The method is aimed at reducing the computational requirements for large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The objective is to reduce the number of grid points required to resolve the near-wall eddies without placing a large number of grid points in the outer layers. DNS and LES calculations of a turbulent channel flow were performed on a grid with a zone near the wall that was refined in all three directions. The results from the zonal grid calculations show good agreement with previously published numerical and experimental results obtained for the same flow conditions. The zonal grid calculations required only a fraction of the CPU time required for the single zone grid calculation with the same near-wall grid density. In addition, the memory requirements for the zonal grid calculations are significantly reduced. 26 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X.
2010-12-01
The propagation of density current in a channel has been studied extensively using theoretical, experimental and numerical tools. For high resolution numerical method, such as direct numerical simulations (DNS), the boundary conditions on the bottom and top of the channel are usually assumed to be no-slip and no-penetration. This study aims to investigate the effects of various boundary conditions encountered in reality, such as shear-stress free top boundary in an open channel, wind shear, suction/blowing bottom due to groundwater flow. The DNS code used in the research implements a revised Kleiser and Schumann (1980) influence-matrix method to treat the Robin type velocity boundary conditions and the related "tau" error corrections. This revised method broadens the applicability of the original Kleiser and Schumann method and is ideal for the purpose of this research. Comparisons of the simulation results reveal that the boundary conditions changes the turbulent flow field and therefore the propagation of the front. The effects on some of the parameters (such as front speed) are investigated and quantified. Further study need to address the scale effects when the vertical scale of the density current is small than or comparable with the channel depth.
Particle-Based Direct Numerical Simulation of Contaminant Transport and Deposition in Porous Flow
Ray A. Berry; Richard C. Martineau; Thomas R. Wood
2004-02-01
This work describes an approach to porous flow modeling in which the "micro-length scale to macro-length scale" physical descriptions are addressed as Lagrangian, pore-level flow and transport. The flow features of the physical domain are solved by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with a grid-free, hybrid smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) numerical method (Berry, 2002) based on a local Riemann solution. In addition to being able to handle the large deformation, fluid–fluid and fluid–solid interactions within the contorted geometries of intra- and inter-pore-scale modeling, this Riemann–SPH method should be able to simulate other complexities, such as multiple fluid phases and chemical, particulate, and microbial transport with volumetric and surface reactions. A simple model is presented for the transfer of a contaminant from a carrier fluid to solid surfaces and is demonstrated for flow in a simulated porous media
Numerical Simulations of High Speed Turbulent Jets in Crossflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chai, Xiaochuan
This dissertation studies high speed jets in crossflow using numerical simulations. The complexity of this flow makes detailed measurements difficult, and only limited information is provided by past experimental studies. Traditional engineering simulation tools also have difficulties in simulating such flows. Therefore, the current study: 1) develops Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) capability and novel subgrid-scale (SGS) models for high speed flows in complex geometries; 2) realizes multiple methods to generate realistic turbulent boundary layer inflow condition for unstructured compressible flow solver; 3) explores the detailed physics of high speed jets in crossflow; 4) investigates the jet trajectory, entrainment and coherent vortical motions. Large-eddy simulation capability is developed for the base numerical scheme developed by Park & Mahesh (2007) for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids. Large-eddy simulations are performed to study an under-expanded sonic jet injected into a supersonic crossflow and an over-expanded supersonic jet injected into a subsonic crossflow, where the flow conditions are based on Santiago
Distributed DNS Troubleshooting Vasileios Pappas
California at Los Angeles, University of
Distributed DNS Troubleshooting Vasileios Pappas UCLA Computer Science vpappas@cs.ucla.edu Patrik designed to iden- tify a number of DNS configuration errors. These errors range from commonly seen misconfigurations that are well known among DNS operators, such as lame delegations, to less known ones
Numerical simulation of electrokinetically driven micro flows
Hahm, Jungyoon
2005-11-01
Spectral element based numerical solvers are developed to simulate electrokinetically driven flows for micro-fluidic applications. Based on these numerical solvers, basic phenomena and devices for electrokinetic applications ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komori, Satoru; Nagaosa, Ryuichi; Murakami, Yasuhiro; Chiba, Satoshi; Ishii, Katsuya; Kuwahara, Kunio
1993-01-01
Turbulence structure in an open-channel flow with a zero-shear gas-liquid interface was numerically investigated by a three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) based on a fifth-order finite-difference formulation, and the relationship between scalar transfer across a zero-shear gas-liquid interface and organized motion near the interface was discussed. The numerical predictions of turbulence quantities were also compared with the measurements by means of a two-color laser Doppler velocimeter. The results by the DNS show that the vertical motion is restrained in the interfacial region and there the turbulence energy is redistributed from the vertical direction to the streamwise and spanwise directions through the pressure fluctuation. The large-scale eddies are generated by bursting phenomena in the wall region and they are lifted up toward the interfacial region. Then, the eddies renew the interface and promote the scalar transfer across the gas-liquid interface. Both the damping effect and the generation process of the surface-renewal motions predicted by the DNS explain well the experimental results deduced in previously published studies. Furthermore, the predicted bursting frequency and mass transfer coefficient are in good agreement with the measurements.
Direct numerical simulation of supersonic combustion with finite-rate chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saghafian, Amirreza; Pitsch, Heinz
2011-11-01
Three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of reacting and inert compressible turbulent mixing layers have been performed. The simulations cover convective Mach numbers from subsonic to supersonic. A detailed chemistry mechanism with 9 species and 29 reactions for hydrogen is used in the reacting simulations. Effects of different initial conditions on the structure of the mixing layer, and time required to reach self-similarity are studied. Flame/turbulence interaction is analyzed by studying turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds stresses, and their budgets in the reacting and inert simulations. The effects of different reactions on the heat release and mixture composition especially in the regions where shocklets impinge the flame are studied. These DNS databases will provide a better understanding for the compressibility effects on the combustion, and will be used to assess the accuracy of Flamelet/Progress variable approach in supersonic regime. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program (PSAAP) at Stanford University, Award Number(s)DE-FC52-08NA28614.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Stability of a Supersonic Mixing Layer Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Q.; M., F.; G., F.; Wang, Q.
Linear and nonlinear issue of a mixing layer at Mc=1.2 are studied with a DNS method. Navier-Stokes equations in perturbation form are solved with a finite difference method of the third order accuracy. An approximated boundary condition treatment of small disturbance along the outside boundary is proposed on flow characteristics. This boundary condition is verified to be valid in the numerical case. Linear issue of a mixing layer at Mc=1.2 is simulated. Three modes of instability in the mixing layer have been simulated which are Slow-Mode, Fast-Mode and Mix-Mode. Nonlinear issue pf the mixing layer at Mc=1.2 is also studied. The mode transition of the mixing layer instability is simulated. K-type and H-type secondary instability in supersonic shear layer at Mc=0.5 are simulated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1991-01-01
Recently, several second order closure models have been proposed for closing the second moment equations, in which the velocity-pressure gradient (and scalar-pressure gradient) tensor and the dissipation rate tensor are two of the most important terms. In the literature, these correlation tensors are usually decomposed into a so called rapid term and a return-to-isotropy term. Models of these terms have been used in global flow calculations together with other modeled terms. However, their individual behavior in different flows have not been fully examined because they are un-measurable in the laboratory. Recently, the development of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulence has given us the opportunity to do this kind of study. With the direct numerical simulation, we may use the solution to exactly calculate the values of these correlation terms and then directly compare them with the values from their modeled formulations (models). Here, we make direct comparisons of five representative rapid models and eight return-to-isotropy models using the DNS data of forty five homogeneous flows which were done by Rogers et al. (1986) and Lee et al. (1985). The purpose of these direct comparisons is to explore the performance of these models in different flows and identify the ones which give the best performance. The modeling procedure, model constraints, and the various evaluated models are described. The detailed results of the direct comparisons are discussed, and a few concluding remarks on turbulence models are given.
Direct Numerical Simulation of low-temperature ablation by turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crocker, Ryan; Dubief, Yves; White, Christopher
2010-11-01
The present study is motivated by the understanding and modeling of the dynamic interactions between a turbulent fluid transporting an erosive agent, and an erodible surface. As the erosive agent causes changes in the geometry of the wall-boundary conditions, turbulence may rapidly evolve into a non-equilibrium state and may further accelerate ablation. To investigate this complex process, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) algorithm is designed to simulate the temporal and spatial evolution of a surface subjected to low-temperature ablation caused by turbulent flow. The ablative wall is fully discretized and the interface fluid/wall is modeled by a level-set method combined with flow and thermal immersed boundary methods. After a discussion of numerical challenges and their solutions, low Reynolds turbulent ablation flows are used to illustrate the complexity of the problem with a focus on emerging turbulent and topographical scales as ablation proceeds.
A study of aerosol activation at the cloud edge with high resolution numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babkovskaia, N.; Boy, M.; Smolander, S.; Romakkaniemi, S.; Rannik, U.; Kulmala, M.
2015-02-01
High resolution numerical simulations are used to study the structure of the cloud edge area. We consider an aerosol distribution function with a similar aerosol core size (12 nm). The aerosol composition is assumed to be water soluble NaCl. Depending on the specific conditions in the investigated cloud edge area, water is evaporated or activated from the aerosol surface. We use a publicly available high order domain code for direct numerical simulation (DNS) in combination with the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. We compare 2D and 3D model results of turbulent air motion of aerosol particles with varying grid cell sizes. We show that a 2D model with high resolution gives a more realistic number of activated particles than the corresponding 3D model with lower resolution. We also study the effects of aerosol dynamics on turbulent fields and show that water vapor condensation and evaporation have significant effects on temperature and supersaturation fields.
Hawkes, Evatt R.; Sankaran, Ramanan; Pebay, Philippe P.; Chen, Jacqueline H.
2006-04-15
The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry. Parametric studies on the effect of the initial amplitude of the temperature fluctuations, the initial length scales of the temperature and velocity fluctuations, and the turbulence intensity are performed. The combustion mode is characterized using the diagnostic measures developed in Part I of this study. Specifically, the ignition front speed and the scalar mixing timescales are used to identify the roles of molecular diffusion and heat conduction in each case. Predictions from a multizone model initialized from the DNS fields are presented and differences are explained using the diagnostic tools developed. (author)
Sankaran, Ramanan; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2005-01-01
The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry. Parametric studies on the effect of the initial amplitude of the temperature fluctuations, the initial length scales of the temperature and velocity fluctuations, and the turbulence intensity are performed. The combustion mode is characterized using the diagnostic measures developed in Part I of this study. Specifically, the ignition front speed and the scalar mixing timescales are used to identify the roles of molecular diffusion and heat conduction in each case. Predictions from a multizone model initialized from the DNS fields are presented and differences are explained using the diagnostic tools developed.
Sankaran, Ramanan; Mason, Scott D.; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Im, Hong G.
2005-01-01
The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry. Parametric studies on the effect of the initial amplitude of the temperature fluctuations, the initial length scales of the temperature and velocity fluctuations, and the turbulence intensity are performed. The combustion mode is characterized using the diagnostic measures developed in Part I of this study. Specifically, the ignition front speed and the scalar mixing timescales are used to identify the roles of molecular diffusion and heat conduction in each case. Predictions from a multizone model initialized from the DNS fields are presented and differences are explained using the diagnostic tools developed.
Nourgaliev R.; Knoll D.; Mousseau V.; Berry R.
2007-04-01
The state-of-the-art for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of boiling multiphase flows is reviewed, focussing on potential of available computational techniques, the level of current success for their applications to model several basic flow regimes (film, pool-nucleate and wall-nucleate boiling -- FB, PNB and WNB, respectively). Then, we discuss multiphysics and multiscale nature of practical boiling flows in LWR reactors, requiring high-fidelity treatment of interfacial dynamics, phase-change, hydrodynamics, compressibility, heat transfer, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics and chemistry of liquid/vapor and fluid/solid-wall interfaces. Finally, we outline the framework for the {\\sf Fervent} code, being developed at INL for DNS of reactor-relevant boiling multiphase flows, with the purpose of gaining insight into the physics of multiphase flow regimes, and generating a basis for effective-field modeling in terms of its formulation and closure laws.
Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko
2014-11-01
Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran. Matt. 14, 363. [4] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 67; [5] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2014, P&SS, 10.1016/j.pss.2014.07.013; [6] Yu, Y. et al. 2014, Icarus, 10.1016/j.icarus.2014.07.027; [7] Matsumura, S. et al. 2014, MNRAS, 10.1093/mnras/stu1388.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskowski, Gregory M.; Durbin, Paul A.
2007-01-01
Serpentine passages are found in a number of engineering applications including turbine blade cooling passages. The design of effective cooling passages for high-temperature turbine blades depends in part on the ability to predict heat transfer, thus requiring an accurate representation of the turbulent flow field. These passages are subjected to strong curvature and rotational effects, and the resulting turbulent flow field is fairly complex. An understanding of the flow physics for flows with strong curvature and rotation is required in order to improve the design of turbine blade cooling passages. Experimental measurements of certain turbulence quantities for such configurations can be challenging to obtain, especially near solid surfaces, making the serpentine passage an ideal candidate for a direct numerical simulation (DNS). A DNS study has been conducted to investigate the coupled effect of strong curvature and rotation by simulating turbulent flow through a fully developed, smooth wall, round-ended, isothermal serpentine channel subjected to orthogonal mode rotation. The geometry investigated has an average radius of curvature Rc/?=2.0 in the curved section and dimensions 12??×2?×3?? in the streamwise, transverse, and spanwise directions. The computational domain consists of periodic inflow/outflow boundaries, two solid wall boundaries, and periodic boundaries in the spanwise direction. The simulations were conducted for Reynolds number, Reb=5600, and rotation numbers, Rob ,z=0 and 0.32. Differences observed between the stationary and rotating cases are discussed in terms of the mean velocity, secondary flow, and Reynolds stresses.
Comparison of Thorpe and Ozmidov Length Scales from Direct Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, L.; Fritts, D. C.
2014-12-01
The Thorpe scale, a measure of the length scale of turbulent overturning events, is compared to the Ozmidov scale in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of gravity wave and fine structure interactions in this study. Such a comparison has significant and practical implications for deriving global climatology of important atmospheric turbulence parameters such as energy dissipation rates from routine high vertical resolution radiosonde data as suggested by Clayson and Kantha (2008). The DNS results can determine exactly all the turbulence quantities needed to evaluate Thorpe scale and Ozmidov scale in the simulation results thus can be employed to assess the accuracy and universality of expressions relating the two length scales identified in previous field measurements and other simulation results. We evaluate the ratio of the two length scales for an entire computational domain containing multiple turbulence events or for individual events in a subset of the full domain. This allows an evaluation of the possible dependence of the ratio on instability character, Re and other flow parameters.
Compressible Turbulent Channel Flows: DNS Results and Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, P. G.; Coleman, G. N.; Bradshaw, P.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
The present paper addresses some topical issues in modeling compressible turbulent shear flows. The work is based on direct numerical simulation of two supersonic fully developed channel flows between very cold isothermal walls. Detailed decomposition and analysis of terms appearing in the momentum and energy equations are presented. The simulation results are used to provide insights into differences between conventional time-and Favre-averaging of the mean-flow and turbulent quantities. Study of the turbulence energy budget for the two cases shows that the compressibility effects due to turbulent density and pressure fluctuations are insignificant. In particular, the dilatational dissipation and the mean product of the pressure and dilatation fluctuations are very small, contrary to the results of simulations for sheared homogeneous compressible turbulence and to recent proposals for models for general compressible turbulent flows. This provides a possible explanation of why the Van Driest density-weighted transformation is so successful in correlating compressible boundary layer data. Finally, it is found that the DNS data do not support the strong Reynolds analogy. A more general representation of the analogy is analysed and shown to match the DNS data very well.
Turbulent flame-wall interaction: a DNS study
Chen, Jackie; Hawkes, Evatt R; Sankaran, Ramanan; Gruber, Andrea
2010-01-01
A turbulent flame-wall interaction (FWI) configuration is studied using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) and detailed chemical kinetics. The simulations are used to investigate the effects of the wall turbulent boundary layer (i) on the structure of a hydrogen-air premixed flame, (ii) on its near-wall propagation characteristics and (iii) on the spatial and temporal patterns of the convective wall heat flux. Results show that the local flame thickness and propagation speed vary between the core flow and the boundary layer, resulting in a regime change from flamelet near the channel centreline to a thickened flame at the wall. This finding has strong implications for the modelling of turbulent combustion using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes or large-eddy simulation techniques. Moreover, the DNS results suggest that the near-wall coherent turbulent structures play an important role on the convective wall heat transfer by pushing the hot reactive zone towards the cold solid surface. At the wall, exothermic radical recombination reactions become important, and are responsible for approximately 70% of the overall heat release rate at the wall. Spectral analysis of the convective wall heat flux provides an unambiguous picture of its spatial and temporal patterns, previously unobserved, that is directly related to the spatial and temporal characteristic scalings of the coherent near-wall turbulent structures.
Numerical Simulation of a High Mach Number Jet Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli; Mankbadi, Reda R.
1993-01-01
The recent efforts to develop accurate numerical schemes for transition and turbulent flows are motivated, among other factors, by the need for accurate prediction of flow noise. The success of developing high speed civil transport plane (HSCT) is contingent upon our understanding and suppression of the jet exhaust noise. The radiated sound can be directly obtained by solving the full (time-dependent) compressible Navier-Stokes equations. However, this requires computational storage that is beyond currently available machines. This difficulty can be overcome by limiting the solution domain to the near field where the jet is nonlinear and then use acoustic analogy (e.g., Lighthill) to relate the far-field noise to the near-field sources. The later requires obtaining the time-dependent flow field. The other difficulty in aeroacoustics computations is that at high Reynolds numbers the turbulent flow has a large range of scales. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) cannot obtain all the scales of motion at high Reynolds number of technological interest. However, it is believed that the large scale structure is more efficient than the small-scale structure in radiating noise. Thus, one can model the small scales and calculate the acoustically active scales. The large scale structure in the noise-producing initial region of the jet can be viewed as a wavelike nature, the net radiated sound is the net cancellation after integration over space. As such, aeroacoustics computations are highly sensitive to errors in computing the sound sources. It is therefore essential to use a high-order numerical scheme to predict the flow field. The present paper presents the first step in a ongoing effort to predict jet noise. The emphasis here is in accurate prediction of the unsteady flow field. We solve the full time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations by a high order finite difference method. Time accurate spatial simulations of both plane and axisymmetric jet are presented. Jet Mach numbers of 1.5 and 2.1 are considered. Reynolds number in the simulations was about a million. Our numerical model is based on the 2-4 scheme by Gottlieb & Turkel. Bayliss et al. applied the 2-4 scheme in boundary layer computations. This scheme was also used by Ragab and Sheen to study the nonlinear development of supersonic instability waves in a mixing layer. In this study, we present two dimensional direct simulation results for both plane and axisymmetric jets. These results are compared with linear theory predictions. These computations were made for near nozzle exit region and velocity in spanwise/azimuthal direction was assumed to be zero.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Jet Flow
K. H. Luo; N. D. Sandham
1997-01-01
A numerical method is given for direct numerical simulation of the nonlinear evolution of instability waves in supersonic round jets, with spatial discretisation based on high-order compact finite differences. The numerical properties of a class of symmetric and asymmetric schemes are analysed. Implementation for the Navier–Stokes equations in cylindrical polar coordinates is discussed with particular attention given to treatment of
A direct numerical simulation study of higher order statistics in a turbulent round jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taub, G. N.; Lee, Hyungoo; Balachandar, S.; Sherif, S. A.
2013-11-01
Up until recently direct numerical simulation (DNS) studies involving round turbulent jets have focused on first and second order statistics and vortical behavior near the source of the jet. The third order statistics necessary to compute the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress transport equations have been examined using LES studies. However, further examination with DNS is important as, on the subgrid scale, LES uses models for Reynolds stress. In this study a DNS of a turbulent free jet with a Reynolds number equal to ReJ = 2000 is computed using a second order accurate, time splitting finite volume scheme. First, second, and third order statistics are compared with previous experimental and numerical studies. All terms of the turbulent kinetic energy balance are calculated directly. The results are compared to experimental studies such as those of Hussein et al. ["Velocity measurements in a high-Reynolds-number, momentum-conserving, axisymmetric, turbulent jet," J. Fluid Mech. 258, 31-75 (1994)], Panchapakesan and Lumley ["Turbulence measurements in axisymmetric jets of air and helium. Part 1. Air jet," J. Fluid Mech. 246, 197-233 (1993)], and others. The assumptions made by the various experimental studies in order to solve the dissipation and pressure diffusion terms are discussed and examined using the data from the current study. The Reynolds stress transport equations are also calculated and discussed. Vortical structures are visualized by the ?ci method and discussed along with entrainment of ambient fluid into the jet. The one dimensional energy spectra in the azimuthal direction are calculated directly and are also discussed.
DNS of Shock / Isotropic Turbulence Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grube, Nathan; Taylor, Ellen; Martín, Pino
2010-11-01
We discuss DNS of Shock / Isotropic Turbulence Interactions (SITI). We vary the incoming turbulence Mach number up to 0.8 and the convective Mach number up to 5 in order to determine their effects on the interaction. These cases are challenging due to the presence of shocklets in the incoming turbulence as well as significant motion of the main shock. Shock-capturing must be used at all points while still maintaining low enough numerical dissipation to preserve the turbulent fluctuations. We use the linearly- and nonlinearly-optimized Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) method[1,2]. Particular attention is paid to the inflow boundary condition, where we find the use of snapshots of "frozen" turbulence from decaying isotropic box simulations to be unsatisfactory. We instead use time-varying inflow data generated by a separate forced isotropic turbulence simulation with a specified convection speed. This allows us to access flow conditions where the assumptions of Taylor's Hypothesis are not met. 1.) Mart'in, M.P., Taylor, E.M., Wu, M., and Weirs, V.G., JCP 220(1) 270-89, 2006. 2.) Taylor, E.M., Wu, M., and Mart'in, M.P., JCP 223(1) 384-97, 2007.
Sreedhara, S.; Huh, Kang Y.
2005-12-01
The performance of second-order conditional moment closure (CMC) depends on models to evaluate conditional variances and covariances of temperature and species mass fractions. In this paper the closure schemes based on the steady laminar flamelet model (SLFM) are validated against direct numerical simulation (DNS) involving extinction and ignition. Scaling is performed to reproduce proper absolute magnitudes, irrespective of the origin of mismatch between local flamelet structures and scalar dissipation rates. DNS based on the pseudospectral method is carried out to study hydrogen-air combustion with a detailed kinetic mechanism, in homogeneous, isotropic, and decaying turbulent media. Lewis numbers are set equal to unity to avoid complication of differential diffusion. The SLFM-based closures for correlations among fluctuations of reaction rate, scalar dissipation rate, and species mass fractions show good comparison with DNS. The variance parameter in lognormal PDF and the constants in the dissipation term have been estimated from DNS results. Comparison is made for the resulting conditional profiles from DNS, first-order CMC, and second-order CMC with correction to the most critical reaction step according to sensitivity analysis. Overall good agreement ensures validity of the SLFM-based closures for modeling conditional variances and covariances in second-order CMC.
DNS of droplet motion in a turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosso, Michele; Elghobashi, S.
2013-11-01
The objective of our research is to study the multi-way interactions between turbulence and vaporizing liquid droplets by performing direct numerical simulations (DNS). The freely-moving droplets are fully resolved in 3D space and time and all the relevant scales of the turbulent motion are simultaneously resolved down to the smallest length- and time-scales. Our DNS solve the unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and continuity equations throughout the whole computational domain, including the interior of the liquid droplets. The droplet surface motion and deformation are captured accurately by using the Level Set method. The pressure jump condition, density and viscosity discontinuities across the interface as well as surface tension are accounted for. Here, we present only the results of the first stage of our research which considers the effects of turbulence on the shape change of an initially spherical liquid droplet, at density ratio (of liquid to carrier fluid) of 1000, moving in isotropic turbulent flow. We validate our results via comparison with available expe. The objective of our research is to study the multi-way interactions between turbulence and vaporizing liquid droplets by performing direct numerical simulations (DNS). The freely-moving droplets are fully resolved in 3D space and time and all the relevant scales of the turbulent motion are simultaneously resolved down to the smallest length- and time-scales. Our DNS solve the unsteady three-dimensional Navier-Stokes and continuity equations throughout the whole computational domain, including the interior of the liquid droplets. The droplet surface motion and deformation are captured accurately by using the Level Set method. The pressure jump condition, density and viscosity discontinuities across the interface as well as surface tension are accounted for. Here, we present only the results of the first stage of our research which considers the effects of turbulence on the shape change of an initially spherical liquid droplet, at density ratio (of liquid to carrier fluid) of 1000, moving in isotropic turbulent flow. We validate our results via comparison with available expe. This research has been supported by NSF-CBET Award 0933085 and NSF PRAC (Petascale Computing Resource Allocation) Award.
LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adumitroaie, V.; Colucci, P. J.; Taulbee, D. B.; Givi, P.
1995-01-01
The purpose of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in large eddy simulation (LES), direct numerical simulation (DNS), and Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the computational analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the second phase of this work, covering the period 1 Aug. 1994 - 31 Jul. 1995, we have focused our efforts on two programs: (1) developments of explicit algebraic moment closures for statistical descriptions of compressible reacting flows and (2) development of Monte Carlo numerical methods for LES of chemically reacting flows.
DNS Security Manhee Lee Ananth Kini
Klappenecker, Andreas
to 164.107.51.28 Â· Simple Solution: Hosts.txt Â· Drawback: Not scalable DNS inventor Paul Mockapetris of hacking ! #12;Zone Delegation Root edu dns.root dns.edu tamu dns.tamu.edu matheecs www dns are down Â· No noticeable slowdown observed by users #12;Information Leakage #12;Info Leakage - Zone
Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of
Peraire, Jaime
Comparing Aerodynamic Models for Numerical Simulation of Dynamics and Control of Aircraft and simulation of aircraft, yet other aerodynamics models exist that can provide more accurate results for certain simulations without a large increase in computational time. In this paper, sev- eral aerodynamics
Numerical simulation model for thermal recovery processes
R. B. Crookston; W. E. Culham; W. H. Chen
1977-01-01
This study describes a model for numerically simulating thermal recovery processes. The primary focus is on the simulation of in situ combustion, but the formulation also represents fire-and-water flooding, steam flooding, hot water flooding, steam stimulation, and spontaneous ignition as well. The simulator describes the flow of water, oil and gas and includes gravity and capillary effects. Heat transfer via
Michael Walfish; Hari Balakrishnan; Scott J. Shenker
2004-01-01
The Web relies on the Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve the hostname portion of URLs into IP addresses. This marriage-of-convenience enabled the Web's mete- oric rise, but the resulting entanglement is now hinder- ing both infrastructures—the Web is overly constrained by the limitations of DNS, and DNS is unduly burdened by the demands of the Web. There has been
Mean-field and direct numerical simulations of magnetic flux concentrations from vertical field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandenburg, A.; Gressel, O.; Jabbari, S.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.
2014-02-01
Context. Strongly stratified hydromagnetic turbulence has previously been found to produce magnetic flux concentrations if the domain is large enough compared with the size of turbulent eddies. Mean-field simulations (MFS) using parameterizations of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses show a large-scale negative effective magnetic pressure instability and have been able to reproduce many aspects of direct numerical simulations (DNS) regarding growth rate, shape of the resulting magnetic structures, and their height as a function of magnetic field strength. Unlike the case of an imposed horizontal field, for a vertical one, magnetic flux concentrations of equipartition strength with the turbulence can be reached, resulting in magnetic spots that are reminiscent of sunspots. Aims: We determine under what conditions magnetic flux concentrations with vertical field occur and what their internal structure is. Methods: We use a combination of MFS, DNS, and implicit large-eddy simulations (ILES) to characterize the resulting magnetic flux concentrations in forced isothermal turbulence with an imposed vertical magnetic field. Results: Using DNS, we confirm earlier results that in the kinematic stage of the large-scale instability the horizontal wavelength of structures is about 10 times the density scale height. At later times, even larger structures are being produced in a fashion similar to inverse spectral transfer in helically driven turbulence. Using ILES, we find that magnetic flux concentrations occur for Mach numbers between 0.1 and 0.7. They occur also for weaker stratification and larger turbulent eddies if the domain is wide enough. Using MFS, the size and aspect ratio of magnetic structures are determined as functions of two input parameters characterizing the parameterization of the effective magnetic pressure. DNS, ILES, and MFS show magnetic flux tubes with mean-field energies comparable to the turbulent kinetic energy. These tubes can reach a length of about eight density scale heights. Despite being ?1% equipartition strength, it is important that their lower part is included within the computational domain to achieve the full strength of the instability. Conclusions: The resulting vertical magnetic flux tubes are being confined by downflows along the tubes and corresponding inflow from the sides, which keep the field concentrated. Application to sunspots remains a viable possibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Lipatnikov, Andrei N.
2013-04-01
The effects of global Lewis number Le on the statistics of fluid velocity components conditional in unburned reactants and fully burned products in the context of Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes simulations have been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) database of statistically planar turbulent premixed flames with a low Damköhler number and Lewis number ranging from 0.34 to 1.2. The conditional velocity statistics extracted from DNS data have been analysed with respect to the well-known Bray-Moss-Libby (BML) expressions which were derived based on bi-modal probability density function of reaction progress variable for high Damköhler number flames. It has been shown that the Lewis number substantially affects the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation correlation conditional in products, with the effect being particularly pronounced for low Le. As far as the mean velocity and the velocity fluctuation correlation conditional in reactants are concerned, the BML expressions agree reasonably well with the DNS data reported in the present work. Based on a priori analysis of present and previously reported DNS data, the BML expressions have been empirically modified here in order to account for Lewis number effects, and the non-bimodal distribution of reaction progress variable. Moreover, it has been demonstrated for the first time that surface averaged velocity components and Reynolds stresses conditional in unburned reactants can be modelled without invoking expressions involving the Lewis number, as these surface averaged conditional quantities remain approximately equal to their conditionally averaged counterparts in the unburned mixture.
Sundaram, Ravi
1 Abstract-- The DNS or Domain Name System is a critical piece of the Internet infrastructure. In recent times there have been numerous attacks on DNS, the Kaminsky attack being one of the more insidious ones. Current solutions to the problem involve patching the DNS software (Bind) and/or using DNSSEC
DNS of high speed boundary layers over ablating surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braman, Kalen; Raman, Venkat; Upadhyay, Rochan; Ezekoye, Ofodike
2010-11-01
Ablation of thermal protection shields is an important design problem in developing reentry vehicles. Development of predictive computational models for this problem will enable optimization of the size and hence weight of the protective layer. In this work, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a compressible ablating boundary layer is used to understand the modeling issues in the context of Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. The DNS is performed at conditions obtained from a detailed RANS study of a reentry vehicle. The free stream conditions of the two simulations are Mach 0.6, temperature 5940 K, and Re? 1000; and Mach 1.2, temperature 5580 K, and Re? 2000. The surface ablation of a graphite ablator is modeled using a locally 1-D, quasi-steady state formulation with control volume mass and energy balances over the interior of the ablator. A 10-species gas phase chemistry mechanism is used. A priori studies are used to evaluate scalar flux models and the reaction source term closure in RANS.
DNS of fully-resolved droplet-laden decaying isotropic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrante, A.; Dodd, M.
2013-11-01
We investigated the effects of finite-size droplets on decaying isotropic turbulence by performing direct numerical simulation (DNS). We performed DNS using our new pressure-correction/volume-of-fluid method that is mass-conservative and second-order accurate. The simulations were performed at Re?0 = 75 on a 10243 grid such to resolve each droplet with 32 grid points per diameter. We fully resolve all the relevant scales of turbulence around thousands of freely-moving droplets of Taylor length-scale size as well as the fluid motion inside the droplets. We will discuss the effects of the droplets on the temporal development of turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. Also, we will present the effects on turbulence of the droplet Weber number and of the density ratio between the droplet and the surrounding fluid. We investigated the effects of finite-size droplets on decaying isotropic turbulence by performing direct numerical simulation (DNS). We performed DNS using our new pressure-correction/volume-of-fluid method that is mass-conservative and second-order accurate. The simulations were performed at Re?0 = 75 on a 10243 grid such to resolve each droplet with 32 grid points per diameter. We fully resolve all the relevant scales of turbulence around thousands of freely-moving droplets of Taylor length-scale size as well as the fluid motion inside the droplets. We will discuss the effects of the droplets on the temporal development of turbulence kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. Also, we will present the effects on turbulence of the droplet Weber number and of the density ratio between the droplet and the surrounding fluid. NSF CAREER #1054591.
Numerical wind speed simulation model
Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.; Ballinger, M.Y.
1981-09-01
A relatively simple stochastic model for simulating wind speed time series that can be used as an alternative to time series from representative locations is described in this report. The model incorporates systematic seasonal variation of the mean wind, its standard deviation, and the correlation speeds. It also incorporates systematic diurnal variation of the mean speed and standard deviation. To demonstrate the model capabilities, simulations were made using model parameters derived from data collected at the Hanford Meteorology Station, and results of analysis of simulated and actual data were compared.
On the Universality of the Kolmogorov Constant in Numerical Simulations of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeung, P. K.; Zhou, Ye
1997-01-01
Motivated by a recent survey of experimental data, we examine data on the Kolmogorov spectrum constant in numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence, using results both from previous studies and from new direct numerical simulations over a range of Reynolds numbers (up to 240 on the Taylor scale) at grid resolutions up to 512(exp 3). It is noted that in addition to k(exp -5/3) scaling, identification of a true inertial range requires spectral isotropy in the same wavenumber range. We found that a plateau in the compensated three-dimensional energy spectrum at k(eta) approx. = 0.1 - -0.2, commonly used to infer the Kolmogorov constant from the compensated three-dimensional energy spectrum, actually does not represent proper inertial range behavior. Rather, a proper, if still approximate, inertial range emerges at k(eta) approx. = 0.02 - 0.05 when R(sub lambda) increases beyond 140. The new simulations indicate proportionality constants C(sub 1) and C in the one- and three-dimensional energy spectra respectively about 0.60 and 1.62. If the turbulence were perfectly isotropic then use of isotropy relations in wavenumber space (C(sub 1) = 18/55 C) would imply that C(sub 1) approx. = 0.53 for C = 1.62, in excellent agreement with experiments. However the one- and three-dimensional estimates are not fully consistent, because of departures (due to numerical and statistical limitations) from isotropy of the computed spectra at low wavenumbers. The inertial scaling of structure functions in physical space is briefly addressed. Since DNS is still restricted to moderate Reynolds numbers, an accurate evaluation of the Kolmogorov constant is very difficult. We focus on providing new insights on the interpretation of Kolmogorov 1941 similarity in the DNS literature and do not consider issues pertaining to the refined similarity hypotheses of Kolmogorov (K62).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan M.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of Mach 6 turbulent boundary layer with nominal freestream Mach number of 6 and Reynolds number of Re(sub T) approximately 460 are conducted at two wall temperatures (Tw/Tr = 0.25, 0.76) to investigate the generated pressure fluctuations and their dependence on wall temperature. Simulations indicate that the influence of wall temperature on pressure fluctuations is largely limited to the near-wall region, with the characteristics of wall-pressure fluctuations showing a strong temperature dependence. Wall temperature has little influence on the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal. The freestream radiation intensity compares well between wall-temperature cases when normalized by the local wall shear; the propagation speed of the freestream pressure signal and the orientation of the radiation wave front show little dependence on the wall temperature.
Direct numerical simulation of heat release and NO{sub x} formation in turbulent nonpremixed flames
Bedat, B.; Egolfopoulos, F.N.; Poinsot, T.
1999-10-01
Attempts to use complex chemistry and transport in direct numerical simulations (DNS) of premixed combustion (even for kinetically simple systems, such as H{sub 2}/air and CH{sub 4}/air) often result in excessive needs of memory and CPU time. This paper presents a methodology (integrated combustion chemistry [ICC]) capable of integrating complex chemistry effects into DNS while maintaining computational efficiency. The methodology includes the use of a limited number of species and reactions with parameters which are derived to match a number of flame properties. It is illustrated through a four-step reaction mechanism appropriate for a stoichiometric methane/air flame, and which compares favorably with predictions of the detailed GRI 2.11 mechanism. The proposed scheme includes one reaction for the methane oxidation, one for the thermal, one for the Fenimore, and one for the nonpremixed reburn chemical NO{sub x} routes. The kinetic parameters for the hydrocarbon oxidation were determined by matching the GRI 2.11 predictions for laminar burning velocity and adiabatic flame temperature, main reactants concentrations, and extinction strain rates for both premixed (steady) and nonpremixed (steady and unsteady) strained laminar flames. The chemical parameters for the three steps corresponding to NO{sub x} chemistry were determined by matching the NO{sub x} profiles obtained for strained diffusion flames with GRI 2.11. Finally, this four-step mechanism was used in DNS of two- and three-dimensional turbulent nonpremixed combustion to assess the validity of flamelet approaches. While the flamelet approaches were found to perform well for heat release, their extension to NO{sub x} formation appears to be not as successful because of the existence of compressed zones where products accumulate and increase the No{sub x} production.
Numerical simulation of heat exchanger
Sha, W.T.
1985-01-01
Accurate and detailed knowledge of the fluid flow field and thermal distribution inside a heat exchanger becomes invaluable as a large, efficient, and reliable unit is sought. This information is needed to provide proper evaluation of the thermal and structural performance characteristics of a heat exchanger. It is to be noted that an analytical prediction method, when properly validated, will greatly reduce the need for model testing, facilitate interpolating and extrapolating test data, aid in optimizing heat-exchanger design and performance, and provide scaling capability. Thus tremendous savings of cost and time are realized. With the advent of large digital computers and advances in the development of computational fluid mechanics, it has become possible to predict analytically, through numerical solution, the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy for both the shellside and tubeside fluids. The numerical modeling technique will be a valuable, cost-effective design tool for development of advanced heat exchangers.
Numerical simulation of conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sin, Chung-Chang; Wai, Ming To
1992-02-01
A new numerical framework for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially from the well established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element and spectral methods, in both concept and methodology. The key features of the current scheme include: (1) direct discretization of the integral forms of conservation laws, (2) treating space and time on the same footing, (3) flux conservation in space and time, and (4) unified treatment of the convection and diffusion fluxes. The model equation considered in the initial study is the standard one dimensional unsteady constant-coefficient convection-diffusion equation. In a stability study, it is shown that the principal and spurious amplification factors of the current scheme, respectively, are structurally similar to those of the leapfrog/DuFort-Frankel scheme. As a result, the current scheme has no numerical diffusion in the special case of pure convection and is unconditionally stable in the special case of pure diffusion. Assuming smooth initial data, it will be shown theoretically and numerically that, by using an easily determined optimal time step, the accuracy of the current scheme may reach a level which is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the MacCormack scheme, with virtually identical operation count.
DNS of laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition induced by solid obstacles
Orlandi, Paolo; Bernardini, Matteo
2015-01-01
Results of numerical simulations obtained by a staggered finite difference scheme together with an efficient immersed boundary method are presented to understand the effects of the shape of three-dimensional obstacles on the transition of a boundary layer from a laminar to a turbulent regime. Fully resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), highlight that the closer to the obstacle the symmetry is disrupted the smaller is the transitional Reynolds number. It has been also found that the transition can not be related to the critical roughness Reynolds number used in the past. The simulations highlight the differences between wake and inflectional instabilities, proving that two-dimensional tripping devices are more efficient in promoting the transition. Simulations at high Reynolds number demonstrate that the reproduction of a real experiment with a solid obstacle at the inlet is an efficient tool to generate numerical data bases for understanding the physics of boundary layers. The quality of the numerical ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Haibo
Due to the progress in computer technology in recent years, distributed memory parallel computer systems are rapidly gaining importance in direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the stability and transition of compressible boundary layers. In most works, explicit methods have mainly been used in such simulations to advance the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in time. However, the small wall-normal grid sizes for viscous flow simulations impose severe stability restriction on the allowable time steps in simulations using explicit method. This requires implicit treatment to the numerical methods. Although fully implicit methods are often used in steady-flow calculations to remove the stability restriction on time steps, they are seldom used in transient flow simulations because the time steps used in time-accurate calculations are often not large enough to offset high computational cost of using fully implicit methods. In this thesis, we present an efficient high-order semi-implicit method, which only treats the stiff terms implicitly, for the DNS study the hypersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream disturbances over blunt bodies. It is shown that the semi-implicit method can meet the requirements for both computational efficiency and numerical accuracy in the DNS studies. However, we can not implement our semi-implicit method on single computer to solve unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for the direct numerical simulation of supersonic and hypersonic boundary layer flows on parallel computers directly. The semi-implicit algorithm has to be modified to achieve the communications among processors in solving the global block linear systems. In this thesis, a divide and conquer (DAC) method is used to parallelly solve the block linear system from the semi-implicit method. A parallel Fourier collocation method is also implemented in the periodic spanwise direction. It is shown that by implementing the new parallel semi-implicit scheme the simulations of compressible transient flow can benefit greatly from parallel computer systems by increasing both simulation sizes and speed while maintaining high temporal accuracy. To implement our new numerical methods on the numerical studies of compressible boundary layer stability and transitions, numerical simulations of the receptivity process of hypersonic boundary layer flows over 3-D blunt leading edges are chosen to be investigated because the receptivity phenomena are much more complex and currently not well understood. In this thesis, parametric simulations of receptivity freestream disturbances which includes fast acoustic waves, vorticity waves and entropy waves for Mach 15 flow over 3-D blunt leading edges have been carried out by using our new methods. The results show that initial transient growth generated and developed inside the hypersonic boundary layer near the leading edge can be observed in the receptivity of freestream standing vorticity or entropy waves, but not acoustic waves or traveling waves. It has been shown that this initial transient growth near the leading edge can be possibly explained by the transient growth theory. Additionally, cooling the surface will increase the growth. By adding inhomogeneous boundary conditions or random roughness on the surface can strongly increase the magnitude of growth.
A numerical study of flow-structure interactions with application to flow past a pair of cylinders
Papaioannou, Georgios (Georgios Vasilios), 1975-
2004-01-01
Flow-structure interaction is a generic problem for many engineering applications, such as flow--induced oscillations of marine risers and cables. In this thesis a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) approach based on ...
Numerical Simulations of Bouncing Jets
Bonito, Andrea; Lee, Sanghyun
2015-01-01
Bouncing jets are fascinating phenomenons occurring under certain conditions when a jet impinges on a free surface. This effect is observed when the fluid is Newtonian and the jet falls in a bath undergoing a solid motion. It occurs also for non-Newtonian fluids when the jets falls in a vessel at rest containing the same fluid. We investigate numerically the impact of the experimental setting and the rheological properties of the fluid on the onset of the bouncing phenomenon. Our investigations show that the occurrence of a thin lubricating layer of air separating the jet and the rest of the liquid is a key factor for the bouncing of the jet to happen. The numerical technique that is used consists of a projection method for the Navier-Stokes system coupled with a level set formulation for the representation of the interface. The space approximation is done with adaptive finite elements. Adaptive refinement is shown to be very important to capture the thin layer of air that is responsible for the bouncing.
Numerical simulation of shrouded propellers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Afjeh, Abdollah A.
1991-01-01
A numerical model was developed for the evaluation of the performance characteristics of a shrouded propeller. Using this model, a computational study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of a propeller by encasing it in a shroud. The propeller blade was modeled by a segmented bound vortex positioned along the span of the blade at its quarter-chord-line. The shroud was modeled by a number of discrete vortex rings. Due to the mutual dependence of shroud and propeller vortex strengths and the propeller vortex wake an iterative scheme was employed. Three shroud configurations were considered: a cylindrical and two conical shrouds. The computed performance of the shrouded propeller was compared with that of a free propeller of identical propeller geometry. The numerical results indicated that the cylindrical shroud outperformed the conical shroud configurations for the cases considered. Furthermore, when compared to the free propeller performance, the cylindrical shroud showed a considerable performance enhancement over the free propeller. However, the improvements were found to decrease with an increase in the advance ratio and to virtually diminish at advance ratios of about 2.5.
Numerical Simulations of HH 555
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kajdi?, P.; Raga, A. C.
2007-12-01
We present three-dimensional (3D) gasdynamic simulations of the Herbig Haro object HH 555. HH 555 is a bipolar jet emerging from the tip of an elephant trunk entering the Pelican Nebula from the adjacent molecular cloud. Both beams of HH 555 are curved away from the center of the H II region. This indicates that they are being deflected by a sidewind probably coming from a star located inside the nebula or by the expansion of the nebula itself. HH 555 is most likely an irradiated jet emerging from a highly embedded protostar, which has not yet been detected. In our simulations we vary the incident photon flux, which in one of our models is equal to the flux coming from a star 1 pc away emitting 5×1048 ionizing (i.e., with energies above the H Lyman limit) photons per second. An external, plane-parallel flow (a ``sidewind'') is coming from the same direction as the photoionizing flux. We have made four simulations, decreasing the photon flux by a factor of 10 in each simulation. We discuss the properties of the flow, and we compute H? emission maps (integrated along lines of sight). We show that the level of the incident photon flux has an important influence on the shape and visibility of the jet. If the flux is very high, it causes a strong evaporation of the neutral clump, producing a photoevaporated wind traveling in the direction opposite to the incident flow. The interaction of the two flows creates a double shock ``working surface'' around the clump, protecting it and the jet from the external flow. The jet only starts to curve when it penetrates through the working surface.
Numerical Simulation of Bubble collisions with PRIME.
Cox, Simon
Numerical Simulation of Bubble collisions with PRIME. Institut für Strömungsmechanik S. Heitkam1 #12;Simulation of foam 3 Heitkam #12;Immersed Boundary Method · Forcing points on particle surface? Virtual mass effect Heitkam 11 #12;Conclusion · Low influence of shape of collison force · Bubble
Prof. Dr. M. Rumpf Numerical Simulation
Burstedde, Carsten
Prof. Dr. M. Rumpf Numerical Simulation and Scientific Computing Duisburg rumpf METHODS FOR IMAGED BASED MEDICAL COMPUTING PD Dr. Carlo Schaller PD Dr. B. Meyer University Bonn of this project is to develop a novel approach for continuum mechanical simulation where the domains
Yudov, Yury V.
2006-07-01
The direct numerical simulation, extended to boundary - fitted coordinate, has been carried out for a fully-developed turbulent flow thermal hydraulics in a triangular rod bundle. The rod bundle is premised to be an infinite array. The spacer grid effects are ignored. The purpose of this work is to verify DNS methodology to be applied for deriving coefficients for inter-subchannel turbulent mixing and heat transfer on a rod. These coefficients are incorporated in subchannel analysis codes. To demonstrate the validity of this methodology, numerical calculation was performed for the bundle with the pitch to diameter ratio 1.2, at friction Reynolds number of 600 and Prandtl number of 1. The results for the hydraulic parameters are compared with published DNS data, and the results for the heat exchange coefficients -- with those obtained using semi-empirical correlations. (authors)
Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz
2014-01-01
Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer in an axially rotating pipe flow
Satake, Shinichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Shimada, Akira
1999-07-01
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been carried out to grasp and understand a laminarization phenomenon caused by a pipe rotation. As for fully-developed turbulent rotating pipe flows, the DNS with turbulent transport of a scalar quantity has been performed. In this paper, the Reynolds number, which was based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, was set to be constant; Re{sub b} = 5,293, and the rotating ratios of a wall velocity to a bulk velocity were set to be 0.25, 0.3 and 0.35. A uniform heat-flux was applied to the wall as a thermal boundary condition. Prandtl number of the working fluid was set to be 0.71. The turbulent statistics regarding to the mean flow, temperature fluctuations, turbulent stresses and pressure distribution were obtained. Moreover, the scalar-flux budgets were also obtained for each rotation ratio. The mean velocity profile in the circumferential direction indicated a parabolic distribution except the near-wall-region. The turbulent drag decreased with higher rotation ratio. The reason of this drag reduction can be considered that an additional rotational production term appears in the azimuthal turbulence component. The Nusselt number is also decreased with the rotation ratio increase because of this laminarization effect.
Bisetti, Fabrizio; Attili, Antonio; Pitsch, Heinz
2014-08-13
Combustion of fossil fuels is likely to continue for the near future due to the growing trends in energy consumption worldwide. The increase in efficiency and the reduction of pollutant emissions from combustion devices are pivotal to achieving meaningful levels of carbon abatement as part of the ongoing climate change efforts. Computational fluid dynamics featuring adequate combustion models will play an increasingly important role in the design of more efficient and cleaner industrial burners, internal combustion engines, and combustors for stationary power generation and aircraft propulsion. Today, turbulent combustion modelling is hindered severely by the lack of data that are accurate and sufficiently complete to assess and remedy model deficiencies effectively. In particular, the formation of pollutants is a complex, nonlinear and multi-scale process characterized by the interaction of molecular and turbulent mixing with a multitude of chemical reactions with disparate time scales. The use of direct numerical simulation (DNS) featuring a state of the art description of the underlying chemistry and physical processes has contributed greatly to combustion model development in recent years. In this paper, the analysis of the intricate evolution of soot formation in turbulent flames demonstrates how DNS databases are used to illuminate relevant physico-chemical mechanisms and to identify modelling needs. PMID:25024412
Direct Numerical Simulations of High-Speed Turbulent Boundary Layers over Riblets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duan, Lian; Choudhari, Meelan, M.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers over riblets with a broad range of riblet spacings are conducted to investigate the effects of riblets on skin friction at high speeds. Zero-pressure gradient boundary layers under two flow conditions (Mach 2:5 with T(sub w)/T(sub r) = 1 and Mach 7:2 with T(sub w)/T(sub r) = 0:5) are considered. The DNS results show that the drag-reduction curve (delta C(sub f)/C(sub f) vs l(sup +)(sub g )) at both supersonic speeds follows the trend of low-speed data and consists of a `viscous' regime for small riblet size, a `breakdown' regime with optimal drag reduction, and a `drag-increasing' regime for larger riblet sizes. At l l(sup +)(sub g) approx. 10 (corresponding to s+ approx 20 for the current triangular riblets), drag reduction of approximately 7% is achieved at both Mach numbers, and con rms the observations of the few existing experiments under supersonic conditions. The Mach- number dependence of the drag-reduction curve occurs for riblet sizes that are larger than the optimal size, with smaller slopes of (delta C(sub f)/C(sub f) for larger freestream Mach numbers. The Reynolds analogy holds with 2(C(sub h)=C(sub f) approximately equal to that of at plates for both drag-reducing and drag-increasing configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paik, Seung Hoon; Kim, Ji Yeon; Shin, Sang Joon; Kim, Seung Jo
2004-07-01
Smart structures incorporating active materials have been designed and analyzed to improve aerospace vehicle performance and its vibration/noise characteristics. Helicopter integral blade actuation is one example of those efforts using embedded anisotropic piezoelectric actuators. To design and analyze such integrally-actuated blades, beam approach based on homogenization methodology has been traditionally used. Using this approach, the global behavior of the structures is predicted in an averaged sense. However, this approach has intrinsic limitations in describing the local behaviors in the level of the constituents. For example, the failure analysis of the individual active fibers requires the knowledge of the local behaviors. Microscopic approach for the analysis of integrally-actuated structures is established in this paper. Piezoelectric fibers and matrices are modeled individually and finite element method using three-dimensional solid elements is adopted. Due to huge size of the resulting finite element meshes, high performance computing technology is required in its solution process. The present methodology is quoted as Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the smart structure. As an initial validation effort, present analytical results are correlated with the experiments from a small-scaled integrally-actuated blade, Active Twist Rotor (ATR). Through DNS, local stress distribution around the interface of fiber and matrix can be analyzed.
Numerical simulation of vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, X.
1985-01-01
The breakdown of an isolated axisymmetric vortex embedded in an unbounded uniform flow is examined by numerical integration of the complete Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady axisymmetric flow. Results show that if the vortex strength is small, the solution approaches a steady flow and the vortex is stable. If the strength is large enough, the solution remains unsteady and a recirculating zone will appear near the axis, its form and internal structure resembling those of the axisymmetric breakdown bubbles with multi-cells observed by Faler and Leibovich (1978). For apppropriate combinations of flow parameters, the flow reveals quasi-periodicity. Parallel calculations with the quasi-cylindrical approximation indicate that so far as predicting of breakdown is concerned, its results coincide quite well with the results mentioned above. Both show that the vortex breakdown has little concern with the Reynolds number or with the critical classification of the upstream flow, at least for the lower range of Reynolds numbers.
Histogram Comparison via Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardiel, N.
2015-09-01
Although the use of histograms implies loss of information due to the fact that the actual data are replaced by the central values of the considered intervals, these graphical representations are commonly employed in scientific communication, particularly in astrophysics. This work explores the possibility of applying the Anderson-Darling test, a well-known test suitable for the comparison of continuous data sets, to the comparison of data in histogram format. For that purpose the data within each histogram interval are resampled, using the information provided by the frequencies of the adjacent intervals. Several resampling strategies have been examined by the comparison of histograms built from simulated data following a normal distribution.
Analysis of Multiple Scalar Large-Eddy Simulation/Probability Density Function Formulation
Raman, Venkat
)/probability density function (PDF) method is proposed for modeling turbulent spray combustion. The PDF method has in the PDF method, direct numerical simulation of a spray flame and an equivalent gaseous flame are carried width C PDF model constant wj DNS jet width Tj DNS jet temperature One step reaction mechanism source
DNS of turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re?=5200
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrante, Antonino; Webster, Keegan
2010-11-01
We performed direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate at Re?=5200. At this Reynolds number, our DNS results show that the overlap region of inner and outer layers extends for about 150 wall units. The turbulent inflow conditions were generated using the method of Ferrante & Elghobashi [J. Comput. Phys. 198 (2004)]. The computational domain of the main simulation is a parallelepiped with 2048x1024x512 grid points in the streamwise, spanwise and wall-normal direction, respectively. The closest grid point to the wall is at z^+=0.4. The turbulence statistics were collected over a period of about 80 large-eddy turnover times. These simulations were made possible thanks to our development of an optimized and scalable 3D Poisson solver, which reduced the time to integrate the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by 40%. Our DNS results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data of DeGraaff and Eaton [J. Fluid Mech. 422 (2000)] at the same Re?.
Numerical simulations of disordered superconductors
Bedell, K.S.; Gubernatis, J.E.; Scalettar, R.T.; Zimanyi, G.T.
1997-12-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors carried out Monte Carlo studies of the critical behavior of superfluid {sup 4}He in aerogel. They found the superfluid density exponent increases in the presence of fractal disorder with a value roughly consistent with experimental results. They also addressed the localization of flux lines caused by splayed columnar pins. Using a Sine-Gordon-type of renormalization group study they obtained an analytic form for the critical temperature. They also determined the critical temperature from I-V characteristics obtained from a molecular dynamics simulation. The combined studies enabled one to construct the phase diagram as a function of interaction strength, temperature, and disorder. They also employed the recently developed mapping between boson world-lines and the flux motion to use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to analyze localization in the presence of disorder. From measurements of the transverse flux line wandering, they determined the critical ratio of columnar to point disorder strength needed to localize the bosons.
DNS and LES of a Shear-Free Mixing Layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knaepen, B.; Debliquy, O.; Carati, D.
2003-01-01
The purpose of this work is twofold. First, given the computational resources available today, it is possible to reach, using DNS, higher Reynolds numbers than in Briggs et al.. In the present study, the microscale Reynolds numbers reached in the low- and high-energy homogeneous regions are, respectively, 32 and 69. The results reported earlier can thus be complemented and their robustness in the presence of increased turbulence studied. The second aim of this work is to perform a detailed and documented LES of the shear-free mixing layer. In that respect, the creation of a DNS database at higher Reynolds number is necessary in order to make meaningful LES assessments. From the point of view of LES, the shear-free mixing-layer is interesting since it allows one to test how traditional LES models perform in the presence of an inhomogeneity without having to deal with difficult numerical issues. Indeed, as argued in Briggs et al., it is possible to use a spectral code to study the shear-free mixing layer and one can thus focus on the accuracy of the modelling while avoiding contamination of the results by commutation errors etc. This paper is organized as follows. First we detail the initialization procedure used in the simulation. Since the flow is not statistically stationary, this initialization procedure has a fairly strong influence on the evolution. Although we will focus here on the shear-free mixing layer, the method proposed in the present work can easily be used for other flows with one inhomogeneous direction. The next section of the article is devoted to the description of the DNS. All the relevant parameters are listed and comparison with the Veeravalli & Warhaft experiment is performed. The section on the LES of the shear-free mixing layer follows. A detailed comparison between the filtered DNS data and the LES predictions is presented. It is shown that simple eddy viscosity models perform very well for the present test case, most probably because the flow seems to be almost isotropic in the small-scale range that is not resolved by the LES.
Numerical Simulations of Spicule Acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerreiro, N.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.
2013-04-01
Observations in the H? line of hydrogen and the H and K lines of singly ionized calcium on the solar limb reveal the existence of structures with jet-like behavior, usually designated as spicules. The driving mechanism for such structures remains poorly understood. Sterling et al. shed some light on the problem mimicking reconnection events in the chromosphere with a one-dimensional code by injecting energy with different spatial and temporal distributions and tracing the thermodynamic evolution of the upper chromospheric plasma. They found three different classes of jets resulting from these injections. We follow their approach but improve the physical description by including non-LTE cooling in strong spectral lines and non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization. Increased cooling and conversion of injected energy into hydrogen ionization energy instead of thermal energy both lead to weaker jets and smaller final extent of the spicules compared with Sterling et al. In our simulations we find different behavior depending on the timescale for hydrogen ionization/recombination. Radiation-driven ionization fronts also form.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF SPICULE ACCELERATION
Guerreiro, N.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V., E-mail: n.m.r.guerreiro@astro.uio.no, E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no, E-mail: viggo.hansteen@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2013-04-01
Observations in the H{alpha} line of hydrogen and the H and K lines of singly ionized calcium on the solar limb reveal the existence of structures with jet-like behavior, usually designated as spicules. The driving mechanism for such structures remains poorly understood. Sterling et al. shed some light on the problem mimicking reconnection events in the chromosphere with a one-dimensional code by injecting energy with different spatial and temporal distributions and tracing the thermodynamic evolution of the upper chromospheric plasma. They found three different classes of jets resulting from these injections. We follow their approach but improve the physical description by including non-LTE cooling in strong spectral lines and non-equilibrium hydrogen ionization. Increased cooling and conversion of injected energy into hydrogen ionization energy instead of thermal energy both lead to weaker jets and smaller final extent of the spicules compared with Sterling et al. In our simulations we find different behavior depending on the timescale for hydrogen ionization/recombination. Radiation-driven ionization fronts also form.
Numerical simulation of gravitational lenses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherniak, Yakov
Gravitational lens is a massive body or system of bodies with gravitational field that bends directions of light rays propagating nearby. This may cause an observer to see multiple images of a light source, e.g. a star, if there is a gravitational lens between the star and the observer. Light rays that form each individual image may have different distances to travel, which creates time delays between them. In complex gravitational fields generated by the system of stars, analytical calculation of trajectories and light intensities is virtually impossible. Gravitational lens of two massive bodies, one behind another, are able to create four images of a light source. Furthermore, the interaction between the four light beams can form a complicated interference pattern. This article provides a brief theory of light behavior in a gravitational field and describes the algorithm for constructing the trajectories of light rays in a gravitational field, calculating wave fronts and interference pattern of light. If you set gravitational field by any number of transparent and non- transparent objects (stars) and set emitters of radio wave beams, it is possible to calculate the interference pattern in any region of space. The proposed method of calculation can be applied even in the case of the lack of continuity between the position of the emitting stars and position of the resulting image. In this paper we propose methods of optimization, as well as solutions for some problems arising in modeling of gravitational lenses. The simulation of light rays in the sun's gravitational field is taken as an example. Also caustic is constructed for objects with uniform mass distribution.
Direct numerical simulations of mack-mode damping on porous coated cones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lüdeke, H.; Wartemann, V.
2013-06-01
The flow field over a 3 degree blunt cone is investigated with respect to a hypersonic stability analysis of the boundary-layer flow at Mach 6 with porous as well as smooth walls by comparing local direct numerical simulations (DNS) and linear stability theory (LST) data. The original boundary-layer profile is generated by a finite volume solver, using shock capturing techniques to generate an axisymmetric flow field. Local boundary-layer profiles are extracted from this flow field and hypersonic Mack-modes are superimposed for cone-walls with and without a porous surface used as a passive transition-reduction device. Special care is taken of curvature effects of the wall on the mode development over smooth and porous walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koo, Heeseok; Raman, Venkat; Varghese, Philip L.
2013-11-01
Thermochemical nonequilibrium could be significant in scramjet engines due to intense shock-based compression in the pre-combustion isolator region. In particular, vibrational nonequilibrium could adversely affect ignition time and mixing efficiency. To understand the role of nonequilibrium in such flows, direct numerical simulation (DNS) of supersonic flows with vibrational excitation are studied. A linear time-scale model is used to describe the vibrational relaxation of excited species. Essentially, nonequilibrium alters the flow by changing the physical properties that are related to the translational temperature. Such changes introduce nonlinear effect on the scalar mixing process. Further, the redistribution of energy amongst the internal states affects chemical rates. An analysis of the impact of nonequilibrium on combustion is provided.
Implications of Netalyzr's DNS Measurements Nicholas Weaver
Paxson, Vern
Implications of Netalyzr's DNS Measurements Nicholas Weaver ICSI Christian Kreibich ICSI Boris IP addresses. One of the primary focus areas of Netalyzr is DNS behavior, including DNS resolver. Additional tests detect and categorize the behavior of any DNS proxies in the users' gateways or firewalls
DNS of helicity-induced stratified turbulent flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandy, Abhilash J.; Rahimi, Abbas
2013-11-01
Helical flows undergoing density stratification have wide applications in meteorological phenomena such as dust devils, tornadoes, and hurricanes due to the complexity and disasters caused by them. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of transition to turbulence in a stably stratified Boussinesq fluid are presented for different rotation and stratification intensities. In order to understand the effect of velocity on the energy cascade, comparisons are made between helicity initiated and non-helical flows. Results show that stratification decelerates the helicity decay and causes velocity and vorticity to align with each other. With respect to the helical and non-helical flow comparisons, the total energy in the presence of stratification decays faster with helicity. In addition, the behavior of length scales were examined by comparing temporal variations of the vertical shearing of velocities. Results showed a growing asymmetry with time in the case of helical flow, while non-helical flow stayed close to begin symmetric.
Redirecting outgoing DNS requests toward a fake DNS server in a LAN
Maziar Janbeglou; Mazdak Zamani; Suhaimi Ibrahim
2010-01-01
This paper shows a new DNS attack that hijacks DNS requests by frequently injecting fake DNS server, and then network systems communicate with wrong destinations. So requests with different destination DNS IP addresses can be redirected toward a fake DNS server by a hacker. This type of attack is detectable by neither the EDS nor any anti spoofing software.
ENUM: The Collision of Telephony and DNS Policy
Robert Cannon
2001-10-22
ENUM marks either the convergence or collision of the public telephone network with the Internet. ENUM is an innovation in the domain name system (DNS). It starts with numerical domain names that are used to query DNS name servers. The servers respond with address information found in DNS records. This can be telephone numbers, email addresses, fax numbers, SIP addresses, or other information. The concept is to use a single number in order to obtain a plethora of contact information. By convention, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ENUM Working Group determined that an ENUM number would be the same numerical string as a telephone number. In addition, the assignee of an ENUM number would be the assignee of that telephone number. But ENUM could work with any numerical string or, in fact, any domain name. The IETF is already working on using E.212 numbers with ENUM. [Abridged
Study of Cardiac Defibrillation Through Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragard, J.; Marin, S.; Cherry, E. M.; Fenton, F. H.
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the defibrillation problem are presented. In particular, in this study we use the rabbit ventricular geometry as a realistic model system for evaluating the efficacy of defibrillatory shocks. Statistical data obtained from the simulations were analyzed in term of a dose-response curve. Good quantitative agreement between our numerical results and clinically relevant values is obtained. An electric field strength of about 6.6 V/cm indicates a fifty percent probability of successful defibrillation for a 12-ms monophasic shock. Our validated model will be useful for optimizing defibrillation protocols.
Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent reactive plume on a parallel computer
Cook, A.W.; Riley, J.J.
1996-12-01
A computational algorithm is described for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a reactive plume in spatially evolving grid turbulence. The algorithm uses sixth-order compact differencing in conjunction with a fifth-order compact boundary scheme which has been developed and found to be stable. A compact filtering method is discussed as a means of stabilizing calculations where the viscous/diffusive terms are differenced in their conservative form. This approach serves as an alternative to nonconservative differencing, previously advocated as a means of damping the 2{delta} waves. In numerically solving the low Mach number equations the time derivative of the density field in the pressure Poisson equation was found to be the most destabilizing part of the calculation. Even-ordered finite difference approximations to this derivative were found to be more stable than odd-ordered approximations. Turbulence at the inlet boundary is generated by scanning through an existing three-dimensional field of fully developed turbulence. In scanning through the inlet field, it was found that a high order interpolation is necessary in order to provide continuous velocity derivatives. Regarding pressure, a Neumann inlet condition combined with a Dirichlet outlet condition was found to work well. The chemistry follows the single-step, irreversible, global reaction: Fuel + (r) Oxidizer {yields} (1 + r)Product + Heat, with parameters chosen to match experimental data as far as allowed by resolution constraints. Simulation results are presented for four different cases in order to examine the effects of heat release, Damkoehler number, and Arrhenius kinetics on the flow physics. Statistical data from the DNS are compared to theory and wind tunnel data and found in reasonable agreement with regard to growth of turbulent length scales, decay of turbulent kinetic energy, decay of centerline scalar concentration, decrease in scalar rms, and spread of plume profile.
Numerical Simulations Of Phase Change In Microgravity
Damir Juric; Grétar Tryggvason
1996-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of liquid-solid and liquid-vapor phase change are conducted under microgravity conditions. The time-dependent governing equations are solved using a two-dimensional finite difference front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the phases are included in the simulations. Results are presented for two specific problems: directional solidification of a dilute
Numerical propulsion system simulation: An interdisciplinary approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, Lester D.; Chamis, Christos C.
1991-01-01
The tremendous progress being made in computational engineering and the rapid growth in computing power that is resulting from parallel processing now make it feasible to consider the use of computer simulations to gain insights into the complex interactions in aerospace propulsion systems and to evaluate new concepts early in the design process before a commitment to hardware is made. Described here is a NASA initiative to develop a Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) capability.
Numerical simulation of wall impinging drops
Shiladitya Mukherjee
2006-01-01
In this work, numerical investigations of impinging drops on dry and wet walls are reported. A multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) axisymmetric multiphase lattice-Boltzmann (LB) model is employed along with a model for simulating surface wettability. For simulations on wet walls, a recently developed high density-ratio LB model is employed. This model is extended in this work to include the MRT collision model
Contribution to Numerical Simulation of Laser Welding
Milan Tur?a; Bohumil Taraba; Petr Ambrož; Miroslav Sahul
2011-01-01
Contribution deals with numerical simulation of thermal and stress fields in welding tubes made of austenitic stainless CrNi steel type AISI 304 with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Process simulation was realised by use of ANSYS 10 software. Experiments were aimed at solution of asymptotic, standard and the so-called shell model. Thermally dependent properties of AISI 304 steel were considered. Thermal
Magnetorotational Supernova Explosion - 2D Numerical Simulation
N. V. Ardeljan; G. S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan; S. G. Moiseenko
1997-07-22
Results of 2D numerical simulation of magnetorotational mechanism of supernova explosion are presented. It is shown that due to the differential rotation of the star toroidal component of magnetic field appears and grows with time. Angular momentum transfers outwards by the toroidal magnetic field. With the evolution of the process part of the envelope of the star is throwing away. The amount of thrown away mass and energy are estimated. The results of the simulation are qualitatively correspond to supernova explosion picture.
" Recursive and Iterative Queries " Resource record and DNS query
9/9/14 1 Chapter 2 Outline DNS " Overview " Recursive and Iterative Queries " Resource record and DNS query " DNS Protocol " DNS Caching " DNS Services " Reverse DNS lookup #12;9/9/14 2 DNS (Domain Name System) Internet host's and router interfaces: " IPv4 address (32 bit): used
Identifying Suspicious Activities through DNS Failure Graph Analysis
Zhang, Nan
Identifying Suspicious Activities through DNS Failure Graph Analysis Nan Jiang, Jin Cao, Yu Jin, Li on unproductive DNS traffic, namely, the failed DNS queries, with a novel tool DNS failure graphs. A DNS failure-clusters (dense subgraphs) from DNS failure graphs. By analyzing the co-clusters in the daily DNS failure graphs
Numerical simulation of plasma opening switches
Mason, R.J.; Jones, M.E.; Bergman, C.D.
1989-01-01
Plasma Opening Switches have been examined numerically with the aid of the ANTHEM plasma simulation model. A generic bi-cylindrical switch is studied. The switching of generator pulses ranging from 50 ns to 1 ..mu..sec is reviewed, for a variety of plasma fill lengths and densities, and for a range of resistive loads. 7 refs., 9 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Card, J. M.; Chen, J. H.; Day, M.; Mahalingam, S.
1994-01-01
Turbulent non-premixed stoichiometric methane-air flames modeled with reduced kinetics have been studied using the direct numerical simulation approach. The simulations include realistic chemical kinetics, and the molecular transport is modeled with constant Lewis numbers for individual species. The effect of turbulence on the internal flame structure and extinction characteristics of methane-air flames is evaluated. Consistent with earlier DNS with simple one-step chemistry, the flame is wrinkled and in some regions extinguished by the turbulence, while the turbulence is weakened in the vicinity of the flame due to a combination of dilatation and an increase in kinematic viscosity. Unlike previous results, reignition is observed in the present simulations. Lewis number effects are important in determining the local stoichiometry of the flame. The results presented in this work are preliminary but demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating reduced kinetics for the oxidation of methane with direct numerical simulations of homogeneous turbulence to evaluate the limitations of various levels of reduction in the kinetics and to address the formation of thermal and prompt NO(x).
Direct numerical simulations and modeling of a spatially-evolving turbulent wake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cimbala, John M.
1994-01-01
Understanding of turbulent free shear flows (wakes, jets, and mixing layers) is important, not only for scientific interest, but also because of their appearance in numerous practical applications. Turbulent wakes, in particular, have recently received increased attention by researchers at NASA Langley. The turbulent wake generated by a two-dimensional airfoil has been selected as the test-case for detailed high-resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) experiments. This same wake has also been chosen to enhance NASA's turbulence modeling efforts. Over the past year, the author has completed several wake computations, while visiting NASA through the 1993 and 1994 ASEE summer programs, and also while on sabbatical leave during the 1993-94 academic year. These calculations have included two-equation (K-omega and K-epsilon) models, algebraic stress models (ASM), full Reynolds stress closure models, and direct numerical simulations (DNS). Recently, there has been mutually beneficial collaboration of the experimental and computational efforts. In fact, these projects have been chosen for joint presentation at the NASA Turbulence Peer Review, scheduled for September 1994. DNS calculations are presently underway for a turbulent wake at Re(sub theta) = 1000 and at a Mach number of 0.20. (Theta is the momentum thickness, which remains constant in the wake of a two dimensional body.) These calculations utilize a compressible DNS code written by M. M. Rai of NASA Ames, and modified for the wake by J. Cimbala. The code employs fifth-order accurate upwind-biased finite differencing for the convective terms, fourth-order accurate central differencing for the viscous terms, and an iterative-implicit time-integration scheme. The computational domain for these calculations starts at x/theta = 10, and extends to x/theta = 610. Fully developed turbulent wake profiles, obtained from experimental data from several wake generators, are supplied at the computational inlet, along with appropriate noise. After some adjustment period, the flow downstream of the inlet develops into a fully three-dimensional turbulent wake. Of particular interest in the present study is the far wake spreading rate and the self-similar mean and turbulence profiles. At the time of this writing, grid resolution studies are underway, and a code is being written to calculate turbulence statistics from these wake calculations; the statistics will be compared to those from the ongoing PIV wake measurements, those of previous experiments, and those predicted by the various turbulence models. These calculations will lead to significant long-term benefits for the turbulence modeling effort. In particular, quantities such as the pressure-strain correlation and the dissipation rate tensor can be easily calculated from the DNS results, whereas these quantities are nearly impossible to measure experimentally. Improvements to existing turbulence models (and development of new models) require knowledge about flow quantities such as these. Present turbulence models do a very good job at prediction of the shape of the mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles in a turbulent wake, but significantly underpredict the magnitude of the stresses and the spreading rate of the wake. Thus, the turbulent wake is an ideal flow for turbulence modeling research. By careful comparison and analysis of each term in the modeled Reynolds stress equations, the DNS data can show where deficiencies in the models exist; improvements to the models can then be attempted.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent, chemically reacting flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doom, Jeffrey Joseph
This dissertation: (i) develops a novel numerical method for DNS/LES of compressible, turbulent reacting flows, (ii) performs several validation simulations, (iii) studies auto-ignition of a hydrogen vortex ring in air and (iv) studies a hydrogen/air turbulent diffusion flame. The numerical method is spatially non-dissipative, implicit and applicable over a range of Mach numbers. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are rescaled so that the zero Mach number equations are discretely recovered in the limit of zero Mach number. The dependent variables are co--located in space, and thermodynamic variables are staggered from velocity in time. The algorithm discretely conserves kinetic energy in the incompressible, inviscid, non--reacting limit. The chemical source terms are implicit in time to allow for stiff chemical mechanisms. The algorithm is readily applicable to complex chemical mechanisms. Good results are obtained for validation simulations. The algorithm is used to study auto-ignition in laminar vortex rings. A nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H2/air combustion proposed by Mueller et al. [37] is used. Diluted H 2 at ambient temperature (300 K) is injected into hot air. The simulations study the effect of fuel/air ratio, oxidizer temperature, Lewis number and stroke ratio (ratio of piston stroke length to diameter). Results show that auto--ignition occurs in fuel lean, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation at a 'most reactive' mixture fraction, zeta MR (Mastorakos et al. [32]). Subsequent evolution of the flame is not predicted by zetaMR; a most reactive temperature TMR is defined and shown to predict both the initial auto-ignition as well as subsequent evolution. For stroke ratios less than the formation number, ignition in general occurs behind the vortex ring and propagates into the core. At higher oxidizer temperatures, ignition is almost instantaneous and occurs along the entire interface between fuel and oxidizer. For stroke ratios greater than the formation number, ignition initially occurs behind the leading vortex ring, then occurs along the length of the trailing column and propagates towards the ring. Lewis number is seen to affect both the initial ignition as well as subsequent flame evolution significantly. Non-uniform Lewis number simulations provide faster ignition and burnout time but a lower maximum temperature. The fuel rich reacting vortex ring provides the highest maximum temperature and the higher oxidizer temperature provides the fastest ignition time. The fuel lean reacting vortex ring has little effect on the flow and behaves similar to a non--reacting vortex ring. We then study auto-ignition of turbulent H2/air diffusion flames using the Mueller et al. [37] mechanism. Isotropic turbulence is superimposed on an unstrained diffusion flame where diluted H 2 at ambient temperature interacts with hot air. Both, unity and non-unity Lewis number are studied. The results are contrasted to the homogeneous mixture problem and laminar diffusion flames. Results show that auto-ignition occurs in fuel lean, low vorticity, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation around a most reactive mixture fraction, zetaMR (Mastorakos et al. [32]). However, unlike the laminar flame where auto-ignition occurs at zetaMR, the turbulent flame auto-ignites over a very broad range of zeta around zetaMR, which cannot completely predict the onset of ignition. The simulations also study the effects of three-dimensionality. Past two--dimensional simulations (Mastorakos et al. [32]) show that when flame fronts collide, extinction occurs. However, our three dimensional results show that when flame fronts collide; they can either increase in intensity, combine without any appreciable change in intensity or extinguish. This behavior is due to the three--dimensionality of the flow.
Numerical Simulation of Aircraft Trailing Vortices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.
2000-01-01
The increase in air traffic is currently outpacing the development of new airport runways. This is leading to greater air traffic congestion, resulting in costly delays and cancellations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under its Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program is investigating new technologies that will allow increased airport capacity while maintaining the present standards for safety. As an element of this program, the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) is being demonstrated in July 2000, at Dallas Ft-Worth Airport. This system allows reduced aircraft separations, thus increasing the arrival and departure rates, while insuring that wake vortices from a leading aircraft do not endanger trailing aircraft. The system uses predictions or wake vortex position and strength based on input from the current weather state. This prediction is accomplished by a semi-empirical model developed from theory, field observations, and relationships derived from numerical wake vortex simulations. Numerical experiments with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are being conducted in order to provide guidance for the enhancement of these prediction algorithms. The LES Simulations of wake vortices are carried out with NASA's Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS). Previous wake vortex investigations with TASS are described. The primary objective of these numerical studies has been to quantify vortex transport and decay in relation to atmospheric variables. This paper summarizes many of the previous investigations with the TASS model and presents some new results regarding the onset of wake vortex decay.
Interpreting Observations of GRBs with Numerical Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloy, M. A.; Cuesta-Martínez, C.; Mimica, P.; Obergaulinger, M.; Thöne, C. C.; Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Racusin, J. L.; Christmas Burts Collaboration
2013-04-01
We show how numerical simulations have triggered the interpretation of GRB 101225A, so-called, the “Christmas burst.” This event is unusual because of its extremely long ?-ray emission and optical counterpart. The X-ray spectrum shows a black-body component which is present on a handful of nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Numerical models have shown that the atypical properties of this GRB can be explained by the interaction between an ultrarelativistic jet and high-density ejecta, which naturally results after the dynamical common-envelope phase of the merger between a neutron star and the He core of a red giant binary system.
DNS, Enstrophy Balance, and the Dissipation Equation in a Separated Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakumar, Ponnampalam; Rubinstein, Robert; Rumsey, Christopher L.
2013-01-01
The turbulent flows through a plane channel and a channel with a constriction (2-D hill) are numerically simulated using DNS and RANS calculations. The Navier-Stokes equations in the DNS are solved using a higher order kinetic energy preserving central schemes and a fifth order accurate upwind biased WENO scheme for the space discretization. RANS calculations are performed using the NASA code CFL3D with the komega SST two-equation model and a full Reynolds stress model. Using DNS, the magnitudes of different terms that appear in the enstrophy equation are evaluated. The results show that the dissipation and the diffusion terms reach large values at the wall. All the vortex stretching terms have similar magnitudes within the buffer region. Beyond that the triple correlation among the vorticity and strain rate fluctuations becomes the important kinematic term in the enstrophy equation. This term is balanced by the viscous dissipation. In the separated flow, the triple correlation term and the viscous dissipation term peak locally and balance each other near the separated shear layer region. These findings concur with the analysis of Tennekes and Lumley, confirming that the energy transfer terms associated with the small-scale dissipation and the fluctuations of the vortex stretching essentially cancel each other, leaving an equation for the dissipation that is governed by the large-scale motion.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Transitional/Turbulent Wakes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rai, Man Mohan
2011-01-01
The interest in transitional/turbulent wakes spans the spectrum from an intellectual pursuit to understand the complex underlying physics to a critical need in aeronautical engineering and other disciplines to predict component/system performance and reliability. Cylinder wakes have been studied extensively over several decades to gain a better understanding of the basic flow phenomena that are encountered in such flows. Experimental, computational and theoretical means have been employed in this effort. While much has been accomplished there are many important issues that need to be resolved. The physics of the very near wake of the cylinder (less than three diameters downstream) is perhaps the most challenging of them all. This region comprises the two detached shear layers, the recirculation region and wake flow. The interaction amongst these three components is to some extent still a matter of conjecture. Experimental techniques have generated a large percentage of the data that have provided us with the current state of understanding of the subject. More recently computational techniques have been used to simulate cylinder wakes, and the data from such simulations are being used to both refine our understanding of such flows as well as provide new insights. A few large eddy and direct numerical simulations (LES and DNS) of cylinder wakes have appeared in the literature in the recent past. These investigations focus on the low Reynolds number range where the cylinder boundary layer is laminar (sub-critical range). However, from an engineering point of view, there is considerable interest in the situation where the upper and/or lower boundary layer of an airfoil is turbulent, and these turbulent boundary layers separate from the airfoil to contribute to the formation of the wake downstream. In the case of cylinders, this only occurs at relatively large unit Reynolds numbers. However, in the case of airfoils, the boundary layer has the opportunity to transition to turbulence on the airfoil surface at a relatively lower unit Reynolds number because the characteristic length of the airfoil is typically one to two orders of magnitude larger than the trailing edge diameter. This transition to turbulence would occur unless there is a strong favorable pressure gradient that results in the boundary layer remaining laminar or transitional over the surface of the airfoil. This presentation will focus on two direct numerical simulations that have been performed at NASA ARC. The first is of a cylinder wake with laminar separating boundary layers. The second is the wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge. The upper and lower plate surface boundary layers are both turbulent and statistically identical. Thus the computed wake is symmetric in a statistical sense. This flow is more representative of airfoil wakes than cylinder wakes. Results from the two simulations including flow visualization and turbulence statistics in the near wake will be presented at the seminar.
Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.
2012-01-01
The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.
Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in Severely Damaged Core Geometries
Meekunnasombat, Phongsan; Fichot, Florian; Quintard, Michel
2006-07-01
In the event of a severe accident in a nuclear reactor, the oxidation, dissolution and collapse of fuel rods is likely to change dramatically the geometry of the core. A large part of the core would be damaged and would look like porous medium made of randomly distributed pellet fragments, broken claddings and relocated melts. Such a complex medium must be cooled in order to stop the accident progression. IRSN investigates the effectiveness of the water re-flooding mechanism in cooling this medium where complex two-phase flows are likely to exist. A macroscopic model for the prediction of the cooling sequence was developed for the ICARE/CATHARE code (IRSN mechanistic code for severe accidents). It still needs to be improved and assessed. It appears that a better understanding of the flow at the pore scale is necessary. As a result, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) code was developed to investigate the local features of a two-phase flow in complex geometries. In this paper, the Cahn-Hilliard model is used to simulate flows of two immiscible fluids in geometries representing a damaged core. These geometries are synthesized from experimental tomography images (PHEBUS-FP project) in order to study the effects of each degradation feature, such as displacement and fragmentation of the fuel rods and claddings, on the two-phase flow. For example, the presence of fragmented fuel claddings is likely to enhance the trapping of the residual phase (either steam or water) within the medium which leads to less flow fluctuations in the other phase. Such features are clearly shown by DNS calculations. From a series of calculations where the geometry of the porous medium is changed, conclusions are drawn for the impact of rods damage level on the characteristics of two-phase flow in the core. (authors)
Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression
Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.
1999-04-12
This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.
Numerical simulation for hydrogen magnetic refrigeration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yiyin; Hattori, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Koichi; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Numazawa, Takenori
2012-06-01
We have built active magnetic regenerator (AMR) test apparatuses operated with a gas displacer to transfer the heat from magnetic material unit (AMR bed). Because finding an optimum parameter by experiment is not easy, numerical simulation is necessary to confirm the experimental conditions. As the first step of the project, we developed a 1-dimensional porous media model for hydrogen magnetic refrigerator with a Brayton-likeoperation cycle. This model has been calculated separately for heat exchange fluid and magnetic material. The results using two different magnetic materials have been compared.We confirmed that the simulation results agreed with experimental data of the internal gas displacer system.
Cost-effective numerical simulation of SEU
Rollins, J.G.; Tsubota, T.K.; Kolasinski, W.A.; Haddad, N.F.; Rockett, L.; Cerrila, M.; Hennley, W.B.
1988-12-01
A highly modified version of the PISCES 2D simulator has been developed which allows simultaneous solution of the charge collection and circuit problems and the optional use of cylindrical coordinates. The new code has been designed for use in industry and employs robust numerical methods. The program runs on a VAX-11-780 and a typical simulation takes about 4 hours of CPU time. Fortran source code will be distributed at low cost. Test runs have been conducted on an advanced submicron IC process and excellent agreement with cyclotron test data was obtained.
Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a channel with different types of surface roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolotnov, Igor A.
2011-11-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) was performed for turbulent channel flow (Re? = 400) for two types of wall surface roughness and well as smooth walls. The roughness elements of first type were assumed to be two-dimensional, transverse square rods positioned on both walls in a non-staggered arrangement. The height of the rods corresponds to y+ = 13.6 and thus extends in the buffer layer. The second type of roughness was represented by a set of hemispherical obstacles (height of y+ = 10) located on both channel walls and arranged on a square lattice. The presented simulations are part of benchmark problems defined by thermal-hydraulics focus area of the Consortium for Advanced Simulations of Light Water Reactors (CASL). This problem simulates the effect of the presence of growing bubbles on the walls of nuclear reactor fuel rods and aimed on evaluating CFD capabilities of various codes before applying them to more advanced problems. Mean turbulent quantities were computed and compared with available analytical and experimental results. The results of this work will be used to evaluate the performance of other LES and RANS codes on this benchmark problem. Supported by Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL).
Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolbinger, B.; Capon, A.; Diermaier, M.; Lehner, S.; Malbrunot, C.; Massiczek, O.; Sauerzopf, C.; Simon, M. C.; Widmann, E.
2015-08-01
One of the ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration's goals is the measurement of the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of one of the best known systems in physics. This high precision experiment yields a sensitive test of the fundamental symmetry of CPT. Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms have been performed providing information on the required antihydrogen events and the achievable precision.
Numerical Simulations of Hyperfine Transitions of Antihydrogen
Kolbinger, B; Diermaier, M; Lehner, S; Malbrunot, C; Massiczek, O; Sauerzopf, C; Simon, M C; Widmann, E
2015-01-01
One of the ASACUSA (Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) collaboration's goals is the measurement of the ground state hyperfine transition frequency in antihydrogen, the antimatter counterpart of one of the best known systems in physics. This high precision experiment yields a sensitive test of the fundamental symmetry of CPT. Numerical simulations of hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atoms have been performed providing information on the required antihydrogen events and the achievable precision.
Numerical simulation of magma energy extraction
Hickox, C.E.
1991-01-01
The Magma Energy Program is a speculative endeavor regarding practical utility of electrical power production from the thermal energy which reside in magma. The systematic investigation has identified an number of research areas which have application to the utilization of magma energy and to the field of geothermal energy. Eight topics were identified which involve thermal processes and which are areas for the application of the techniques of numerical simulation. These areas are: (1) two-phase flow of the working fluid in the wellbore, (2) thermodynamic cycles for the production of electrical power, (3) optimization of the entire system, (4) solidification and fracturing of the magma caused by the energy extraction process, (5) heat transfer and fluid flow within an open, direct-contact, heat-exchanger, (6) thermal convection in the overlying geothermal region, (7) thermal convection within the magma body, and (8) induced natural convection near the thermal energy extraction device. Modeling issues have been identified which will require systematic investigation in order to develop the most appropriate strategies for numerical simulation. It appears that numerical simulations will be of ever increasing importance to the study of geothermal processes as the size and complexity of the systems of interest increase. It is anticipated that, in the future, greater emphasis will be placed on the numerical simulation of large-scale, three-dimensional, transient, mixed convection in viscous flows and porous media. Increased computational capabilities, e.g.; massively parallel computers, will allow for the detailed study of specific processes in fractured media, non-Darcy effects in porous media, and non-Newtonian effects. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
Numerical Simulations of Boundary-Driven Dynamos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, K.; Brummell, N.; Glatzmaier, G. A.
2012-12-01
An important topic of physics research is how magnetic fields are generated and maintained in the many astrophysical bodies where they are ubiquitously observed. Of particular interest, are reversals of magnetic fields of planets and stars, especially those of the Earth and the Sun. In an attempt to provide intuition on this problem, numerous physical dynamo experiments have been performed in different configurations. Recently, a tremendous breakthrough was made in the Von Karman sodium (VKS) experiments in France when the most realistic laboratory fluid dynamo to date was produced by driving an unconstrained flow in a cylinder of liquid sodium (Monchaux et al, 2007, PRL). One of the curiosities of the VKS experiment however is the effect of the composition of the impellers that drive the flow. Steel blades failed to produce a dynamo, but soft iron impellers, which have much higher magnetic permeability, succeeded. The role of the magnetic properties of the boundaries in boundary-driven dynamos is therefore clearly of interest. Kinematic and laminar numerical dynamo simulations (Giesecke et al, 2010, PRL & Gissinger et al, 2008 EPL) have shed some light but turbulent, nonlinear simulations are necessary. Roberts, Glatzmaier & Clune 2010 created a simplified model of the VKS setup by using three-dimensional numerical simulations in a spherical geometry with differential zonal motions of the boundary replacing the driving impellers of the VKS experiment. We have extended these numerical simulations further towards a more complete understanding of such boundary-forced dynamos. In particular, we have examined the effect of the magnetic boundary conditions - changes in the wall thickness, the magnetic permeability, and the electrical conductivity - on the mechanisms responsible for dynamo generation. Enhanced permeability, conductivity and wall thickness all help dynamo action to different degrees. We are further extending our investigations to asymmetric forcing to examine the possible existence of solutions incorporating field reversals. Asymmetry can quench dynamo action by destroying the complex correlations that are necessary to regenerate axisymmetric poloidal field.
Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning
Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg
2011-01-01
Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112
Numerical simulation of binary liquid droplet collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yu; Suga, Kazuhiko
2005-08-01
A numerical investigation of binary droplet collision has been conducted. The complete process of the collision of two liquid droplets is dynamically simulated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the convective equation of the level set function that captures the interface between the liquid and the gas phases. The simulations cover four major regimes of binary collision: bouncing, coalescence, reflexive separation, and stretching separation. For water droplets in air, the numerical results are compared with the experiments by and Ashgriz and Poo [J. Fluid Mech. 221, 183 (1990)] on collision consequences. For hydrocarbon (C14H30) droplets in nitrogen gas, the simulated results are compared in detail with the time-resolved photographic images of the collision processes obtained by Qian and Law [J. Fluid Mech. 331, 59 (1997)] in every collision regime. The present numerical results suggest that the mechanism of a bouncing collision is governed by the macroscopic dynamics. However, the fact that the present macroscopic numerical model is unable to capture the collision regime of coalescence after minor deformation supports the speculation that its mechanism is related to the microscopic dynamics. Furthermore, the transition from bouncing to coalescence collisions has been predicted and agrees well with the analytical model. The mechanism of satellite droplet formation for head-on collision and stretching separation collision is also studied based on the detailed time-resolved dynamic simulation results. It is then confirmed that end pinching is the main cause of satellite formation in head-on collisions whereas the capillary-wave instability becomes dominant in large impact parameter cases. In the case of an intermediate impact parameter, the effects of twisting and stretching due to the angular momentum and the inertia of the colliding droplets are significant for the satellite formation.
2001 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Gregory; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2002-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA's Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 2000 effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. NPSS was supported in fiscal year 2001 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.
2000 Numerical Propulsion System Simulation Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Veres, Joseph; Owen, Karl; Lopez, Isaac
2001-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective. high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. Major accomplishments include the first formal release of the NPSS object-oriented architecture (NPSS Version 1) and the demonstration of a one order of magnitude reduction in computing cost-to-performance ratio using a cluster of personal computers. The paper also describes the future NPSS milestones, which include the simulation of space transportation propulsion systems in response to increased emphasis on safe, low cost access to space within NASA'S Aerospace Technology Enterprise. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners on the fiscal year 1999 effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. NPSS was supported in fiscal year 2000 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.
Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Sankaran, Ramanan; Mason, Scott D.; Im, Hong G.
2006-04-15
The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding and modeling of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression-ignition engines. Numerical diagnostics are developed to analyze the mode of combustion and the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions. The roles of dissipation of heat and mass are divided conceptually into transport within ignition fronts and passive scalar dissipation, which modifies the statistics of the preignition temperature field. Transport within ignition fronts is analyzed by monitoring the propagation speed of ignition fronts using the displacement speed of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release rate. The prevalence of deflagrative versus spontaneous ignition front propagation is found to depend on the local temperature gradient, and may be identified by the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the laminar deflagration speed. The significance of passive scalar mixing is examined using a mixing timescale based on enthalpy fluctuations. Finally, the predictions of the multizone modeling strategy are compared with the DNS, and the results are explained using the diagnostics developed. (author)
Numeric Simulation Tools of the IMPEx Infrastructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kallio, E. J.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Génot, V.; Schmidt, W.; Jarvinen, R.; Häkkinen, L.; Al-Ubaidi, T.; Topf, F.; Modolo, R.; Hess, S.; Alexeev, I. I.
2012-09-01
The EU-FP7 Project "Integrated Medium for Planetary Exploration" (IMPEx) was established as a result of scientific collaboration between institutions across Europe and is working on the integration of a set of interactive data analysis and modeling tools in the field of space plasma physics. These tools are comprised of numerical Hybrid/MHD and analytical Paraboloid magnetospheric models from the simulation sector as well as AMDA, ClWeb and 3DView from the data analysis and visualization sector. The basic feature of IMPEx consists in connection of different data sources, including archived computational simulation results and observational data, in order to analyse and visualize scientific data by means of interactive web-based tools. In this presentation we introduce Hybrid and Magnetohydrodynamic Modelling (HMM) environment which is an example of simulation services within IMPEx. HMM includes two global numerical hybrid models (a hybrid model HYB from FMI and a hybrid model from LATMOS) and magnetohydrodynamic model (GUMICS) from FMI. Especially, we introduce the web service, Hybrid Web Archive[1] which enables access to the simulation runs made by HYB and GUMICS models in the IMPEx HMM environment.
A Lagrangian VOF tensorial penalty method for the DNS of resolved particle-laden flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, Stéphane; Brändle de Motta, Jorge César; Sarthou, Arthur; Estivalezes, Jean-Luc; Simonin, Olivier; Climent, Eric
2014-01-01
The direct numerical simulation of particle flows is investigated by a Lagrangian VOF approach and penalty methods of second order convergence in space for incompressible flows interacting with resolved particles on a fixed structured grid. A specific Eulerian volume of fluid method is developed with a Lagrangian tracking of the phase function while the solid and divergence free constraints are ensured implicitly in the motion equations thanks to fictitious domains formulations, adaptive augmented Lagrangian approaches and viscous penalty methods. A specific strategy for handling particle collisions and lubrication effects is also presented. Various dilute particle laden flows are considered for validating the models and numerical methods. Convergence studies are proposed for estimating the time and space convergence orders of the global DNS approach. Finally, two dense particle laden flows are simulated, namely the flow across a fixed array of cylinders and the fluidization of 2133 particles in a vertical pipe. The numerical solutions are compared to existing theoretical and experimental results with success.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geurts, B. J.; Kuerten, J. G. M.
2012-08-01
The motion of small particles in turbulent conditions is influenced by the entire range of length- and time-scales of the flow. At high Reynolds numbers this range of scales is too broad for direct numerical simulation (DNS). Such flows can only be approached using large-eddy simulation (LES), which requires the introduction of a sub-filter model for the momentum dynamics. Likewise, for the particle motion the effect of sub-filter scales needs to be reconstructed approximately, as there is no explicit access to turbulent sub-filter scales. To recover the dynamic consequences of the unresolved scales, partial reconstruction through approximate deconvolution of the LES-filter is combined with explicit stochastic forcing in the equations of motion of the particles. We analyze DNS of high-Reynolds turbulent channel flow to a priori extract the ideal forcing that should be added to retain correct statistical properties of the dispersed particle phase in LES. The probability density function of the velocity differences that need to be included in the particle equations and their temporal correlation display a striking and simple structure with little dependence on Reynolds number and particle inertia, provided the differences are normalized by their RMS, and the correlations expressed in wall units. This is key to the development of a general "stand-alone" stochastic forcing for inertial particles in LES.
The Autoconfiguration of Recursive DNS Server and the Optimization of DNS Name Resolution
Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"
The Autoconfiguration of Recursive DNS Server and the Optimization of DNS Name Resolution provides the mechanism for the auto- configuration of recursive DNS server in mobile node and the optimization of DNS name resolution in the hierarchical mobile IPv6 network. Whenever the mobile node moves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Ellen M.; Wu, Minwei; Martín, M. Pino
2007-04-01
Weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) methods have been developed to simultaneously provide robust shock-capturing in compressible fluid flow and avoid excessive damping of fine-scale flow features such as turbulence. Under certain conditions in compressible turbulence, however, numerical dissipation remains unacceptably high even after optimization of the linear component that dominates in smooth regions. We therefore construct and evaluate WENO schemes that also reduce dissipation due to one source of nonlinear error: the smoothness measurement that governs the application of stencil adaptation away from the linear optimal stencil. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) include a one-dimensional Euler solution and three-dimensional compressible isotropic turbulence. We find that the smoothness measurement modifications that we call the "relative smoothness limiter" and the "relative total variation limiter" each significantly enhance thez grid-convergence properties of WENO schemes while generating, respectively, small and moderate additional computational expense. Moreover, we observe these techniques to be broadly effective regardless of flow configuration.
Numerical Simulation of Fluid Mud Gravity Currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yilmaz, N. A.; Testik, F. Y.
2011-12-01
Fluid mud bottom gravity currents are simulated numerically using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, ANSYS-Fluent. In this study, Eulerian-Eulerian multi-fluid method is selected since this method treats all phases in a multiphase system as interpenetrated continua. There are three different phases in the computational model constructed for this study: water, fluid mud, and air. Water and fluid mud are defined as two miscible fluids and the mass and momentum transfers between these two phases are taken into account. Fluid mud, which is a dense suspension of clay particles and water, is defined as a single-phase non-Newtonian fluid via user-defined-functions. These functions define the physical characteristics (density, viscosity, etc.) of the fluid mud and these characteristics vary with changing suspension concentration due to mass transfer between the fluid mud and the water phase. Results of this two-dimensional numerical model are verified with data obtained from experiments conducted in a laboratory flume with a lock-release set-up. Numerical simulations are currently being conducted to elucidate turbulent entrainment of ambient water into fluid mud gravity currents. This study is motivated by coastal dredge disposal operations.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Cosmological Reionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
So, Geoffrey C.
We examine the epoch of hydrogen reionization using a new numerical method that allows us to self-consistently couple all the relevant physical processes (gas dynamics, dark matter dynamics, self-gravity, star formation/feedback, radiative transfer, ionization, recombination, heating and cooling) and evolve the system of coupled equations on the same high resolution mesh. We refer to this approach as direct numerical simulation, in contrast to existing approaches which decouple and coarse-grain the radiative transfer and ionization balance calculations relative to the underlying dynamical calculation. Our method is scalable with respect to the number of radiation sources, size of the mesh, and the number of computer processors employed, and is described in Chapter 2 of this thesis. This scalability permits us to simulate cosmological reionization in large cosmological volumes (~100 Mpc) while directly modeling the sources and sinks of ionizing radiation, including radiative feedback effects such as photoevaporation of gas from halos, Jeans smoothing of the IGM, and enhanced recombination due to small scale clumping. With our fiducial simulation, we find that roughly 2 ionizing photons per baryon is needed to highly ionize the intergalactic medium. The complicated events during reionization that lead to this number can be generally described as inside-out, but in reality the narrative depends on the level of ionization of the gas one defines as ionized. We have updated the formula observers often use for estimating the ionized volume filling fraction formula with a delta b and trec,eff to get from O(10%) to O(1%) consistency with our simulation results. This improvement comes from not using the traditional clumping factor, but instead, considering the history and local effects which were neglected in formulating the original expression. And finally, we have a new upper limit for the escape fraction of ~0.6 from our simulation, which takes into account the photons in the energy density field and photons used to ionize H I.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Juan-Cheng; Li, Feng-Chen; Cai, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Na; Yu, Bo
2015-08-01
Our previous experimental studies have confirmed that viscoelastic-fluid-based nanofluid (VFBN) prepared by suspending nanoparticles in a viscoelastic base fluid (VBF, behaves drag reduction at turbulent flow state) can reduce turbulent flow resistance as compared with water and enhance heat transfer as compared with VBF. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed in this study to explore the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement (HTE) and flow drag reduction (DR) for the VFBN turbulent flow. The Giesekus model is used as the constitutive equation for VFBN. Our previously proposed thermal dispersion model is adopted to take into account the thermal dispersion effects of nanoparticles in the VFBN turbulent flow. The DNS results show similar behaviors for flow resistance and heat transfer to those obtained in our previous experiments. Detailed analyses are conducted for the turbulent velocity, temperature, and conformation fields obtained by DNSs for different fluid cases, and for the friction factor with viscous, turbulent, and elastic contributions and heat transfer rate with conductive, turbulent and thermal dispersion contributions of nanoparticles, respectively. The mechanisms of HTE and DR of VFBN turbulent flows are then discussed. Based on analogy theory, the ratios of Chilton–Colburn factor to friction factor for different fluid flow cases are investigated, which from another aspect show the significant enhancement in heat transfer performance for some cases of water-based nanofluid and VFBN turbulent flows. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51276046), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20112302110020), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561037), and the President Fund of University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y3510213N00).
Direct numerical simulations of the double scalar mixing layer. Part II: Reactive scalars
Mortensen, Mikael; de Bruyn Kops, Stephen M.; Cha, Chong M.
2007-06-15
The reacting double scalar mixing layer (RDSML) is investigated as a canonical multistream flow and a model problem for simple piloted diffusion flames. In piloted diffusion flames, the reacting fuel and oxidizer streams are initially separated by a central pilot stream at stoichiometric composition. The primary purpose of this pilot is to delay the mixing of the pure streams until a stable flame base can develop. In such multistream systems, the modeling of turbulent scalar mixing is complicated by the multiple feed streams, leading to more complex fine-scale statistics, which remain as yet an unmet modeling challenge compared to the simpler two-feed system. In Part I we described how multimodal mixture fraction probability density functions (PDFs) and conditional scalar dissipation rates can be modeled with a presumed mapping function approach. In this work we present an efficient and robust extension of the modeling to a general multistream reacting flow and compare predictions to three-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the RDSML with a single-step reversible chemistry model and varying levels of extinction. With high extinction levels, the interaction with the pilot stream is described. Additionally, state-of-the-art combustion modeling calculations including conditional moment closure (CMC) and stationary laminar flamelet modeling (SLFM) are performed with the newly developed mixing model. Excellent agreement is found between the DNS and modeling predictions, even where the PDF is essentially a triple-delta shape near the flame base, so long as extinction levels are moderate to low. The suggested approach outlined in this paper is strictly valid only for flows that can be described by a single mixture fraction. For these flows the approach should provide engineers with fine-scale models that are of accuracy comparable to those already available for binary mixing, at only marginally higher complexity and cost. (author)
Characterizing Dark DNS Behavior Jon Oberheide1
Mao, Zhuoqing Morley
Characterizing Dark DNS Behavior Jon Oberheide1 , Manish Karir2 , and Z. Morley Mao1 1 Electrical and network operators increasingly rely on information gathered from honeypots and sensors deployed on dark these addresses. In this paper, we introduce the concept of dark DNS, the DNS queries associated with darknet
Reducing DNS Caching Saleem N. Bhatti
Bhatti, Saleem N.
Reducing DNS Caching Saleem N. Bhatti University of St Andrews, UK saleem of traffic control (e.g. multi-homing). Currently, the Domain Name System (DNS) is used to resolve names to DNS records, with relatively large time-to-live (TTL) values (several thousands of seconds
Pollution Resilience for DNS Resolvers Andrew Kalafut
Gupta, Minaxi
Pollution Resilience for DNS Resolvers Andrew Kalafut Computer Science Dept Indiana University Bloomington, IN Email: minaxi@cs.indiana.edu Abstract--The DNS is a cornerstone of the Internet. Unfortu- nately, no matter how securely an organization provisions and guards its own DNS infrastructure
AIAA 033726 Preliminary DNS Database of
Martín, Pino
AIAA 033726 Preliminary DNS Database of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers M. Pino Martin4344 #12;Preliminary DNS Database of Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers M. Pino Martin Department. Based on a better understanding of the real flow physics and using DNS data, accurate turbulence models
DNS Resolvers Considered Harmful Kyle Schomp
Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"
DNS Resolvers Considered Harmful Kyle Schomp , Mark Allman , and Michael Rabinovich Case Western Reserve University, International Computer Science Institute Abstract-- The Domain Name System (DNS, shared DNS resolvers are a notorious security weak spot in the system. We propose an unorthodox approach
Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulence and Mixing in Highly Compressible Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Yifeng; Jaberi, Farhad; Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel
2015-06-01
The effects of normal shock waves on isotropic turbulence and scalar mixing are studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of fully compressible equations with high-order monotonicity-preserving and compact finite-difference numerical schemes for various flow and scalar conditions. Detailed examinations of the turbulence and scalar statistics such as the turbulent kinetic energy and scalar variance indicate that the numerical method is accurate and is able to correctly capture the shock-turbulence interactions and scalar mixing near and away from the shock even at very high Mach numbers. As expected, the shock wave increases the small-scale turbulence and the skewness and flatness of the turbulent velocity fluctuations, but the turbulent compressibility is actually decreased by the shock. The effect of shock on the turbulence was to found be strongly dependent on the pre-shock turbulence parameters such as the turbulence intensity. The enhancement of scalar mixing by the shock is also found to be dependent on the pre-shock scalar structure. The mechanisms responsible for the modification of turbulence and scalar mixing are identified by analyzing the flow structure and the transport equations for the Reynolds stress, vorticity and scalar variance inside and outside the shock zone.
Numerical simulation of boundary-layer transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalart, P. R.
1984-01-01
The transition to turbulence in boundary layers was investigated by direct numerical solution of the nonlinear, three-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in the half-infinite domain over a flat plate. Periodicity was imposed in the streamwise and spanwise directions. A body force was applied to approximate the effect of a nonparallel mean flow. The numerical method was spectra, based on Fourier series and Jacobi polynomials, and used divergence-free basis functions. Extremely rapid convergence was obtained when solving the linear Orr-Sommerfeld equation. The early nonlinear and three-dimensional stages of transition, in a boundary layer disturbed by a vibrating ribbon, were successfully simulated. Excellent qualitative agreement was observed with either experiments or weakly nonlinear theories. In particular, the breakdown pattern was staggered or nonstaggered depending on the disturbance amplitude.
Particle-Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation of a Particle-Laden Mixing Layer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar
2013-11-01
The stability of a homogeneous gas-solid suspension has been investigated in the context of kinetic theory (Koch, Phys. Fluids, 1990) and the averaged two-fluid equations (Glasser et al., PRL, 1998) by considering perturbation of the number density. Koch's analysis points to the dependence of average drag on average volume fraction as the mechanism for the development of instabilities in the number density. However, the physical origins of instabilities in the number density have not been firmly established through microscale simulations at the scale of individual particles. In this study, particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) is used to ascertain the exact physical origins of the growth of number density instabilities in a particle-laden mixing layer. Self-similarity of the temporally evolving number density profile, and the diffusive/convective nature of the instability is examined to ascertain the role of granular temperature in instability growth. The growth of streamwise and cross-stream structures in the particle field are analyzed to draw analogies with the classical Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanisms. The stability of a homogeneous gas-solid suspension has been investigated in the context of kinetic theory (Koch, Phys. Fluids, 1990) and the averaged two-fluid equations (Glasser et al., PRL, 1998) by considering perturbation of the number density. Koch's analysis points to the dependence of average drag on average volume fraction as the mechanism for the development of instabilities in the number density. However, the physical origins of instabilities in the number density have not been firmly established through microscale simulations at the scale of individual particles. In this study, particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) is used to ascertain the exact physical origins of the growth of number density instabilities in a particle-laden mixing layer. Self-similarity of the temporally evolving number density profile, and the diffusive/convective nature of the instability is examined to ascertain the role of granular temperature in instability growth. The growth of streamwise and cross-stream structures in the particle field are analyzed to draw analogies with the classical Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mechanisms. This work is partially supported by NSF CBET 1134500.
Virialisation of Galaxy Clusters in Numerical Simulations
Alexander Knebe
1998-11-10
Numerical simulations of variants of the CDM~model with different cosmological parameters are used to compare statistical measures such as mass spectra, merger processes, and autocorrelation functions, for different models with relevant observations. The degree of virialisation of the halos is checked, and also which properties distinguish recent mergers. Mergers occur mostly in deep potential wells and mark the most important structure formation processes. As consequence, the autocorrelation function of merged halos has a higher amplitude and is steeper than that of the virialized clusters. This effect can also be seen for ultraluminous IRAS galaxies which are thought to be results from ongoing merging events.
Numerical Simulations Unravel the Cosmic Web
C. -A. Faucher-Giguere; A. Lidz; L. Hernquist
2008-03-03
The universe is permeated by a network of filaments, sheets, and knots collectively forming a "cosmic web.'' The discovery of the cosmic web, especially through its signature of absorption of light from distant sources by neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium, exemplifies the interplay between theory and experiment that drives science, and is one of the great examples in which numerical simulations have played a key and decisive role. We recount the milestones in our understanding of cosmic structure, summarize its impact on astronomy, cosmology, and physics, and look ahead by outlining the challenges faced as we prepare to probe the cosmic web at new wavelengths.
Numerical simulation of swept-wing flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, Helen L.
1991-01-01
Efforts of the last six months to computationally model the transition process characteristics of flow over swept wings are described. Specifically, the crossflow instability and crossflow/Tollmien-Schlichting wave interactions are analyzed through the numerical solution of the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations including unsteadiness, curvature, and sweep. This approach is chosen because of the complexity of the problem and because it appears that linear stability theory is insufficient to explain the discrepancies between different experiments and between theory and experiment. The leading edge region of a swept wing is considered in a 3D spatial simulation with random disturbances as the initial conditions.
Numerical simulation of large fabric filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sedlá?ek, Jan; Kova?ík, Petr
2012-04-01
Fabric filters are used in the wide range of industrial technologies for cleaning of incoming or exhaust gases. To achieve maximal efficiency of the discrete phase separation and long lifetime of the filter hoses, it is necessary to ensure uniform load on filter surface and to avoid impacts of heavy particles with high velocities to the filter hoses. The paper deals with numerical simulation of two phase flow field in a large fabric filter. The filter is composed of six chambers with approx. 1600 filter hoses in total. The model was simplified to one half of the filter, the filter hoses walls were substituted by porous zones. The model settings were based on experimental data, especially on the filter pressure drop. Unsteady simulations with different turbulence models were done. Flow field together with particles trajectories were analyzed. The results were compared with experimental observations.
Numerical considerations in simulating the global magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I.; Sokolov, I. V.; Tóth, G.; Welling, D. T.
2010-08-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the global magnetosphere are very good research tools for investigating the topology and dynamics of the near-Earth space environment. While these models have obvious limitations in regions that are not well described by the MHD equations, they can typically be used (or are used) to investigate the majority of magnetosphere. Often, a secondary consideration is overlooked by researchers when utilizing global models - the effects of solving the MHD equations on a grid, instead of analytically. Any discretization unavoidably introduces numerical artifacts that affect the solution to various degrees. This paper investigates some of the consequences of the numerical schemes and grids that are used to solve the MHD equations in the global magnetosphere. Specifically, the University of Michigan's MHD code is used to investigate the role of grid resolution, numerical schemes, limiters, inner magnetospheric density boundary conditions, and the artificial lowering of the speed of light on the strength of the ionospheric cross polar cap potential and the build up of the ring current in the inner magnetosphere. It is concluded that even with a very good solver and the highest affordable grid resolution, the inner magnetosphere is not grid converged. Artificially reducing the speed of light reduces the numerical diffusion that helps to achieve better agreement with data. It is further concluded that many numerical effects work nonlinearly to complicate the interpretation of the physics within the magnetosphere, and so simulation results should be scrutinized very carefully before a physical interpretation of the results is made. Our conclusions are not limited to the Michigan MHD code, but apply to all MHD models due to the limitations of computational resources.
Numerical simulation for a centrifugal heart pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yano, Keiji
The primary focus of this work is to investigate unsteady flow simulations for an incompressible fluid. Computational codes are developed and applied for the purpose of analyzing the flow in a centrifugal heart pump, the Innovative Ventricular Assist System (IVAS) pump, which was developed by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation as a part of the National Institute of Health's artificial heart program. In order to simulate the complex flow in the IVAS pump, three capabilities must be incorporated into the simulation codes. The first capability is that the code must be able to simulate the flow through an IVAS pump for Reynolds numbers 30,000~80,000 with numerical stability. The Reynolds numbers in this range are considered to be high in incompressible flow and to have difficulty in simulating a flow with numerical stability. The second capability is that the codes must solve 2-1/2 dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The 2-1/2 dimensional Navier- Stokes equations are written in such a way that the effect of the variable thickness is included in two- dimensions. The 2-1/2 dimensional analysis enables the simulation of the flow, including the various thickness effects, at nearly the computational speed of two- dimensional analysis. The third capability is that the code must simulate the flow for the entire centrifugal pump, which includes an inlet, rotating blades, a volute, and a diffuser. To perform this intensive calculation, parallel computing is used because of its high computing speed and its ability to accommodate the large computational domain by task partitioning. An intensive parametric study using a single-processor computer is performed with a view to identifying certain problematic aspects of the design methodology. According to the present analysis, the effects of a Reynolds number based on the blade radius and its velocity are not significant for typical pump operation conditions. The flow characteristics, however, change with the Reynolds numbers when they are low. In general, the pressure rise across the pump impeller increases as the radius of the blade arc increases and as the number of blades increases. The findings of this study qualitatively agree with the Euler turbine equation with respect to the effects of the leading edge (inflow) angle and the trailing edge (outflow) angle.
Numerical simulation of LIGO suspended optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogillio, Kristen; Findley, Tiffany; Yoshida, Sanichiro
2004-11-01
Numerical simulation was performed to understand the dynamics of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory's (LIGO) suspended optics as used in the Input Optics (IO), a subsystem consisting of a mode cleaner and mode matching telescope. The end-to-end package (LIGO programming language) was used to build simulation programs (boxes) for the IO suspended optics (suspension box) and the vibration isolation stacks of the optical tables (table box) on which these suspended optics are placed. To make the simulation realistic, actual floor motion recorded at the LIGO Livingston Observatory was given as the mechanical input to the table box, and the resultant table top motion was given to the suspension box. The simulations were validated via comparison with the optics motion recorded concurrently with the floor motion used as the input to the table box. These boxes were used for various studies such as characterization of the table motion under various levels of floor motions, the pointing fluctuation of the IO output beam and the associated power coupling to the arm cavity, and understanding of the mode cleaner's performance.
Numerical simulations of the Ross Sea tides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macayeal, D. R.
1984-01-01
Tidal currents below the floating Ross Ice shelf are reconstructed by using a numerical tidal model. They are predominantly diurnal, achieve maximum strength in regions near where the ice shelf runs aground, and are significantly enhanced by topographic Rossby wave propagation along the ice front. A comparison with observations of the vertical motion of the ice shelf surface indicates that the model reproduces the diurnal tidal characteristics within 20 percent. Similar agreement for the relatively weak semidiurnal tides was not obtained, and this calls attention to possible errors of the open boundary forcing obtained from global-ocean tidal simulations and to possible errors in mapping zones of ice shelf grounding. Air-sea contact below the ice shelf is eliminated by the thick ice cover. The dominant sub-ice-shelf circulation may thus be tidally induced. A preliminary assessment of sub-ice-shelf conditions based on the numerical tidal simulations suggests that (1) strong barotropic circulation is driven along the ice front and (2) tidal fronts may form in the sub-ice-shelf cavity where the water column is thin and where the buoyancy input is weak.
Numerical Simulations of Major Barred Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yen, Chien-Chang; Lin, L.; Yuan, C.
2006-12-01
Galaxies with major bars such as NGC1300 and NGC1097, are characterized by straight dust lanes, central starburst ring and outer spirals. Recent IR observations also show there are star formation patches and spur-like substructures. Through numerical simulations, we can reproduce the dust lanes, the central starburst ring, and the outer spirals by imposing a single strong bar potential on a self-gravitating gas disk. The strong bar potential also causes the disk to develop shear instability and Toomre’s instability in the case of self-gravitating disks, which lead to creation of the star formation patches and chaotic spur-like sub-structures. In our numerical simulations, we use the Antares code we develop, which adopts Cartesian coordinates and uses the high-order Godunov scheme with unsplit flux calculated from the exact Riemann solver. The self-gravitating forces are computed from the discreatization of Green’s kernel into the convolution formula and the fast Fourier transforms. This approach is different to the Fourier basis methods and our approach is the second order accuracy. The work is in parts supported by National Science Council, Taiwan, NSC95-2752-M-001-009-PAE.
Numerical simulation of glass fogging and defogging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croce, Giulio; D'Agaro, Paola; Della Mora, Francesca
2005-08-01
A numerical procedure for the prediction of fogging and defogging phenomena is presented. The simulation involves the solution of an air flow field along a cold solid surface, the evaluation of the unsteady conduction through the solid itself, and a model for the heat and mass transfer within the thin water layer on the fogged surface. A suite of routines for the unsteady simulation of the water layer evolution is coupled with an equal order finite element Navier Stokes solver and a finite volume conduction code. The procedure is fully independent of the numerical details of the solid and fluid domain solvers. Two different coupling approaches may be followed: A loose one, where the Navier Stokes solution is used only for a steady state estimate of the heat transfer coefficient, or a close one, where the Navier Stokes, conduction and water layer codes are iterated simultaneously. The latter is required for the problem of natural convection, where temperature (and thus the energy balance of the water layer) and flow field are coupled. The water layer is modelled as a collection of closely packed tiny droplets, leaving a portion of dry area among them. The effect of the contact angle is taken into account, and physical assumptions allow to define the local ratio between wet and dry surface for both the fogging and defogging process. As a case study, a comparison with experimental data for a complete fogging and defogging cycle of a glass lens in natural convection is presented.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Transient Dispersion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porter, M.; Valdes-Parada, F.; Wood, B.
2008-12-01
Transient dispersion is important in many engineering applications, including transport in porous media. A common theoretical approach involves upscaling the micro-scale mass balance equations for convection- diffusion to macro-scale equations that contain effective medium quantities. However, there are a number of assumptions implicit in the various upscaling methods. For example, results obtained from volume averaging are often dependent on a given set of length and time scale constraints. Additionally, a number of the classical models for dispersion do not fully capture the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute for a general set of initial conditions. In this work, we present direct numerical simulations of micro-scale transient mass balance equations for convection-diffusion in both capillary tubes and porous media. Special attention is paid to analysis of the influence of a new time- decaying coefficient that filters the effects of the initial conditions. The direct numerical simulations were compared to results obtained from solving the closure problem associated with volume averaging. These comparisons provide a quantitative measure of the significance of (1) the assumptions implicit in the volume averaging method and (2) the importance of the early-time dispersive behavior of the solute due to various initial conditions.
DNS of a Turbulent Boundary Layer with Surface Roughness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi; Cardillo, James; Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth
2010-11-01
A Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a high Reynolds number, zero pressure gradient, turbulent boundary layer (Re?= 2400) subjected to sandpaper surface roughness is performed. The surface roughness is modeled with a roughness parameter k^+ ˜ 25 to match the experiments at similar Reynolds number and roughness distribution. The employed computational method involves a synergy of the multi-scale dynamic approach devised by Araya et al. (2010) and a new method for mapping high-resolution topographical data onto a computational domain. When dealing with rough surfaces, where calculation of the wall shear stress is very challenging the multi-scale dynamic method provides a major advantage. Contrary to traditional thought, it has been shown that the different types of surface roughness yield different types of flow fields. In light of these challenges the current roughness methodology aims to provide the community with the tools to use real topographical data to simulate surface roughness. The present simulations may shed light on our understanding of the interaction of the outer and inner layers at various scales.
Numerical Simulation of Free Surface Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maronnier, V.; Picasso, M.; Rappaz, J.
1999-11-01
A numerical model is presented for the simulation of complex fluid flows with free surfaces. The unknowns are the velocity and pressure fields in the liquid region, together with a function defining the volume fraction of liquid. Although the mathematical formulation of the model is similar to the volume of fluid (VOF) method, the numerical schemes used to solve the problem are different. A splitting method is used for the time discretization. At each time step, two advection problems and a generalized Stokes problem are to be solved. Two different grids are used for the space discretization. The two advection problems are solved on a fixed, structured grid made out of small rectangular cells, using a forward characteristic method. The generalized Stokes problem is solved using a finite element method on a fixed, unstructured mesh. Numerical results are presented for several test cases: the filling of an S-shaped channel, the filling of a disk with core, the broken dam in a confined domain.
Does the choice of the forcing term affect flow statistics in DNS of turbulent channel flow?
Quadrio, Maurizio; Hasegawa, Yosuke
2015-01-01
We seek possible statistical consequences of the way a forcing term is added to the Navier--Stokes equations in the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of incompressible channel flow. Simulations driven by constant flow rate, constant pressure gradient and constant power input are used to build large databases, and in particular to store the complete temporal trace of the wall-shear stress for later analysis. As these approaches correspond to different dynamical systems, it can in principle be envisaged that these differences are reflect by certain statistics of the turbulent flow field. The instantaneous realizations of the flow in the various simulations are obviously different, but, as expected, the usual one-point, one-time statistics do not show any appreciable difference. However, the PDF for the fluctuations of the streamwise component of wall friction reveals that the simulation with constant flow rate presents lower probabilities for extreme events of large positive friction. The low probability value ...
The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
Advances in computational technology and in physics-based modeling are making large-scale, detailed simulations of complex systems possible within the design environment. For example, the integration of computing, communications, and aerodynamics has reduced the time required to analyze major propulsion system components from days and weeks to minutes and hours. This breakthrough has enabled the detailed simulation of major propulsion system components to become a routine part of designing systems, providing the designer with critical information about the components early in the design process. This paper describes the development of the numerical propulsion system simulation (NPSS), a modular and extensible framework for the integration of multicomponent and multidisciplinary analysis tools using geographically distributed resources such as computing platforms, data bases, and people. The analysis is currently focused on large-scale modeling of complete aircraft engines. This will provide the product developer with a "virtual wind tunnel" that will reduce the number of hardware builds and tests required during the development of advanced aerospace propulsion systems.
In-shock Cooling in Numerical Simulations
Hutchings, R M; Hutchings, Roger M.; Thomas, Peter A.
1999-01-01
We model a one-dimensional shock-tube using smoothed particle hydrodynamics and investigate the consequences of having finite shock-width in numerical simulations. We investigate the cooling of gas during passage through the shock for different cooling regimes. For a shock temperature of 10^5K, the maximum temperature of the gas is much reduced and the cooling time was reduced by a factor of 2. At lower temperatures, we are especially interested in the production of molecular Hydrogen and so we follow the ionization level and H_2 abundance across the shock. This regime is particularly relevent to simulations of primordial galaxy formation for halos in which the virial temperature of the galaxy is sufficiently high to partially re-ionize the gas. The effect of in-shock cooling is substantial: the maximum temperature the gas reaches compared to the theoretical temperature was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.81 for the simulations performed. The downstream ionization level is reduced from the theoretical level ...
Numerical Simulations of High Enthalpy Pulse Facilities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Gregory J.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Axisymmetric flows within shock tubes and expansion tubes are simulated including the effects of finite rate chemistry and both laminar and turbulent boundary layers. The simulations demonstrate the usefulness of computational fluid dynamics for characterizing the flows in high enthalpy pulse facilities. The modeling and numerical requirements necessary to simulate these flows accurately are also discussed. Although there is a large body of analysis which explains and quantifies the boundary layer growth between the shock and the interface in a shock tube, there is a need for more detailed solutions. Phenomena such as thermochemical nonequilibrium. or turbulent transition behind the shock are excluded in the assumptions of Mirels' analysis. Additionally there is inadequate capability to predict the influence of the boundary layer on the expanded gas behind the interface. Quantifying the gas in this region is particularly important in expansion tubes because it is the location of the test gas. Unsteady simulations of the viscous flow in shock tubes are computationally expensive because they must follow features such as a shock wave over the length of the facility and simultaneously resolve the small length scales within the boundary layer. As a result, efficient numerical algorithms are required. The numerical approach of the present work is to solve the axisymmetric gas dynamic equations using an finite-volume formulation where the inviscid fluxes are computed with a upwind TVD scheme. Multiple species equations are included in the formulation so that finite-rate chemistry can be modeled. The simulations cluster grid points at the shock and interface and translate this clustered grid with these features to minimize numerical errors. The solutions are advanced at a CFL number of less than one based on the inviscid gas dynamics. To avoid limitations on the time step due to the viscous terms, these terms are treated implicitly. This requires a block tri-diagonal matrix inversion along each line of cells normal to the wall. The cost of this inversion is more than offset by the larger allowable time step. The source terms representing the finite-rate chemical kinetics are also treated implicitly. An algebraic turbulence model for compressible flow is used. The flow in a low pressure shock tube is computed and the results are compared with Mirels'analysis. The driven gas is nitrogen at 70 Pa, and the incident shock speed is approximately 2.9 km/sec so that there is little dissociation. The simulations include a laminar boundary layer and are run until the limiting flow regime is achieved. At this limit, the shock and interface travel at the same velocity because the amount of driven gas between these two features remains the same: the mass flow across the shock is equal to the mass of gas being entrained at the interface by the boundary layer. Simulations with several grids are presented to establish the grid independence of the solution, Good agreement is achieved between Mirels' correlations and the computations. This is expected since the flow conditions are chosen to be consistent with the assumptions used in Mirels' analysis. This comparison adds credibility to the numerical approach and highlights some of the differences between the theory and the detailed simulations. In addition, simulations of the HYPULSE expansion tube are presented for two operating conditions and the computations are compared to experimental data. The operating gas for both cases is nitrogen. One test condition is at a total enthalpy of 15.2 MJ/Kg and a relatively low pressure of 2 kPa. This case is characterized by a laminar boundary layer and significant chemical nonequilibrium. in the acceleration gas. The second test condition is at a total enthalpy of 10.2 MJ/Kg and a pressure of 38 kPa and is characterized by a turbulent boundary layer. The simulations compare well with experiment and reveal that the nonuniformity in pressure observed during the test time is related to variations in the boundary layer displacement thickness.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation: An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John K.
2000-01-01
The cost of implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive and time consuming. One of the main contributors to the high cost and lengthy time is the need to perform many large-scale hardware tests and the inability to integrate all appropriate subsystems early in the design process. The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing the technologies required to enable simulations of full aerospace propulsion systems in sufficient detail to resolve critical design issues early in the design process before hardware is built. This concept, called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS), is focused on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures and heat transfer with computing and communication technologies to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS, as illustrated, is to be a "numerical test cell" that enables full engine simulation overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. There are several key elements within NPSS that are required to achieve this capability: 1) clear data interfaces through the development and/or use of data exchange standards, 2) modular and flexible program construction through the use of object-oriented programming, 3) integrated multiple fidelity analysis (zooming) techniques that capture the appropriate physics at the appropriate fidelity for the engine systems, 4) multidisciplinary coupling techniques and finally 5) high performance parallel and distributed computing. The current state of development in these five area focuses on air breathing gas turbine engines and is reported in this paper. However, many of the technologies are generic and can be readily applied to rocket based systems and combined cycles currently being considered for low-cost access-to-space applications. Recent accomplishments include: (1) the development of an industry-standard engine cycle analysis program and plug 'n play architecture, called NPSS Version 1, (2) A full engine simulation that combines a 3D low-pressure subsystem with a 0D high pressure core simulation. This demonstrates the ability to integrate analyses at different levels of detail and to aerodynamically couple components, the fan/booster and low-pressure turbine, through a 3D computational fluid dynamics simulation. (3) Simulation of all of the turbomachinery in a modern turbofan engine on parallel computing platform for rapid and cost-effective execution. This capability can also be used to generate full compressor map, requiring both design and off-design simulation. (4) Three levels of coupling characterize the multidisciplinary analysis under NPSS: loosely coupled, process coupled and tightly coupled. The loosely coupled and process coupled approaches require a common geometry definition to link CAD to analysis tools. The tightly coupled approach is currently validating the use of arbitrary Lagrangian/Eulerian formulation for rotating turbomachinery. The validation includes both centrifugal and axial compression systems. The results of the validation will be reported in the paper. (5) The demonstration of significant computing cost/performance reduction for turbine engine applications using PC clusters. The NPSS Project is supported under the NASA High Performance Computing and Communications Program.
Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent channel flow with V-shape turbulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toro Medina, Jaime A.
Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are carried out to study the channel flow V-shaped roughness on both wall. The roughness is modeled by the immerse boundary method for passive heat transport in a turbulent channel flow with V-shape square ribs for w/k = 3, 8, 10, 15 (w being the pitch, k the height of the ribs turbulators) with a k/h = 0.25, 0.1 (h being the mid-height of the channel). The angle of inclination of the V-shape turbulators is 45 degrees. Numerical results show that V-shape square ribs are more efficient than square ribs in maximizing the heat transfer. The configuration with w/k = 3, k/h = 0.25 presents the largest heat flux. The increase in the heat transfer is due to a secondary motion which is generated by the V-shape turbulators. Secondary motions at the location of the sidewalls transport the heat out of the cavity of the turbulators to the crest pane.
Estimating Uncertainties in Statistics Computed from DNS
Todd A. Oliver; Nicholas Malaya; Rhys Ulerich; Robert D. Moser
2013-11-04
Rigorous assessment of uncertainty is crucial to the utility of DNS results. Uncertainties in the computed statistics arise from two sources: finite statistical sampling and the discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations. Due to the presence of non-trivial sampling error, standard techniques for estimating discretization error (such as Richardson extrapolation) fail or are unreliable. This work provides a systematic and unified approach for estimating these errors. First, a sampling error estimator that accounts for correlation in the input data is developed. Then, this sampling error estimate is used as part of a Bayesian extension of Richardson extrapolation in order to characterize the discretization error. These methods are tested using the Lorenz equations and are shown to perform well. These techniques are then used to investigate the sampling and discretization errors in the DNS of a wall-bounded turbulent flow. For both cases, it is found that while the sampling uncertainty is large enough to make the order of accuracy difficult to determine, the estimated discretization errors are quite small. This indicates that the commonly used heuristics provide ad- equate resolution for this class of problems. However, it is also found that, for some quantities, the discretization error is not small relative to sampling error, indicating that the conventional wisdom that sampling error dominates discretization error for this class of simulations needs to be reevaluated.
3D Numerical simulations of oblique subduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malatesta, C.; Gerya, T.; Scambelluri, M.; Crispini, L.; Federico, L.; Capponi, G.
2012-04-01
In the past 2D numerical studies (e.g. Gerya et al., 2002; Gorczyk et al., 2007; Malatesta et al., 2012) provided evidence that during intraoceanic subduction a serpentinite channel forms above the downgoing plate. This channel forms as a result of hydration of the mantle wedge by uprising slab-fluids. Rocks buried at high depths are finally exhumed within this buoyant low-viscosity medium. Convergence rate in these 2D models was described by a trench-normal component of velocity. Several present and past subduction zones worldwide are however driven by oblique convergence between the plates, where trench-normal motion of the subducting slab is coupled with trench-parallel displacement of the plates. Can the exhumation mechanism and the exhumation rates of high-pressure rocks be affected by the shear component of subduction? And how uprise of these rocks can vary along the plate margin? We tried to address these questions performing 3D numerical models that simulate an intraoceanic oblique subduction. The models are based on thermo-mechanical equations that are solved with finite differences method and marker-in-cell techniques combined with multigrid approach (Gerya, 2010). In most of the models a narrow oceanic basin (500 km-wide) surrounded by continental margins is depicted. The basin is floored by either layered or heterogeneous oceanic lithosphere with gabbro as discrete bodies in serpentinized peridotite and a basaltic layer on the top. A weak zone in the mantle is prescribed to control the location of subduction initiation and therefore the plate margins geometry. Finally, addition of a third dimension in the simulations allowed us to test the role of different plate margin geometries on oblique subduction dynamics. In particular in each model we modified the dip angle of the weak zone and its "lateral" geometry (e.g. continuous, segmented). We consider "continuous" weak zones either parallel or increasingly moving away from the continental margins. Moreover, we tested the effect on subduction/exhumation dynamics of several values of the trench-parallel component of convergence-rate vector. Gerya T., Stöckhert B., Perchuk A.L. (2002). Exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in a subduction channel: a numerical simulation. Tectonics, vol. 21, n. 6, 1056. Gerya, T. V., 2010. Introduction to numerical geodynamic modelling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Gorczyk W., Guillot S., Gerya T.V., Hattori K. (2007a). Asthenospheric upwelling, oceanic slab retreat, and exhumation of UHP mantle rocks: insights from Greater Antilles. Geophysical research letters, vol. 34, L21309. Malatesta C., Gerya T., Scambelluri M., Federico L., Crispini L., Capponi G. (2012). Intraoceanic subduction of "heterogeneous" oceanic lithosphere in narrow basins: 2D numerical modeling. Lithos, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lithos.2012.01.003
Numerical simulations of icing in turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Kaushik
Safety concerns over aircraft icing and the high experimental cost of testing have spurred global interest in numerical simulations of the ice accretion process. Extensive experimental and computational studies have been carried out to understand the icing on external surfaces. No parallel initiatives were reported for icing on engine components. However, the supercooled water droplets in moist atmosphere that are ingested into the engine can impinge on the component surfaces and freeze to form ice deposits. Ice accretion could block the engine passage causing reduced airflow. It raises safety and performance concerns such as mechanical damage from ice shedding as well as slow acceleration leading to compressor stall. The current research aims at developing a computational methodology for prediction of icing phenomena on turbofan compression system. Numerical simulation of ice accretion in aircraft engines is highly challenging because of the complex 3-D unsteady turbomachinery flow and the effects of rotation on droplet trajectories. The aim of the present research focuses on (i) Developing a computational methodology for ice accretion in rotating turbomachinery components; (ii) Investigate the effect of inter-phase heat exchange; (iii) Characterize droplet impingement pattern and ice accretion at different operating conditions. The simulations of droplet trajectories are based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for the continuous and discrete phases. The governing equations are solved in the rotating blade frame of reference. The flow field is computed by solving the 3-D solution of the compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. One-way interaction models simulate the effects of aerodynamic forces and the energy exchange between the flow and the droplets. The methodology is implemented in the cool, TURBODROP and applied to the flow field and droplet trajectories in NASA Roto-67r and NASA-GE E3 booster rotor. The results highlight the variation of impingement location and temperature with droplet size. It also illustrates the effect of rotor speed on droplet temperature rise. The computed droplet impingement statistics and flow properties are used to calculate ice shapes. It was found that the mass of accreted ice and maximum thickness is highly sensitive to rotor speed and radial location.
Numerical simulation on hypervelocity collision fragmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Weidong; Wang, Ronglan
Fragmentation events are the most important source of space debris. The hypervelocity col-lision fragmentation is one of the main categories and is divided into catastrophic and non-catastrophic collisions. Experimental studies have shown that there exists a fragmentation threshold value which is usually characterized by the ratio of impact kinetic energy with the target mass. The target may undergo catastrophic collision if the ratio exceeds the threshold value, otherwise non-catastrophic collision will be expected. The main objective of this paper is to study the hypervelocity collision fragmentation initiated by numerical simulations. For different aerospace materials, projectiles with different shapes and collision velocity to different targets, dozens of cases are performed to determine the threshold value. The effect of material, shape and collision velocities on the results is analyzed to verify the threshold value for the fragmentation.
History of the numerical aerodynamic simulation program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peterson, Victor L.; Ballhaus, William F., Jr.
1987-01-01
The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) program has reached a milestone with the completion of the initial operating configuration of the NAS Processing System Network. This achievement is the first major milestone in the continuing effort to provide a state-of-the-art supercomputer facility for the national aerospace community and to serve as a pathfinder for the development and use of future supercomputer systems. The underlying factors that motivated the initiation of the program are first identified and then discussed. These include the emergence and evolution of computational aerodynamics as a powerful new capability in aerodynamics research and development, the computer power required for advances in the discipline, the complementary nature of computation and wind tunnel testing, and the need for the government to play a pathfinding role in the development and use of large-scale scientific computing systems. Finally, the history of the NAS program is traced from its inception in 1975 to the present time.
Numerical Simulations of Convectively Excited Gravity Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glatzmaier, G. A.
1984-01-01
Magneto-convection and gravity waves are numerically simulated with a nonlinear, three-dimensional, time-dependent model of a stratified, rotating, spherical fluid shell heated from below. A Solar-like reference state is specified while global velocity, magnetic field, and thermodynamic perturbations are computed from the anelastic magnetohydrodynamic equations. Convective overshooting from the upper (superadiabatic) part of the shell excites gravity waves in the lower (subadiabatic) part. Due to differential rotation and Coriolis forces, convective cell patterns propagate eastward with a latitudinally dependent phase velocity. The structure of the excited wave motions in the stable region is more time-dependent than of the convective motions above. The magnetic field tends to be concentrated over giant-cell downdrafts in the convective zone but is affected very little by the wave motion in the stable region.
Numerical simulation of three dimensional transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sahu, Jubaraj; Steger, Joseph L.
1987-01-01
The three-dimensional flow over a projectile has been computed using an implicit, approximately factored, partially flux-split algorithm. A simple composite grid scheme has been developed in which a single grid is partitioned into a series of smaller grids for applications which require an external large memory device such as the SSD of the CRAY X-MP/48, or multitasking. The accuracy and stability of the composite grid scheme has been tested by numerically simulating the flow over an ellipsoid at angle of attack and comparing the solution with a single grid solution. The flowfield over a projectile at M = 0.96 and 4 deg angle-of-attack has been computed using a fine grid, and compared with experiment.
Numerical Simulations of Acoustically Driven, Burning Droplets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, H.-C.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.; Urban, Dave (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
This computational study focuses on understanding and quantifying the effects of external acoustical perturbations on droplet combustion. A one-dimensional, axisymmetric representation of the essential diffusion and reaction processes occurring in the vicinity of the droplet stagnation point is used here in order to isolate the effects of the imposed acoustic disturbance. The simulation is performed using a third order accurate, essentially non-oscillatory (ENO) numerical scheme with a full methanol-air reaction mechanism. Consistent with recent microgravity and normal gravity combustion experiments, focus is placed on conditions where the droplet is situated at a velocity antinode in order for the droplet to experience the greatest effects of fluid mechanical straining of flame structures. The effects of imposed sound pressure level and frequency are explored here, and conditions leading to maximum burning rates are identified.
Numerical simulations to study solar wind turbulence
Sharma, R. P.; Sharma, Nidhi; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Sachin; Singh, H. D.
2011-02-15
Numerical simulation of coupled equations of kinetic Alfven wave (KAW) and ion acoustic wave is presented in the solar wind. The nonlinear dynamical equations satisfy the modified Zakharov system of equations by taking the nonadiabatic response of the background density. The ponderomotive nonlinearity is incorporated in the wave dynamics. The effect of Landau damping of KAW is taken into account. Localization of magnetic field intensity and the wavenumber spectra (perpendicular and parallel) of magnetic fluctuations are studied in solar plasmas around 1 a.u. Our results reveal the formation of damped localized structures and the steeper spectra that are in good agreement with the observations. These damped structures and steeper turbulent spectra can be responsible for plasma heating and particle acceleration in solar wind.
Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vervisch, Luc; Hauguel, Raphaël; Domingo, Pascale; Rullaud, Matthieu
2004-01-01
Three aspects of turbulent combustion modelling are discussed to provide an overview of numerical simulation of turbulent flames. The three examples reported concern direct numerical simulation (DNS), large eddy simulation (LES) and Reynolds average Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations. Recent developments in DNS deal with the possibility of performing a full simulation of a premixed turbulent V-flame evolving in grid turbulence. The DNS data are useful to improve modelling of turbulent micromixing, in terms of the scalar dissipation rate of a reaction progress variable. Many combustion systems operate with reactants that have been partially premixed by unsteady large-scale motions. In this context, LES of partially premixed turbulent-lifted flame bases are reported, with a subgrid procedure that accounts for the combination of premixed and nonpremixed combustion regimes observed in such flames. Then, some developments are proposed to improve the prediction capabilities of RANS methods applied to complex combustion systems. Specifically, RANS is introduced to capture mean temperature and major pollutants' fields. Along these lines, a novel approach combining a flame tabulated chemistry with presumed conditional moments is proposed. The results are compared with laser diagnostic measurements of a nonpremixed turbulent jet flame of a methane-air mixture (Sandia D-flame). This article follows a review talk given at the Third International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (Sendai, Japan, 24-27 June 2003).
Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.
2000-01-01
The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.
The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator
Travish, G.A.
1989-11-01
Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.
Terascale High-Fidelity Simulations of Turbulent Combustion with Detailed Chemistry
Raghurama Reddy; Roberto Gomez; Junwoo Lim; Yang Wang; Sergiu Sanielevici
2004-10-15
This SciDAC project enabled a multidisciplinary research consortium to develop a high fidelity direct numerical simulation (DNS) software package for the simulation of turbulent reactive flows. Within this collaboration, the authors, based at CMU's Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center (PSC), focused on extensive new developments in Sandia National Laboratories' "S3D" software to address more realistic combustion features and geometries while exploiting Terascale computational possibilities. This work significantly advances the state-of-the-art of DNS of turbulent reacting flows.
Numerical simulations of two-phase Taylor-Couette turbulence using an Euler-Lagrange approach
Spandan, Vamsi; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef
2015-01-01
Two-phase turbulent Taylor-Couette (TC) flow is simulated using an Euler-Lagrange approach to study the effects of a secondary phase dispersed into a turbulent carrier phase (here bubbles dispersed into water). The dynamics of the carrier phase is computed using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) in an Eulerian framework, while the bubbles are tracked in a Lagrangian manner by modelling the effective drag, lift, added mass and buoyancy force acting on them. Two-way coupling is implemented between the dispersed phase and the carrier phase which allows for momentum exchange among both phases and to study the effect of the dispersed phase on the carrier phase dynamics. The radius ratio of the TC setup is fixed to $\\eta=0.833$, and a maximum inner cylinder Reynolds number of $Re_i=8000$ is reached. We vary the Froude number ($Fr$), which is the ratio of the centripetal to the gravitational acceleration of the dispersed phase and study its effect on the net torque required to drive the TC system. In a two-phase TC...
Direct numerical simulation of sheared turbulent flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Vascar G.
1994-01-01
The summer assignment to study sheared turbulent flow was divided into three phases which were: (1) literature survey, (2) computational familiarization, and (3) pilot computational studies. The governing equations of fluid dynamics or Navier-Stokes equations describe the velocity, pressure, and density as functions of position and time. In principle, when combined with conservation equations for mass, energy, and thermodynamic state of the fluid a determinate system could be obtained. In practice the Navier-Stokes equations have not been solved due to the nonlinear nature and complexity of these equations. Consequently, the importance of experiments in gaining insight for understanding the physics of the problem has been an ongoing process. Reasonable computer simulations of the problem have occured as the computational speed and storage of computers has evolved. The importance of the microstructure of the turbulence dictates the need for high resolution grids in extracting solutions which contain the physical mechanisms which are essential to a successful simulation. The recognized breakthrough occurred as a result of the pioneering work of Orzag and Patterson in which the Navier-Stokes equations were solved numerically utilizing a time saving toggling technique between physical and wave space, known as a spectral method. An equally analytically unsolvable problem, containing the same quasi-chaotic nature as turbulence, is known as the three body problem which was studied computationally as a first step this summer. This study was followed by computations of a two dimensional (2D) free shear layer.
A Dynamic Interstellar Medium Recent Numerical Simulations
Shukurov, A M
2000-01-01
Recent numerical simulations of the interstellar medium driven by energy input from supernovae and stellar winds indicate that HI clouds can be formed by compression in shock waves and colliding turbulent streams without any help from thermal and gravitational instabilities. The filling factor of the hot phase in these models does not exceed 20-40% at the midplane. The hot gas is involved in a systematic vertical outflow at |z|<1-3 kpc, similar to that expected for galactic fountains, whereas the warm component may remain in hydrostatic equilibrium. The turbulent velocity is larger in the warmer phases, being 3, 10 and 40 km/s in the cool, warm and hot phases, respectively, according to one of the simulations. The models exhibit global variability in the total kinetic and thermal energy and star formation rate at periods of (0.4-4)x10^8 yr. Current models are still unable to reproduce dynamo action in the interstellar gas; we briefly discuss implications of the dynamo theory for turbulent interstellar magn...
Numerical simulation of premixed turbulent methane combustion
Day, Marc S.; Bell, John B.; Almgren, Ann S.; Beckner, Vincent E.; Lijewski, Michael J.; Cheng, Robert; Shepherd, Ian; Johnson, Matthew
2003-06-14
With adaptive-grid computational methodologies and judicious use of compressible and low Mach number combustion models, we are carrying out three-dimensional, time-dependent direct numerical simulations of a laboratory-scale turbulent premixed methane burner. In the laboratory experiment, turbulence is generated by a grid located in the throat of a 50mm diameter circular nozzle; swirl is be introduced by four tangential air jets spaced uniformly around the circumference of the nozzle just above the turbulence grid. A premixed methane flame is stabilized above the nozzle in the central core region where a velocity deficit is induced7the swirling flow. The time-dependent flow field inside the nozzle, from the turbulence grid and the high-speed jets, to the nozzle exit plane is simulated using an adaptive-grid embedded-boundary compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The compressible calculation then provides time-dependent boundary conditions for an adaptive low Mach number model of the swirl-stabilized premixed flame. The low Mach model incorporates detailed chemical kinetics and species transport using 20 species and 84 reactions. Laboratory diagnostics available for comparisons include characterizations of the flow field just down stream of the nozzle exit plane, and flame surface statistics, such as mean location, wrinkling and crossing frequencies.
Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations
Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, 17491 Greifswald, Germany and Max-Planck/Princeton Research Center for Plasma Physics, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, 17491 Greifswald, Germany and Max-Planck/Princeton Research Center for Plasma Physics, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)
2013-12-15
Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations.
Numerical simulation of solar coronal magnetic fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos, Spiro K.; Zang, T. A.
1990-01-01
Many aspects of solar activity are believed to be due to the stressing of the coronal magnetic field by footpoint motions at the photosphere. The results are presented of a fully spectral numerical simulation which is the first 3-D time dependent simulation of footpoint stressing in a geometry appropriate for the corona. An arcade is considered that is initially current-free and impose a smooth footpoint motion that produces a twist in the field of approx 2 pi. The footprints were fixed and the evolution was followed until the field relaxes to another current-free state. No evidence was seen for any instability, either ideal or resistive and no evidence for current sheet formation. The most striking feature of the evolution is that in response to photospheric motions, the field expands rapidly upward to minimize the stress. The expansion has two important effects. First, it suppresses the development of dips in the field that could support dense, cool material. For the motions assumed, the magnetic field does not develop a geometry suitable for prominence formation. Second, the expansion inhibits ideal instabilities such as kinking. The results indicate that simple stearing of a single arcade is unlikely to lead to solar activity such as flares or prominences. Effects are discussed that might possibly lead to such activity.
Numerical simulation of axisymmetric free surface flows
Tome, M.F.; Castelo, A.; Murakami, J.; Cuminato, J.A.; Minghim, R.; Oliveira, M.C.F.; Mangiavacchi, N.; McKee, S.
2000-01-20
Industrial applications of fluid flows with free surfaces are ubiquitous: applications include casting, container filling, extrusion, and fluid jetting devices. This paper describes an extension of the GENSMAC code for solving two-dimensional free surface flows to axisymmetric flows. Like GENSMAC the technique is finite difference based and embodies, but considerably extends, the SMAC (simplified marker and cell) ideas. It incorporates adaptive time stepping and an accurate representation of the free surfaces while at the same time only uses surface particles to define the free surfaces, greatly increasing the computational speed; in addition, it employs a graphic interface with solid modeling techniques to provide enhanced three-dimensional visualization. Various simulations are undertaken to illustrate and validate typical flows. Both G. I. Taylor's viscous jet plunging into a fluid and a liquid drop splashing onto a fluid are simulated. Also, the important industrial application of container filling is illustrated. Finally, a comparison is made with the linear theory of standing waves and the code is validated by a numerical convergence study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herring, J. R.; McWilliams, J. C.
1985-04-01
Several studies suggest that high-Reynolds-number two-dimensional turbulence may evolve in such a manner that there is little enstrophy flux to small scales. In these cases, the flow departs substantially from Gaussianity. It is pointed out that this condition is inhospitable to moment closures. The present study has the objective to gain inslight into the magnitude of this problem. A comparison is conducted of direct numerical simulations (DNS) with equivalent closure (TFM) for a variety of forcing functions, including spin-down (i.e. no forcing). The results obtained for forced cases are that the closure may be quantitatively accurate only if the disruptive effects of random stirring are sufficiently strong to prevent the formation of coherent structures natural to two-dimensional turbulence.
In-shock Cooling in Numerical Simulations
Roger M. Hutchings; Peter A. Thomas
1999-03-22
We model a one-dimensional shock-tube using smoothed particle hydrodynamics and investigate the consequences of having finite shock-width in numerical simulations. We investigate the cooling of gas during passage through the shock for different cooling regimes. For a shock temperature of 10^5K, the maximum temperature of the gas is much reduced and the cooling time was reduced by a factor of 2. At lower temperatures, we are especially interested in the production of molecular Hydrogen and so we follow the ionization level and H_2 abundance across the shock. This regime is particularly relevent to simulations of primordial galaxy formation for halos in which the virial temperature of the galaxy is sufficiently high to partially re-ionize the gas. The effect of in-shock cooling is substantial: the maximum temperature the gas reaches compared to the theoretical temperature was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.81 for the simulations performed. The downstream ionization level is reduced from the theoretical level by a factor of between 2.4 and 12.5, and the resulting H_2 abundance was found to be reduced to a fraction of 0.45 to 0.74 of its theoretical value. At temperatures above 10^5K, radiative shocks are unstable and will oscillate. We reproduce these oscillations and find good agreement with the previous work of Chevalier and Imamura (1982), and Imamura, Wolff and Durisen (1984). The effect of in-shock cooling in such shocks is difficult to quantify, but is undoubtedly present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano
2013-09-01
An innovative method for prescribing turbulent thermal inflow information in spatially developing boundary layers under streamwise pressure gradients is introduced for attached flows. The approach is tested and validated in a suite of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of thermal boundary layers for zero (ZPG) and adverse (APG) pressure gradients with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (Re?) up to 3000. The turbulent thermal data are generated based on the dynamic multi-scale approach proposed by Araya et al. ["A dynamic multi-scale approach for turbulent inflow boundary conditions in spatially evolving flows," J. Fluid Mech. 670, 581-605 (2011)], which is extended to include thermal field simulations in the present article. The approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method developed by Lund, Wu, and Squires ["Generation of turbulent inflow data for spatially developing boundary layer simulations," J. Comput. Phys. 140, 233-258 (1998)] for ZPG flows. Isothermal walls are considered for the thermal field and the molecular Prandtl number is 0.71. In addition, only inlet momentum/thermal boundary layer thicknesses must be prescribed while other flow parameters such as the inlet friction velocity, u?, and friction temperature, ??, are computed dynamically based on the flow solution obtained downstream by means of a test plane. This plane is located between the inlet and recycle stations. Based on the unique and extensive DNS results of heat transfer obtained in this investigation, the effects of Reynolds numbers and adverse pressure gradients on the flow and thermal parameters are also explored and visualized. The principal outcome of adverse pressure gradient on the flow parameters has been determined as a secondary peak, particularly on the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the outer region, which shows clear evidence of energy production in the outer flow and not only in the buffer layer as traditionally known. Nevertheless, this peak is not so obvious on the thermal fluctuations but it is hypothesized that the reason is mainly attributed to the absence of a freestream thermal gradient, as imposed in the velocity field. Furthermore, the high-speed streaks in the buffer layer are observed to be notably shorter and wider in a Strong APG than in the ZPG case. Finally, a significant decrease of the turbulent Prandtl number is attributed to the presence of a Strong APG.
Advanced in turbulence physics and modeling by direct numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reynolds, W. C.
1987-01-01
The advent of direct numerical simulations of turbulence has opened avenues for research on turbulence physics and turbulence modeling. Direct numerical simulation provides values for anything that the scientist or modeler would like to know about the flow. An overview of some recent advances in the physical understanding of turbulence and in turbulence modeling obtained through such simulations is presented.
Integrated computation of Lagrangian coherent structures during DNS of unsteady and turbulent flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finn, Justin; Apte, Sourabh
2012-11-01
The computation of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) typically involves post processing of experimentally or numerically obtained fluid velocity fields to obtain the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) via a sequence of flow maps (vector fields which describe fluid displacement patterns over a finite time interval, t0 +/- T). However, this procedure can be prohibitively expensive for large-scale complex flows of engineering interest. In this work, an alternative approach involving computation of the FTLE on the fly during direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the 3D Navier-Stokes equations is developed. This incorporation of the FTLE computations into a parallel DNS solver relies on Lagrangian particle tracking to compose forward time flow maps, and an Eulerian treatment of the backward time flow map [Leung, J. Comp. Physics 2011] coupled with a semi-Lagrangian advection scheme. The time T flow maps are accurately constructed from smaller sub-steps [Brunton & Rowley, Chaos 2010], resulting in low CPU and memory requirements for computing evolving FTLE fields. Illustrative examples will be presented to demonstrate the capability of the approach including the evolution of a turbulent vortex ring and turbulent flows in complex porous media. Funding: NSF project #0933857, Inertial Effects in Flow Through Porous Media.
DNS of Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Swept-Wing Boundary Layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duan, L.; Choudhari, M.; Li, F.
2014-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed to examine laminar to turbulent transition due to high-frequency secondary instability of stationary crossflow vortices in a subsonic swept-wing boundary layer for a realistic natural-laminar-flow airfoil configuration. The secondary instability is introduced via inflow forcing and the mode selected for forcing corresponds to the most amplified secondary instability mode that, in this case, derives a majority of its growth from energy production mechanisms associated with the wall-normal shear of the stationary basic state. An inlet boundary condition is carefully designed to allow for accurate injection of instability wave modes and minimize acoustic reflections at numerical boundaries. Nonlinear parabolized stability equation (PSE) predictions compare well with the DNS in terms of modal amplitudes and modal shape during the strongly nonlinear phase of the secondary instability mode. During the transition process, the skin friction coefficient rises rather rapidly and the wall-shear distribution shows a sawtooth pattern that is analogous to the previously documented surface flow visualizations of transition due to stationary crossflow instability. Fully turbulent features are observed in the downstream region of the flow.
DNS of low Reynolds number turbulent flows in dimpled channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhengyi; Yeo, K. S.; Khoo, B. C.
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed to study turbulent flows over dimpled surfaces in a channel. Results on mean field and second-order quantities are obtained. ‘Horseshoe’ vortices can be observed in the dimples of sparse arrays. As inter-dimple separation is reduced, the ‘feet’ of the horseshoe vortices are gradually lifted off the dimple surface, and the resulting flow structures in the cavities become flattened and stretched to become something akin to two-dimensional separation bubbles. At the higher dimple density, the stream traces near the surface also develop a distinct formation similar to what had been observed in earlier Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) simulations (Isaev, S.A., Leont'ev, A.I. and Baranov, P.A., 2000, Technical Physics Letters, 26, 15; Lin, Y.L., Shih, T.I.-P. and Chyu, M.K., 1999, ASME paper, 99-GT-263; Lin, Y.L. Shih, T.I.-P., 2001, International Journal of Transfer Phenomena, 3, 1). Regions of high turbulence intensity are found above the downstream half of the dimples and along their side edges. These regions coincide with the locations of vortex shedding found in the experiments of Ligrani et al. (2001, Physics of Fluids, 13, 3442) and the locations of vorticity concentrations observed in Park et al. (2004, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A (Applications), 45(1), 1) and Won and Ligrani (2004, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A (Applications), 46(6), 549). For a fixed mean pressure gradient, it is observed that the flow rates through the channels are reduced by the presence of dimples. This indicates that the dimpled channels we have studied so far have larger drag than flat-wall channels. Computed friction coefficients for dimpled channels also confirmed the conclusion.
A numerical simulation of the backward Raman amplifying in plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hong-Yu; Huang, Zu-Qia
2005-12-01
This paper describe a numerical simulation method for the interaction between laser pulses and low density plasmas based on hydrodynamic approximation. We investigate Backward Raman Amplifying (BRA) experiments and their variants. The numerical results are in good agreement with experiments.
Numerical Simulations of Falling Sphere Viscometry Experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O Dwyer, L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Lesher, C. E.
2007-12-01
The falling sphere technique based on Stokes' law is widely used to determine the viscosities of geologically relevant melts at high pressures. Stokes' law is valid when a rigid sphere falls slowly and steadily through a stationary and infinite Newtonian medium of uniform properties. High-pressure falling sphere experiments however, usually involve dropping a dense, refractory sphere through a liquid contained by a cylindrical capsule of finite size. The sphere velocity is influenced by the walls (Faxen correction) and ends of the capsule, and possible convective motion of the fluid. Efforts are made to minimize thermal gradients in laboratory experiments, but small temperature differences within the capsule can lead to convection complicating interpretation. We utilize GALE (Moresi et al., 2003;), a finite element particle-in-cell code, to examine these factors in numerical models of conditions similar to those of high-pressure experiments. Our modeling considers a three- dimensional box or cylinder containing a cluster of particles that represent the dense sphere in laboratory experiments surrounded by low viscosity particles representing the melt. GALE includes buoyancy forces, heat flow, and viscosity variations so our model can be used to assess the effects of the capsule's walls and ends, and the consequences of thermal gradients on the sphere's velocity and trajectory. Comparisons between our numerical simulations and real-time falling sphere experiments involving lower viscosity molten komatiite are made to assess the validity of Stokes' law with the standard Faxen correction included, and formulations considering end effects. The modeling also permits an evaluation of the uncertainties in recovering accurate liquid viscosities from Stokes' law when a dense sphere falls through a convecting low viscosity melt. It also allows us to assess acceleration to a terminal velocity that can provide constraints on melt viscosity in experiments in which the terminal velocity was not reached.
Numerical simulation of "an American haboob"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.
2014-04-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High-resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran Desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM (Non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model on E grid, Janjic et al., 2001; Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al., 2001; Pérez et al., 2006) with 4 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The scope of this paper is validation of the dust model performance, and not use of the model as a tool to investigate mechanisms related to the storm. Results demonstrate the potential technical capacity and availability of the relevant data to build an operational system for dust storm forecasting as a part of a warning system. Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~2500 ?g m-3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10 stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), employing deep blue (DB) algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further research and application of high-resolution modeling and satellite-based remote sensing to warn of approaching severe dust events and reduce risks for safety and health.
Numerical simulation of "An American Haboob"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, A.; Vujadinovic, M.; Pejanovic, G.; Andric, J.; Kumjian, M. R.; Djurdjevic, V.; Dacic, M.; Prasad, A. K.; El-Askary, H. M.; Paris, B. C.; Petkovic, S.; Nickovic, S.; Sprigg, W. A.
2013-10-01
A dust storm of fearful proportions hit Phoenix in the early evening hours of 5 July 2011. This storm, an American haboob, was predicted hours in advance because numerical, land-atmosphere modeling, computing power and remote sensing of dust events have improved greatly over the past decade. High resolution numerical models are required for accurate simulation of the small-scales of the haboob process, with high velocity surface winds produced by strong convection and severe downbursts. Dust productive areas in this region consist mainly of agricultural fields, with soil surfaces disturbed by plowing and tracks of land in the high Sonoran desert laid barren by ongoing draught. Model simulation of the 5 July 2011 dust storm uses the coupled atmospheric-dust model NMME-DREAM with 3.5 km horizontal resolution. A mask of the potentially dust productive regions is obtained from the land cover and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Model results are compared with radar and other satellite-based images and surface meteorological and PM10 observations. The atmospheric model successfully hindcasted the position of the front in space and time, with about 1 h late arrival in Phoenix. The dust model predicted the rapid uptake of dust and high values of dust concentration in the ensuing storm. South of Phoenix, over the closest source regions (~ 25 km), the model PM10 surface dust concentration reached ~ 2500 ?g m-3, but underestimated the values measured by the PM10stations within the city. Model results are also validated by the MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD), employing deep blue (DB) algorithms for aerosol loadings. Model validation included Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), equipped with the lidar instrument, to disclose the vertical structure of dust aerosols as well as aerosol subtypes. Promising results encourage further research and application of high-resolution modeling and satellite-based remote sensing to warn of approaching severe dust events and reduce risks for safety and health.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joslin, Ronald D.; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan
1992-01-01
Spatially evolving instabilities in a boundary layer on a flat plate are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In a truncated physical domain, a nonstaggered mesh is used for the grid. A Chebyshev-collocation method is used normal to the wall; finite difference and compact difference methods are used in the streamwise direction; and a Fourier series is used in the spanwise direction. For time stepping, implicit Crank-Nicolson and explicit Runge-Kutta schemes are used to the time-splitting method. The influence-matrix technique is used to solve the pressure equation. At the outflow boundary, the buffer-domain technique is used to prevent convective wave reflection or upstream propagation of information from the boundary. Results of the DNS are compared with those from both linear stability theory (LST) and parabolized stability equation (PSE) theory. Computed disturbance amplitudes and phases are in very good agreement with those of LST (for small inflow disturbance amplitudes). A measure of the sensitivity of the inflow condition is demonstrated with both LST and PSE theory used to approximate inflows. Although the DNS numerics are very different than those of PSE theory, the results are in good agreement. A small discrepancy in the results that does occur is likely a result of the variation in PSE boundary condition treatment in the far field. Finally, a small-amplitude wave triad is forced at the inflow, and simulation results are compared with those of LST. Again, very good agreement is found between DNS and LST results for the 3-D simulations, the implication being that the disturbance amplitudes are sufficiently small that nonlinear interactions are negligible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parkinson, S. D.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Allison, P. A.
2014-09-01
High-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs) are an important tool for the detailed analysis of turbidity current dynamics. Models that resolve the vertical structure and turbulence of the flow are typically based upon the Navier-Stokes equations. Two-dimensional simulations are known to produce unrealistic cohesive vortices that are not representative of the real three-dimensional physics. The effect of this phenomena is particularly apparent in the later stages of flow propagation. The ideal solution to this problem is to run the simulation in three dimensions but this is computationally expensive. This paper presents a novel finite-element (FE) DNS turbidity current model that has been built within Fluidity, an open source, general purpose, computational fluid dynamics code. The model is validated through re-creation of a lock release density current at a Grashof number of 5 × 106 in two and three dimensions. Validation of the model considers the flow energy budget, sedimentation rate, head speed, wall normal velocity profiles and the final deposit. Conservation of energy in particular is found to be a good metric for measuring model performance in capturing the range of dynamics on a range of meshes. FE models scale well over many thousands of processors and do not impose restrictions on domain shape, but they are computationally expensive. The use of adaptive mesh optimisation is shown to reduce the required element count by approximately two orders of magnitude in comparison with fixed, uniform mesh simulations. This leads to a substantial reduction in computational cost. The computational savings and flexibility afforded by adaptivity along with the flexibility of FE methods make this model well suited to simulating turbidity currents in complex domains.
ConfiDNS: Leveraging Scale and History to Improve DNS Security Lindsey Poole and Vivek S. Pai
Pai, Vivek
ConfiDNS: Leveraging Scale and History to Improve DNS Security Lindsey Poole and Vivek S. Pai Princeton University Abstract While cooperative DNS resolver systems, such as Co- DNS, have demonstrated this weakness in a new system called ConfiDNS, which augments the cooperative lookup process with con- figurable
Turbulent Supersonic Channel Flow: Direct Numerical Simulation and Modeling
Heinz, Stefan
Turbulent Supersonic Channel Flow: Direct Numerical Simulation and Modeling Stefan Heinz University of turbulent supersonic channel flow are analyzed to address several questions that are relevant to turbulence
Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples
Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno
2014-01-01
Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873
Cloud interactions and merging - Numerical simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tao, W.-K.; Simpson, J.
1984-01-01
A total of 48 numerical experiments have been performed to study cloud interactions adn merging by means of a two-dimensional multi-cell model. Two soundings of deep convection during GATE and two different magnitudes of large-scale lifting have been used as the initial conditions and as the main forcing on the model. Over two hundred groups of cloud systems with a life history of over sixty minutes have been generated under the influence of different combinations of the stratification and large-scale lifting. The results demonstrate the increase in convective activity and in amount of precipitation with increased intensity of large-scale lifting. The results also show increased occurrence of cloud merger with increased intensity of large-scale lifting. The most unfavorable environmental conditions for cloud merging are (1) less unstable stratification of the atmosphere and (2) weaker large-scale lifting. A total of fourteen cloud systems qualify as mergers. Two selected cases will be described dynamically and thermodynamically in this paper. Although these cloud mergers have been simulated under the influence of different synoptic-scale conditions, the major physical mechanism related to the cloud merging process is the same as that proposed by Simpson. Cumulus downdrafts and associated cold outflows play a dominant role in the merging process in all cases studied.
Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples.
Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno
2014-11-01
Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873
Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples
Orencio Duran; Philippe Claudin; Bruno Andreotti
2014-11-07
Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement towards the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by mid-air collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport.
Direct Numerical Simulation of Cell Printing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Rui; He, Ping
2010-11-01
Structural cell printing, i.e., printing three dimensional (3D) structures of cells held in a tissue matrix, is gaining significant attention in the biomedical community. The key idea is to use desktop printer or similar devices to print cells into 3D patterns with a resolution comparable to the size of mammalian cells, similar to that in living organs. Achieving such a resolution in vitro can lead to breakthroughs in areas such as organ transplantation and understanding of cell-cell interactions in truly 3D spaces. Although the feasibility of cell printing has been demonstrated in the recent years, the printing resolution and cell viability remain to be improved. In this work, we investigate one of the unit operations in cell printing, namely, the impact of a cell-laden droplet into a pool of highly viscous liquids using direct numerical simulations. The dynamics of droplet impact (e.g., crater formation and droplet spreading and penetration) and the evolution of cell shape and internal stress are quantified in details.
Chen, Jackie; Sankaran, Ramanan; Hawkes, Evatt R
2009-05-01
The difficulty of experimental measurements of the scalar dissipation rate in turbulent flames has required researchers to estimate the true three-dimensional (3D) scalar dissipation rate from one-dimensional (1D) or two-dimensional (2D) gradient measurements. In doing so, some relationship must be assumed between the true values and their lower dimensional approximations. We develop these relationships by assuming a form for the statistics of the gradient vector orientation, which enables several new results to be obtained and the true 3D scalar dissipation PDF to be reconstructed from the lower-dimensional approximations. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent plane jet flames to examine the orientation statistics, and verify our assumptions and final results. We develop and validate new theoretical relationships between the lower-dimensional and true moments of the scalar dissipation PDF assuming a log-normal true PDF. We compare PDFs reconstructed from lower-dimensional gradient projections with the true values and find an excellent agreement for a 2D simulated measurement and also for a 1D simulated measurement perpendicular to the mean flow variations. Comparisons of PDFs of thermal dissipation from DNS with those obtained via reconstruction from 2D experimental measurements show a very close match, indicating this PDF is not unique to a particular flame configuration. We develop a technique to reconstruct the joint PDF of the scalar dissipation and any other scalar, such as chemical species or temperature. Reconstructed conditional means of the hydroxyl mass fraction are compared with the true values and an excellent agreement is obtained.
Schilling, Oleg; Mueschke, Nicholas J.
2010-10-18
Data from a 1152X760X1280 direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a transitional Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer modeled after a small Atwood number water channel experiment is used to comprehensively investigate the structure of mean and turbulent transport and mixing. The simulation had physical parameters and initial conditions approximating those in the experiment. The budgets of the mean vertical momentum, heavy-fluid mass fraction, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, heavy-fluid mass fraction variance, and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance dissipation rate equations are constructed using Reynolds averaging applied to the DNS data. The relative importance of mean and turbulent production, turbulent dissipation and destruction, and turbulent transport are investigated as a function of Reynolds number and across the mixing layer to provide insight into the flow dynamics not presently available from experiments. The analysis of the budgets supports the assumption for small Atwood number, Rayleigh/Taylor driven flows that the principal transport mechanisms are buoyancy production, turbulent production, turbulent dissipation, and turbulent diffusion (shear and mean field production are negligible). As the Reynolds number increases, the turbulent production in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation becomes the dominant production term, while the buoyancy production plateaus. Distinctions between momentum and scalar transport are also noted, where the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate both grow in time and are peaked near the center plane of the mixing layer, while the heavy-fluid mass fraction variance and its dissipation rate initially grow and then begin to decrease as mixing progresses and reduces density fluctuations. All terms in the transport equations generally grow or decay, with no qualitative change in their profile, except for the pressure flux contribution to the total turbulent kinetic energy flux, which changes sign early in time (a countergradient effect). The production-to-dissipation ratios corresponding to the turbulent kinetic energy and heavy-fluid mass fraction variance are large and vary strongly at small evolution times, decrease with time, and nearly asymptote as the flow enters a self-similar regime. The late-time turbulent kinetic energy production-to-dissipation ratio is larger than observed in shear-driven turbulent flows. The order of magnitude estimates of the terms in the transport equations are shown to be consistent with the DNS at late-time, and also confirms both the dominant terms and their evolutionary behavior. These results are useful for identifying the dynamically important terms requiring closure, and assessing the accuracy of the predictions of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation models of turbulent transport and mixing in transitional Rayleigh-Taylor instability-generated flow.
Multidisciplinary propulsion simulation using the numerical propulsion system simulator (NPSS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Claus, Russel W.
1994-01-01
Implementing new technology in aerospace propulsion systems is becoming prohibitively expensive. One of the major contributions to the high cost is the need to perform many large scale system tests. The traditional design analysis procedure decomposes the engine into isolated components and focuses attention on each single physical discipline (e.g., fluid for structural dynamics). Consequently, the interactions that naturally occur between components and disciplines can be masked by the limited interactions that occur between individuals or teams doing the design and must be uncovered during expensive engine testing. This overview will discuss a cooperative effort of NASA, industry, and universities to integrate disciplines, components, and high performance computing into a Numerical propulsion System Simulator (NPSS).
Direct numerical simulation of heat transfer in Taylor-Couette flow
Kedia, R.; Hunt, M.L.; Colonius, T.
1997-07-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) have been performed to study the effects of the gravitational and the centrifugal potentials on the stability of heated, incompressible Taylor-Couette flow. The flow is confined between two differentially heated, concentric cylinders and the inner cylinder is allowed to rotate. The Navier-Stokes equations and the coupled energy equation are solved using a spectral method. To validate the code, comparisons are made with existing linear stability analysis and with experiments. The code is used to calculate the local and average heat transfer coefficients for a fixed Reynolds number (Re = 100) and a range of Grashof numbers. The variation of the local coefficients of heat transfer on the cylinder surface is investigated, and maps showing different stable states of the flow are presented. Results are also presented in terms of the equivalent conductivity and show that heat transfer decreases with Grashof number in axisymmetric Taylor vortex flow regime and increases with Grashof number after the flow becomes non-axisymmetric.
Analysis and modeling of subgrid scalar mixing using numerical data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Girimaji, Sharath S.; Zhou, YE
1995-01-01
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence is used to study, analyze and, subsequently, model the role of small (subgrid) scales in the mixing process. In particular, we attempt to model the dissipation of the large scale (supergrid) scalar fluctuations caused by the subgrid scales by decomposing it into two parts: (1) the effect due to the interaction among the subgrid scales; and (2) the effect due to interaction between the supergrid and the subgrid scales. Model comparisons with DNS data show good agreement. This model is expected to be useful in the large eddy simulations of scalar mixing and reaction.
LES, DNS and RANS for the analysis of high-speed turbulent reacting flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Givi, Peyman
1994-01-01
The objective of this research is to continue our efforts in advancing the state of knowledge in Large Eddy Simulation (LES), Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), and Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) methods for the analysis of high-speed reacting turbulent flows. In the first phase of this research, conducted within the past six months, focus was in three directions: RANS of turbulent reacting flows by Probability Density Function (PDF) methods, RANS of non-reacting turbulent flows by advanced turbulence closures, and LES of mixing dominated reacting flows by a dynamics subgrid closure. A summary of our efforts within the past six months of this research is provided in this semi-annual progress report.
Hierarchical formulations for numerical flow simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahba, Essam Moustafa
A new hierarchical formulation for the equations of fluid motion is developed. The hierarchical nature of the new formulation is due to its ability to simulate all levels of fluid flow approximations, namely, inviscid irrotational isentropic flows (potential flow formulation), inviscid rotational non-isentropic flows (Euler formulation) and viscous heat conducting flows (Navier-Stokes formulation). The new formulation uses a potential flow solver as a base solver which is evaluated everywhere in the flow field, while convection/diffusion equations for entropy, vorticity and total enthalpy are only evaluated within limited domains of the flow field where rotational effects are present such as in regions containing shocks, boundary layers and/or wakes. This is accomplished by using a Helmholtz decomposition of the velocity vector into the gradient of a potential function plus a rotational component. The density and pressure are reformulated in terms of the speed and entropy. The new formulation identifies an acoustic mode, governed by the potential equation, from the convection/diffusion mode governing the entropy, vorticity and total enthalpy. This identification of modes together with the ability to restrict the evaluation of entropy, vorticity and total enthalpy to relatively small domains within the flow field offers several advantages over the traditional Euler and Navier-Stokes formulations from the point of view of upwinding, multigrid and the incompressible flow limit. To test the robustness, efficiency and accuracy of this new approach, several flow problems are simulated. These problems include 2-D shock wave/boundary layer interaction, 2-D inviscid and viscous flows over cylinders, 2-D inviscid and viscous flows over airfoils and 3-D inviscid and viscous flows over wings. The results obtained using the new formulation agree well with both experimental results and numerical results obtained from traditional Euler and Navier-Stokes formulations. Fast convergence rates are also achieved through the implementation of multigrid to the augmented potential equation which results in an order of magnitude reduction in work units as compared to single grid computations.
Numerical Simulation of Complex Turbomachinery Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernobrovkin, A. A.; Lakshiminarayana, B.
1999-01-01
An unsteady, multiblock, Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes solver based on Runge-Kutta scheme and Pseudo-time step for turbo-machinery applications was developed. The code was validated and assessed against analytical and experimental data. It was used to study a variety of physical mechanisms of unsteady, three-dimensional, turbulent, transitional, and cooling flows in compressors and turbines. Flow over a cylinder has been used to study effects of numerical aspects on accuracy of prediction of wake decay and transition, and to modify K-epsilon models. The following simulations have been performed: (a) Unsteady flow in a compressor cascade: Three low Reynolds number turbulence models have been assessed and data compared with Euler/boundary layer predictions. Major flow features associated with wake induced transition were predicted and studied; (b) Nozzle wake-rotor interaction in a turbine: Results compared to LDV data in design and off-design conditions, and cause and effect of unsteady flow in turbine rotors were analyzed; (c) Flow in the low-pressure turbine: Assessed capability of the code to predict transitional, attached and separated flows at a wide range of low Reynolds numbers and inlet freestream turbulence intensity. Several turbulence and transition models have been employed and comparisons made to experiments; (d) leading edge film cooling at compound angle: Comparisons were made with experiments, and the flow physics of the associated vortical structures were studied; and (e) Tip leakage flow in a turbine. The physics of the secondary flow in a rotor was studied and sources of loss identified.
Numerical simulation of 3D breaking waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraunie, Philippe; Golay, Frederic
2015-04-01
Numerical methods dealing with two phase flows basically can be classified in two ways : the "interface tracking" methods when the two phases are resolved separately including boundary conditions fixed at the interface and the "interface capturing" methods when a single flow is considered with variable density. Physical and numerical properties of the two approaches are discussed, based on some numerical experiments performed concerning 3D breaking waves. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the Modtercom program of Region PACA.
Laizet, S; Vassilicos, J C
2014-01-01
We focus in this paper on the effect of the resolution of Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) on the spatio-temporal development of the turbulence downstream of a single square grid. The aims of this study are to validate our numerical approach by comparing experimental and numerical one-point statistics downstream of a single square grid and then investigate how the resolution is impacting the dynamics of the flow. In particular, using the Q-R diagram, we focus on the interaction between the strain-rate and rotation tensors, the symmetric and skew-symmetric parts of the velocity gradient tensor respectively. We first show good agreement between our simulations and hot-wire experiment for one-point statistics on the centreline of the single square grid. Then, by analysing the shape of the Q-R diagram for various streamwise locations, we evaluate the ability of under-resolved DNS to capture the main features of the turbulence downstream of the single square grid.
Large-eddy simulation of transitional channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Zang, Thomas A.
1990-01-01
A large-eddy simulation (LES) of transition in plane channel flow was carried out. The LES results were compared with those of a fine direct numerical simulation (DNS), and with those of a coarse DNS that uses the same mesh as the LES, but does not use a residual stress model. While at the early stages of transition, LES and coarse DNS give the same results: the presence of the residual stress model was found to be necessary to predict accurately mean velocity and Reynolds stress profiles during the late stages of transition (after the second spike stage). The evolution of single Fourier modes is also predicted more accurately by the LES than by the DNS. As small scales are generated, the dissipative character of the residual stress starts to reproduce correctly the energy cascade. As transition progresses, the flow approaches its fully developed turbulent state, the subgrid scales tend towards equilibrium, and the model becomes more accurate.
Practical considerations in developing numerical simulators for thermal recovery
J. H. Abou-Kassem
1996-01-01
Numerical simulation of steam injection and in-situ combustion-based oil recovery processes is of great importance in project design. Development of such numerical simulators is an on-going process, with improvements made as the process description becomes more complete, and also as better methods are devised to resolve certain numerical difficulties. This paper addresses some of the latter, and based on the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiselj, Iztok
2014-12-01
Channel flow DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) at friction Reynolds number 180 and with passive scalars of Prandtl numbers 1 and 0.01 was performed in various computational domains. The "normal" size domain was ˜2300 wall units long and ˜750 wall units wide; size taken from the similar DNS of Moser et al. The "large" computational domain, which is supposed to be sufficient to describe the largest structures of the turbulent flows was 3 times longer and 3 times wider than the "normal" domain. The "very large" domain was 6 times longer and 6 times wider than the "normal" domain. All simulations were performed with the same spatial and temporal resolution. Comparison of the standard and large computational domains shows the velocity field statistics (mean velocity, root-mean-square (RMS) fluctuations, and turbulent Reynolds stresses) that are within 1%-2%. Similar agreement is observed for Pr = 1 temperature fields and can be observed also for the mean temperature profiles at Pr = 0.01. These differences can be attributed to the statistical uncertainties of the DNS. However, second-order moments, i.e., RMS temperature fluctuations of standard and large computational domains at Pr = 0.01 show significant differences of up to 20%. Stronger temperature fluctuations in the "large" and "very large" domains confirm the existence of the large-scale structures. Their influence is more or less invisible in the main velocity field statistics or in the statistics of the temperature fields at Prandtl numbers around 1. However, these structures play visible role in the temperature fluctuations at low Prandtl number, where high temperature diffusivity effectively smears the small-scale structures in the thermal field and enhances the relative contribution of large-scales. These large thermal structures represent some kind of an echo of the large scale velocity structures: the highest temperature-velocity correlations are not observed between the instantaneous temperatures and instantaneous streamwise velocities, but between the instantaneous temperatures and velocities averaged over certain time interval.
NUMERICAL NOISE PM SIMULATION IN CMAQ
We have found that numerical noise in the latest release of CMAQ using the yamo advection scheme when compiled on Linux cluster with pgf90 (5.0 or 6.0). We recommend to use -C option to eliminate the numerical noise....
Numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a cyclonic separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanov, Dmitry; Poniaev, Sergey
2014-12-01
Numerical simulation of a turbulent flow of air with dispersed particles through a cyclonic separator is presented. Because of a high streamline curvature in the separator it is difficult to simulate the flow by using the conventional turbulent models. In this work the curvature correction term was included into the k – ? – SST turbulence model implemented in the OpenFOAM® software. Experimental data and results of numerical simulation by the commercial ANSYS Fluent® solver for a turbulent flow in a U-duct were used to validate the model. The numerical simulation of the flow in the cyclonic separator demonstrates that the implemented turbulence model successfully predicts the cyclonic separator efficiency.
Aslam, T.D.; Bdzil, J.B.
1998-02-01
When the detonation reaction-zone length, {eta}{sub r}, is short in comparison to the dimensions of the explosive piece being burnt, the detonation can be viewed as a propagating surface (or front) separating burnt from unburnt material. If the product of the shock curvature, {kappa} and {eta}{sub r} is small (i.e., the scaled shock curvature satisfies the {vert_bar}{kappa}{eta}{sub r}{vert_bar} {much_lt} 1), then to leading order the speed of this surface, D{sub n}({kappa}) is a function only of {kappa}. It is in this limit that the original version of the asymptotic detonation front theory, called detonation shock dynamics (DSD), derives the propagation law, D{sub n}({kappa}). In this lecture, the authors compare D{sub n}({kappa})-theory with the results obtained with high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS), and then use the DNS results to guide the development of extended asymptotic front theories with enhanced predictive capabilities.
Numerical simulation of the 1988 midwestern drought
Chern, Jiun-Dar; Sun, Wen-Yih [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1997-11-01
In this study, the Purdue Regional Model (PRM) is utilized to simulate the monthly evolution of the weather patterns during the summer of 1988. The primary goal of this study is to develop and validate the PRM. The PRM, a regional climate model, is a hydrostatic primitive-equation model that uses the Arakawa C staggered grid in the horizontal and a terrain-following vertical coordinate. The model was used to simulate the 1988 drought for one month with lateral boundary conditions. The simulation reproduced the driest events in the Midwest; however, the simulated precipitation along the Gulf coast and Florida was underestimated. This suggests that the 60 km model resolution used in the simulation was not high enough to simulate the convective precipitation associated with the sea breeze circulations. 10 refs., 5 figs.
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION
Faccanoni, Gloria
Rods G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 2 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 2 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical Tests Conclusion Numerical Method 3 Numerical Tests 4 Conclusion G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 4 / 23
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION
Faccanoni, Gloria
Rods G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 2 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical://www.spaceflight.esa.int/users/fluids/TT_boiling.htm G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 3 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Numerical Tests Conclusion OUTLINE 1 Model 2 Numerical Method 3 Numerical Tests 4 Conclusion G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE
Numerical simulations of flaring loops with Flarix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
none Heinzel, Petr; Karlicky, Marian; Varady, Michal; Kasparova, Jana; Moravec, Zdenek
2015-08-01
Flarix is the radiation-hydrodynamical code for simulation of the flare evolution. It solves the set of hydrodynamicval equations coupled to NLTE equations of radiative transfer. The simulation is driven by the accelerated electron beams. We present new results of Flarix simulations for various types of flare loops, incorporating new features like effects of the return current and particle re-acceleration in the chromosphere.
Numerical Simulation Of Cutting Of Gear Teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oswald, Fred B.; Huston, Ronald L.; Mavriplis, Dimitrios
1994-01-01
Shapes of gear teeth produced by gear cutters of specified shape simulated computationally, according to approach based on principles of differential geometry. Results of computer simulation displayed as computer graphics and/or used in analyses of design, manufacturing, and performance of gears. Applicable to both standard and non-standard gear-tooth forms. Accelerates and facilitates analysis of alternative designs of gears and cutters. Simulation extended to study generation of surfaces other than gears. Applied to cams, bearings, and surfaces of arbitrary rolling elements as well as to gears. Possible to develop analogous procedures for simulating manufacture of skin surfaces like automobile fenders, airfoils, and ship hulls.
Numerical Simulations of Compact Binaries Lawrence E. Kidder
Maryland at College Park, University of
-Caltech Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) Binary Black Hole Simulations Neutron Star - Black Hole Simulations Lawrence) Numerical Simulations of Compact Binaries Maryland 26 August 2009 2 / 18 #12;Spectral Einstein Code (Sp (2005)] Dual frame method with dynamic tracking of the black holes [Scheel, Pfeiffer, Lindblom, Kidder
Advanced Numerical Methods for Simulation of Shockwaves Induced by
McDonald, Kirk
Strength ... Uniaxial Strain Hypothesis #12;A. Dallocchio CERN Simulation Tools Thermally induced ShockAdvanced Numerical Methods for Simulation of Shockwaves Induced by High Energy Particle Beams A Simulation Tools Material Modelling & Algorithms of Solution Engineering Case Study: Beam Induced Damage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troitskaya, Yuliya; Druzhinin, Oleg
2013-04-01
Interaction of surface water waves with the wind flow is of primary importance for the wave modeling. The most difficult case for modeling is that of steep waves, when the strongly non-linear effects (e.g. sheltering, flow separation, vortex formation etc.) are encountered in the airflow over waves. Of special interest is also the influence of the wind flow stratification on the wind-wave interaction. In this work the preliminary results of direct numerical simulation (DNS)of structure and statistical characteristics of a turbulent, stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer over waved water surface are presented. In the experiments two-dimensional water waves with different wave age parameters (c/u* = 0-10, where u* is the friction velocity and c is the wave celerity), wave slope ka = 0-0.2 and at a bulk Reynolds number Re = 15000 and different values of the bulk Richardson number Ri (based on the buoyancy jump, bulk velocity and the surface wave length) are considered. The shape of the water wave is prescribed and does not evolve under the action of the wind. The full, 3D Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation are solved in curvilinear coordinates in a frame of reference moving the phase velocity of the wave. The shear driving the flow is created by an upper plane boundary moving horizontally with a bulk velocity in the x-direction. Periodic boundary conditions are considered in the horizontal (x) and lateral (y) directions, and no-slip boundary condition is considered in the vertical z-direction. The grid of nodes in the x, y, and z directions is used. The Adams-Bashforth method is employed to advance the integration in time and the equation for the pressure is solved iteratively by using FFT in the x and y directions and the Gauss method in the z-direction. Ensemble-averaged velocity and pressure fields are evaluated by averaging over time and the spanwise coordinate. Profiles of the mean velocity and turbulent stresses are obtained by averaging over wavelength. The preliminary DNS results show that the wind flow is significantly affected by the stratification. If the Richardson number is sufficiently small, the instantaneous vector velocity fields manifest considerable airflow separation at the crests of the surface waves similar to that observed in physical experiments by PIV-technique. Alternatively the ensemble averaged velocity fields are non-separating and have typical structures similar to those observed in shear flows near critical levels, where the phase velocity of the disturbance coincides with the flow velocity. On the other hand, for large Richardson numbers the wind flow turbulence is superseded by internal lee waves radiated from the wave crests and dissipating at a critical level, at some distance above the crests. The DNS results are compared with the prediction of a theoretical model of a turbulent boundary layer, based on the system of Reynolds-averaged equations with the first-order closure hypothesis. The wind-wave interaction is considered within the quasi-linear approximation, i.e., wave-induced disturbances in the air flow are considered in the linear approximation, but the resistive effect of the wave momentum flux on the mean flow velocity profile is taken into account. This paper was supported by RFBR (project codes 10-05-00339-A, 10-05-91177-GFEN_A, 09-05-00779-A;, 11-05-00455-A).
A Numerical Simulation of the Boycott Effect
Zu-Jia Xu; Efstathios E. Michaelides
2005-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method has been used to simulate the velocity field induced and the motion of an ensemble of particles during the sedimentation process in inclined tubes. The simulations show the trajectories and flow behavior of individual particles and particle-particle and particle-wall interactions as well as the formation of particle clusters. The global convection motion that was experimentally observed
Numerical simulation of Martian dust devils
Anthony D. Toigo; Mark I. Richardson; Shawn P. Ewald; Peter J. Gierasch
2003-01-01
Large eddy simulations of vertical convective vortices and dust devils in the Martian convective boundary layer are presented, employing a version of the Mars MM5 mesoscale model, adapted to use periodic boundary conditions and run at resolutions of 10 to 100 m. The effects of background horizontal wind speed and shear on dust devil development are studied in four simulations,
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THERMAL RECOVERY PROCESSES
Mohamed Soliman; W. E. Brigham; Raj Raghavan
1981-01-01
This study presents the development and application of an In-situ combustion model designed to simulate a laboratory combustion tube. This model is a first step to a comprehensive field model. It considers both mass and heat balance equations. Combustion is assumed to occur from direct burning of oil. Except for this assumption, the simulator rigorously considers the flow of different
Numerical Simulation of Two Phase Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, Meng-Sing
2001-01-01
Two phase flows can be found in broad situations in nature, biology, and industry devices and can involve diverse and complex mechanisms. While the physical models may be specific for certain situations, the mathematical formulation and numerical treatment for solving the governing equations can be general. Hence, we will require information concerning each individual phase as needed in a single phase. but also the interactions between them. These interaction terms, however, pose additional numerical challenges because they are beyond the basis that we use to construct modern numerical schemes, namely the hyperbolicity of equations. Moreover, due to disparate differences in time scales, fluid compressibility and nonlinearity become acute, further complicating the numerical procedures. In this paper, we will show the ideas and procedure how the AUSM-family schemes are extended for solving two phase flows problems. Specifically, both phases are assumed in thermodynamic equilibrium, namely, the time scales involved in phase interactions are extremely short in comparison with those in fluid speeds and pressure fluctuations. Details of the numerical formulation and issues involved are discussed and the effectiveness of the method are demonstrated for several industrial examples.
Zhi-Gang Feng
2012-05-31
The simulation of particulate flows for industrial applications often requires the use of two-fluid models, where the solid particles are considered as a separate continuous phase. One of the underlining uncertainties in the use of the two-fluid models in multiphase computations comes from the boundary condition of the solid phase. Typically, the gas or liquid fluid boundary condition at a solid wall is the so called no-slip condition, which has been widely accepted to be valid for single-phase fluid dynamics provided that the Knudsen number is low. However, the boundary condition for the solid phase is not well understood. The no-slip condition at a solid boundary is not a valid assumption for the solid phase. Instead, several researchers advocate a slip condition as a more appropriate boundary condition. However, the question on the selection of an exact slip length or a slip velocity coefficient is still unanswered. Experimental or numerical simulation data are needed in order to determinate the slip boundary condition that is applicable to a two-fluid model. The goal of this project is to improve the performance and accuracy of the boundary conditions used in two-fluid models such as the MFIX code, which is frequently used in multiphase flow simulations. The specific objectives of the project are to use first principles embedded in a validated Direct Numerical Simulation particulate flow numerical program, which uses the Immersed Boundary method (DNS-IB) and the Direct Forcing scheme in order to establish, modify and validate needed energy and momentum boundary conditions for the MFIX code. To achieve these objectives, we have developed a highly efficient DNS code and conducted numerical simulations to investigate the particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in particulate flows. Most of our research findings have been reported in major conferences and archived journals, which are listed in Section 7 of this report. In this report, we will present a brief description of these results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druzhinin, Oleg; Troitskaya, Yliya; Zilitinkevich, Sergej
2015-04-01
Detailed knowledge of the interaction of surface water waves with the wind flow is of primary importance for correct parameterization of turbulent momentum and heat fluxes which define the energy and momentum transfer between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The objective of the present study is to investigate the properties of the stably stratified turbulent boundary-layer (BL) air-flow over waved water surface by direct numerical simulation (DNS) at a bulk Reynolds number varying from 15000 to 80000 and the surface-wave slope up to ka = 0.2. The DNS results show that the BL-flow remains in the statistically stationary, turbulent regime if the Reynolds number (ReL) based on the Obukhov length scale and friction velocity is sufficiently large (ReL > 100). In this case, mean velocity and temperature vertical profiles are well predicted by log-linear asymptotic solutions following from the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory provided the velocity and temperature roughness parameters, z0U and z0T, are appropriately prescribed. Both z0U and z0T increase for larger surface-wave slope. DNS results also show that turbulent momentum and heat fluxes and turbulent velocity and temperature fluctuations are increased for larger wave slope (ka) whereas the mean velocity and temperature derivatives remain practically the same for different ka. Thus, we conclude that the source of turbulence enhancement in BL-flow are perturbations induced by the surface wave, and not the shear instability of the bulk flow. On the other hand, if stratification is sufficiently strong, and the surface-wave slope is sufficiently small, the BL-flow over waved surface relaminarizes in the bulk of the domain. However, if the surface-wave slope exceeds a threshold value, the velocity and temperature fluctuations remain finite in the vicinity of the critical-layer level, where the surface-wave phase velocity coincides with the mean flow velocity. We call this new stably-stratified BL-flow regime observed in our DNS a "wave-pumping" regime. We develop a theoretical model and explain the occurrence of the wave-pumping regime observed in DNS as a result of the generation of two-dimensional (2D) disturbances in the air flow under the influence of the surface wave and secondary, parametric instability of these disturbances along the surface-wave front direction. The model predicts that the wave-pumping regime occurs only for sufficiently steep waves which is in agreement with DNS results. The model prediction for the amplitudes of the wave-induced 2D disturbances in the air flow is also in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with DNS results. The results also show that increasing the bulk Reynolds number of the air-flow leads to the development of a wide spectrum of the disturbances. At a sufficiently high super-criticality we expect a transition to occur from the wave-pumping regime to a fully-developed, turbulent BL-flow regime, even at high Richardson number when the air flow over a smooth surface relaminarizes. This work was supported by RFBR (project No. 14-05-00367) and by RSF (project No. 14-17 -0086).
Numerical Simulations of MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disks
Steven A. Balbus; John F. Hawley
2002-03-20
We review numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. The last decade has witnessed fundamental advances both in the technical capabilities of direct numerical simulation, and in our understanding of key physical processes. Magnetic fields tap directly into the free energy sources in a sufficiently ionized gas. The result is that adverse angular velocity and adverse temperature gradients, not the classical angular momentum and entropy gradients, destabilize laminar and stratified flow. This has profound consequences for astrophysical accretion flows, and has opened the door to a new era of numerical simulation experiments.}
Numerical Simulation on Flow in Column Chromatography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Komiyama, Ryo; Umemura, Tomonari
2013-12-01
Monolithic columns have attracted much attention as a novel platform for high throughput analysis, but there is little information about the fluid profile in the flow channels. In this paper, we presented our approach for the fluid simulation in column chromatography by the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). To simulate the monolithic column system, the calculation domain was modeled by the 3D channel flow through sphere obstacles. Several types of porous structure were used, with uniform and nonuniform pores. Based on the simulations results, we discussed fluid flow and pressure variation for the optimization of the suitable structure for HPLC system.
Public Key Validation for the DNS Security Extensions Daniel Massey
Massey, Dan
Public Key Validation for the DNS Security Extensions Daniel Massey USC/ISI masseyd@isi.edu Ed of DNS Security (DNSSEC) can only succeed if there is an effective mechanism for DNS public key validation. This paper compares three potential ap- proaches to DNS key validation. A tree based approach uti
Performance of DNS as Location Manager using Cell Residence Time
Atiquzzaman, Mohammed
Performance of DNS as Location Manager using Cell Residence Time Abu Ahmed Sayeem Reaz, Mohammed)-325-0582, atiq@ou.edu, www.cs.ou.edu/~netlab #12;1 Performance of DNS as Location Manager Abu Ahmed Sayeem Reaz Management, DNS, Mobility Manage- ment, IP Diversity Abstract-- Domain Name System (DNS) maps domain names
DNS Traffic Analysis for Network-based Malware
DNS Traffic Analysis for Network-based Malware Detection Linh Vu Hong Kongens Lyngby 2012 IMM. It is not surprising that the Domain Name System (DNS) is abused by botnets for the purposes of evasion, because of the important role of DNS in the operation of the Internet. DNS provides a flexible mapping between domain names
Detecting Malware Domains at the Upper DNS Hierarchy Manos Antonakakis*
Detecting Malware Domains at the Upper DNS Hierarchy Manos Antonakakis* , Roberto Perdisci , Wenke leveraging the DNS to build malicious network infrastructures for malware command and control. In this paper passively moni- tors DNS traffic at the upper levels of the DNS hierar- chy, and is able to accurately
Piggybacking Related Domain Names to Improve DNS Performance
Wills, Craig E.
Piggybacking Related Domain Names to Improve DNS Performance Hao Shang and Craig E. Wills Computer to improve the cache hit rate for a local DNS server. Using these relationships, an authoritative DNS server. The approach is particularly attractive because it can be implemented with no changes to the existing DNS
Direct numerical simulation of stagnation region flow and heat transfer with free-stream turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Sungwon; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Sung, Hyung Jin
2003-06-01
A direct numerical simulation is performed for stagnation-region flow with free-stream turbulence. A fully implicit second-order time-advancement scheme with fourth-order finite differences and an optimized scheme are employed. The optimized scheme is developed to save computational cost. The free-stream turbulence is a precomputed field of isotropic turbulence. The present DNS results in the "damping" and "attached amplifying" regimes are found to be similar to those of the organized inflow disturbances. Emphasis is placed on the flow and temperature fields in the "detached amplifying" regime. The contours of instantaneous flow field illustrate that streamwise vortices are stretched in the streamwise direction by mean strain rate. The temperature field is also stretched in the streamwise direction near the wall. The surface contours reveal that the temperature field is influenced significantly by streamwise vorticity. Due to the dominance of the mean strain, the log-law region is not observed for ? and T˜, the inner scaling fails, but the outer scaling works. The single-point turbulence statistics and the turbulent statistics budgets are obtained. The flow statistics reflect the typical characteristics of stagnation-region flow which are generically different from those of other canonical shear flows. One of the typical features of the budgets is that the velocity pressure correlation and the turbulent transport play significant roles in the stagnation-region flow. Finally, the present simulation data are compared with experimental results. It is found that the effect of large-scale eddies on the enhancement of wall heat transfer is substantial in the turbulent stagnation-region heat transfer.
Polarization transmission at RHIC, numerical simulations
Meot F.; Bai, M.; Liu, C.; Minty, M.; Ranjbar, V.
2012-05-20
Typical tracking simulations regarding the transmission of the polarization in the proton-proton collider RHIC are discussed. They participate in general studies aimed at understanding and improving polarization performances during polarized proton-proton runs.
Detailed numerical simulations of laser cooling processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Kohel, J.; Thompson, R.; Yu, N.
2001-01-01
We developed a detailed semiclassical numerical code of the forces applied on atoms in optical and magnetic fields to increase the understanding of the different roles that light, atomic collisions, background pressure, and number of particles play in experiments with laser cooled and trapped atoms.
High order hybrid numerical simulations of two dimensional detonation waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, Wei
1993-01-01
In order to study multi-dimensional unstable detonation waves, a high order numerical scheme suitable for calculating the detailed transverse wave structures of multidimensional detonation waves was developed. The numerical algorithm uses a multi-domain approach so different numerical techniques can be applied for different components of detonation waves. The detonation waves are assumed to undergo an irreversible, unimolecular reaction A yields B. Several cases of unstable two dimensional detonation waves are simulated and detailed transverse wave interactions are documented. The numerical results show the importance of resolving the detonation front without excessive numerical viscosity in order to obtain the correct cellular patterns.
Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection
Resendiz Rosas, Celerino
2005-08-29
In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The sep-aration control technique studied is called 'synthetic jet actuation'. The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous...
Numerical Simulation Study on Transpired Solar Air Collector
Wang, C.; Guan, Z.; Zhao, X.; Wang, D.
2006-01-01
The unglazed transpired solar air collector is now a well-recognized solar air heater for heating outside air directly. In this article, researchers introduced numerical simulation tools into the solar air collector research area, analyzed...
Multiscale Issues in DNS of Multiphase Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tryggvason, Gretar; Thomas, Siju; Lu, Jiacai; Aboulhasanzadeh, Bahman
2009-11-01
In spite of the enormous information and understanding that DNS are providing for relatively complex multiphase flows, real systems provide challenges that still limit the range of situations that can be simulated, even when we limit our studies to systems well described by continuum theories. The problem is, as one might expect, one of scale. Starting with simulations where the ``dominant small-scales'' are fully resolved, it is frequently found that multiphase flows also can generate features much smaller than the dominant flow scales, consisting of very thin films, filaments, and drops. Frequently there is a clear separation of scales between these ``features,'' usually inertia effects are relatively small for the local evolution, and in isolation these features are often well described by analytical models. Here we describe the use of a thin film model to account for unresolved features of the flow. By using a semi-analytical model for the flow in the film beneath a drop sliding down a sloping wall, we capture the evolution of films that are too thin to be accurately resolved using a relatively coarse grid that is sufficient to resolve the rest of the flow. Extensions of these ideas to flows with mass and heat transfer as well as phase change and chemical reactions are also discussed.
Numerical simulations for MHD coronal seismology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascoe, David James
2014-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes are important for the transfer of energy over large scales in plasmas and so are essential to understanding most forms of dynamical activity in the solar atmosphere. The introduction of transverse structuring into models for the corona modifies the behavior of MHD waves through processes such as dispersion and mode coupling. Exploiting our understanding of MHD waves with the diagnostic tool of coronal seismology relies upon the development of sufficiently detailed models to account for all the features in observations. The development of realistic models appropriate for highly structured and dynamical plasmas is often beyond the domain of simple mathematical analysis and so numerical methods are employed. This paper reviews recent numerical results for seismology of the solar corona using MHD.
Numerical simulation of in situ bioremediation
Travis, B.J.
1998-12-31
Models that couple subsurface flow and transport with microbial processes are an important tool for assessing the effectiveness of bioremediation in field applications. A numerical algorithm is described that differs from previous in situ bioremediation models in that it includes: both vadose and groundwater zones, unsteady air and water flow, limited nutrients and airborne nutrients, toxicity, cometabolic kinetics, kinetic sorption, subgridscale averaging, pore clogging and protozoan grazing.
Numerical simulation of the Vasilev reflection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Defina, A.; Viero, D. P.; Susin, F. M.
2008-08-01
We present a high resolution numerical solution of the Vasilev reflection configuration within the framework of depth averaged two-dimensional inviscid shallow water flow. The study provides the details of the steady flow field and shock wave pattern close to the triple point which confirm the four-wave theory. The shape of the reflected shock in the region upstream of the supercritical patch is also investigated.
NUMERICAL METHODS FOR THE SIMULATION OF HIGH INTENSITY HADRON SYNCHROTRONS.
LUCCIO, A.; D'IMPERIO, N.; MALITSKY, N.
2005-09-12
Numerical algorithms for PIC simulation of beam dynamics in a high intensity synchrotron on a parallel computer are presented. We introduce numerical solvers of the Laplace-Poisson equation in the presence of walls, and algorithms to compute tunes and twiss functions in the presence of space charge forces. The working code for the simulation here presented is SIMBAD, that can be run as stand alone or as part of the UAL (Unified Accelerator Libraries) package.
Numerical simulation of boundary-layer disturbance evolution.
Davies, Christopher
2005-05-15
The use of numerical simulations to study the development of boundary-layer disturbances is illustrated for a number of different incompressible flow configurations. These include cases where the disturbances are generated by, or interact with, flow-control devices in the form of compliant panels, suction slots and microelectromechanical systems actuators. The velocity-vorticity system of governing equations used for the simulations is reviewed, along with the numerical discretization. PMID:16105772
Numerical simulations of plasma double layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goertz, C. K.; Borovsky, J. E.
1983-01-01
The results of analytical studies of quasi-static electric fields along geomagnetic field lines are discussed. The calculations were targeted at the structure, generation mechanisms and stability parameters. The field consists of two oppositely charged layers, either weakly or strongly charged, with an electric field between. Existence conditions are defined for the double layer field and balancing requirements are explored. Details of the simulation techniques, i.e., particle in cell and Vlasov simulations, for studying the double layer are outlined, noting that both periodic and quasi-periodic simulations are used. Solutions to Poisson's equation for fixed and floating point boundary conditions are generated. Finally, attention is also given to oblique and two-dimensional magnetic double layers.
Numerical simulation of magmatic hydrothermal systems
Ingebritsen, S.E.; Geiger, S.; Hurwitz, S.; Driesner, T.
2010-01-01
The dynamic behavior of magmatic hydrothermal systems entails coupled and nonlinear multiphase flow, heat and solute transport, and deformation in highly heterogeneous media. Thus, quantitative analysis of these systems depends mainly on numerical solution of coupled partial differential equations and complementary equations of state (EOS). The past 2 decades have seen steady growth of computational power and the development of numerical models that have eliminated or minimized the need for various simplifying assumptions. Considerable heuristic insight has been gained from process-oriented numerical modeling. Recent modeling efforts employing relatively complete EOS and accurate transport calculations have revealed dynamic behavior that was damped by linearized, less accurate models, including fluid property control of hydrothermal plume temperatures and three-dimensional geometries. Other recent modeling results have further elucidated the controlling role of permeability structure and revealed the potential for significant hydrothermally driven deformation. Key areas for future reSearch include incorporation of accurate EOS for the complete H2O-NaCl-CO2 system, more realistic treatment of material heterogeneity in space and time, realistic description of large-scale relative permeability behavior, and intercode benchmarking comparisons. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
Numerical simulation of controlled large space structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quan, Ralph
1989-01-01
Large Space Structures do not have much damping, which necessitates the installation of a controller onto the structure. If the controller is improperly designed, the structure may become unstable and be destroyed. Since Large Space Structures are extremely expensive pieces of hardware, new controllers must not be tested first on the structure. They must first be tested in computer simulations. Until now, the usual procedure for simulating controlled Large Space Structures is to compute a reduced order modal representation of the structure and then apply the controller. However, this procedure entails modal truncation error. A new software package which is free from this error is currently under development within the Center for Space Construction. The more accurate finite element representation of the structure is used in the simulation, instead of the less accurate reduced order modal representation. This software also features an efficient matrix storage scheme, which effectively deals with the asymmetric system matrices which occur when control is added to the structure. Also, an integration algorithm was chosen so that the simulation is a reliable indicator of system stability or instability. The software package is fairly general in nature. Linearity of the finite element model and of the controller is the only assumption made. Actuator dynamics, sensor dynamics, noise, and disturbances can be handled by the package. In addition, output feedback of displacement, velocity, and/or acceleration signals can be simulated. Kalman state estimation was also implemented. This software was tested on a finite element model of a real Large Space Structure: The Mini-Mast Truss. Mini-Mast is a testbed at NASA-Langley which is currently under development. A 714 degree of freedom finite element model was computed, and a 19 state controller was designed for it. Torque wheel dynamics were added to the model, and the entire closed loop system was simulated with the software package.
Numerical simulation of instability and transition physics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Streett, C. L.
1990-01-01
The study deals with the algorithm technology used in instability and transition simulations. Discretization methods are outlined, and attention is focused on high-order finite-difference methods and high-order centered-difference formulas. One advantage of finite-difference methods over spectral methods is thought to be in implementation of nonrigorous boundary conditions. It is suggested that the next significant advances in the understanding of transition physics and the ability to predict transition will come with more physically-realistic simulations. Compressible-flow algorithms are discussed, and it is noted that with further development, exploration of bypass mechanism on simple bodies at high speed would be possible.
Numerical simulations of dense collisional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salo, H.
1991-04-01
The present use of a local simulation method akin to that of Wisdom and Tremaine (1988) to examine the viscous stability characteristics of dense planetary rings confirms that the viscous instability of the standard elastic model of icy particles should not occur for systems of identical, meter-sized particles, but may indeed occur in dense systems composed of cm-sized ones. In the case of nonidentical particles, small particles become more easily unstable. The layered structure of Wisdom and Tremaine's simulation with self-gravity can be substantially modified if the vertical field is calculated self-consistently; in some cases, a flattening to the central plane may be virtually complete.
Numerical Simulations of an Isolated Microburst. Part II: Sensitivity Experiments
Fred H. Proctor
1989-01-01
Isolated and stationary microburst are simulated using a time-dependent, high-resolution, axisymmetric numerical model. A microburst downdraft is initiated by specifying a distribution of precipitation at the top boundary of the model and allowing it to fall into the domain. Part II of this series examines numerous experiments in order to evaluate the sensitivity of microbursts to the environment and other
Threedimensional numerical simulation of the temperature, potential and concentration
Herbin, Raphaèle
to the temperature using Fourier's law of heat conduction; the electrical current is written w.r.t. the electrical on SOFC's [1], was made in order to validate the numerical code; then some results showing efficien cies of the different planar geometries are presented. The adaptivity of the numerical code allows the simulation
Numerical simulation of tsunami waves generated by deformable submarine landslides
Kirby, James T.
Numerical simulation of tsunami waves generated by deformable submarine landslides Gangfeng Ma a wave model Tsunami wave Numerical modeling a b s t r a c t This paper presents a new submarine of landslide motion and associated tsunami wave generation on parameters including sediment settling velocity
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD
Nairn, John A.
NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF TRANSVERSE COMPRESSION AND DENSIFICATION IN WOOD John A. Nairn1 Professor- terials is a useful tool for stress analysis and for failure modeling. Although FEA of wood as an anisotropic continuum is used, numerical modeling of realistic wood structures, including details of wood
Numerical simulations of cardiovascular diseases and global matter transport
Simakov, S S; Evdokimov, A V; Kholodov, Y A
2007-01-01
Numerical model of the peripheral circulation and dynamical model of the large vessels and the heart are discussed in this paper. They combined together into the global model of blood circulation. Some results of numerical simulations concerning matter transport through the human organism and heart diseases are represented in the end.
Numerical Simulation of Thermal Convection on SIMD Computers
Michael Schäfer
1990-01-01
In this paper we deal with the numerical simulation of three-dimensional thermal convection on SIMD computers. Applying a pressure correction method in combination with preconditioned conjugate gradient methods to the underlying nonlinear system of partial differential equations we obtain a highly parallel algorithm for the considered type of problems. Numerical experiments on an array processor illustrate the capabilities of the
Numerical simulation of transient thermal field in laser melting process
Yao Guo-feng; Chen Guang-nan
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation of thermal field was studied in laser processing. The 3-D finite element model of transient thermal calculation\\u000a is given by thermal conductive equation. The effects of phase transformation latent are considered. Numerical example is given\\u000a to verify the model. Finally the real example of transient thermal field is given.
Verification and validation of detonation simulation: topical review
Verification and validation of detonation simulation: topical review Joseph M. Powers Department&V of Detonation 28 July 2011 2 / 29 #12;Some semantics.... Verification: solving the equations right Validation: solving the right equations Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS): a verified and validated computation
Numerical simulations of Knudsen forces in microsystems
Jeremy S Nabeth
2010-01-01
At the microscale, even moderate temperature differences can result in significant Knudsen forces, generated by the energy exchange between gas molecules and solids immersed in a gas. Creating, controlling and measuring Knudsen forces precisely at the microscale can be an arduous task since only limited theory exists at present. Moreover, the widely used continuum-based thermofluid simulation tools, such as FLUENT
Numerical simulation of blood flow through arteries
A. H. K. MazHer; J. A. Ekaterinaris
1988-01-01
Flow patterns are investigated in simplified three-dimensional arterial models. The blood is considered as an incompressible Newtonian fluid obeying the Navier-Stokes equations of fluid flow. Therefore, these equations are used as a mathematical model to simulate the blood flow. Since these equations are difficult to solve analytically, a computational approach is utilized. To use this approach a suitable treatment of
Numerical simulation of Martian dust devils
Anthony D. Toigo; Mark I. Richardson; Shawn P. Ewald
2003-01-01
(1) Large eddy simulations of vertical convective vortices and dust devils in the Martian convective boundary layer are presented, employing a version of the Mars MM5 mesoscale model, adapted to use periodic boundary conditions and run at resolutions of 10 to 100 m. The effects of background horizontal wind speed and shear on dust devil development are studied in four
Numerical simulation of laser full penetration welding
Komeil Kazemi; John A. Goldak
2009-01-01
A three dimensional finite element model has been developed to dynamically simulate the laser full penetration welding process. The parametric design capabilities of the finite element code ANSYS (revision 5.4) were employed for this purpose. The model calculates the transient temperature profile and the dimensions of the fusion zone during the welding process. The heat source was parameterized by the
Numerical simulation of cross field amplifiers
Eppley, K.
1990-01-01
Cross field amplifiers (CFA) have been used in many applications where high power, high frequency microwaves are needed. Although these tubes have been manufactured for decades, theoretical analysis of their properties is not as highly developed as for other microwave devices such as klystrons. One feature distinguishing cross field amplifiers is that the operating current is produced by secondary emission from a cold cathode. This removes the need for a heater and enables the device to act as a switch tube, drawing no power until the rf drive is applied. However, this method of generating the current does complicate the simulation. We are developing a simulation model of cross field amplifiers using the PIC code CONDOR. We simulate an interaction region, one traveling wavelength long, with periodic boundary conditions. An electric field with the appropriate phase velocity is imposed on the upper boundary of the problem. Evaluation of the integral of E{center dot}J gives the power interchanged between the wave and the beam. Given the impedance of the structure, we then calculate the change in the traveling wave field. Thus we simulate the growth of the wave through the device. The main advance of our model over previous CFA simulations is the realistic tracking of absorption and secondary emission. The code uses experimental curves to calculate secondary production as a function of absorbed energy, with a theoretical expression for the angular dependence. We have used this code to model the 100 MW X-band CFA under construction at SLAC, as designed by Joseph Feinstein and Terry Lee. We are examining several questions of practical interest, such as the power and spectrum of absorbed electrons, the minimum traveling wave field needed to initiate spoke formation, and the variation of output power with dc voltage, anode-cathode gap, and magnetic field. 5 refs., 8 figs.
Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.
1994-01-01
The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.
Numerical simulation of Jupiter's Great Red SPOT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcus, P. S.
1988-02-01
Jupiter's Great Red Spot is viewed as a vortex that arises naturally from the equations of motion of the jovian atmosphere. The author solves numerically the equations governing fluid motion in a model of the jovian atmosphere for a variety of initial conditions. Large spots of vorticity form spontaneously in chaotic azimuthal flows and are stable if the vorticity of the spots has the same sign as the shear of the surrounding azimuthal flow. The Great Red Spot is compared with these solutions and a new prediction of its vertical structure is made.
Numerical simulation of electrospray in the cone-jet mode.
Herrada, M A; López-Herrera, J M; Gañán-Calvo, A M; Vega, E J; Montanero, J M; Popinet, S
2012-08-01
We present a robust and computationally efficient numerical scheme for simulating steady electrohydrodynamic atomization processes (electrospray). The main simplification assumed in this scheme is that all the free electrical charges are distributed over the interface. A comparison of the results with those calculated with a volume-of-fluid method showed that the numerical scheme presented here accurately describes the flow pattern within the entire liquid domain. Experiments were performed to partially validate the numerical predictions. The simulations reproduced accurately the experimental shape of the liquid cone jet, providing correct values of the emitted electric current even for configurations very close to the cone-jet stability limit. PMID:23005852
Numerical Simulations Using the Immersed Boundary Technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piomelli, Ugo; Balaras, Elias
1997-01-01
The immersed-boundary method can be used to simulate flows around complex geometries within a Cartesian grid. This method has been used quite extensively in low Reynolds-number flows, and is now being applied to turbulent flows more frequently. The technique will be discussed, and three applications of the method will be presented, with increasing complexity. to illustrate the potential and limitations of the method, and some of the directions for future work.
Numerical Simulation of Ion Thruster Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rawlin, Vincent K. (Technical Monitor); Farnell, Cody C.; Williams, John D.; Wilbur, Paul J.
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional simulation code (ffx) designed to analyze ion thruster optics is described. It is an extension of an earlier code and includes special features like the ability to model a wide range of grid geometries, cusp details, and mis-aligned aperture pairs to name a few. However, the principle reason for advancing the code was in the study of ion optics erosion. Ground based testing of ion thruster optics, essential to the understanding of the processes of grid erosion, can be time consuming and costly. Simulation codes that can accurately predict grid lifetimes and the physical mechanisms of grid erosion can be of great utility in the development of future ion thruster optics designed for more ambitious applications. Results of simulations are presented that describe wear profiles for several standard and nonstandard aperture geometries, such as those grid sets with square- or slotted-hole layout patterns. The goal of this paper will be to introduce the methods employed in the ffx code and to briefly demonstrate their use.
Strasbourg, 23rd. January 2008 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF
Helluy, Philippe
Â´el`ene Mathis, UniversitÂ´e de Louis Pasteur Strasbourg. 1 #12;Strasbourg, 23rd. January 2008 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Experiments 3. Mathematical Model 4. Discretization 5. Initial data 6. Numerical simulation on the modelling and the simulation of a single bubble. 3 #12;Strasbourg, 23rd. January 2008 Experiments Â· Bubbles
Numerical simulation of wind effects: a probabilistic perspective Ahsan Kareem
Kareem, Ahsan
Numerical simulation of wind effects: a probabilistic perspective Ahsan Kareem NatHaz Modeling and their effects are critical in the design of structures to ensure their safety under winds. The simulations range, or time-frequency domains are employed. This pa- per summarizes a historical perspective, recent
Recent developments in numerical simulation techniques of thermal recovery processes
M Tamim; J. H Abou-Kassem; S. M Farouq Ali
2000-01-01
Numerical simulation of thermal processes (steam flooding, steam stimulation, SAGD, in-situ combustion, electrical heating, etc.) is an integral part of a thermal project design. The general tendency in the last 10 years has been to use commercial simulators. During the last decade, only a few new models have been reported in the literature. More work has been done to modify
Numerical Simulation of Thermal Process in an Industrial Rotary Furnace
Zeyi Jiang
2005-01-01
A numerical simulation was performed for the complex thermal processes of heating steel bars in a rotary furnace, which involve both the momentum transfer and the energy transfer mainly by radiation and combustion. A CFD commercial software CFX was employed to solve the proposed 2-D mathematical model. The boundary conditions for the simulation were initially chosen basing on on-line measured
Physics and numerical simulation of single photon avalanche diodes
Alessandro Spinelli; Andrea L. Lacaita
1997-01-01
We present results of the numerical simulation of the transient behavior of shallow junction single photon avalanche diodes (SPAD's). We developed a bidimensional model for above breakdown simulations and show that the initially photogenerated charge density builds up locally by an avalanche multiplication process and then spreads over the entire detector area by a diffusion-assisted process. To model real geometries,
Physical and numerical simulations of subsidence in fractured shale strata
H. J. Sutherland; L. M. Taylor; S. E. Benzley
1984-01-01
The motions of fractured shale strata that overlie a void of increasing size are studied using physical and numerical simulations. The largest operating centrifuge in the United States is used to induce scaled body force (gravity) loads on a physical model. The model studied here is composed, primarily, of fractured Devonian shale (to simulate a jointed overburden). For the model
Numerical Simulations of Europa Hydrothermal Plumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goodman, J. C.; Lenferink, E.
2009-12-01
The liquid water interiors of Europa and other icy moons of the outer solar system are likely to be driven by geothermal heating from the sea floor, leading to the development of buoyant hydrothermal plumes. These plumes potentially control icy surface geomorphology, and are of interest to astrobiologists. We have performed a series of simulations of these plumes using the MITGCM. We assume in this experiment that Europa's ocean is deep (of order 100 km) and unstratified, and that plume buoyancy is controlled by temperature, not composition. A series of experiments was performed to explore a limited region of parameter space, with ocean depth H ranging from 50 to 100 km deep, source heat flux Q between 1 and 10 GW, and values of the Coriolis parameter f between 30% and 90% of the Europa average value. As predicted by earlier work, the plumes in our simulations form narrow cylindrical chimneys (a few km across) under the influence of the Coriolis effect. These plumes broaden over time until they become baroclinically unstable, breaking up into cone-shaped eddies when they become 20-35 km in diameter; the shed eddies are of a similar size. Large-scale currents in the region of the plume range between 1.5 and 5 cm/s; temperature anomalies in the plume far from the seafloor are tiny, varying between 30 and 160 microkelvin. Variations in plume size, shape, speed, and temperature are in excellent agreement with previous laboratory tank experiments, and in rough agreement with theoretical predictions. Plume dynamics and geometry are controlled by a "natural Rossby number" which depends strongly on depth H and Coriolis parameter f, but only weakly on source heat flux Q. However, some specific theoretical predictions are not borne out by these simulations. The time elapsed between startup of the source and the beginning of eddy-shedding is much less variable than predicted; also, the plume temperature varies with ocean depth H when our theory says it should not. Both of these results can be explained by noting that the theory assumes that mixing between plume fluid and ambient fluid occurs only very near the heat source, but this does not appear to be true in the simulations. 3-d view of simulated Europa plume. Boundary indicated by 3-d surface; flat surfaces at left and top show temperature in sections through the plume.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grafke, Tobias; Homann, Holger; Dreher, Jürgen; Grauer, Rainer
2008-08-01
The numerical simulation of the 3D incompressible Euler equations is analyzed with respect to different integration methods. The numerical schemes we considered include spectral methods with different strategies for dealiasing and two variants of finite difference methods. Based on this comparison, a Kida-Pelz-like initial condition is integrated using adaptive mesh refinement and estimates on the necessary numerical resolution are given. This estimate is based on analyzing the scaling behavior similar to the procedure in critical phenomena and present simulations are put into perspective.
Towards the numerical verification of plasma simulation codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vukovic, Mirko
2012-10-01
To aid in verification of existing and new plasma simulation codes, we propose a suite of standard simulation problems against which a new code would be compared with. Each standard problem provides a detailed input specifications and results in forms of tables of numeric values. The problems use an idealized and simplified reaction cross-section and rates set. The problems are designed to verify individual numerical components of plasma simulation codes and the overall plasma simulation. The issue of establishing a ``correct'' plasma simulation result will be discussed. In addition, we will discuss the portability of these problems: the problems should be specified in a manner that can be read by simulation codes written in different languages, and executed on different platforms.
Numerical simulation of electrophoresis separation processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ganjoo, D. K.; Tezduyar, T. E.
1986-01-01
A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation has been proposed for transient convection-diffusion problems. Most Petrov-Galerkin formulations take into account the spatial discretization, and the weighting functions so developed give satisfactory solutions for steady state problems. Though these schemes can be used for transient problems, there is scope for improvement. The schemes proposed here, which consider temporal as well as spatial discretization, provide improved solutions. Electrophoresis, which involves the motion of charged entities under the influence of an applied electric field, is governed by equations similiar to those encountered in fluid flow problems, i.e., transient convection-diffusion equations. Test problems are solved in electrophoresis and fluid flow. The results obtained are satisfactory. It is also expected that these schemes, suitably adapted, will improve the numerical solutions of the compressible Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations.
Feasibility study for a numerical aerodynamic simulation facility. Volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lincoln, N. R.; Bergman, R. O.; Bonstrom, D. B.; Brinkman, T. W.; Chiu, S. H. J.; Green, S. S.; Hansen, S. D.; Klein, D. L.; Krohn, H. E.; Prow, R. P.
1979-01-01
A Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) was designed for the simulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies, both in wind tunnel environments and in free space. The application of numerical simulation to this field of endeavor promised to yield economies in aerodynamic and aircraft body designs. A model for a NASF/FMP (Flow Model Processor) ensemble using a possible approach to meeting NASF goals is presented. The computer hardware and software are presented, along with the entire design and performance analysis and evaluation.
Numerical simulation of optically trapped particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volpe, Giorgio; Volpe, Giovanni
2014-07-01
Some randomness is present in most phenomena, ranging from biomolecules and nanodevices to financial markets and human organizations. However, it is not easy to gain an intuitive understanding of such stochastic phenomena, because their modeling requires advanced mathematical tools, such as sigma algebras, the Itô formula and martingales. Here, we discuss a simple finite difference algorithm that can be used to gain understanding of such complex physical phenomena. In particular, we simulate the motion of an optically trapped particle that is typically used as a model system in statistical physics and has a wide range of applications in physics and biophysics, for example, to measure nanoscopic forces and torques.
Numerical simulations of moon-ringlet interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanninen, J.
1993-05-01
Nonaxisymmetric ring features excited by perturbations of shepherd satellites are studied in terms of direct particle simulations using Aarseth's N-body integrator combined with the calculation of particle-particle impacts. Interaction parameters typical to Saturn's F-ring are investigated. The generation of clumps by external satellites is verified, but the interparticle collisions tend to smooth sharp features. Using F-ring parameters the clumps are observed to cover the total azimuthal length, but it is not clear whether these azimuthally overlapping clumps would be detectable in the actual F-ring. Gravitational scattering by ring particles increases the velocity dispersion, smearing regular azimuthal features at least in the rings of low optical depths. Considerable accretion is observed to occur, particles sticking pairwise to each other, even if the tendency of the particles to accrete is artificially reduced in the simulations. A new explanation for the braided appearance of the F-ring is proposed, based on the interaction between the shepherding satellites and the ring containing embedded moonlets. In our model the braiding is a dynamic phenomenon: the braids are destroyed and recreated in a cyclical manner.
Numerical simulation of rough-surface aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chi, Xingkai
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of flow over surfaces with roughness in which the details of the surface geometry must be resolved pose major challenges. The objective of this study is to address these challenges through two important engineering problems, where roughness play a critical role---flow over airfoils with accrued ice and flow and heat transfer over turbine blade surfaces roughened by erosion and/or deposition. CFD simulations of iced airfoils face two major challenges. The first is how to generate high-quality single- and multi-block structured grids for highly convoluted convex and concave surface geometries with multiple scales. In this study, two methods were developed for the generation of high-quality grids for such geometries. The method developed for single-block grids involves generating a grid about the clean airfoil, carving out a portion of that grid about the airfoil, replacing that portion with a grid that accounts for the accrued ice geometry, and performing elliptic smoothing. The method developed for multi-block grids involves a transition-layer grid to ensure jaggedness in the ice geometry does not propagate into the domain. It also involves a "thick" wrap-around grid about the ice to ensure grid lines clustered next to solid surfaces do not propagate as streaks of tightly packed grid lines into the domain along block boundaries. For multi-block grids, this study also developed blocking topologies that ensure solutions to multi-block grids converge to steady state as quickly as single-block grids. The second major challenge in CFD simulations of iced airfoils is not knowing when it will predict reliably because of uncertainties in the turbulence modeling. In this study, the effects of turbulence models in predicting lift, drag, and moment coefficients were examined for airfoils with rime ice (i.e., ice with jaggedness only) and with glaze ice (i.e., ice with multiple protruding horns and surface jaggedness) as a function of angle of attack. In this examination, three different CFD codes---WIND, FLUENT, and PowerFLOW were used to examine a variety of turbulence models, including Spalart-Allmaras, RNG k-epsilon, shear-stress transport, v2-f, and differential Reynolds stress with and without non-equilibrium wall functions. The accuracy of the CFD predictions was evaluated by comparing grid-independent solutions with measured experimental data. Results obtained show CFD with WIND and FLUENT to predict the aerodynamics of airfoils with rime ice reliably up to near stall for all turbulence models investigated. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Numerical simulation of the world ocean circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takano, K.; Mintz, Y.; Han, Y. J.
1973-01-01
A multi-level model, based on the primitive equations, is developed for simulating the temperature and velocity fields produced in the world ocean by differential heating and surface wind stress. The model ocean has constant depth, free slip at the lower boundary, and neglects momentum advection; so that there is no energy exchange between the barotropic and baroclinic components of the motion, although the former influences the latter through temperature advection. The ocean model was designed to be coupled to the UCLA atmospheric general circulation model, for the study of the dynamics of climate and climate changes. But here, the model is tested by prescribing the observed seasonally varying surface wind stress and the incident solar radiation, the surface air temperature and humidity, cloudiness and the surface wind speed, which, together with the predicted ocean surface temperature, determine the surface flux of radiant energy, sensible heat and latent heat.
Numerical simulation of tides in Ontario Lacus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vincent, David; Karatekin, Ozgür
2015-04-01
Hydrocarbons liquid filled lakes has been recently detected on Titan's surface. Most of these lakes are located in the northern latitudes but there is a substantial lake in the southern latitudes: Ontario Lacus. This lake gets our attention because of possible shoreline changes suggested by Cassini flybys over Ontario Lacus between September 2005 (T7) et January 2010 (T65). The shoreline changes could be due to evaporation-precipitation processes but could also be a consequence of tides. Previous studies showed that the maximal tidal amplitudes of Ontario Lacus would be about 0.2m (for an uniform bathymetry of 20m). In this study we simulate tidal amplitude and currents with SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model, http://sites.uclouvain.be/slim/ ) which resolves 2D shallow water equation on an unstructured mesh. Unstructured mesh prevents problems like mesh discontinuities at poles and allows higher accuracy at some place like coast or straits without drastically increasing computing costs. The tide generating force modeled in this work is the gradient of tidal potential due to titan's obliquity and titan's orbital eccentricity around Saturn (other contribution such as sun tide generating force are unheeded). The uncertain input parameters such as the wind direction and amplitude, bottom friction and thermo-physical properties of hydrocarbons liquids are varied within their expected ranges. SAR data analysis can result in different bathymetry according to the method. We proceed simulations for different bathymetries: tidal amplitudes doesn't change but this is not the case for tidal currents. Using a recent bathymetry deduced from most recent RADAR/SAR observations and a finer mesh, the peak-to peak tidal amplitudes are calculated to be up to 0.6 m. which is more than a factor two larger than the previous results. The maximal offshore tidal currents magnitude is about 0.06 m/s.
Numerical Simulation for eHealth: Grid-enabled Medical Simulation Services Siegfried Benknera
Middleton, Stuart E.
1 Numerical Simulation for eHealth: Grid-enabled Medical Simulation Services Siegfried Benknera test-bed. The medical prototype applications include maxillo-facial surgery simulation, neuro in consultancy on bio-medical simulations. GEMSS addresses security, privacy and legal issues related to the Grid
Numerical simulation of baroclinic Jovian vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achterberg, R. K.; Ingersoll, A. P.
1994-02-01
We examine the evolution of baroclinic vortices in a time-dependent, nonlinear numerical model of a Jovian atmosphere. The model uses a normal-mode expansion in the vertical, using the barotropic and first two baroclinic modes. Results for the stability of baroclinic vortices on an f plane in the absence of a mean zonal flow are similar to results of Earth vortex models, although the presence of a fluid interior on the Jovian planets shifts the stability boundaries to smaller length scales. The presence of a barotropic mean zonal flow in the interior stabilizes vortices against instability and significantly modifies the finite amplitude form of baroclinic instabilities. The effect of a zonal flow on a form of barotropic instability produces periodic oscillations in the latitude and longitude of the vortex as observed at the level of the cloud tops. This instability may explain some, but not all, observations of longitudinal oscillations of vortices on the outer planets. Oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation of stable vortices in a zonal shear flow are observed in this baroclinic model, as in simpler two-dimensional models. Such oscillations are also observed in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Neptune. The meridional propagation and decay of vortices on a beta plane is inhibited by the presence of a mean zonal flow. The direction of propagation of a vortex relative to the mean zonal flow depends upon the sign of the meridional potential vorticity gradient; combined with observations of vortex drift rates, this may provide a constraint on model assumption for the flow in the deep interior of the Jovian planets.
Batman-cracks. Observations and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selvadurai, A. P. S.; Busschen, A. Ten; Ernst, L. J.
1991-05-01
To ensure mechanical strength of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), good adhesion between fibers and the matrix is considered to be an essential requirement. An efficient test of fiber-matrix interface characterization is the fragmentation test which provides information about the interface slip mechanism. This test consists of the longitudinal loading of a single fiber which is embedded in a matrix specimen. At critical loads the fiber experiences fragmentation. This fragmentation will terminate depending upon the shear-slip strength of the fiber-matrix adhesion, which is inversely proportional to average fragment lengths. Depending upon interface strength characteristics either bond or slip matrix fracture can occur at the onset of fiber fracture. Certain particular features of matrix fracture are observed at the locations of fiber fracture in situations where there is sufficient interface bond strength. These refer to the development of fractures with a complex surface topography. The experimental procedure involved in the fragmentation tests is discussed and the boundary element technique to examine the development of multiple matrix fractures at the fiber fracture locations is examined. The mechanics of matrix fracture is examined. When bond integrity is maintained, a fiber fracture results in a matrix fracture. The matrix fracture topography in a fragmentation test is complex; however, simplified conoidal fracture patterns can be used to investigate the crack extension phenomena. Via a mixed-mode fracture criterion, the generation of a conoidal fracture pattern in the matrix is investigated. The numerical results compare favorably with observed experimental data derived from tests conducted on fragmentation test specimens consisting of a single glass fiber which is embedded in a polyester matrix.
Numerical simulations of dynamic interface crack growth
Xu, X.P.; Needleman, A.
1995-12-31
Dynamic interface crack growth is analyzed numerically using a framework in which separate constitutive relations are specified for the material phases and a set of cohesive surfaces. The constitutive law for the materials on each side of the bond line is that of an isotropic hyperelastic solid. An elastic relation between tractions and displacement jumps characterizes the cohesive surfaces, which include the bond line. The cohesive surface constitutive relation allows for the creation of new free surface and introduces a characteristic length into the formulation. The resistance to crack initiation, the crack speed history and crack growth off the interface are predicted without involving any ad hoc failure or crack kinking criteria. Full finite strain transient analyses are carried out for a plane strain bimaterial block with an initial central interface crack. Two types of loading are considered; tensile loading on one side of the specimen and crack face loading. The crack growth history and the evolution of the crack tip stress state are investigated for parameters characterizing a PMMA/Al bimaterial. When crack growth is confined to the interface, the crack speed can exceed the Rayleigh wave speed of PMMA. The mode mixity of the near tip fields is found to increase with increasing crack speed and large scale contact can occur in the vicinity of the crack tip. When the creation of new free surface is allowed in PMMA and aluminum, the crack speed at which attempted branching starts depends on the strength of the interface. Crack growth stays along a weak interface but kinks into PMMA from a strong interface as the crack speed increases. Additionally, the separate effects of elastic modulus mismatch and elastic wave speed mismatch on crack growth along an interface are explored for various PMMA artificial material combinations.
Water and heat fluxes in desert soils: 2. Numerical simulations
Scanlon, B.R. ); Milly, P.C.D. )
1994-03-01
Numerical models of varying complexity have been used to simulate nonisothermal liquid and vapor flow. Development of these models has been motivated by problems such as evaluation of insaturated zones, geothermal reservoirs, and nuclear waste disposal sites. The objective of this study was to evaluate and explain liquid and vapor fluxes in the shallow unsaturated zone of the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas in response to an annual climate cycle as opposed to shorter, restricted periods. The approach was to use numerical simulations to interpret observed field data. Good agreement was found between NHD (nonhysteretic drying water retention function)-simulated and field-measured water potentials and temperatures. This simulation research provides a greater understanding of unsaturated zone processes in desert soils. Agreement between computed and measured parameters are attributed to the robustness of the thermal calculations. These simulations also indicate sone of the main sources of uncertainty, particularly in the estimated hydraulic conductivities.
Use of DNS Data for the Evaluation of Closure Models in Spanwise-Rotating Turbulent Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Alan
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spanwise-rotating turbulent channel flow was conducted for three rotation numbers: Roc = 0, 5.2 and 26, at a Reynolds number Re c = 8000. The data base obtained from these simulations was used to evaluate several commonly used Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS-based) closure models for rotating turbulent channel flows. It was shown that the Reynolds stresses predicted by the Speziale-Gatski (SG) model were the most consistent with the DNS results. A correction to the Girimaji turbulence model was proposed to remove a discontinuity in the non-rotational case. The pressure-strain functions of the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM)-type SG and Girimaji models were examined and the modeled pressure-strain distributions of both turbulence models, especially near the suction wall, were demonstrated to become more accurate with increasing rotation number. The accuracy of the modeled pressure-strain was also shown to affect the accuracy of the corresponding modeled Reynolds stresses near the channel walls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Druzhinin, Oleg; Ostrovsky, Lev
2015-04-01
The interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves (IWs) plays an important role in the processes of mixing which have direct impact on the dynamics of seasonal pycnocline in the ocean. Among many interesting and practically important aspects of this interaction are the effects of damping of IWs by turbulence on the one hand, and the possibility of the enhancement of turbulence by IWs on the other hand. Previously these effects were studied mostly in laboratory experiments. The present study presents the results of direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the IW-turbulence interaction. We perform DNS of the dynamics of small-scale turbulence near a pycnocline in the presence of monochromatic internal gravity wave propagating along a pycnocline. Small-scale turbulence is induced in a horizontal layer at some distance above the pycnocline. The velocity and density fields of IW propagating in the pycnocline are also prescribed as initial condition, and the IW wavelength is considered to be by the order of magnitude larger as compared to the initial turbulence integral length scale. Stratification in the pycnocline is considered to be sufficiently strong so that the effects of turbulent mixing remain negligible. In order to study the effect of damping of IW by turbulence, we firstly consider a stationary forced turbulence. The DNS results show that the observed IW damping rate is well predicted by a theory based on the semi-empirical approach, but only in the case where turbulence is sufficiently strong to be only weakly perturbed by the internal wave. However, the theory overestimates the damping rate almost by the order of magnitude if IW amplitude is of the order or larger as compared to the turbulence amplitude. The effect of the IW on the turbulence dynamics is further studied in the case where IW amplitude is of the order of the initial turbulence amplitude. In this case, turbulence is not supported by additional forcing and the effect of damping of IW by turbulence remains negligible. The DNS results show that in the absence of IW turbulence decays, but its decay rate is reduced in the vicinity of the pycnocline where stratification effects are significant. In this case, at sufficiently late times most of turbulent energy is located in a layer close to the pycnocline center. Here turbulent eddies are collapsed in the vertical direction and acquire the "pancake" shape. IW modifies turbulence dynamics, in that the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is significantly enhanced as compared to the TKE in the absence of IW. As in the case without IW, most of turbulent energy is localized in the vicinity of the pycnocline center. Here the TKE spectrum is considerably enhanced in the entire wavenumber range as compared to the TKE spectrum in the absence of IW. This work was supported by RFBR (project No. 14-05-00367).
Numerical simulation of the edge tone phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, N. S.; Liu, B. L.; Ofarrell, J. M.
1994-01-01
Time accurate Navier-Stokes computations were performed to study a class 2 (acoustic) whistle, the edge tone, and to gain knowledge of the vortex-acoustic coupling mechanisms driving production of these tones. Results were obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for laminar compressible air flow of a two dimensional jet issuing from a slit interacting with a wedge. Cases considered were determined by varying the distance from the slit to the wedge. Flow speed was kept constant at 1,750 cm/s as was the slit thickness of 0.1 cm, corresponding to conditions in the experiments of Brown. The analytical computations revealed edge tones to be present in four harmonic stages of jet flow instability over the wedge as the jet length was varied from 0.3 to 1.6 cm. Excellent agreement was obtained in all four edge tone stage cases between the present computational results and the experimentally obtained frequencies and flow visualization results of Brown. Specific edge tone generation phenomena and further confirmation of certain theories and empirical formulas concerning these phenomena were brought to light in this analytical simulation of edge tones.
Numerical simulation of a laser-acoustic landmine detection system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lancranjan, Ion I.; Miclos, Sorin; Savastru, Dan; Savastru, Roxana; Opran, Constantin
2012-06-01
The preliminary numerical simulation results obtained in the analysis of a landmine detection system based on laser excitation of acoustic - seismic waves in the soil and observing its surface vibration above the embedded landmine are presented. The presented numerical simulations comprise three main parts: 1) Laser oscillator and laser beam propagation and absorption in soil; a laser oscillator operated in Q-switched regime is considered; different laser wavelengths are investigated. 2) Acoustic - seismic wave generation by absorption in soil of laser pulse energy; 3) Evaluation of acoustic - seismic wave generation by the buried in soil landmine; 4) Comparison of Distributed Feed- Back Fiber Laser (DFB-FL) and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) detector used for soil vibrations evaluation. The above mentioned numerical simulation is dedicated for evaluation of an integrated portable detection system.
Phase change problems with free convection: fixed grid numerical simulation
Marilena Giangi; Fulvio Stella; Tomasz A. Kowalewski
1999-01-01
. A numerical and experimental study of unsteady natural convection during freezing of water is presented. The mathematical\\u000a model for the numerical simulations is based on the enthalpy-porosity method in vorticity-velocity formulation, equations\\u000a are discretised on a fixed grid by means of a finite volume technique. A fully implicit method has been adopted for the mass\\u000a and momentum equations. Experiments
Numerical simulation of the countercurrent flow in a gas centrifuge
Cloutman, L.D.; Gentry, R.A.
1981-01-01
A finite difference method is presented for the numerical simulation of the axisymmetric countercurrent flows in gas centrifuge. A time-marching technique is used to relax an arbitrary initial condition to the desired steady-state solution. All boundary layers may be resolved, and nonlinear effects may be included. Numerical examples are presented. It is concluded that this technique is capable of accurately predicting the performance of a wide variety of machines under all operating conditions of interest.
Numerical simulations of the QUELL experiment in SULTAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marinucci, C.
1995-03-01
The QUench Experiment on Long Length (QUELL) in the SULTAN Facility is planned to investigate the quench propagation and detection of a conductor with ITER relevant geometry and scaled performance. The objective of this study is to show the ability of QUELL to provide quench conditions relevant for ITER and to simulate the system performance, dealing in particular with the design aspects of the power supply, cryogenic system and heaters. The numerical analysis was performed with GANDALF—a 1-D code to analyze Dual Channel Cable-in-Conduit Conductors. A numerical convergence test and a comparison with another code and with analytical results have confirmed the validity of the simulations.
Numerical simulation of tornado wind loading on structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maiden, D. E.
1976-01-01
A numerical simulation of a tornado interacting with a building was undertaken in order to compare the pressures due to a rotational unsteady wind with that due to steady straight winds used in design of nuclear facilities. The numerical simulations were performed on a two-dimensional compressible hydrodynamics code. Calculated pressure profiles for a typical building were then subjected to a tornado wind field and the results were compared with current quasisteady design calculations. The analysis indicates that current design practices are conservative.
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional self-gravitating flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.
1993-01-01
The three-dimensional flow of a self-gravitating fluid is numerically simulated using a Fourier pseudospectral method with a logarithmic variable formulation. Two cases with zero total angular momentum are studied in detail, a 323 simulation (Run B). Other than the grid size, the primary difference between the two cases are that Run A modeled atomic hydrogen and had considerably more compressible motion initially than Run B, which modeled molecular hydrogen. The numerical results indicate that gravitational collapse can proceed in a variety of ways. In the Run A, collapse led to an elongated tube-like structure, while in the Run B, collapse led to a flatter, disklike structure.
Numerical simulation of dense cesium vapor emission and absorption spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horvati?, Berislav; Beuc, Robert; Movre, Mladen
2015-04-01
A recent ab initio calculation of Cs2 electronic potential curves and electronic transition dipole moments provided us with an input for the numerical simulation of Cs2 spectra. We investigated the red and near-infrared (600-1300 nm) absorption and emission spectrum of a dense cesium vapor for temperatures within the range 600-1500 K, using a novel time-efficient "semiquantum" approximation (SQA). Our study suggests that the SQA numerical simulation of the spectrum can be an efficient tool for the diagnostics of hot and dense dimer vapors. It also enables modelling of dense alkali vapor light sources.
Astrophysical jets: Observations, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments
Bellan, P. M. [Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Livio, M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kato, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058577 (Japan); Lebedev, S. V. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ray, T. P. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 5 Merrion Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Ferrari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino, Italy and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251-1892 (United States); Frank, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Foster, J. M. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Nicolaie, P. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Universite Bordeaux 1-CEA-CNRS, 33405 Talence (France)
2009-04-15
This paper provides summaries of ten talks on astrophysical jets given at the HEDP/HEDLA-08 International Conference in St. Louis. The talks are topically divided into the areas of observation, numerical modeling, and laboratory experiment. One essential feature of jets, namely, their filamentary (i.e., collimated) nature, can be reproduced in both numerical models and laboratory experiments. Another essential feature of jets, their scalability, is evident from the large number of astrophysical situations where jets occur. This scalability is the reason why laboratory experiments simulating jets are possible and why the same theoretical models can be used for both observed astrophysical jets and laboratory simulations.
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, E. P.
Numerical simulation of dynamic fracture and failure processes in solid continua using Lagrangian finite element techniques is the subject of discussion in this investigation. The specific configurations in this study include penetration of steel projectiles into aluminum blocks and concrete slabs. The failure mode in the aluminum block is excessive deformation while the concrete slab fails by hole growth, spallation, and scabbing. The transient dynamic finite element code LS-DYNA2D was used for the numerical analysis. The erosion capability in LS-DYNA2D was exercised to carry out the fracture and failure simulations. Calculated results were compared to the experimental data. Good correlations were obtained.
Numerical simulation of water flow around a rigid fishing net
Roger Lewandowski; Géraldine Pichot
2006-12-20
This paper is devoted to the simulation of the flow around and inside a rigid axisymmetric net. We describe first how experimental data have been obtained. We show in detail the modelization. The model is based on a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence model penalized by a term based on the Brinkman law. At the out-boundary of the computational box, we have used a "ghost" boundary condition. We show that the corresponding variational problem has a solution. Then the numerical scheme is given and the paper finishes with numerical simulations compared with the experimental data.
Numerical simulation of surface waves instability on a discrete grid
Korotkevich, A O
2012-01-01
We perform full-scale numerical simulation of instability of weakly nonlinear waves on the surface of deep fluid. We show that the instability development leads to chaotization and formation of wave turbulence. We study instability both of propagating and standing waves. We studied separately pure capillary wave unstable due to three-wave interactions and pure gravity waves unstable due to four-wave interactions. The theoretical description of instabilities in all cases is included into the article. The numerical algorithm used in these and many other previous simulations performed by authors is described in details.
Numerical simulations of time-resolved quantum electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaury, Benoit; Weston, Joseph; Santin, Matthieu; Houzet, Manuel; Groth, Christoph; Waintal, Xavier
2014-01-01
Numerical simulation has become a major tool in quantum electronics both for fundamental and applied purposes. While for a long time those simulations focused on stationary properties (e.g. DC currents), the recent experimental trend toward GHz frequencies and beyond has triggered a new interest for handling time-dependent perturbations. As the experimental frequencies get higher, it becomes possible to conceive experiments which are both time-resolved and fast enough to probe the internal quantum dynamics of the system. This paper discusses the technical aspects-mathematical and numerical-associated with the numerical simulations of such a setup in the time domain (i.e. beyond the single-frequency AC limit). After a short review of the state of the art, we develop a theoretical framework for the calculation of time-resolved observables in a general multiterminal system subject to an arbitrary time-dependent perturbation (oscillating electrostatic gates, voltage pulses, time-varying magnetic fields, etc.) The approach is mathematically equivalent to (i) the time-dependent scattering formalism, (ii) the time-resolved non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism and (iii) the partition-free approach. The central object of our theory is a wave function that obeys a simple Schrödinger equation with an additional source term that accounts for the electrons injected from the electrodes. The time-resolved observables (current, density, etc.) and the (inelastic) scattering matrix are simply expressed in terms of this wave function. We use our approach to develop a numerical technique for simulating time-resolved quantum transport. We find that the use of this wave function is advantageous for numerical simulations resulting in a speed up of many orders of magnitude with respect to the direct integration of NEGF equations. Our technique allows one to simulate realistic situations beyond simple models, a subject that was until now beyond the simulation capabilities of available approaches.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations. Chapter 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.
2005-01-01
This chapter describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations.
Building Blocks for Reliable Complex Nonlinear Numerical Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Mansour, Nagi N. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This talk describes some of the building blocks to ensure a higher level of confidence in the predictability and reliability (PAR) of numerical simulation of multiscale complex nonlinear problems. The focus is on relating PAR of numerical simulations with complex nonlinear phenomena of numerics. To isolate sources of numerical uncertainties, the possible discrepancy between the chosen partial differential equation (PDE) model and the real physics and/or experimental data is set aside. The discussion is restricted to how well numerical schemes can mimic the solution behavior of the underlying PDE model for finite time steps and grid spacings. The situation is complicated by the fact that the available theory for the understanding of nonlinear behavior of numerics is not at a stage to fully analyze the nonlinear Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. The discussion is based on the knowledge gained for nonlinear model problems with known analytical solutions to identify and explain the possible sources and remedies of numerical uncertainties in practical computations. Examples relevant to turbulent flow computations are included.
Numerical simulation of protein stamping process driven by capillary force.
Lin, Shih-Chang; Tseng, Fangang; Chieng, Ching-Chang
2002-09-01
Numerical simulations based on first-principle conservation laws of mass and momentum are performed to observe flow characteristics during the stamping process. The protein solution is transferred by a new design of microstamps with microchannels and printed on a bottom substrate. Furthermore, key physics of the stamping process and the control factors achieving uniform spot size can be identified and optimized after these simulations. PMID:16696302
Numerical simulation of low pressure die-casting aluminum wheel
Mi Guofa; Liu Xiangyu; Wang Kuangfei; Fu Hengzhi
The FDM numerical simulation software, ViewCast system, was employed to simulate the low pressure die casting (LPDC) of an aluminum wheel. By analyzing the mold-fi lling and solidifi cation stage of the LPDC process, the distribution of liquid fraction, temperature field and solidification pattern of castings were studied. The potential shrinkage defects were predicted to be formed at the rim\\/spoke
Direct numerical simulation of compressible free shear flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lele, Sanjiva K.
1989-01-01
Direct numerical simulations of compressible free shear layers in open domains are conducted. Compact finite-difference schemes of spectral-like accuracy are used for the simulations. Both temporally-growing and spatially-growing mixing layers are studied. The effect of intrinsic compressibility on the evolution of vortices is studied. The use of convective Mach number is validated. Details of vortex roll up and pairing are studied. Acoustic radiation from vortex roll up, pairing and shape oscillations is studied and quantified.
Numerical simulation of thermal behavior during laser metal deposition shaping
Ri-sheng LONG; Wei-jun LIU; Fei XING; Hua-bing WANG
2008-01-01
Based on the element life and death theory of finite element analysis(FEA), a three-dimensional multi-track and multi-layer model for laser metal deposition shaping(LMDS) was developed with ANSYS parametric design language(APDL), and detailed numerical simulations of temperature and thermal stress were conducted. Among those simulations, long-edge parallel reciprocating scanning method was introduced. The distribution regularities of temperature, temperature gradient, Von Mise's
Magnetohydrodynamic Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection in Interstellar Medium
Syuniti Tanuma
2000-01-01
In this thesis, we perform two-dimensional (2D) resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of the magnetic reconnection in interstellar medium. Part I is introduction. The motivation of the study is to investigate the origin of hot gas in interstellar medium. A scenario for generating X-ray gas in Galaxy is proposed, and examined by performing 2D MHD simulations with simple assumptions (Part
Numerical Simulations of the Digital Microfluidic Manipulation of Single Microparticles.
Lan, Chuanjin; Pal, Souvik; Li, Zhen; Ma, Yanbao
2015-09-01
Single-cell analysis techniques have been developed as a valuable bioanalytical tool for elucidating cellular heterogeneity at genomic, proteomic, and cellular levels. Cell manipulation is an indispensable process for single-cell analysis. Digital microfluidics (DMF) is an important platform for conducting cell manipulation and single-cell analysis in a high-throughput fashion. However, the manipulation of single cells in DMF has not been quantitatively studied so far. In this article, we investigate the interaction of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet on a flat substrate using numerical simulations. The droplet is driven by capillary force generated from the wettability gradient of the substrate. Considering the Brownian motion of microparticles, we utilize many-body dissipative particle dynamics (MDPD), an off-lattice mesoscopic simulation technique, in this numerical study. The manipulation processes (including pickup, transport, and drop-off) of a single microparticle with a liquid droplet are simulated. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the effects on the manipulation processes from the droplet size, wettability gradient, wetting properties of the microparticle, and particle-substrate friction coefficients. The numerical results show that the pickup, transport, and drop-off processes can be precisely controlled by these parameters. On the basis of the numerical results, a trap-free delivery of a hydrophobic microparticle to a destination on the substrate is demonstrated in the numerical simulations. The numerical results not only provide a fundamental understanding of interactions among the microparticle, the droplet, and the substrate but also demonstrate a new technique for the trap-free immobilization of single hydrophobic microparticles in the DMF design. Finally, our numerical method also provides a powerful design and optimization tool for the manipulation of microparticles in DMF systems. PMID:26241832
GPU Accelerated Numerical Simulation of Viscous Flow Down a Slope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gygax, Remo; Räss, Ludovic; Omlin, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yuri; Jaboyedoff, Michel
2014-05-01
Numerical simulations are an effective tool in natural risk analysis. They are useful to determine the propagation and the runout distance of gravity driven movements such as debris flows or landslides. To evaluate these processes an approach on analogue laboratory experiments and a GPU accelerated numerical simulation of the flow of a viscous liquid down an inclined slope is considered. The physical processes underlying large gravity driven flows share certain aspects with the propagation of debris mass in a rockslide and the spreading of water waves. Several studies have shown that the numerical implementation of the physical processes of viscous flow produce a good fit with the observation of experiments in laboratory in both a quantitative and a qualitative way. When considering a process that is this far explored we can concentrate on its numerical transcription and the application of the code in a GPU accelerated environment to obtain a 3D simulation. The objective of providing a numerical solution in high resolution by NVIDIA-CUDA GPU parallel processing is to increase the speed of the simulation and the accuracy on the prediction. The main goal is to write an easily adaptable and as short as possible code on the widely used platform MATLAB, which will be translated to C-CUDA to achieve higher resolution and processing speed while running on a NVIDIA graphics card cluster. The numerical model, based on the finite difference scheme, is compared to analogue laboratory experiments. This way our numerical model parameters are adjusted to reproduce the effective movements observed by high-speed camera acquisitions during the laboratory experiments.
Direct numerical simulation of auto-ignition of a hydrogen vortex ring reacting with hot air
Doom, Jeff; Mahesh, Krishnan [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, University of Minnesota, 107 Akerman Hall, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2009-04-15
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study chemically reacting, laminar vortex rings. A novel, all-Mach number algorithm developed by Doom et al. [J. Doom, Y. Hou, K. Mahesh, J. Comput. Phys. 226 (2007) 1136-1151] is used. The chemical mechanism is a nine species, nineteen reaction mechanism for H{sub 2}/air combustion proposed by Mueller et al. [M.A. Mueller, T.J. Kim, R.A. Yetter, F.L. Dryer, Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 31 (1999) 113-125]. Diluted H{sub 2} at ambient temperature (300 K) is injected into hot air. The simulations study the effect of fuel/air ratios, oxidizer temperature, Lewis number and stroke ratio (ratio of piston stroke length to diameter). Results show that auto-ignition occurs in fuel lean, high temperature regions with low scalar dissipation at a 'most reactive' mixture fraction, {zeta}{sub MR} (Mastorakos et al. [E. Mastorakos, T.A. Baritaud, T.J. Poinsot, Combust. Flame 109 (1997) 198-223]). Subsequent evolution of the flame is not predicted by {zeta}{sub MR}; a most reactive temperature T{sub MR} is defined and shown to predict both the initial auto-ignition as well as subsequent evolution. For stroke ratios less than the formation number, ignition in general occurs behind the vortex ring and propagates into the core. At higher oxidizer temperatures, ignition is almost instantaneous and occurs along the entire interface between fuel and oxidizer. For stroke ratios greater than the formation number, ignition initially occurs behind the leading vortex ring, then occurs along the length of the trailing column and propagates toward the ring. Lewis number is seen to affect both the initial ignition as well as subsequent flame evolution significantly. Non-uniform Lewis number simulations provide faster ignition and burnout time but a lower maximum temperature. The fuel rich reacting vortex ring provides the highest maximum temperature and the higher oxidizer temperature provides the fastest ignition time. The fuel lean reacting vortex ring has little effect on the flow and behaves similar to a non-reacting vortex ring. (author)
Numerical simulation of piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosokawa, Atsushi
2015-07-01
The piezoelectric effect of bone under ultrasound irradiation was numerically simulated using an elastic finite-difference time-domain method with piezoelectric constitutive equations (PE-FDTD method). First, to demonstrate the validity of the PE-FDTD method, the ultrasound propagation in piezoelectric ceramics was simulated and then compared with the experimental results. The simulated and experimental waveforms propagating through the ceramics were in good agreement. Next, the piezoelectric effect of human cortical bone on the ultrasound propagation was investigated by PE-FDTD simulation. The simulated result showed that the difference between the waveforms propagating through the bone without and with piezoelectricity was negligible. Finally, the spatial distributions of the electric fields in a human femur induced by ultrasound irradiation were simulated. The electric fields were changed by a bone fracture, which depended on piezoelectric anisotropy. In conclusion, the PE-FDTD method is considered to be useful for investigating the piezoelectric effect of bone.
Numerical simulations and modeling for stochastic biological systems with jumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, Xiaoling; Wang, Ke
2014-05-01
This paper gives a numerical method to simulate sample paths for stochastic differential equations (SDEs) driven by Poisson random measures. It provides us a new approach to simulate systems with jumps from a different angle. The driving Poisson random measures are assumed to be generated by stationary Poisson point processes instead of Lévy processes. Methods provided in this paper can be used to simulate SDEs with Lévy noise approximately. The simulation is divided into two parts: the part of jumping integration is based on definition without approximation while the continuous part is based on some classical approaches. Biological explanations for stochastic integrations with jumps are motivated by several numerical simulations. How to model biological systems with jumps is showed in this paper. Moreover, method of choosing integrands and stationary Poisson point processes in jumping integrations for biological models are obtained. In addition, results are illustrated through some examples and numerical simulations. For some examples, earthquake is chose as a jumping source which causes jumps on the size of biological population.
Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Structure in Complex Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takehiro
2007-04-01
It is important to investigate the flow-induced structure for the analysis of the mechanism of flow behavior of complex fluids. The present paper includes two topics in which the flow-induced structure is numerically investigated. The first topic treats the suspensions of disc-like particles under simple shear flows. Disc-like particles were modeled by oblate spheroid particles, and the Brownian dynamics simulation was performed for suspensions of the particles interacting via the Gay-Berne potential. This simulation confirmed that this model system was applicable to the analysis of flow of suspension of disc-like particles. The second one is the numerical simulation of the deformation behavior of a droplet in shear flows. The present simulation is the first step for the numerical simulation of the flow-induced structure in emulsions. This simulation can demonstrate the deformation behavior of droplet observed in experiments and predict effects of non-Newtonian property of fluids on the droplet deformation.
A numerical simulation of the phenomena in Be plasma
Camelia Gavrila; Cristian P. Lungu; Ion Gruia
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of the Be deposition phenomena using the Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) method. The Be marker layer must be adherent to the substrate and compact to resemble bulk beryllium. Thermionic Vacuum Arc (TVA) is an externally heated cathode arc which can be established in high vacuum condition, in vapors of the anode material.
Validation of Eddy-renewal model by numerical simulation
Garbe, Christoph S.
strongly relate to the temperature structures which is consistent with the concept of the model. A reliable as the diffusivity effect in the thin diffusive sublayer beneath surface. Key Words: eddy-renewal model, numerical simulation, upwelling, estimated heat flux, bulk temperature. 1. Introduction Gas transfer across the air
Numerical Simulation on Pharmaceutical Powder Compaction Lianghao Han1,a
Elliott, James
Numerical Simulation on Pharmaceutical Powder Compaction Lianghao Han1,a , James Elliott1,b Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, CB2 3QZ,UK 2 Pfizer Global R.ac.uk Keywords: powder compaction, constitutive model, finite element method, granular material Abstract
Numerical simulation of cohesive powder behavior in a fluidized bed
Takafumi Mikami; Hidehiro Kamiya; Masayuki Horio
1998-01-01
A numerical simulation model was developed for wet powder fluidization in the scope of investigation on cohesive powder behavior. The model was developed based on the discrete element method (DEM) with the inter-particle cohesive interaction due to liquid bridging. To take into account the liquid bridge force between particles and between a particle and a wall, a regression expression for
RESEARCH Open Access Efficient procedures for the numerical simulation
Barash, Danny
for simulating the kinetic folding of RNAs by numerically solving the chemical master equation have been to analyses and predictions of RNA folding in biologically significant problems. Results: By describing, but the scaffold for this struc- ture is provided by secondary structural elements which are hydrogen bonds within
Numerical approaches for multidimensional simulations of stellar explosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ke-Jung; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann S.
2013-11-01
We introduce numerical algorithms for initializing multidimensional simulations of stellar explosions with 1D stellar evolution models. The initial mapping from 1D profiles onto multidimensional grids can generate severe numerical artifacts, one of the most severe of which is the violation of conservation laws for physical quantities. We introduce a numerical scheme for mapping 1D spherically-symmetric data onto multidimensional meshes so that these physical quantities are conserved. We verify our scheme by porting a realistic 1D Lagrangian stellar profile to the new multidimensional Eulerian hydro code CASTRO. Our results show that all important features in the profiles are reproduced on the new grid and that conservation laws are enforced at all resolutions after mapping. We also introduce a numerical scheme for initializing multidimensional supernova simulations with realistic perturbations predicted by 1D stellar evolution models. Instead of seeding 3D stellar profiles with random perturbations, we imprint them with velocity perturbations that reproduce the Kolmogorov energy spectrum expected for highly turbulent convective regions in stars. Our models return Kolmogorov energy spectra and vortex structures like those in turbulent flows before the modes become nonlinear. Finally, we describe approaches to determining the resolution for simulations required to capture fluid instabilities and nuclear burning. Our algorithms are applicable to multidimensional simulations besides stellar explosions that range from astrophysics to cosmology.
Numerical simulation of shock wave focusing over parabolic reflectors
S. M. Liang; C. S. Wu; F. M. Yu; L. N. Wu
1995-01-01
The problem of a plane shock wave that propagates in an air media and then is reflected from a parabolic concave reflector and focuses at some region is considered. The shock focusing can greatly magnify the pressure and the temperature. The purpose of this study is to numerically simulate the shock focusing process of the reflection of shock waves from
The Numerical Simulation of Ship Waves Using Cartesian Grid Methods
Sussman, Mark
advantages and disadvantages. VOF uses the volume fraction (F) to track the interface. F = 0 correspondsThe Numerical Simulation of Ship Waves Using Cartesian Grid Methods M. Sussman (Florida State and behind the stern is characterized by complex physical processes which involve break- ing waves, air
Numerical Simulation of the December 26, 2004: Indian Ocean Tsunami
Kirby, James T.
Numerical Simulation of the December 26, 2004: Indian Ocean Tsunami J. Asavanant1, M. Ioualalen2, N. Kaewbanjak1, S. Grilli3, P. Watts4, and J. Kirby5 Abstract: The December 26, 2004 tsunami is one of the most devastating tsunami in recorded history. It was generated in the Indian Ocean off the western coast
A Framework for Transparent Load Balancing in Parallel Numerical Simulation
Josef Weidendorfer; Peter Luksch
2001-01-01
Load imbalance is the most important factor that limits scalability of parallel applications in scientific computing. Dynamic load balancing at the application level usually is implemented in aproprietary manner. This paper presents a generic framework for application level dynamic load bal- ancing. Our framework can be applied to any grid-based iterative numerical simulation. It defines a programming model that is
Direct Numerical Simulation of a Quasilaminarized Boundary Layer
Luciano Castillo; Juan Guillermo Araya; Raul Bayoan Cal
2010-01-01
Direct Numerical Simulations of spatially-evolving turbulent boundary layers with strong favorable pressure gradients are performed. The driven force behind this investigation is elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the quasi-laminarization of the boundary layer. Budgets of the turbulent kinetic energy and the shear Reynolds stresses provide insight into the terms responsible for this phenomenon. The results also confirm the similarity analysis
Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator
Weinmüller, Ewa B.
Numerical Simulation of a Natural Circulation Steam Generator W. Linzer \\Lambda , K. Ponweiser in natural circulation steam generators are essentially one--dimensional. Thus, for the purpose of circuit are crucial for the performance of natural circulation steam generators. The resulting modell for the flow
Arti cial Boundary Conditions for the Numerical Simulation of Unsteady
Arti#12;cial Boundary Conditions for the Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Electromagnetic Waves S with the Huygens' principle, is employed to construct accurate non-local arti#12;cial boundary conditions (ABCs, and the ABCs guarantee that the outer boundary be completely transparent for all the outgoing waves
Artificial Boundary Conditions for the Numerical Simulation of Unsteady
Artificial Boundary Conditions for the Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Electromagnetic Waves S. V' principle, is employed to construct accurate non-local artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) for the Maxwell, and the ABCs guarantee that the outer boundary be completely transparent for all the outgoing waves
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL TUFT CORONA AND ELECTROHYDRODYNAMICS
The numerical simulation of three-dimensional tuft corona and electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is discussed. The importance of high-voltage and low-current operation in the wire-duct precipitator has focused attention on collecting high-resistivity dust. The local current density of in...
Flux transfer events in global numerical simulations of the magnetosphere
J. A. Fedder; S. P. Slinker; J. G. Lyon; C. T. Russell
2002-01-01
A magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulation model is used to study nonsteady features of magnetic reconnection between southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and the geomagnetic field. The magnetic field near the dayside magnetopause intermittently shows the bipolar normal magnetic field and field-aligned flow features that are similar to the observed flux transfer events. The results show that the magnetic signature extends outward
Simulated Composite Baseball Bat Impacts Using Numerical and Experimental Techniques
Smith, Lloyd V.
Simulated Composite Baseball Bat Impacts Using Numerical and Experimental Techniques L. V. Smith, M, WA 99164-2920 ABSTRACT A study has been undertaken to develop techniques for assessing baseball bat-wood baseball bats were approved for collegiate play over 25 years ago. The primary motivation was to reduce
Numerical Simulation of Titanium Production in the Plasma Quench Reactor
Numerical Simulation of Titanium Production in the Plasma Quench Reactor Ray A. Beny and Randall A the nucleation of condensates in the steady-state supersonic nozzle flow generated in a plasma quench reactor reactions. The device has been termed the Plasma Quench Reactor or PQR. The PQR has demonstrated the ability
Numerical simulation of tsunamis — Its present and near future
N. Shuto
1991-01-01
Hindcasting of a tsunami by numerical simulations is a process of lengthy and complicated deductions, knowing only the final results such as run-up heights and tide records, both of which are possibly biased due to an insufficient number of records and due to hydraulic and mechanical limitation of tide gauges. There are many sources of error. The initial profile, determined
Stress and diffusion induced interface motion: Modelling and numerical simulations
Styles, Vanessa
Stress and diffusion induced interface motion: Modelling and numerical simulations Harald Garcke of Mathematics, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH, U.K. Abstract We propose a phase field model for stress stress effects. In this paper we will demonstrate that the model can also be used to describe other
Astrophysical jets: Observations, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments
Bellan, Paul M.
Astrophysical jets: Observations, numerical simulations, and laboratory experiments P. M. Bellan,1, Italy and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA; published online 22 April 2009 This paper provides summaries of ten talks on astrophysical jets given
IRIS Spectrum Line Plot - Numeric Simulation - Duration: 13 seconds.
This video is similar to the IRIS Spectrum Line Plot video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4V_vF3qMSI, but now as derived from a numerical simulation of the Sun by the University of Oslo. Credit...
Fluidstructure interactions of a cross parachute: numerical simulation q
Tezduyar, Tayfun E.
Fluid±structure interactions of a cross parachute: numerical simulation q Keith Stein a,*, Richard Systems Center, Natick, MA 01760-5017, USA b Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science of parachutes involves complex interaction between the parachute structure and the surrounding ¯ow ®eld
A Computational Model for the Numerical Simulation of FSW Processes
C. Agelet de Saracibar; M. Chiumenti; D. Santiago; M. Cervera; N. Dialami; G. Lombera
2010-01-01
In this paper a computational model for the numerical simulation of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) processes is presented. FSW is a new method of welding in solid state in which a shouldered tool with a profile probe is rotated and slowly plunged into the joint line between two pieces of sheet or plate material which are butted together. Once the
Characterizing electron temperature gradient turbulence via numerical simulation
Hammett, Greg
Characterizing electron temperature gradient turbulence via numerical simulation W. M. Nevins, California 92186 S. Cowley Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 T of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UCSD, San Diego, California 92093 G. W. Hammett Princeton Plasma
A numerical model for simulating mechanical behavior of flexible fibers
Zemin Ning; John R. Melrose
1999-01-01
A numerical method is developed for simulating the mechanical behavior of flexible fibers. A circular crossed fiber is represented by a number of cylindrical segments linked by spring dash-pot systems. Segments are lined up and bonded to each neighbor. Each bond can be stretched or compressed by changing the bond distance. Bending deflection and twist movement occur, respectively, in the
Numerical Simulation of Particle Flow in a Sand Trap
A. D. Araújo; J. S. Andrade Jr.; L. P. Maia; H. J. Herrmann
2008-01-01
Sand traps are used to measure Aeolian flux. Since they modify the surrounding wind velocity field their gauging represents an important challenge. We use numerical simulations under the assumption of homogeneous turbulence based on FLUENT to systematically study the flow field and trapping efficiency of one of the most common devices based on a hollow cylinder with two slits. In
NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER
Ala Qubbaj
2005-03-01
A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.
Numerical simulation of cavitating flow past axisymmetric body
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Warn-Gyu; Jung, Chul-Min
2012-09-01
Cavitating flow simulation is of practical importance for many engineering systems, such as marine propellers, pump impellers, nozzles, torpedoes, etc. The present work has developed the base code to solve the cavitating flows past the axisymmetric bodies with several forebody shapes. The governing equation is the Navier-Stokes equation based on homogeneous mixture model. The momentum is in the mixture phase while the continuity equation is solved in liquid and vapor phase, separately. The solver employs an implicit preconditioning algorithm in curvilinear coordinates. The computations have been carried out for the cylinders with hemispherical, 1-caliber, and 0-caliber forebody and, then, compared with experiments and other numerical results. Fairly good agreements with experiments and numerical results have been achieved. It has been concluded that the present numerical code has successfully accounted for the cavitating flows past axisymmetric bodies. The present code has also shown the capability to simulate ventilated cavitation.
Numerical relativity simulations in the era of the Einstein Telescope
Mark Hannam; Ian Hawke
2009-08-21
Numerical-relativity (NR) simulations of compact binaries are expected to be an invaluable tool in gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. The sensitivity of future detectors such as the Einstein Telescope (ET) will place much higher demands on NR simulations than first- and second-generation ground-based detectors. We discuss the issues facing compact-object simulations over the next decade, with an emphasis on estimating where the accuracy and parameter space coverage will be sufficient for ET and where significant work is needed.
Numerical simulation of thermal discharge based on FVM method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yunli; Wang, Deguan; Wang, Zhigang; Lai, Xijun
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional numerical model is proposed to simulate the thermal discharge from a power plant in Jiangsu Province. The equations in the model consist of two-dimensional non-steady shallow water equations and thermal waste transport equations. Finite volume method (FVM) is used to discretize the shallow water equations, and flux difference splitting (FDS) scheme is applied. The calculated area with the same temperature increment shows the effect of thermal discharge on sea water. A comparison between simulated results and the experimental data shows good agreement. It indicates that this method can give high precision in the heat transfer simulation in coastal areas.
Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acharya, Sumanta
1999-01-01
The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.
Numerical simulations for impact damage detection in composites using vibrothermography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pieczonka, L. J.; Staszewski, W. J.; Aymerich, F.; Uhl, T.; Szwedo, M.
2010-06-01
Composite materials are widely used in many engineering applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratios. However, it is well known that composites are susceptible to impact damage. Detection of impact damage is an important issue in maintenance of composite structures. Various non-destructive image-based techniques have been developed for damage detection in composite materials. These include vibrothermography that detects surface temperature changes due to heating associated with frictional energy dissipation by damage. In the present paper numerical simulations are used to investigate heat generation in a composite plate with impact damage in order to support damage detection analysis with vibrothermography. Explicit finite elements are used to model ultrasonic wave propagation in the damaged plate. Simulated delamination and cracks induce frictional heating in the plate. Coupled thermo-mechanical simulations are performed in high frequencies using commercial LS-Dyna finite element code. Very good qualitative agreement between measurements and simulations has been obtained. The area of increased temperature corresponds very well with the damaged area in both experiments and simulations. Numerical model has to be further refined in order to quantitatively match the experiments. The main issues of concern are frictional and thermal properties of composites. The final goal of these research efforts is to predict damage detection sensitivity of vibrothermography in real engineering applications based on numerical models.
DNS Zones Revisited Ward van Wanrooij, Aiko Pras
Pras, Aiko
with a recapitulation of the general operation of DNS, followed by an overview of our research method (Section 3). BasedDNS Zones Revisited Ward van Wanrooij, Aiko Pras Abstract - Recent research suggests that, due to misconfiguration, DNS reliability and performance is not always as good as it should be. This paper therefore
On Modern DNS Behavior and Properties Tom Callahan
Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"
burdensome and this method eventually gave way to the Domain Name System (DNS), which is a distributedOn Modern DNS Behavior and Properties Tom Callahan , Mark Allman , Michael Rabinovich Case Western@icir.org ABSTRACT The Internet crucially depends on the Domain Name System (DNS) to both allow users to interact
Preprocessing DNS Log Data for Effective Data Mining
Sundaram, Ravi
for estimating values for missing portions of time sensitive DNS log data. This method would be suitable for use DNS log data. A variety of methods for adjusting data to account for these outages are available, such as linear interpolation. However, such methods fail to preserve features common to DNS traffic, namely
Anonymous Resolution of DNS Queries S. Castillo-Perez1
Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin
services by using an indirect lookup method based on DNS technologies. In this manner, an by simply usingAnonymous Resolution of DNS Queries S. Castillo-Perez1 and J. Garcia-Alfaro1,2 1 Universitat.garcia-alfaro@acm.org Abstract. The use of the DNS as the underlying technology of new resolu- tion name services can lead
Understanding Implications of DNS Zone Provisioning Andrew J. Kalafut
Gupta, Minaxi
Understanding Implications of DNS Zone Provisioning Andrew J. Kalafut akalafut@cs.indiana.edu Craig University Bloomington, IN ABSTRACT DNS is a critical component of the Internet. This paper takes to transfer their complete information. We find that carelessness in handling DNS records can lead to reduced
Impact of Configuration Errors on DNS Robustness Vasileios Pappas
Massey, Dan
Impact of Configuration Errors on DNS Robustness Vasileios Pappas UCLA Computer Science vpappas Name System (DNS) has sustained phenomenal growth while maintaining satisfactory per- formance. However of misconfigurations in DNS today: lame delegation, diminished server redundancy, and cyclic zone dependency. Zones
The Case for Pushing DNS Mark Handley, Adam Greenhalgh
Handley, Mark
The Case for Pushing DNS Mark Handley, Adam Greenhalgh University College, London m.handley, a.greenhalgh¡ @cs.ucl.ac.uk We present the case for using a peer-to-peer infras- tructure to push DNS name server the robustness of the DNS in an increasingly hostile Internet. We further show that the overheads of a peer
Assessing DNS Vulnerability to Record Injection Kyle Schomp
Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"
Assessing DNS Vulnerability to Record Injection Kyle Schomp , Tom Callahan , Michael Rabinovich Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA Abstract. The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical component of the In. In this paper, we measure the Internet's vul- nerability to DNS record injection attacks--including a new attack
Protecting BGP Routes to Top-Level DNS Servers
California at Los Angeles, University of
Protecting BGP Routes to Top-Level DNS Servers Lan Wang, Xiaoliang Zhao, Member, IEEE, Dan Pei System (DNS) is an essential part of the Internet infrastructure and provides fundamental services, such as translating host names into IP addresses for Internet communication. The DNS is vulnerable to a number
On the Effectiveness of DNS-based Server Selection
Shaikh, Anees
On the Effectiveness of DNS-based Server Selection Anees Shaikh Renu Tewari Mukesh Agrawal Abstract to direct clients to the closest point of ser- vice is DNS-based redirection, due to its transparency and generality. This paper draws attention to two of the main issues in using DNS: 1) the neg- ative effects
Enhancing DNS Resilience against Denial of Service Attacks Vasileios Pappas
California at Los Angeles, University of
Enhancing DNS Resilience against Denial of Service Attacks Vasileios Pappas T.J. Watson Center IBM@cs.colostate.edu Lixia Zhang Computer Science Department UCLA lixia@cs.ucla.edu Abstract The Domain Name System (DNS, distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks have targeted the DNS infrastructure and threaten to disrupt
A Centralized Monitoring Infrastructure for Improving DNS Security
A Centralized Monitoring Infrastructure for Improving DNS Security Manos Antonakakis, David Dagon@gtisc.gatech.edu Abstract. Researchers have recently noted (14; 27) the potential of fast poi- soning attacks against DNS servers, which allows attackers to easily manipulate records in open recursive DNS resolvers. A vendor
Bringing Local DNS Servers Close to Their Clients Hangwei Qian
Rabinovich, Michael "Misha"
Bringing Local DNS Servers Close to Their Clients Hangwei Qian Case Western Reserve University that the distance between clients and their local DNS servers (LDNS) can have a significant negative impact-side DNS mechanism that moves LDNS close to their clients while still allowing nearby clients to share
A New Approach to DNS Security (DNSSEC) Giuseppe Ateniese
Ateniese, Giuseppe
A New Approach to DNS Security (DNSSEC) Giuseppe Ateniese Department of Computer Science and JHU The Domain Name System (DNS) is a distributed database that allows convenient storing and retrieving of resource records. DNS has been extended to provide security ser- vices (DNSSEC) mainly through public
Operational Implications of the DNS Control Plane Eric Osterweil
California at Los Angeles, University of
Operational Implications of the DNS Control Plane Eric Osterweil VeriSign Labs eosterweil Introduction The Domain Name System (DNS) [7] provides vital mapping services for the Internet. It maps domain and more. Virtually every Internet application relies on looking up some form of DNS data. This article
Protecting BGP Routes to Top Level DNS Servers , Xiaoliang Zhao
Wang, Lan
Protecting BGP Routes to Top Level DNS Servers Lan Wang , Xiaoliang Zhao ¡ , Dan Pei , Randy System (DNS) is an essential part of the Internet infrastructure and provides fundamental ser- vices, such as translating host names into IP addresses for Internet communication. The DNS is vulnerable to a num- ber
An Empirical Reexamination of Global DNS Behavior Vinod Yegneswaran
Ghosh, Shalini
An Empirical Reexamination of Global DNS Behavior Hongyu Gao Vinod Yegneswaran Yan Chen Phillip University ABSTRACT The performance and operational characteristics of the DNS pro- tocol are of deep from a unique dataset containing more than 26 billion DNS query-response pairs collected from more than
Benchmarks and numerical methods for the simulation of boiling flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanguy, Sébastien; Sagan, Michaël; Lalanne, Benjamin; Couderc, Frédéric; Colin, Catherine
2014-05-01
Comparisons of different numerical methods suited to the simulations of phase changes are presented in the framework of interface capturing computations on structured fixed computational grids. Due to analytical solutions, we define some reference test-cases that every numerical technique devoted to phase change should succeed. Realistic physical properties imply some drastic interface jump conditions on the normal velocity or on the thermal flux. The efficiencies of Ghost Fluid and Delta Function Methods are compared to compute the normal velocity jump condition. Next, we demonstrate that high order extrapolation methods on the thermal field allow performing accurate and robust simulations for a thermally controlled bubble growth. Finally, some simulations of the growth of a rising bubble are presented, both for a spherical bubble and a deformed bubble.
Refined numerical models for multidimensional Type Ia supernova simulations
M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer
2001-11-26
Following up on earlier work on this topic (Reinecke et al. 1999, A&A 347, pp. 724 and 739), we present an improved set of numerical models for simulations of white dwarfs exploding as Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Two-dimensional simulations were used to test the reliability and numerical robustness of these algorithms; the results indicate that integral quantities like the total energy release are insensitive to changes of the grid resolution (above a certain threshold), which was not the case for our former code. The models were further enhanced to allow fully three-dimensional simulations of SNe Ia. A direct comparison of a 2D and a 3D calculation with identical initial conditions shows that the explosion is considerably more energetic in three dimensions; this is most likely caused by the assumption of axisymmetry in 2D, which inhibits the growth of flame instabilities in the azimuthal direction and thereby decreases the flame surface.
Numerical simulation of reactivity measurements in WER-1000 reactor
Popykin, A.; Kavun, O.; Shevchenko, S.; Shevchenko, R.
2012-07-01
Reactivity is one of the most used and important concepts in physics and nuclear reactor calculations carried out for the safety analysis. Currently, design calculation of Russian WER reactors are carried out with modern coupled time-dependent neutronic and heat hydraulic codes. They allow to perform numerical simulation of reactivity measurements. However, point kinetic model used for simulation of large reactivity insertion leads to some issues. The paper discusses the numerical simulation of reactivity measurement, shows that the reactivity obtained from the steady state solution does not always correspond to the measured value. Comparison of scram system reactivity worth calculated and measured during physical start-up of unit 3, Kalinin NPP is presented. (authors)
A numerical simulation of the Jominy end-quench test
Hoemberg, D.
1996-11-01
The author presents a numerical algorithm for simulating the Jominy end-quench test and deriving continuous cooling diagrams. The underlying mathematical model for the austenite-pearlite phase transition is based on Scheil`s Additivity Rule and the Johnson-Mehl equation. For the formation of martensite the author compares the Koistinen-Marburger formula with a rate law, which takes into account the irreversibility of this process. He carries out numerical simulations for the plain carbon steels C 1080 and C 100 W 1. The results suggest that the austenite-pearlite phase change may be described decently by the Additivity Rule, except for the incubation time. On the other hand, using a rate law to describe the martensite formation is preferable to the Koistinen-Marburger formula, which leads to unphysical oscillations of the cooling curves in simulated CCT-diagrams.
Numerical simulations of particle sedimentation using the immersed boundary method
Ghosh, Sudeshna
2013-01-01
We study the settling of solid particles within a viscous incompressible fluid contained in a two-dimensional channel, where the mass density of the particles is slightly greater than that of the fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is simulated numerically using the immersed boundary method, with an added mass term that is incorporated using a Boussinesq approximation. Simulations are performed with a single circular particle, and also with two particles in various initial configurations. The terminal settling velocities for the particles correspond closely with both theoretical and experimental results, and the single-particle dynamics reproduce expected behavior qualitatively. The two-particle simulations exhibit drafting-kissing-tumbling dynamics that is similar to what is observed in other experimental and numerical studies.
Numerical techniques for parallel dynamics in electromagnetic gyrokinetic Vlasov simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maeyama, S.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Nakajima, N.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Tsutsui, H.
2013-11-01
Numerical techniques for parallel dynamics in electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations are introduced to regulate unphysical grid-size oscillations in the field-aligned coordinate. It is found that a fixed boundary condition and the nonlinear mode coupling in the field-aligned coordinate, as well as numerical errors of non-dissipative finite difference methods, produce fluctuations with high parallel wave numbers. The theoretical and numerical analyses demonstrate that an outflow boundary condition and a low-pass filter efficiently remove the numerical oscillations, providing small but acceptable errors of the entropy variables. The new method is advantageous for quantitative evaluation of the entropy balance that is required for obtaining a steady state in gyrokinetic turbulence.
Yoo, Chun S
2011-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the near-field of a three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow is performed with a reduced mechanism to determine the stabilization mechanism. The DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 with over 1.29 billion grid points. The results show that auto-ignition in a fuel-lean mixture at the flame base is the main source of stabilization of the lifted jet flame. The Damkoehler number and chemical explosive mode (CEM) analysis also verify that auto-ignition occurs at the flame base. In addition to auto-ignition, Lagrangian tracking of the flame base reveals the passage of large-scale flow structures and their correlation with the fluctuations of the flame base similar to a previous study (Yoo et al., J. Fluid Mech. 640 (2009) 453-481) with hydrogen/air jet flames. It is also observed that the present lifted flame base exhibits a cyclic 'saw-tooth' shaped movement marked by rapid movement upstream and slower movement downstream. This is a consequence of the lifted flame being stabilized by a balance between consecutive auto-ignition events in hot fuel-lean mixtures and convection induced by the high-speed jet and coflow velocities. This is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking of key variables including the flame-normal velocity, displacement speed, scalar dissipation rate, and mixture fraction at the stabilization point.
Yoo, C. S.; Richardson, E.; Sankaran, R.; Chen, J. H.
2011-01-01
Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the near-field of a three-dimensional spatially-developing turbulent ethylene jet flame in highly-heated coflow is performed with a reduced mechanism to determine the stabilization mechanism. The DNS was performed at a jet Reynolds number of 10,000 with over 1.29 billion grid points. The results show that auto-ignition in a fuel-lean mixture at the flame base is the main source of stabilization of the lifted jet flame. The Damköhler number and chemical explosive mode (CEM) analysis also verify that auto-ignition occurs at the flame base. In addition to auto-ignition, Lagrangian tracking of the flame base reveals the passage of large-scale flow structures and their correlation with the fluctuations of the flame base similar to a previous study (Yoo et al., J. Fluid Mech. 640 (2009) 453–481) with hydrogen/air jet flames. It is also observed that the present lifted flame base exhibits a cyclic ‘saw-tooth’ shaped movement marked by rapid movement upstream and slower movement downstream. This is a consequence of the lifted flame being stabilized by a balance between consecutive auto-ignition events in hot fuel-lean mixtures and convection induced by the high-speed jet and coflow velocities. This is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking of key variables including the flame-normal velocity, displacement speed, scalar dissipation rate, and mixture fraction at the stabilization point.
Simulation for the expansion of the wildfire with numerical weather simulation MM5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimura, K.; Honma, T.
2008-12-01
1. Background Frequent occurrence of wildfires all over the world is considered as one of major resources of greenhouse gases. For example, a lot of wildfires in Alaska occur in summer. Now, the satellites of NOAA and Terra/Aqua are watching the earth and the wildfire are detected. Of course, to detection wildfire is very important, but the influence on inhabitants is more important. Our purpose is to make the numerical simulation of the wildfire spread in the small area with numerical weather simulation MM5. We think this will be useful to help fire fighting and global environment such as the replace of CO2. 2. Numerical Wildfire Spread Simulation There are many type of the numerical simulation of wildfire spread. In our simulation, the wildfire velocity is based on the Rhothermel equation and other parts are made of the cell automata. The area of the wildfire is the uniform vegetation consisted of the boreal forest (Picea mariana). The main factor of the expansion speed is wind velocity and speed. The continuous change of the weather is simulated with regional meteorological simulation MM5. The real spread of the Boundary Fire are observed by Alaska Fire Service. In this study, we validate the simulation result with the AFS data. 3. The Simulation Results We are constructing the simulation with Boundary Fire in 2004 in central Alaska. MM5 is very useful to reconstruct or forecast the distribution of local weather. We show the examples of the results in the poster. 4. Conclusion We constructed the numerical simulation model of wildfire spread with numerical weather simulation MM5. The result of simulation is being verified by the observed data by AFS .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satake, Shin-Ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki
1998-11-01
A direct numerical simulation(DNS) with turbulent transport of a scalar quantity has been carried out to grasp and understand a laminarization phenomena caused by a pipe rotation. In this study, the Reynolds number, which is based on a bulk velocity and a pipe diameter, was set to be constant; Re=5293, and the rotating ratios of a wall velocity to a bulk velocity were set to be 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0. A uniform heat-flux was applied to the wall as a thermal boundary condition. Prandtl number of the working fluid was assumed to be 0.71. The number of computational grids used in this study was 256x128x128 in the z-, r- and ?-directions, respectively. The turbulent quantities such as the mean flow, temperature fluctuations, turbulent stresses and pressure distribution and the turbulent statistics were obtained. Moreover, the Reynolds stress and the scalar-flux budgets were also obtained for each rotating ratio. The turbulent drag decreases with the rotating ratio increase. The reason of this drag reduction can be considered that the additional rotational production terms appear in the azimuthal turbulence component. The contributions of convection and production terms to the radial scalar-flux budget and also to the balance with temperature-pressure gradient term are significant. The dissipation and viscous diffusion terms are negligible in high rotating ratio.
The hydrodynamics of astrophysical jets: scaled experiments and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belan, M.; Massaglia, S.; Tordella, D.; Mirzaei, M.; de Ponte, S.
2013-06-01
Context. In this paper we study the propagation of hypersonic hydrodynamic jets (Mach number >5) in a laboratory vessel and make comparisons with numerical simulations of axially symmetric flows with the same initial and boundary conditions. The astrophysical context is that of the jets originating around young stellar objects (YSOs). Aims: In order to gain a deeper insight into the phenomenology of YSO jets, we performed a set of experiments and numerical simulations of hypersonic jets in the range of Mach numbers from 10 to 20 and for jet-to-ambient density ratios from 0.85 to 5.4, using different gas species and observing jet lengths of the order of 150 initial radii or more. Exploiting the scalability of the hydrodynamic equations, we intend to reproduce the YSO jet behaviour with respect to jet velocity and elapsed times. In addition, we can make comparisons between the simulated, the experimental, and the observed morphologies. Methods: In the experiments the gas pressure and temperature are increased by a fast, quasi-isentropic compression by means of a piston system operating on a time scale of tens of milliseconds, while the gas density is visualized and measured by means of an electron beam system. We used the PLUTO software for the numerical solution of mixed hyperbolic/parabolic conservation laws targeting high Mach number flows in astrophysical fluid dynamics. We considered axisymmetric initial conditions and carried out numerical simulations in cylindrical geometry. The code has a modular flexible structure whereby different numerical algorithms can be separately combined to solve systems of conservation laws using the finite volume or finite difference approach based on Godunov-type schemes. Results: The agreement between experiments and numerical simulations is fairly good in most of the comparisons. The resulting scaled flow velocities and elapsed times are close to the ones shown by observations. The morphologies of the density distributions agree with the observed ones as well. Conclusions: The laboratory and the simulated hypersonic jets are all pressure matched, i.e. their axial regions are almost isentropic at the nozzle exit. They maintain their collimation for long distances in terms of the initial jet radii, without including magnetic confinement effects. This yields a qualitatively good agreement with the observed YSO jet morphologies. It remains to be seen what happens when non-axially symmetric perturbations of the flow are imposed at the nozzle, both in the experiment and in the simulation.
Numerical simulation of shock interaction with above-ground structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baum, Joseph D.; Lohner, Rainald
1994-05-01
This final report for DNA contract DNA 001-89-C-0098 for the time period May 15, 1989 to Dec 31, 1992 describes the results of several of the computations conducted under this research effort. The numerical simulations conducted simulated shock wave diffraction phenomenon about complex-geometry two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures. Since a significant part of this effort was composed of parametric studies that have been delivered to the sponsors, the Defense Nuclear Agency and the Air Force Ballistic Missile Organization (BMO), and conducted under the now defunct Rail Garrison project, we included in this report a detailed description of the results of the major computations, and a brief summary of all the repetitive computations. The final report is divided into three sections. Chapter 1 describes in detail the two-dimensional numerical methodology and typical two-dimensional computation, i.e., the application of the numerical methodology to the simulation of shock interaction with a typical 2-D train (a 2-D cut at the center of a 3-D train). Chapter 2 describes the numerical development of a passive shock reflector, a major effort undertaken in this project. The objective of this effort was to design a passive device that, while allowing the ventilation of the enclosure under steady conditions, will prevent blast waves impinging on the wall from entering the enclosure when the structure is impacted by a shock.
Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) 1999 Industry Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lytle, John; Follen, Greg; Naiman, Cynthia; Evans, Austin
2000-01-01
The technologies necessary to enable detailed numerical simulations of complete propulsion systems are being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center in cooperation with industry, academia, and other government agencies. Large scale, detailed simulations will be of great value to the nation because they eliminate some of the costly testing required to develop and certify advanced propulsion systems. In addition, time and cost savings will be achieved by enabling design details to be evaluated early in the development process before a commitment is made to a specific design. This concept is called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS consists of three main elements: (1) engineering models that enable multidisciplinary analysis of large subsystems and systems at various levels of detail, (2) a simulation environment that maximizes designer productivity, and (3) a cost-effective, high-performance computing platform. A fundamental requirement of the concept is that the simulations must be capable of overnight execution on easily accessible computing platforms. This will greatly facilitate the use of large-scale simulations in a design environment. This paper describes the current status of the NPSS with specific emphasis on the progress made over the past year on air breathing propulsion applications. In addition, the paper contains a summary of the feedback received from industry partners in the development effort and the actions taken over the past year to respond to that feedback. The NPSS development was supported in FY99 by the High Performance Computing and Communications Program.
Thermal numerical simulator for laboratory evaluation of steamflood oil recovery
Sarathi, P.
1991-04-01
A thermal numerical simulator running on an IBM AT compatible personal computer is described. The simulator was designed to assist laboratory design and evaluation of steamflood oil recovery. An overview of the historical evolution of numerical thermal simulation, NIPER's approach to solving these problems with a desk top computer, the derivation of equations and a description of approaches used to solve these equations, and verification of the simulator using published data sets and sensitivity analysis are presented. The developed model is a three-phase, two-dimensional multicomponent simulator capable of being run in one or two dimensions. Mass transfer among the phases and components is dictated by pressure- and temperature-dependent vapor-liquid equilibria. Gravity and capillary pressure phenomena were included. Energy is transferred by conduction, convection, vaporization and condensation. The model employs a block centered grid system with a five-point discretization scheme. Both areal and vertical cross-sectional simulations are possible. A sequential solution technique is employed to solve the finite difference equations. The study clearly indicated the importance of heat loss, injected steam quality, and injection rate to the process. Dependence of overall recovery on oil volatility and viscosity is emphasized. The process is very sensitive to relative permeability values. Time-step sensitivity runs indicted that the current version is time-step sensitive and exhibits conditional stability. 75 refs., 19 figs., 19 tabs.
Numerical simulation of landfill aeration using computational fluid dynamics.
Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Voudrias, Evangelos A
2014-04-01
The present study is an application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to the numerical simulation of landfill aeration systems. Specifically, the CFD algorithms provided by the commercial solver ANSYS Fluent 14.0, combined with an in-house source code developed to modify the main solver, were used. The unsaturated multiphase flow of air and liquid phases and the biochemical processes for aerobic biodegradation of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste were simulated taking into consideration their temporal and spatial evolution, as well as complex effects, such as oxygen mass transfer across phases, unsaturated flow effects (capillary suction and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity), temperature variations due to biochemical processes and environmental correction factors for the applied kinetics (Monod and 1st order kinetics). The developed model results were compared with literature experimental data. Also, pilot scale simulations and sensitivity analysis were implemented. Moreover, simulation results of a hypothetical single aeration well were shown, while its zone of influence was estimated using both the pressure and oxygen distribution. Finally, a case study was simulated for a hypothetical landfill aeration system. Both a static (steadily positive or negative relative pressure with time) and a hybrid (following a square wave pattern of positive and negative values of relative pressure with time) scenarios for the aeration wells were examined. The results showed that the present model is capable of simulating landfill aeration and the obtained results were in good agreement with corresponding previous experimental and numerical investigations. PMID:24525420
Authority server selection in DNS caching resolvers
Yingdi Yu; Duane Wessels; Matt Larson; Lixia Zhang
2012-01-01
Operators of high-profile DNS zones utilize multiple authority servers for performance and robustness. We conducted a series of trace-driven measurements to understand how current caching resolver implementations distribute queries among a set of authority servers. Our results reveal areas for improvement in the ``apparently sound'' server selection schemes used by some popular implementations. In some cases, the selection schemes lead
Identifying Search Engine Spam Using DNS
Mathiharan, Siddhartha Sankaran
2012-02-14
Web crawlers encounter both finite and infinite elements during crawl. Pages and hosts can be infinitely generated using automated scripts and DNS wildcard entries. It is a challenge to rank such resources as an entire web of pages and hosts could...
Mueschke, N; Schilling, O; Andrews, M
2007-01-09
A spectral/compact finite-difference method with a third-order Adams-Bashforth-Moulton time-evolution scheme is used to perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of Rayleigh-Taylor flow. The initial conditions are modeled by parameterizing the multi-mode velocity and density perturbations measured just off of the splitter plate in water channel experiments. Parameters in the DNS are chosen to match the experiment as closely as possible. The early-time transition from a weakly-nonlinear to a strongly-nonlinear state, as well as the onset of turbulence, is examined by comparing the DNS and experimental results. The mixing layer width, molecular mixing parameter, vertical velocity variance, and density variance spectrum obtained from the DNS are shown to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values.
Fehlerquellen mitochondrialer DNS-Datensätze und Evaluation der mtDNS-Datenbank „D-Loop-BASE“
H.-J. Bandelt; W. Parson
2004-01-01
Zusammenfassung Die Analytik der mitochondrialen (mt) DNS hat sich als technologische Nische in der forensischen Fallarbeit etabliert. Im Vergleich zur „Standarduntersuchung“ der „short tandem repeats“ stellt sie eine große Herausforderung hinsichtlich Laborarbeit und Datenauswertung dar. A-posteriori-Analysen vorhandener mitochondrialer Datensätze sowie rezente Ringversuche haben gezeigt, dass die anonymisierte Untersuchung großer Probenzahlen—wie z. B. im Zuge der Erstellung von mtDNS-Populations-Datenbanken—ein erhöhtes Fehlerrisiko aufweisen;
The Effect of DNS Delays on Worm Propagation in an IPv6 Internet
The Effect of DNS Delays on Worm Propagation in an IPv6 Internet Abhinav Kamra, Hanhua Feng, Vishal that IPv6 provides greater security against random-scanning worms by virtue of a very sparse address space and simulation the spread of such worms in an IPv6 Internet. Our results indicate that such a worm can exhibit
Numerical Simulations of Liquid Transport in a Microchannel Connected Centrifuge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Fang; Farouk, Bakhtier
2000-11-01
The time evolutions of liquid (water) flow and interface (water/air) geometry in a centrifuge were investigated via numerical simulation. A homogeneous two-phase formulation of the governing equations (incompressible Navier-Stokes) was considered for the simulations. Initially, a completely sealed circular cylinder, filled to 30is considered (with air on top). The flow field within the cylinder is simulated for high rotation rate (centrifuge operation) of the cylinder. The simulations predict the water/air interface to be essentially vertical at steady-state condition. Numerical results were then obtained for the over-rotation of the upper lid by 5results were compared with experimental data for the over-rotation case. The developed numerical model was then applied to predict the liquid transport process in a sealed axisymmetric centrifuge with a central reservoir and a peripheral receptor, connected by a microchannel. Initially, the central reservoir is filled with liquid while the remaining part of the centrifuge contains air. Under the effect of high rotation, the liquid flows out of the central receiver and reaches the peripheral receptor along the microchannel. The present two-phase model predicts the time evolution of the flow field along with the liquid filling rate into and air expulsion from the peripheral receptor. The effects of surface tension along with an interface-sharpening algorithm were incorporated. The variations of pressure, flow field and water/air interface were computed for two microchannel geometries.
Large-eddy simulation of the lid-driven cubic cavity flow by the spectral element method
Bouffanais, Roland; Fischer, Paul F; Leriche, Emmanuel; Weill, Daniel
2006-01-01
This paper presents the large-eddy simulation of the lid-driven cubic cavity flow by the spectral element method (SEM) using the dynamic model. Two spectral filtering techniques suitable for these simulations have been implemented. Numerical results for Reynolds number $\\text{Re}=12'000$ are showing very good agreement with other experimental and DNS results found in the literature.
Expert System Architecture for Rocket Engine Numerical Simulators: A Vision
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mitra, D.; Babu, U.; Earla, A. K.; Hemminger, Joseph A.
1998-01-01
Simulation of any complex physical system like rocket engines involves modeling the behavior of their different components using mostly numerical equations. Typically a simulation package would contain a set of subroutines for these modeling purposes and some other ones for supporting jobs. A user would create an input file configuring a system (part or whole of a rocket engine to be simulated) in appropriate format understandable by the package and run it to create an executable module corresponding to the simulated system. This module would then be run on a given set of input parameters in another file. Simulation jobs are mostly done for performance measurements of a designed system, but could be utilized for failure analysis or a design job such as inverse problems. In order to use any such package the user needs to understand and learn a lot about the software architecture of the package, apart from being knowledgeable in the target domain. We are currently involved in a project in designing an intelligent executive module for the rocket engine simulation packages, which would free any user from this burden of acquiring knowledge on a particular software system. The extended abstract presented here will describe the vision, methodology and the problems encountered in the project. We are employing object-oriented technology in designing the executive module. The problem is connected to the areas like the reverse engineering of any simulation software, and the intelligent systems for simulation.
Numerical simulations of internal wave generation by convection in water.
Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton J; Vasil, Geoffrey M; Brown, Benjamin P; Quataert, Eliot; Oishi, Jeffrey S
2015-06-01
Water's density maximum at 4°C makes it well suited to study internal gravity wave excitation by convection: an increasing temperature profile is unstable to convection below 4°C, but stably stratified above 4°C. We present numerical simulations of a waterlike fluid near its density maximum in a two-dimensional domain. We successfully model the damping of waves in the simulations using linear theory, provided we do not take the weak damping limit typically used in the literature. To isolate the physical mechanism exciting internal waves, we use the spectral code dedalus to run several simplified model simulations of our more detailed simulation. We use data from the full simulation as source terms in two simplified models of internal-wave excitation by convection: bulk excitation by convective Reynolds stresses, and interface forcing via the mechanical oscillator effect. We find excellent agreement between the waves generated in the full simulation and the simplified simulation implementing the bulk excitation mechanism. The interface forcing simulations overexcite high-frequency waves because they assume the excitation is by the "impulsive" penetration of plumes, which spreads energy to high frequencies. However, we find that the real excitation is instead by the "sweeping" motion of plumes parallel to the interface. Our results imply that the bulk excitation mechanism is a very accurate heuristic for internal-wave generation by convection. PMID:26172801
Numerical simulations of internal wave generation by convection in water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lecoanet, Daniel; Le Bars, Michael; Burns, Keaton J.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.; Brown, Benjamin P.; Quataert, Eliot; Oishi, Jeffrey S.
2015-06-01
Water's density maximum at 4 ?C makes it well suited to study internal gravity wave excitation by convection: an increasing temperature profile is unstable to convection below 4 ?C,but stably stratified above 4 ?C . We present numerical simulations of a waterlike fluid near its density maximum in a two-dimensional domain. We successfully model the damping of waves in the simulations using linear theory, provided we do not take the weak damping limit typically used in the literature. To isolate the physical mechanism exciting internal waves, we use the spectral code dedalus to run several simplified model simulations of our more detailed simulation. We use data from the full simulation as source terms in two simplified models of internal-wave excitation by convection: bulk excitation by convective Reynolds stresses, and interface forcing via the mechanical oscillator effect. We find excellent agreement between the waves generated in the full simulation and the simplified simulation implementing the bulk excitation mechanism. The interface forcing simulations overexcite high-frequency waves because they assume the excitation is by the "impulsive" penetration of plumes, which spreads energy to high frequencies. However, we find that the real excitation is instead by the "sweeping" motion of plumes parallel to the interface. Our results imply that the bulk excitation mechanism is a very accurate heuristic for internal-wave generation by convection.
Design and numerical simulation of thermionic electron gun
Hosseinzadeh, M
2015-01-01
This paper reports the simulation of an electron gun. The effects of some parameters on the beam quality were studied and optimal choices were identified. It gives numerical beam qualities in common electrostatic triode gun, and the dependences on design parameters such as electrode geometries and bias voltages to these electrodes are shown. An electron beam of diameter 5 mm with energy of five kilo electron volt was assumed for simulation process. Some design parameters were identified as variable parameters in the presence of space charge. These parameters are the inclination angle of emission electrode, the applied voltage to focusing electrode, the gap width between the emission electrode and the focusing electrode and the diameter of the focusing electrode. The triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using CST software (for Particle Beam Simulations). The physical design of the extraction system is given in this paper. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the inclination angle ...
Numerical simulation of cavitating turbulent flow through a Francis turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, L.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.; Liu, S. H.
2012-11-01
The unsteady cavitating turbulent flow in a Francis turbine is simulated based on governing equations of the mixture model for cavity-liquid two-phase flows with the RNG k-epsilon turbulence model in the present paper. An improved mass transfer expression in the mixture model is obtained based on evaporation and condensation mechanics with considering the effects of the non-dissolved gas, the turbulence, the tension of interface at cavity and the effect of phase change rate and so on. The governing equations of the mixture model for the unsteady cavitating-liquid flow is solved by a direct coupling method numerically with the finite volume method (FVM) using the unstructured tetrahedron grid and the structured hexahedral grid system. This direct coupling simulation was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine. The simulated external results agreed well with the experimental results.
Numerical Simulation of nZVI at the Field Scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chowdhury, A. I.; Krol, M.; Sleep, B. E.; O'Carroll, D. M.
2014-12-01
Nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI) has been used at a number of contaminated sites over the last decade. At most of these sites, significant decreases in contaminant concentrations have resulted from the application of nZVI. However, limited work has been completed investigating nZVI mobility at the field-scale. In this study a three dimensional, three phase, finite difference numerical simulator (CompSim) was used to simulate nZVI and polymer transport in a variably saturated site. The model was able to accurately predict the field observed head data without parameter fitting. In addition, the numerical simulator estimated the amount of nZVI delivered to the saturated and unsaturated zones as well as the phase of nZVI (i.e., attached or aqueous phase). The simulation results showed that the injected slurry migrated radially outward from the injection well, and therefore nZVI transport was governed by injection velocity as well as viscosity of the injected solution. A suite of sensitivity analyses was performed to investigate the impact of different injection scenarios (e.g. different volume and injection rate) on nZVI migration. Simulation results showed that injection of a higher volume of nZVI delivered more iron particles at a given distance; however, not necessarily to a greater distance proportionate to the increase in volume. This study suggests that on-site synthesized nZVI particles are mobile in the subsurface and the numerical simulator can be a valuable tool for optimum design of nZVI applications.
Theory and Numerical Simulations of Self-Gravitating Core Formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostriker, Eve C.
2014-07-01
In star-forming molecular clouds, dense cores grow and evolve due to a combination of supersonic turbulent compression and self-gravity, with the details of the dynamical processes mediated by magnetic stresses and ion-neutral drift. In classical theory, cores with sufficiently high gravitational energy compared to thermal and magnetic support undergo outside-in collapse to reach a state in which the density profile approaches a singular r^-2 power law. This collapse is evident in numerical simulations, for a wide range of initial and environmental conditions. Classical theory predicts a subsequent outside-in infall stage, which is also seen in simulations. I will discuss numerical hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations of core formation and evolution, concentrating on evolution up to the stage of singularity formation. Observations show that cores are found to lie within larger-scale filaments, and simulations indicate that these filaments grow at the same time as cores develop within them. Although magnetic fields are often been thought of as a significant barrier to star formation that must be surmounted via ambipolar diffusion, recent simulations show that the properties of cores formed in hydrodynamic, ideal MHD, and diffusive models are quite similar. I will discuss how this can be understood in terms of anisotropic core formation models.
Characterizing Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence Via Numerical Simulation
Nevins, W M; Candy, J; Cowley, S; Dannert, T; Dimits, A; Dorland, W; Estrada-Mila, C; Hammett, G W; Jenko, F; Pueschel, M J; Shumaker, D E
2006-05-22
Numerical simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence are presented which characterize the ETG fluctuation spectrum, establish limits to the validity of the adiabatic ion model often employed in studying ETG turbulence, and support the tentative conclusion that plasmaoperating regimes exist in which ETG turbulence produces sufficient electron heat transport to be experimentally relevant. We resolve prior controversies regarding simulation techniques and convergence by benchmarking simulations of ETG turbulence from four microturbulence codes, demonstrating agreement on the electron heat flux, correlation functions, fluctuation intensity, and rms flow shear at fixed simulation cross section and resolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. Excellent convergence of both continuum and particle-in-cell codes with time step and velocity-space resolution is demonstrated, while numerical issues relating to perpendicular (to the magnetic field) simulation dimensions and resolution are discussed. A parameter scan in the magnetic shear, s, demonstrates that the adiabatic ion model is valid at small values of s (s < 0.4 for the parameters used in this scan) but breaks down at higher magnetic shear. A proper treatment employing gyrokinetic ions reveals a steady increase in the electron heat transport with increasing magnetic shear, reaching electron heat transport rates consistent with analyses of experimental tokamak discharges.
Characterizing electron temperature gradient turbulence via numerical simulation
Nevins, W. M.; Candy, J.; Cowley, S.; Dannert, T.; Dimits, A.; Dorland, W.; Estrada-Mila, C.; Hammett, G. W.; Jenko, F.; Pueschel, M. J.; Shumaker, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UCSD, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08536 (United States); Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
2006-12-15
Numerical simulations of electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence are presented that characterize the ETG fluctuation spectrum, establish limits to the validity of the adiabatic ion model often employed in studying ETG turbulence, and support the tentative conclusion that plasma-operating regimes exist in which ETG turbulence produces sufficient electron heat transport to be experimentally relevant. We resolve prior controversies regarding simulation techniques and convergence by benchmarking simulations of ETG turbulence from four microturbulence codes, demonstrating agreement on the electron heat flux, correlation functions, fluctuation intensity, and rms flow shear at fixed simulation cross section and resolution in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. Excellent convergence of both continuum and particle-in-cell codes with time step and velocity-space resolution is demonstrated, while numerical issues relating to perpendicular (to the magnetic field) simulation dimensions and resolution are discussed. A parameter scan in the magnetic shear, s, demonstrates that the adiabatic ion model is valid at small values of s (s<0.4 for the parameters used in this scan) but breaks down at higher magnetic shear. A proper treatment employing gyrokinetic ions reveals a steady increase in the electron heat transport with increasing magnetic shear, reaching electron heat transport rates consistent with analyses of experimental tokamak discharges.
Numerical simulations of magnetic relaxation in rotating stellar radiation zones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duez, V.
2011-12-01
I detail the results of simulations of magnetic relaxation, as is assumed to happen in stellar radiation zones. While previous studies focused on the description of static equilibria, rotation is here included in the numerical setup which substantially modifies the outcome of the simulations. In particular, magnetic equilibria are found, whose configuration remain stable over diffusive timescales. Their privileged axis are inclined with respect to the rotation axis. The stationary internal flows and the dependence of the final equilibrium state on the rotation rate are described. Implications on stellar evolution are discussed.
Direct Numerical Simulations of Electrophoresis of Charged Colloids
Kang Kim; Yasuya Nakayama; Ryoichi Yamamoto
2006-04-27
We propose a numerical method to simulate electrohydrodynamic phenomena in charged colloidal dispersions. This method enables us to compute the time evolutions of colloidal particles, ions, and host fluids simultaneously by solving Newton, advection-diffusion, and Navier--Stokes equations so that the electrohydrodynamic couplings can be fully taken into account. The electrophoretic mobilities of charged spherical particles are calculated in several situations. The comparisons with approximation theories show quantitative agreements for dilute dispersions without any empirical parameters, however, our simulation predicts notable deviations in the case of dense dispersions.
Numerical simulation of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, L. P.; Lewis, J. S.
1980-01-01
Three representative numerical simulations of the growth of the terrestrial planets by accretion of large protoplanets are considered. The mass and relative-velocity distributions of the bodies are free to evolve simultaneously in response to close gravitational encounters and occasional collisions between bodies. The collisions between bodies arise therefore in a natural way and the assumption of expressions for the relative-velocity distribution and the gravitational collision cross section is unnecessary. These simulations indicate that the growth of bodies with final masses approaching those of Venus and earth is possible, at least for the case of a two-dimensional system