Sample records for numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids

  1. Transfer of alkaloids from Delphinium to Castilleja via root parasitism. Norditerpenoid alkaloid analysis by electrospray mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle D. Marko; Frank R. Stermitz

    1997-01-01

    Norditerpenoid alkaloids which are present in the roots of Delphinium occidentale are assimilated into its root parasite, Castilleja sulphurea. The alkaloids are found in all plant parts of the Castilleja (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds) and in the flower nectar. The major root alkaloids (browniine, delcosine, deltaline and dictyocarpine; analyzed by positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry, ESMSH+) were transmitted into

  2. Three new toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids from the low larkspur Delphinium nuttallianum.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D R; Manners, G D; Panter, K E; Lee, S T; Pfister, J A

    2000-08-01

    Three new N-(methylsuccinimido)anthranoyllycoctonine norditerpenoids, given the names bearline (1), 14-acetylbearline (2), and 16-deacetylgeyerline (3), were isolated from the extract of the low larkspur Delphinium nuttallianum. The structures of the individual alkaloids were determined by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. These alkaloids are structurally related to the neurotoxic alkaloid methyllycaconitine (4) and may be important in establishing the toxicity of low larkspurs to cattle. A mouse bioassay was used to measure the LD(50) values for two of the new alkaloids (1 and 2), as sufficient quantities of 3 were not available for toxicity testing. A structurally related alkaloid, geyerline (7), was isolated from D. geyeri in sufficient quantities for toxicity testing. The toxicities of 1, 2, and 7 were found to be comparable to that of 4, with calculated LD(50) values in mice of 5.7, 3.3, and 6.2 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:10978210

  3. A toxicokinetic comparison of norditerpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium barbeyi and D. glaucescens in cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Pfister, James A; Cook, Daniel; Davis, T Zane

    2011-01-01

    Cattle are poisoned by N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine type (MSAL-type) and 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine type (MDL-type) norditerpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium spp. Alkaloids in D. glaucescens are primarily of the MSAL-type, while D. barbeyi is a mixture of MSAL and MDL-types. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the toxicokinetics of selected alkaloids from D. glaucescens and D. barbeyi in cattle. The two species of larkspur were dosed to three groups of Angus steers via oral gavage at doses of 8?mg?kg?¹ MSAL-type alkaloids for D. barbeyi and either 8.0 or 17.0?mg?kg?¹ MSAL-type alkaloids for D. glaucescens. In cattle dosed with D. barbeyi, serum deltaline (MDL-type) concentrations peaked at 488 ± 272?ng?ml?¹ at 3?h and serum methyllycaconitine (MSAL-type) concentrations peaked at 831 ± 369?ng?ml?¹ at 6?h. Deltaline was not detected in the serum of cattle dosed with D. glaucescens. Serum methyllycaconitine concentrations peaked at 497 ± 164?ng?ml?¹ at 18?h, and 1089 ± 649?ng?ml?¹ at 24?h for the 8?mg?kg?¹ and 17?mg?kg?¹ doses of D. glaucescens respectively. There were significant differences between the maximum serum concentrations and the area under the curve for the two doses of D. glaucescens but not D. barbeyi. Results from this experiment support the recommendation that approximately 7 days are required to clear 99% of the toxic alkaloids from the serum of animals orally dosed with D. barbeyi or D. glaucescens, and that MDL-type alkaloids play an important role in the toxicity of Delphinium spp. in cattle. PMID:20635330

  4. Analysis of toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium species by electrospray, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, and sequential tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gardner, D R; Panter, K E; Pfister, J A; Knight, A P

    1999-12-01

    A rapid electrospray mass spectrometry method was developed for screening larkspur (Delphinium spp.) plant material for toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids. The method was calibrated using two standard alkaloids, methyllycaconitine (1) and deltaline (2), with a recovery of 92% from spiked samples and relative standard deviations of 6.0% and 8.1% for the two alkaloids, respectively. Thirty-three samples of plains larkspur, Delphinium geyeri, were analyzed. Methyllycaconitine (1) concentration was 0.27% +/- 0.08% during a 1-month period in 1997 establishing the relative risk of poisoning from the plant to be low. The method was also applied to the trace analysis (<1 ppm) of 1 in serum samples from sheep dosed different levels of the alkaloid. Electrospray ionization combined with sequential tandem mass spectrometry and HPLC coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) mass spectrometry were used to detect and tentatively identify three new norditerpenoid alkaloids from Delphinium nuttallianum [bearline (6), 14-acetylbearline (7), 16-deacetylgeyerline (8)]. The tentative structure of the new alkaloids was predicted from the tandem mass spectra fragmentation patterns and assigning the substitution pattern for methoxy and acetyl groups at the C-14 and C-16 carbons. PMID:10606571

  5. Effect of MDL-type alkaloids on tall larkspur toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larkspur plants contain numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids which include the 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL) -type alkaloids and the N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL) -type alkaloids. The MSAL-type alkaloids are generally much more toxic (typically > 20x). Toxicity of many tal...

  6. Anti-inflammatory norditerpenoids from the soft coral Sinularia maxima.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Quang, Tran Hong; Tung, Pham The; Dat, Le Duc; Chae, Doobyeong; Kim, Sohyun; Koh, Young-Sang; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the soft coral Sinularia maxima resulted in the isolation of seven norditerpenoids, including two new compounds, 12-hydroxy-scabrolide A (2) and 13-epi-scabrolide C (6). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic evidence including Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and both one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1D and 2D NMR, respectively), in comparison with reported data. Compound 6 potently inhibited IL-12 and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated bone marrow derived dendritic (BMDCs) with IC(50) values of 5.30 ± 0.21 and 13.12 ± 0.64 ?M, respectively. Compound 1 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against IL-12 and IL-6 production with IC(50) values of 23.52 ± 1.37 and 69.85 ± 4.11 ?M, respectively. PMID:23200246

  7. Aspergiloid I, an unprecedented spirolactone norditerpenoid from the plant-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhi Kai; Wang, Rong; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiao Nian; Jiang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Summary An unusual C18 norditerpenoid, aspergiloid I (1), was isolated from the culture broth of Aspergillus sp. YXf3, an endophytic fungus derived from Ginkgo biloba. Its structure was unambiguously established by analysis of HRMS–ESI and spectroscopic data, and the absolute configuration was determined by low-temperature (100 K) single crystal X-ray diffraction with Cu K? radiation. This compound is structurally characterized by a new carbon skeleton with an unprecedented 6/5/6 tricyclic ring system bearing an ?,?-unsaturated spirolactone moiety in ring B, and represents a new subclass of norditerpenoid, the skeleton of which is named aspergilane. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway for 1 was also proposed. The cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities of 1 were evaluated. PMID:25550731

  8. HPLC/MS analysis of toxic norditerpenoid alkaloids: Refinement of toxicity assessment of low larkspurs (Delphinium spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low larkspurs (Delphinium nuttallianum and D. andersonii) are two toxic plant species that are often fatally ingested by cattle on western U.S. rangelands. To assess the potential toxicity of the plants, methods are needed to identify and quantify the toxic N-methylsuccinimidoanthranoyllycacont...

  9. Antitumor activity of norditerpenoid dilactones in Podocarpus plants: structure-activity relationship on in vitro cytotoxicity against Yoshida sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Matsumoto, T; Tashiro, T

    1979-06-01

    The in vitro cytotoxicity of norditerpenoid dilactones isolated from Podocarpus plants was determined against cultured Yoshida sarcoma cells. The dilactones involved 15 natural lactones as well as their derivatives, which include appropriate modifications necessary to the estimation of the structure-activity relationship. The unsaturated system on the B/C ring portion, the dienolide or the epoxyenolide moiety, is essential for the activity, but the gamma-lactone group on the A/B ring portion is not. Other oxygenated substituents on the skeletal carbons, such as hydroxyl, acyloxyl, or epoxide group, also show some significant effect. PMID:572795

  10. Alkaloids in marine algae.

    PubMed

    Güven, Kasim Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  11. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Güven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  12. Brassicaceae contain nortropane alkaloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Brock; Tobias Herzfeld; Reinhard Paschke; Marcus Koch; Birgit Dräger

    2006-01-01

    The report of cochlearine, the 3-hydroxybenzoate ester of tropine found in Cochlearia officinalis, Brassicaceae, initiated a screening for tropane alkaloids in Cochlearia species and for calystegines in further Brassicaceae. All ten Cochlearia species investigated contained cochlearine, tropine, and pseudotropine. Calystegines, nortropane alkaloids deriving from pseudotropine, were also identified in all Cochlearia species and accumulated up to 0.5% dry mass in

  13. Brassicaceae contain nortropane alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Brock, Andrea; Herzfeld, Tobias; Paschke, Reinhard; Koch, Marcus; Dräger, Birgit

    2006-09-01

    The report of cochlearine, the 3-hydroxybenzoate ester of tropine found in Cochlearia officinalis, Brassicaceae, initiated a screening for tropane alkaloids in Cochlearia species and for calystegines in further Brassicaceae. All ten Cochlearia species investigated contained cochlearine, tropine, and pseudotropine. Calystegines, nortropane alkaloids deriving from pseudotropine, were also identified in all Cochlearia species and accumulated up to 0.5% dry mass in leaves. Brassicaceae species of all major lineages of the family were analysed for calystegines. Of the 43 species included in the study, 18 accumulated calystegines of various structures. This is the first screening of Brassicaceae for products of the tropane alkaloid pathway, which is known as characteristic for plants of Solanaceae family. The identification of calystegines in all branches of the Brassicaceae family including Aethionema, a species at the basis of the family, suggests tropane alkaloids as secondary compound typical for Brassicaceae. PMID:16884746

  14. Occurrence of halogenated alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Gordon W

    2012-01-01

    Once considered to be isolation artifacts or chemical "mistakes" of nature, the number of naturally occurring organohalogen compounds has grown from a dozen in 1954 to >5000 today. Of these, at least 25% are halogenated alkaloids. This is not surprising since nitrogen-containing pyrroles, indoles, carbolines, tryptamines, tyrosines, and tyramines are excellent platforms for biohalogenation, particularly in the marine environment where both chloride and bromide are plentiful for biooxidation and subsequent incorporation into these electron-rich substrates. This review presents the occurrence of all halogenated alkaloids, with the exception of marine bromotyrosines where coverage begins where it left off in volume 61 of The Alkaloids. Whereas the biological activity of these extraordinary compounds is briefly cited for some examples, a future volume of The Alkaloids will present full coverage of this topic and will also include selected syntheses of halogenated alkaloids. Natural organohalogens of all types, especially marine and terrestrial halogenated alkaloids, comprise a rapidly expanding class of natural products, in many cases expressing powerful biological activity. This enormous proliferation has several origins: (1) a revitalization of natural product research in a search for new drugs, (2) improved compound characterization methods (multidimensional NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry), (3) specific enzyme-based and other biological assays, (4) sophisticated collection methods (SCUBA and remote submersibles for deep ocean marine collections), (5) new separation and purification techniques (HPLC and countercurrent separation), (6) a greater appreciation of traditional folk medicine and ethobotany, and (7) marine bacteria and fungi as novel sources of natural products. Halogenated alkaloids are truly omnipresent in the environment. Indeed, one compound, Q1 (234), is ubiquitous in the marine food web and is found in the Inuit from their diet of whale blubber. Given the fact that of the 500,000 estimated marine organisms--which are the source of most halogenated alkaloids--only a small percentage have been investigated for their chemical content, it is certain that myriad new halogenated alkaloids are awaiting discovery. For example, it is estimated that nearly 4000 species of bryozoans have not been examined for their chemical content. The few species that have been studied contain some extraordinary halogenated alkaloids, such as hinckdentine A (610) and the chartellines (611-613). Of the estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, secondary metabolites have been characterized from only 5000 species. The future seems bright for the collector of halogenated alkaloids! PMID:23189746

  15. Purine alkaloids in Paullinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caroline S. Weckerle; Michael A. Stutz; Thomas W. Baumann

    2003-01-01

    Among the few purine alkaloid-containing genera consumed as stimulants, Paullinia is the least investigated with respect to both chemotaxonomy and within-the-plant allocation of caffeine and its allies. Since purine alkaloids (PuA) have been proved to be valuable marker compounds in chemotaxonomy, 34 species of Paullinia and related genera were screened for them, but only one, P. pachycarpa, was positive in

  16. Understanding and manipulating alkaloid biosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Glenn, Weslee S. (Weslee Sinclair)

    2013-01-01

    Humans have exploited plant alkaloids as medicines since at least the Neolithic Era. Today, alkaloids such as vinblastine (isolated from Catharanthus roseus) and morphine (isolated from Papaver somniferum) are prescribed ...

  17. Alkaloids from Egyptian Papaver rhoeas.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, S; El-Ghazooly, M G; Omar, A A; Khafagy, S M; Phillipson, J D

    1981-01-01

    N-methylasimilobine was isolated as the major alkaloid from an Egyptian sample of P. RHOEAS L. Other alkaloids isolated from the same plant material were stylopine, coptisine, isocorydine and rhoeadine. Chromatography indicated the presence of at least nine other minor alkaloids. PMID:17401817

  18. Hypotensive Alkaloids of Veratrum album

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Glen; Gordon S. Myers; Richard Barber; Paul Morozovitch; Gordon A. Grant

    1952-01-01

    INVESTIGATIONS on alkaloids of Veratrum viride necessitated the preparation of a pure specimen of protoveratrine and prompted an examination of the alkaloids which could be isolated from commercial samples of Veratrum album. As a result of these studies, we now report the isolation of two new hypotensive ester alkaloids which have been named `germitetrine' and `veratetrine'.

  19. Analysis of Ergot Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The principles and application of established and newer methods for the quantitative and semi-quantitative determination of ergot alkaloids in food, feed, plant materials and animal tissues are reviewed. The techniques of sampling, extraction, clean-up, detection, quantification and validation are described. The major procedures for ergot alkaloid analysis comprise liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD). Other methods based on immunoassays are under development and variations of these and minor techniques are available for specific purposes. PMID:26046699

  20. Alkaloids of Fumaria vaillantii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alimova; I. A. Israilov

    1981-01-01

    FromFumaria vaillantii, collected in the Tashkent province, 18 alkaloids have been isolated of which N-methyladlumine with mp 198–199°C, [?]D-45° (c 0.5; methanol) has proved to be new. Its structure has been established on the basis of spectral characteristics and\\u000a a direct comparison withl-adlumine methiodide.

  1. The Securinega alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Chirkin, Eqor; Atkatlian, William; Porée, François-Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Securinega alkaloids represent a family of plant secondary metabolites known for 50 years. Securinine (1), the most abundant and studied alkaloid of this series was isolated by Russian researchers in 1956. In the following years, French and Japanese scientists reported other Securinega compounds and extensive work was done to elucidate their intriguing structures. The homogeneity of this family relies mainly on its tetracyclic chemical backbone, which features a butenolide moiety (cycle D) and an azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane ring system (rings B and C). Interestingly, after a period of latency of 20 years, the Securinega topic reemerged as a prolific source of new natural structures and to date more than 50 compounds have been identified and characterized. The oligomeric subgroup gathering dimeric, trimeric, and tetrameric units is of particular interest. The unprecedented structure of the Securinega alkaloids was the subject of extensive synthetic efforts culminating in several efficient and elegant total syntheses. The botanical distribution of these alkaloids seems limited to the Securinega, Flueggea, Margaritaria, and Breynia genera (Phyllanthaceae). However, only a limited number of plant species have been considered for their alkaloid contents, and additional phytochemical as well as genetic studies are needed. Concerning the biosynthesis, experiments carried out with radiolabelled aminoacids allowed to identify lysine and tyrosine as the precursors of the piperidine ring A and the CD rings of securinine (1), respectively. Besides, plausible biosynthetic pathways were proposed for virosaine A (38) and B (39), flueggine A (46), and also the different oligomers flueggenine A-D (48-51), fluevirosinine A (56), and flueggedine (20). The case of nirurine (45) and secu'amamine (37) remains elusive and additional studies seem necessary to understand their mode of production. The scope of biological of activities of the Securinega alkaloids was mainly centered on the CNS activity of securinine (1), although the exact mechanism of action remained in part unknown. Nevertheless, for its stimulant and antispasmodic effects securinine nitrate was marketed as a drug in the USSR until the early 1990s. Moreover, securinine (1) and several other Securinega alkaloids recently demonstrated promising anticancer properties. In particular securinine (1) demonstrated markedly benefits in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:25845059

  2. Four alkaloids from Annona cherimola.

    PubMed

    Chen, C Y; Chang, F R; Pan, W B; Wu, Y C

    2001-04-01

    Four alkaloids, annocherine A, annocherine B, cherianoine, and romucosine H, along with one known alkaloid, artabonatine B, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the stems of Annona cherimola. Their structures were identified on the basis of both analysis of their spectral data and from chemical evidence. PMID:11314964

  3. Diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum vilmorinianum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tian-Peng; Cai, Le; Fang, Hai-Xian; Fang, Yun-Shan; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-08-01

    Diterpenoid alkaloids, named vilmorines A-D, in addition to fifteen known alkaloids, were isolated from roots of Aconitum vilmorinianum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Antibacterial and antioxidant studies on isolated compounds were also carried out. PMID:26021734

  4. I. Cyclopeptide alkaloids; II. Phycocyanobilipeptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lagarias

    1979-01-01

    Several examples of the 14-membered, para-bridged ring system of the cyclopeptide alkaloids have been synthesized via an active ester cyclization. The yield of monomeric cyclopeptide varied from 1 to 33% and was affected by the amino acid substitution pattern and amide conformation of the linear peptide precursors. Both the synthetic models and a naturally cyclopeptide alkaloid, ceanothine B, bind monovalent

  5. Ergot and Its Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Schiff, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    This manuscript reviews the history and pharmacognosy of ergot, and describes the isolation/preparation, chemistry, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacotherapeutics of the major ergot alkaloids and their derivatives. A brief discussion of the hallucinogenic properties of lysergic acid diethylamide is also featured. An abbreviated form of the material found in this paper is presented in a 4-hour didactic format to third-professional year PharmD students as part of their study of vascular migraine headaches, Parkinson's disease, and naturally occurring hallucinogens/hallucinogen derivatives in the modular course offering Neurology/Psychiatry. PMID:17149427

  6. Dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids: synthetic approaches and biosynthetic hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ma, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiaolei; De, Saptarshi; Ma, Yuyong; Chen, Chuo

    2014-08-14

    The pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids are a group of structurally unique and biologically interesting marine sponge metabolites. Among them, the cyclic dimers have caught synthetic chemists' attention particularly. Numerous synthetic strategies have been developed and various biosynthetic hypotheses have been proposed for these fascinating natural products. We discuss herein the synthetic approaches and the biosynthetic insights obtained from these studies. PMID:24828265

  7. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  8. Biosynthetic pathways of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Gerhards, Nina; Neubauer, Lisa; Tudzynski, Paul; Li, Shu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines). All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine). Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes. PMID:25513893

  9. 27 CFR 21.99 - Brucine alkaloid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...reddish purple (violet) color is produced. (b) Melting point. 178 °±1 °C. Dry the alkaloid in an oven for...to 110° and dry to a constant weight before taking melting point. Note. Brucine alkaloid tetrahydrate melts at...

  10. 27 CFR 21.99 - Brucine alkaloid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...reddish purple (violet) color is produced. (b) Melting point. 178 °±1 °C. Dry the alkaloid in an oven for...to 110° and dry to a constant weight before taking melting point. Note. Brucine alkaloid tetrahydrate melts at...

  11. 27 CFR 21.99 - Brucine alkaloid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...reddish purple (violet) color is produced. (b) Melting point. 178 °±1 °C. Dry the alkaloid in an oven for...to 110° and dry to a constant weight before taking melting point. Note. Brucine alkaloid tetrahydrate melts at...

  12. Total synthesis and study of myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Ondrus, Alison Evelynn, 1981-

    2009-01-01

    I. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Tricyclic Myrmicarin Alkaloids An enantioselective gram-scale synthesis of a key dihydroindolizine intermediate for the preparation of myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Key transformations ...

  13. Diterpenoid Alkaloids as Plant Growth Inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George R. Waller

    1969-01-01

    WE report here preliminary studies on the plant growth inhibitory activity of two diterpenoid alkaloids isolated from the common larkspur, Delphinium ajacis. Little is known about the possible metabolic or physiological action on plants of either terpenoids or alkaloids. The diterpenoid alkaloids are an unusual group of ``secondary metabolites'' produced by plants; they can be derived biogenetically from an isoprenoid

  14. Structural and quantitative analysis of Equisetum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Ernst, Ludger; Lubienski, Marcus; Papke, Uli; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Jerz, Gerold; Beuerle, Till

    2015-08-01

    Equisetum palustre L. is known for its toxicity for livestock. Several studies in the past addressed the isolation and identification of the responsible alkaloids. So far, palustrine (1) and N(5)-formylpalustrine (2) are known alkaloids of E. palustre. A HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in combination with simple sample work-up was developed to identify and quantitate Equisetum alkaloids. Besides the two known alkaloids six related alkaloids were detected in different Equisetum samples. The structure of the alkaloid palustridiene (3) was derived by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. N(5)-Acetylpalustrine (4) was also thoroughly characterized by NMR for the first time. The structure of N(5)-formylpalustridiene (5) is proposed based on mass spectrometry results. Twenty-two E. palustre samples were screened by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method after development of a simple sample work-up and in most cases the set of all eight alkaloids were detected in all parts of the plant. A high variability of the alkaloid content and distribution was found depending on plant organ, plant origin and season ranging from 88 to 597mg/kg dried weight. However, palustrine (1) and the alkaloid palustridiene (3) always represented the main alkaloids. For the first time, a comprehensive identification, quantitation and distribution of Equisetum alkaloids was achieved. PMID:25823584

  15. Raman mapping of caffeine alkaloid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malgorzata Baranska; Leonard M. Proniewicz

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents Raman spectroscopy applied to the analysis of caffeine directly in the plant tissue as well as in pharmaceutical curatives. This valuable plant alkaloid has been detected in vivo in, e.g. guarana seeds and green tea leaves whereas in situ drug investigations have covered several pain-killers and cordials. Raman spectroscopy can provide information about the chemical composition of

  16. Biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Ahluwalia, Madhu Ramnarain

    1978-01-01

    the configuration of isovincoside. A cell-free system from Rhazia Stricta 33' 34 wnich is a natural source of 31 strictosidine confirmed the above findings. Thus, strictosidine (3c, ) and not vincoside (38) is the true intermediate in Corynanthe type alkaloid...

  17. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padma Kumar; Bindu Sharma; Nidhi Bakshi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which

  18. New aporphine alkaloids of Ocotea minarum.

    PubMed

    Vecchietti, V; Casagrande, C; Ferrari, G; Severini Ricca, G

    1979-10-01

    Fourteen aporphine alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of a Brazilian Lauracea, Ocotea minarum Nees (Mez). The known alkaloids were identified through their physico-chemical properties as: leucoxylonine (VII), dicentrine (IV), ocoteine (V), leucoxine (VI), ocopodine (VIII), predicentrine (IX), dicentrinone (XIV) and thalicminine (XV). Six new aporphine alkaloids were also isolated: ocotominarine (I), ocominarine (III), nor-leucoxylonine (XI), iso-oconovine (xii), 4-hydroxydicentrine (XIII) and ocominarone (XVI). Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. PMID:510527

  19. Alkaloids from Clematis manshurica Rupr.

    PubMed

    Shi, She-Po; Tu, Peng-Fei; Dong, Cai-Xia; Jiang, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Three new alkaloids together with two known compounds have been isolated from the roots of Clematis manshurica. On the basis of their spectroscopic and chemical evidence, the new compounds were elucidated as methyl 7-ethoxy-3-indolecarbonate (2), methyl 7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl 3-indolecarbonate (3) and alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl 3-indolecarbonate (4). PMID:16753785

  20. New alkaloids from Pancratium maritimum.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Shaala, Lamiaa A; Youssef, Diaa T A; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2013-10-01

    As a part of ongoing search efforts for the discovery of anticancer lead entities from natural sources, bulbs and flowers of the amaryllidaceous plant Pancratium maritimum have been investigated. Fractionation of the extracts of the fresh flowers and bulbs of P. maritimum led to the isolation of four new alkaloids, namely pancrimatines A (1) and B (2), norismine (3), and pancrimatine C (4), together with the previously reported N-methyl-8,9-methylenedioxy-6-phenanthridone (5), trispheridine (6), and N-methyl-8,9-methylenedioxyphenanthridine (7). The structures of these alkaloids were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution mass spectral analyses as well as comparison with the literature. Compounds 2 and 7 showed antiproliferative and antimigratory activity against the highly metastatic human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 cells without cytotoxicity. The phenanthridine alkaloid class was identified as having potential for use to control prostate cancer proliferation and migration. PMID:23970422

  1. De novo production of the plant-derived alkaloid strictosidine in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephanie; Clastre, Marc; Courdavault, Vincent; O’Connor, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids are a large group of plant-derived specialized metabolites, many of which have valuable pharmaceutical or biological activity. There are ?3,000 monoterpene indole alkaloids produced by thousands of plant species in numerous families. The diverse chemical structures found in this metabolite class originate from strictosidine, which is the last common biosynthetic intermediate for all monoterpene indole alkaloid enzymatic pathways. Reconstitution of biosynthetic pathways in a heterologous host is a promising strategy for rapid and inexpensive production of complex molecules that are found in plants. Here, we demonstrate how strictosidine can be produced de novo in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host from 14 known monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway genes, along with an additional seven genes and three gene deletions that enhance secondary metabolism. This system provides an important resource for developing the production of more complex plant-derived alkaloids, engineering of nonnatural derivatives, identification of bottlenecks in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and discovery of new pathway genes in a convenient yeast host. PMID:25675512

  2. De novo production of the plant-derived alkaloid strictosidine in yeast.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephanie; Clastre, Marc; Courdavault, Vincent; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-03-17

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids are a large group of plant-derived specialized metabolites, many of which have valuable pharmaceutical or biological activity. There are ?3,000 monoterpene indole alkaloids produced by thousands of plant species in numerous families. The diverse chemical structures found in this metabolite class originate from strictosidine, which is the last common biosynthetic intermediate for all monoterpene indole alkaloid enzymatic pathways. Reconstitution of biosynthetic pathways in a heterologous host is a promising strategy for rapid and inexpensive production of complex molecules that are found in plants. Here, we demonstrate how strictosidine can be produced de novo in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host from 14 known monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway genes, along with an additional seven genes and three gene deletions that enhance secondary metabolism. This system provides an important resource for developing the production of more complex plant-derived alkaloids, engineering of nonnatural derivatives, identification of bottlenecks in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and discovery of new pathway genes in a convenient yeast host. PMID:25675512

  3. Simultaneous detection of 22 toxic plant alkaloids (aconitum alkaloids, solanaceous tropane alkaloids, sophora alkaloids, strychnos alkaloids and colchicine) in human urine and herbal samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sau Wah; Ching, Chor Kwan; Chan, Albert Yan Wo; Mak, Tony Wing Lai

    2013-12-30

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of 22 toxic plant alkaloids, including aconitum alkaloids and their hydrolyzed products (aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, yunaconitine, crassicauline A, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, benzoylhypaconine, deacetylyunaconitine, deacetylcrassicauline A), solanaceous tropane alkaloids (atropine, anisodamine, scopolamine, anisodine), sophora alkaloids (matrine, sophoridine, oxymatrine, cytisine, N-methylcytisine), strychnos alkaloids (brucine, strychnine) and colchicine, in herbal and urine samples was developed and validated. Following sample preparation by liquid-liquid extraction, chromatographic separation was achieved on Eclipse XDB C8 column. Identification was based on two multiple reaction monitoring transitions and the relative ion intensity. Method selectivity was demonstrated. The limits of detection were 5ng/mL for all analytes, except 50ng/mL for cytisine. The herbal matrix effects ranged from 89% to 118%, whereas the urine matrix effects were between 91% and 109% for all analytes except cytisine (57%) and N-methylcytisine (67%). The urine extraction recovery ranged from 74% to 110% for all analytes, except cytisine (15%) and oxymatrine (30%). With the good extraction efficiency of the other major sophora alkaloids, the relatively low extraction recovery of the minor sophora alkaloids cytisine and oxymatrine did not affect identification of sophora alkaloids as a group. Carry-over was minimal at less than 0.1%. The method was successfully applied in analysis of 170 cases of suspected herbal poisoning, with aconitum alkaloids, sophora alkaloids, solanaceous tropane alkaloids, and strychnos alkaloids being detected in 53, 42, 18, and 6 cases, respectively. PMID:24216273

  4. Total synthesis of zoanthamine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Fumihiko; Tanino, Keiji; Miyashita, Masaaki

    2012-05-15

    Zoanthamine alkaloids, isolated from organisms in the Zoanthus genus, constitute a distinctive family of marine metabolites. These molecules exhibit a broad spectrum of unique biological properties. For example, norzoanthamine inhibits interleukin-6, the key mediator of bone resorption in osteoporosis, providing a promising drug candidate for a disease that affects more than 10 million people over age 50 in the United States. In addition, these natural products are characterized by a densely functionalized heptacyclic framework, as exemplified by the structures of zoanthamine, norzoanthamine, and zoanthenol, which makes them extremely attractive targets for chemical synthesis. Prior to our first total synthesis of norzoanthamine in 2004, the densely functionalized and complex stereostructures of the zoanthamine alkaloids had impeded synthetic studies of these molecules. In this Account, we describe our synthetic approach toward the total synthesis of zoanthamine alkaloids, focusing on how we overcame various synthetic challenges. At the beginning of our synthetic studies, we aimed to develop an efficient route that was flexible enough to provide access to several members of the family while allowing the synthesis of various analogues for biological testing. Our first project was the total synthesis of norzoanthamine, and we established an efficient synthetic route based on a novel strategy involving the following key features. First, we used a sequential three-component coupling reactions and subsequent photosensitized oxidation of a furan moiety to synthesize the precursor for the key intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. Second, the key intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction constructed the ABC-ring carbon framework bearing two adjacent quaternary asymmetric carbon atoms at the C12 and C22 positions in a single stereoselective step. Third, we installed the third quaternary asymmetric carbon center at the C9 position by an intramolecular acylation of a keto alcohol followed by successive O-methylation and C-methylation reactions with complete stereoselectivity. Through the exploitation of a deuterium kinetic isoptope effect, we then efficiently synthesized the alkyne segment. Next, a coupling reaction between the alkyne segment and the amino alcohol segment and several subsequent synthetic transformations afforded the bis-aminoacetalization precursor. Finally, bis-aminoacetalization reactions carried out in one-pot constructed the DEFG-ring system and culminated in the total synthesis of norzoanthamine. Our synthetic route to norzoanthamine also allowed access to other zoanthamine alkaloids from a common synthetic intermediate, by way of stereoselective introduction of the C19 methyl group for zoanthamine, and isoaromatization for construction of the aromatic A-ring in zoanthenol. The chemistry described here not only allowed us to overcome formidable synthetic challenges but also opened a completely chemical avenue to naturally occurring zoanthamine alkaloids and their synthetic derivatives. PMID:22340011

  5. Halogenated Indole Alkaloids from Marine Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Pauletti, Patrícia Mendonça; Cintra, Lucas Silva; Braguine, Caio Guedes; da Silva Filho, Ademar Alves; Silva, Márcio Luís Andrade e; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Januário, Ana Helena

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of halogenated indole alkaloids obtained from marine invertebrates. Meridianins and related compounds (variolins, psammopemmins, and aplicyanins), as well as aplysinopsins and leptoclinidamines, are focused on. A compilation of the 13C-NMR spectral data of these selected natural indole alkaloids is also provided. PMID:20559487

  6. Alkaloids as Possible Intermediaries in Plant Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Fairbairn; A. Paterson

    1966-01-01

    SINCE their discovery 150 years ago, alkaloids have been the subject of innumerable research papers, practically all of which have been concerned with the occurrence, production in the plant and properties of the final molecular species. Even when the plant produces a series of closely related alkaloids, it has normally been considered sufficient to show their order of formation and

  7. A novel alkaloid from Gaultheria nummularioides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-F. Yang; Y.-Y. Li; B.-G. Li; G.-L. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A novel alkaloid, gaultherialine A (1), along with twenty-seven known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Gaultheria nummularioides D. Don. The structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated as 7,8-dimethoxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-2H-benzo[e]indole-2-one N-oxide (1) on the basis of spectral evidence.

  8. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

  9. Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-08-01

    Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

  10. Interaction of ?-carboline alkaloids with RNA.

    PubMed

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Malekabady, Zahra Mokhtari; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2010-12-01

    ?-Carboline alkaloids are present in medicinal plants such as Peganum harmala L., which have been used as folk medicine in anticancer therapy. Recently, they have drawn attention because of their antitumor activities. Despite considerable interest and investigations on alkaloid-DNA complexes, reports on alkaloid-RNA interaction are very limited. This study is the first attempt to investigate the binding of ?-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmane, harmaline, harmalol, and tryptoline) with yeast RNA. The effect of alkaloid complexation on RNA aggregation and condensation was investigated in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant RNA concentration (6.25?mM) and various alkaloid:polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1:240, 1:160, 1:80, 1:40, 1:20, 1:10, 1:5, 1:2, and 1:1. Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligand-binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of alkaloid-RNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed major binding of alkaloids to RNA with overall binding constants of K(harmine)-RNA?=?2.95?×?10? M?¹, K(harmane)-RNA?=?5.62?×?10? M?¹, K(harmaline)-RNA?=?7.47?×?10? M?¹, K(harmalol)-RNA?=?4.32?×?10? M?¹, and K(tryptoline)-RNA?=?3.21?×?10? M?¹. The affinity of alkaloids-RNA binding is in the order of harmine?>?harmaline?>?harmane?>?harmalol?>?tryptoline. No biopolymer secondary structural changes were observed upon alkaloid interaction and RNA remains in the A-family structure in these complexes. PMID:20731607

  11. [Aporphine alkaloids from Litsea greenmaniana].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yu-Hong; Jiang, Ming; Wang, Ling-Yan; Li, Yan-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Nan; Guo, Qing-Lan; Li, Yong-Ji; Lin, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    A new aporphine alkaloid (1), together with five known analogues (2-6), has been isolated from the branch of Litsea greenmaniana by using various chromatographic techniques. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic data analysis ( MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) as 2,9-dihydroxy-1,10-dimethoxy-4,5-dihydro-7-oxoaporphine (1), laurotetanine (2), N-methyllaurotetanine (3), isodomesticine (4), isocorydine (5), and norisocorydine (6). Compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2-6 were obtained from this plant for the first time. PMID:25993795

  12. Quinazoline Alkaloids and Related Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Eguchi

    Recent progress in quinazoline alkaloids and related chemistry was reviewed focusing on developments\\u000a of the synthetic methodologies and their synthetic applications. A brief historical background,\\u000a aza–Wittig methodology, microwave-assisted synthesis, solid-phase synthesis, and a variety\\u000a of new syntheses of quinazoline compounds by organometallic reagents, metal-catalyzed reactions, heterocyclizations,\\u000a pericyclic reactions, etc. are briefly reviewed. Selected topics of total synthesis of various types\\u000a of quinazoline

  13. Variabines A and B: new ?-carboline alkaloids from the marine sponge Luffariella variabilis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Eriko; Kato, Hikaru; Rotinsulu, Henki; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2014-01-01

    Two new ?-carboline alkaloids, variabines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Luffariella variabilis. Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, and 1 was found to be a sulfonated derivative of 2. Although numerous ?-carboline alkaloids have been isolated from natural sources to date, 1 is the first ?-carboline derivative containing a sulfate group. Compound 2 inhibited chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome and Ubc13 (E2)-Uev1A interaction with IC50 values of 4 and 5 ?g/mL, respectively, whereas 1 had little effect on the activity or interaction. PMID:23686294

  14. (+)-12?-Hydroxysophocarpine, a new quinolizidine alkaloid and related anti-HBV alkaloids from Sophora flavescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Lan Ding; Zhi-Xin Liao; Hai Huang; Pei Zhou; Dao-Feng Chen

    2006-01-01

    (+)-12?-Hydroxysophocarpine (8), a new quinolizidine alkaloid was isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens, together with 10 known quinolizidine alkaloids, (+)-oxymatrine (1), (+)-matrine (2), (+)-9?-hydroxymatrine (3), (+)-allomatrine (4), (+)-oxysophocarpine (5), (?)-sophocarpine (6), (?)-9?-hydroxysophocarpine (7), (+)-lehmannine (9), (?)-13,14-dehydrosophoridine (10), and (?)-anagyrine (11). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, and the stereochemistry of 8 was confirmed by X-ray analysis. These alkaloids

  15. Antiprotozoal sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from Maytenus ilicifolia.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vânia A F F M; Regasini, Luis O; Nogueira, Cláudio R; Passerini, Gabriela D; Martinez, Isabel; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Graminha, Márcia A S; Cicarelli, Regina M B; Furlan, Maysa

    2012-05-25

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of antiprotozoal agents from the Brazilian flora, two new sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, ilicifoliunines A (1) and B (2), along with the known alkaloids aquifoliunine E-I (3) and mayteine (4), were isolated from the root bark of Maytenus ilicifolia. The structures of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Alkaloid 3 displayed potent in vitro antiprotozoal activity against Leishmania chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi, with IC(50) values of 1.4 and 41.9 ?M, respectively, as well as low cytotoxicity against murine peritoneal macrophages (IC(50) of 1.8 mM). PMID:22559947

  16. Indole Alkaloids from Alocasia macrorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling-Hua; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Hui; Ye, Wen-Cai; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Five new indole alkaloids, alocasins A-E (3-7), together with known hyrtiosin B (1) and hyrtiosulawesin (2) were isolated from Alocasia macrorrhiza (L.) SCHOTT; their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-7 were in vitro tested for cytostatic activity on human throat cancer (Hep-2), human hepatocarcinoma (Hep-G2), and human nasopharyngeal carcinoma epithelial (CNE) cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method; compounds 2, 3, 6 and 7 showed mild antiproliferative activity against Hep-2 and Hep-G2 whereas compounds 2 and 4 showed gentle antiproliferative activity against CNE. PMID:22689406

  17. Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lan Xiang; Dongming Xing; Wei Wang; Rufeng Wang; Yi Ding; Lijun Du

    2005-01-01

    Five alkaloids (oleraceins A, B, C, D and E) were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and their structures determined by spectroscopic methods as 5-hydroxy-1-p-coumaric acyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, 5-hydroxy-1-ferulic acyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, 5-hydroxy-1-(p-coumaric acyl-7?-O-?-d-glucopyranose)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, 5-hydroxy-1-(ferulic acyl-7?-O-?-d-glucopyranose)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid-6-O-?-d-glucopyranoside and 8,9-dihydroxy-1,5,6,10b-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinolin-3-one, respectively.

  18. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

  19. Synthesis and anticancer activity of epipolythiodiketopiperazine alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Nicolas

    The epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) alkaloids are a highly complex class of natural products with potent anticancer activity. Herein, we report the application of a flexible and scalable synthesis, allowing the construction ...

  20. A novel alkaloid from Gaultheria nummularioides.

    PubMed

    Yang, M-F; Li, Y-Y; Li, B-G; Zhang, G-L

    2007-03-01

    A novel alkaloid, gaultherialine A (1), along with twenty-seven known compounds were isolated from the whole plants of Gaultheria nummularioides D. Don. The structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated as 7,8-dimethoxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-2H-benzo[e]indole-2-one N-oxide (1) on the basis of spectral evidence. PMID:17454316

  1. Beta-carboline alkaloids bind DNA.

    PubMed

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Bonsaii, Mahyar; Maali, Pegah; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Manouchehri, Firouzeh

    2010-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids present in Peganum harmala (harmal) have recently drawn attention due to their antitumor activities. The mechanistic studies indicate that beta-carboline derivatives inhibit DNA topoisomerases and interfere with DNA synthesis. They interact with DNA via both groove binding and intercalative modes and cause major DNA structural changes. The aim of this study was to examine the interactions of five beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmane, harmaline, harmalol and tryptoline) with calf-thymus DNA in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant DNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various alkaloids/polynucleotide (phosphate) ratios of 1/240, 1/160, 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligand binding modes, the binding constants, and the stability of alkaloids-DNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed major binding of alkaloids to DNA with overall binding constants of K(harmine)-DNA=3.44x10(7) M(-1), K(harmane)-DNA=1.63x10(5) M(-1), K(harmaline)-DNA=3.82x10(5) M(-1), K(harmalol)-DNA=6.43x10(5) M(-1) and K(tryptoline)-DNA=1.11x10(5) M(-1). The affinity of alkaloids-DNA binding is in the order of harmine>harmalol>harmaline>harmane>tryptoline. No biopolymer secondary structural changes were observed upon alkaloid interaction and DNA remains in the B-family structure in these complexes. PMID:20541950

  2. Structure revision of mitragynaline, an indole alkaloid in Mitragyna speciosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromitsu Takayama; Hayato Ishikawa; Mika Kurihara; Mariko Kitajima; Shin-ichiro Sakai; Norio Aimi; Hiroko Seki; Kentaro Yamaguchi; Ikram M Said; Peter J Houghton

    2001-01-01

    The structure of mitragynaline, an indole alkaloid isolated from Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa, was revised as formula 3 by analysis of the NMR spectra measured at low temperature and by chemical transformation with DDQ oxidation from the known alkaloid mitragynine (5).

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Danaus plexippus L. and Danaus chrysippus L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Edgar; P. A. Cockrum; J. L. Frahn

    1976-01-01

    Summary Danaus plexippus L. andDanaus chrysippus L. have been found to store pyrrolizidine alkaloids obtained from adult food plants and it is suggested that the alkaloids contribute to the unpalatability of the butterflies to potential predators.

  4. Actions of Piperidine Alkaloid Teratogens at Fetal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and clef...

  5. Production of tropane alkaloids in cultured cells of Hyoscyamus niger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Yamada; Takashi Hashimoto

    1982-01-01

    Tests for calluses rich in tropane alkaloids were made with newly induced calluses of Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger. Only calluses of H. niger gave an alkaloid-positive test.

  6. Human alkaloid biosynthesis : chemical inducers of Parkinson's disease?

    E-print Network

    Hatzios, Stavroula K. (Stavroula-Artemis K.)

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of certain alkaloids in the human brain appears to be associated with the onset of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, a human protein bearing homology to an alkaloid synthase in plants was identified. This ...

  7. Biological activity of alkaloids from Solanum dulcamara L.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Padma; Sharma, Bindu; Bakshi, Nidhi

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids are well known for their antimicrobial activity. Though all natural alkaloids come from plants, not all plants produce alkaloids. Plants of the Solanaceae family are known for their high alkaloid content. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. In the present study, those plant parts of Solanum dulcamara were selected which have been reported to produce a high content of a specific alkaloid: solanine (from unripe fruits), solasodine (from flowers) and beta-solamarine (from roots). These alkaloids were extracted from various parts of S. dulcamara by well-established methods and were screened for their antibacterial activity. Human pathogenic bacteria, viz., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, were selected for the study. All three alkaloids inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. However, no significant activity was observed against E. aerogenes. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were also evaluated. PMID:19418354

  8. Loco Intoxication: Indolizidine Alkaloids of Spotted Locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell J. Molyneux; Lynn F. James

    1982-01-01

    The indolizidine alkaloids swainsonine and swainsonine N-oxide have been isolated and identified as constituents of spotted locoweed. The inhibition of lysosomal alpha -mannosidase by these alkaloids suggests that they are the causative agents of locoism in range animals.

  9. Rotational Investigation of Tropane Alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocinero, Emilio J.; Lesarri, Alberto; Ecija, Patricia; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Fernández, Jose A.; Castano, Fernando

    2010-06-01

    We report an investigation of the rotational spectrum of several tropane alkaloids using the new Balle-Flygare-type FT-MW spectrometer built at the University of the Basque Country. The initial work focused on the azabicycles of tropinone, scopine and scopoline, vaporized using heating methods. For tropinone the spectrum confirmed the presence of equatorial and axial conformers originated by the inversion of the N-methyl group, with the tropane motif adopting a distorted chair configuration. The determination of substitution and effective structures for the two conformers included the 13C, 15N and 18O isotopomers observed in natural abundance. The structures revealed the flexibility and structural changes associated to the N-methyl inversion, mostly a flattening at the nitrogen atom and a simultaneous rising of the carbonyl group in the axial form. The investigation of scopine gave an intense spectrum, but it was inconsistent with the structural models expected for this molecule. The carrier of the new spectrum was later identified as scopoline, generated in situ by an intramolecular reaction at the moderate temperatures of the nozzle. A single conformation was detected for scopoline, with an ether bridge seriously distorting the tropane motif. E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, in publication, 2010 E. J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. Écija, J.-U. Grabow, J. A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.,in press, 2010

  10. Multicomponent therapeutics of berberine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Yan, Dan; Yang, Meihua; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2013-01-01

    Although berberine alkaloids (BAs) are reported to be with broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiviral activities, the interactions among BAs have not been elucidated. In the present study, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was chosen as a model organism, and modified broth microdilution was applied for the determination of the fluorescence absorption values to calculate the anti-MRSA activity of BAs. We have initiated four steps to seek the optimal combination of BAs that are (1) determining the anti-MRSA activity of single BA, (2) investigating the two-component combination to clarify the interactions among BAs by checkerboard assay, (3) investigating the multicomponent combination to determine the optimal ratio by quadratic rotation-orthogonal combination design, and (4) in vivo and in vitro validation of the optimal combination. The results showed that the interactions among BAs are related to their concentrations. The synergetic combinations included "berberine and epiberberine," "jatrorrhizine and palmatine" and "jatrorrhizine and coptisine"; the antagonistic combinations included "coptisine and epiberberine". The optimal combination was berberine?:?coptisine?:?jatrorrhizine?:?palmatine?:?epiberberine = 0.702?:?0.863?:?1?:?0.491?:?0.526, and the potency of the optimal combination on cyclophosphamide-immunocompromised mouse model was better than the natural combinations of herbs containing BAs. PMID:23634170

  11. Alkaloid variation in the Lupinus pusillus group (Fabaceae: tribe Genisteae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben-Erik van Wyk; Roland Greinwald; Ludger Witte

    1995-01-01

    The major alkaloids of Lupinus pusillus and related species were studied by GC and GC-MS. More than 25 alkaloids were detected in 20 extracts from L. flavoculatus, L. kingii, L. odoratus, L. pusillus and L. shockleyi. Esters of alkaloids appear to be absent, and sparteine, ?-isosparteine, isolupanine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, lupanine and anagyrine are the major alkaloids. The presence of the ?-pyridone

  12. Production of tropane alkaloids in cultured cells of Hyoscyamus niger.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1982-04-01

    Tests for calluses rich in tropane alkaloids were made with newly induced calluses of Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium and Hyoscyamus niger. Only calluses of H. niger gave an alkaloid-positive test.A Hyoscyamus cell line had the highest total alkaloid content of all the calluses screened by the cell-squash alkaloid assay. Both hyoscyamine and scopolamine were identified in the cultured cells of this line by TLC, GLC and GC-MS. PMID:24259019

  13. The alkaloids of the madangamine group.

    PubMed

    Amat, Mercedes; Pérez, Maria; Ballette, Roberto; Proto, Stefano; Bosch, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is focused on madangamines, a small group of complex diamine alkaloids isolated from marine sponges of the order Haplosclerida, and covers their isolation, characterization, biogenesis, biological activity, and synthesis. Structurally, madangamines are pentacyclic alkaloids with an unprecedented skeletal type, characterized by a common diazatricyclic core and two peripheral macrocyclic rings. The isolation of these alkaloids from Xestospongia ingens (madangamines A-E) and Pachychalina alcaloidifera (madangamine F) is described in detail. Physical and complete spectroscopic 1H and 13C NMR data are included. The proposed biogenesis of madangamines from ammonia, a functionalized three-carbon unit, and saturated or unsaturated linear long-chain dialdehydes, via partially reduced bis-alkylpyridine macrocycles, is discussed. The synthesis of alkaloids of the madangamine group has been little explored, with only one total synthesis reported so far, that of (+)-madangamine D. This review also describes several model synthetic approaches to the diazatricyclic ABC core of these alkaloids, as well as model studies on the construction of the (Z,Z)-unsaturated 11-membered E macrocycle common to madangamines A-E, the 13- and 14-membered D rings of madangamines C-E, and the all-cis-triunsaturated 15-membered D ring of madangamine A. Some members of this group have shown significant in vitro cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines. PMID:25845061

  14. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

  15. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy. PMID:24671624

  16. Biotechnology and genetics of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tudzynski, P; Correia, T; Keller, U

    2001-12-01

    Ergot alkaloids, i.e. ergoline-derived toxic metabolites, are produced by a wide range of fungi, predominantly by members of the grass-parasitizing family of the Clavicipitaceae. Naturally occurring alkaloids like the D-lysergic acid amides, produced by the "ergot fungus" Claviceps purpurea, have been used as medicinal agents for a long time. The pharmacological effects of the various ergot alkaloids and their derivatives are due to the structural similarity of the tetracyclic ring system to neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline, dopamine or serotonin. In addition to "classical" indications, e.g. migraine or blood pressure regulation, there is a wide spectrum of potential new applications of this interesting group of compounds. The biotechnology of ergot alkaloids has a long tradition, and efficient parasitic and submerse production processes have been developed; the biochemistry of the pathway and the physiology of production have been worked out in detail. The recent identification of a cluster of genes involved in ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in C. purpurea and the availability of molecular genetic techniques allow the development of strategies for rational drug design of ergoline-related drugs by enzyme engineering and by biocombinatorial approaches. PMID:11778866

  17. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Miller; Paul Feeny

    1983-01-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval

  18. GC\\/MS Examination of Lycopodium Extracts for Alkaloid Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert V. Gerard

    1985-01-01

    Plants of the Lycopodium species have long been known to elaborate alkaloids. Over one hundred alkaloids have been isolated from these plants, but no efficient method exists to quickly screen plants to determine their alkaloid content. In this research it has been found that gas chromatography mass spectrometry. (GC\\/MS) is a suitable method to achieve this purpose. Seven species of

  19. Alkaloid profiles of Mimosa tenuiflora and associated methods of analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The alkaloid contents of the leaves and seeds of M. tenuiflora collected from northeastern Brazil were studied. Alkaloids were isolated by classical acid/base extraction procedures and by cation exchange solid phase extraction. The crude alkaloid fractions were then analysed by thin layer chromatogr...

  20. Alkaloid production by immobilized mycelia of Claviceps purpurea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bettina Kopp; H. J. Rehm

    1983-01-01

    Mycelia of Claviceps purpurea CBS 164.59 which produce clavine alkaloids and ergometrine were immobilized in different matrices. These mycelia exhibited a high sensitivity to extreme physical and chemical treatment, and only a moderate immobilization in calcium alginate proved to be the appropriate method to yield high alkaloid amounts. The alkaloid production is correlated to the amount of biomass. The patterns

  1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in members of the Boraginaceae from Sinai (Egypt)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Assem El-Shazly; Maher El-Domiaty; Ludger Witte; Michael Wink

    1998-01-01

    Altogether 40 pyrrolizidine alkaloids were detected in the alkaloid extracts of Paracaryum rugulosum, P. intermedium, Anchusa milleri, Gastrocotyle hispida (syn. Anchusa hispida), Anchusa arvensis, Lappula spinocarpos, Trichodesma africanum, Alkanna orientalis, and Alkanna tuberculata (syn. A. tinctoria) which were analyzed by capillary GLC and GLC-MS. 24 alkaloids were unambiguously identified by comparing their specific retention indices and mass fragmentations with those

  2. Numerous Numerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henle, James M.

    This pamphlet consists of 17 brief chapters, each containing a discussion of a numeration system and a set of problems on the use of that system. The numeration systems used include Egyptian fractions, ordinary continued fractions and variants of that method, and systems using positive and negative bases. The book is informal and addressed to…

  3. Recent pharmacological developments in ?-carboline alkaloid "harmaline".

    PubMed

    Khan, Farhan A; Maalik, Aneela; Iqbal, Zafar; Malik, Imran

    2013-12-01

    Peganum harmala (L) is a perennial plant which is native of eastern Iranian and west of India but also found in different regions of western USA. A number of ?-carboline compounds with therapeutic importance and different pharmacological effects, are present in this plant. Among other alkaloids, such as, harmine, harmalol and vasicine, isolated from various parts of the plant, harmaline is considered as most valuable with reference to its medicinal importance. Harmaline has been extensively studied in last decade and known to exert multiple pharmacological effects including antileishmanial, antimicrobial, antiplatelet, antiplasmodial, antitumoral, hypothermic and vasorelaxant activity. The proposed work is intended to highlight the recent pharmacological aspects of ?-carboline alkaloid "harmaline". PMID:23707188

  4. Isoquinoline alkaloids as prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cahlíková, Lucie; Hulová, Lucie; Hrabinová, Martina; Chlebek, Jakub; Hoš?álková, Anna; Adamcová, Markéta; Šafratová, Marcela; Jun, Daniel; Opletal, Lubomír; Lo?árek, Miroslav; Macáková, Kate?ina

    2015-06-01

    Prolyl oligopeptidase is a cytosolic serine peptidase that hydrolyses proline-containing peptides at the carboxy terminus of proline residues. It has been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, and related neuropsychiatric disorders and therefore may have important clinical implications. Thirty-one isoquinoline alkaloids of various structural types, previously isolated in our laboratory, were screened for their ability to inhibit prolyl oligopeptidase. Promising results have been showed by alkaloids californidine (IC50=55.6±3.5?M), dihydrosanquinarine (IC50=99.1±7.6?M), corypalmine (IC50=128.0±10.5?M) and N-methyllaurotetanine (IC50=135.0±11.7?M). PMID:25863351

  5. Corynanthean, eburnan, secoleuconoxine, and pauciflorine alkaloids from Kopsia pauciflora.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chew-Yan; Yoganathan, K; Sim, Kae-Shin; Low, Yun-Yee; Lim, Siew-Huah; Kam, Toh-Seok

    2014-12-01

    Eleven indole alkaloids, comprising four corynanthean, two eburnane, one aspidofractinine, one secoleuconoxine, one andranginine, and two pauciflorine type alkaloids were isolated from the stem-bark and leaf extracts of Kopsia pauciflora. Their structures were determined using NMR and MS analyses. The catharinensine type alkaloid kopsirensine B and the secoleuconoxine alkaloid arboloscine A showed moderate to weak activity in reversing MDR in vincristine-resistant KB cells. The alkaloid content was markedly different compared to that of a sample from Malaysian Borneo. PMID:25442910

  6. Ephedrine-type alkaloid content of nutritional supplements containingephedra sinica (ma-huang) as determined by high performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Gurley; P. Wang; S. F. Gardner

    1998-01-01

    Nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica (ma- huang), a botanical source of ephedrine-type alkaloids, have been linked to numerous episodes of ephedrine (EPH) toxicity. With passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, nutritional supplements are no longer subject to the same FDA preapproval requirements as food additives, prescription, or nonpre- scription medications. As a consequence, EPH content is

  7. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...

  8. Two steroidal alkaloids from veratrum viride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid A. El Sayed; James D. McChesney; Ahmed F. Halim; Ahmed M. Zaghloul; Markus Voehler

    1995-01-01

    A phytochemical study of the roots and rhizomes of Veratrum viride led to the isolation of the two new steroidal alkaloids, rubivirine, identified as 12?-hydroxyisorubijervine, and veramivirine, identified as 12?-hydroxyveramiline. Structural elucidation of the two compounds was aided by 2D-NMR spectral analyses.

  9. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

  10. Metabolism of alkaloids in coffee plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Ashihara

    2006-01-01

    Coffee beans contain two types of alkaloids, caffeine and trigonelline, as major components. This review describes the distribu- tion and metabolism of these compounds. Caffeine is synthesised from xanthosine derived from purine nucleotides. The major biosynthetic route is xanthosine ? 7-methylxanthosine ? 7-methylxanthine ? theobromine ? caffeine. Degradation activ- ity of caffeine in coffee plants is very low, but catabolism

  11. Amides and an alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-08-01

    A total of 16 phenolic compounds, including one new and five known N-cinnamoyl phenylethylamides, one new pyrrole alkaloid named portulacaldehyde, five phenylpropanoid acids and amides, and derivatives of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, were isolated and identified from a polar fraction of an extract of Portulaca oleracea. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic analyses. PMID:22978226

  12. Analysis of Catharanthus roseus alkaloids by HPLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Hisiger; Mario Jolicoeur

    2007-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is a medicinal plant from which secondary metabolites used in chemotherapy to treat diverse cancers are extracted. The well\\u000a known high value metabolites vincristine and vinblastine are just 2 of 130 alkaloids that can be found in C. roseus. However, only few (?11) of this high number of chemical entities are frequently analyzed and even fewer (?8) are

  13. Bishordeninyl terpene alkaloids from Zanthoxylum avicennae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trinh Thi Thuy; Andrea Porzel; Helmut Ripperger; Tran Van Sung; Günter Adam

    1999-01-01

    In addition to (?)-culantraramine and (?)-culantraraminol the bishordeninyl terpene alkaloids, (?)-culantraramine N-oxide, (?)-culantraraminol N-oxide and avicennamine, have been isolated from the leaves of Zanthoxylum avicennae. Their structures have been assigned by MS and especially by NMR investigations. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new indole alkaloid from Ervatamia yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yong-Sheng; Du, Jing-Ling; Chen, Hai-Sheng; Jin, Li; Liang, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    The stems of Ervatamia yunnanensis have afforded a new indole alkaloid, ervataine (1), whose structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis. Five known compounds, ibogaine (2) coronaridine (3), heyneanine (4), voacangine hydroxyindolenine (5) and coronaridine hydroxyindolenine (6), were also isolated. PMID:19647051

  15. Probing Chemical Space with Alkaloid-Inspired Libraries

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Michael C.; Singh, Gurpreet; Plampin, James N.; Rane, Digamber; Wang, Jenna L.; Day, Victor W.; Aubé, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening of small molecule libraries is an important aspect of probe and drug discovery science. Numerous authors have suggested that bioactive natural products are attractive starting points for such libraries, due to their structural complexity and sp3-rich character. Here, we describe the construction of a screening library based on representative members of four families of biologically active alkaloids (Stemonaceae, the structurally related cyclindricine and lepadiformine families, lupin, and Amaryllidaceae). In each case, scaffolds were based on structures of the naturally occurring compounds or a close derivative. Scaffold preparation was pursued following the development of appropriate enabling chemical methods. Diversification provided 686 new compounds suitable for screening. The libraries thus prepared had structural characteristics, including sp3 content, comparable to a basis set of representative natural products and were highly rule-of-five compliant. PMID:24451589

  16. Natural alkaloids: basic aspects, biological roles, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shi; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hong-Ying; Yan, Guang-Li; Han, Ying; Wang, Xi-Jun

    2014-06-01

    Natural products have gained popularity worldwide for promoting healthcare, as well as disease prevention. Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation, antibacterial, antiviral, insecticidal, and antimetastatic effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. This paper focuses on the naturally-derived alkaloids such as berberine, matrine, piperine, fritillarine, and rhynchophylline, etc., and summarizes the action mechanisms of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as drugs is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. Following this, it is hoped that as a result of this review, there will be a greater awareness of the excellent promise that natural alkaloids show for use in the therapy of diseases. PMID:24969519

  17. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

  18. Feeding deterrency of some pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids towards pea aphid ( Acyrthosiphon pisum ) and evidence for phloem transport of indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Dreyer; Kenneth C. Jones; Russell J. Molyneux

    1985-01-01

    The feeding deterrency of a series of pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids and selected derivatives was measured against the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The indolizidine alkaloid, castanospermine, was intensely active (ED50, 20 ppm) as were the quinolizidine alkaloids, but only modest feeding deterrency was observed with most of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids tested. The insect survival rate of aphids on

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in overwintering monarch butterflies ( Danaus plexippus ) from mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B. Kelley; J. N. Seiber; A. D. Jones; H. J. Segall; L. P. Brower

    1987-01-01

    Summary North American populations of the monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus, have been found to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. Analytical methods (TLC, GC, and GC\\/MS) have been developed to isolate, quantitate, and structurally elucidate the alkaloids. Examples of at least two classes of pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been identified, the macrocyclic diesters, senecionine, integerrimine, and seneciphylline, and the monoesters, echinatine, intermedine,

  20. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedict T. Green; Stephen T. Lee; Kip E. Panter; Kevin D. Welch; Daniel Cook; James A. Pfister; William R. Kem

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These

  1. Alkaloid production by callous tissue cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arildo José Braz de Oliveira; Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado

    2003-01-01

    The morphologically undifferentiated cells of nonregenerant callous tissue of Cereus peruvianus cultured in the original medium and in medium supplemented with tyrosine were used as an alkaloid source. Comparison of alkaloid\\u000a production by C. peruvianus plants and by callous tissues indicated that alkaloid levels were almost twice as high in callous tissues as in shoots of\\u000a C. peruvianus plants. The

  2. Production of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Kristy M; Smolke, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    The benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) are a diverse class of metabolites that exhibit a broad range of pharmacological activities and are synthesized through plant biosynthetic pathways comprised of complex enzyme activities and regulatory strategies. We have engineered yeast to produce the key intermediate reticuline and downstream BIA metabolites from a commercially available substrate. An enzyme tuning strategy was implemented that identified activity differences between variants from different plants and determined optimal expression levels. By synthesizing both stereoisomer forms of reticuline and integrating enzyme activities from three plant sources and humans, we demonstrated the synthesis of metabolites in the sanguinarine/berberine and morphinan branches. We also demonstrated that a human P450 enzyme exhibits a novel activity in the conversion of (R)-reticuline to the morphinan alkaloid salutaridine. Our engineered microbial hosts offer access to a rich group of BIA molecules and associated activities that will be further expanded through synthetic chemistry and biology approaches. PMID:18690217

  3. Total synthesis of the Daphniphyllum alkaloid daphenylline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhaoyong; Li, Yong; Deng, Jun; Li, Ang

    2013-08-01

    The Daphniphyllum alkaloids are a large class of natural products isolated from a genus of evergreen plants widely used in Chinese herbal medicine. They display a remarkable range of biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, and vasorelaxation properties as well as elevation of nerve growth factor. Daphenylline is a structurally unique member among the predominately aliphatic Daphniphyllum alkaloids, and contains a tetrasubstituted arene moiety mounted on a sterically compact hexacyclic scaffold. Herein, we describe the first total synthesis of daphenylline. A gold-catalysed 6-exo-dig cyclization reaction and a subsequent intramolecular Michael addition reaction, inspired by Dixon's seminal work, were exploited to construct the bridged 6,6,5-tricyclic motif of the natural product at an early stage, and the aromatic moiety was forged through a photoinduced olefin isomerization/6?-electrocyclization cascade followed by an oxidative aromatization process.

  4. Acute myocardial infarction induced by ephedrine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Enders, Jason M; Dobesh, Paul P; Ellison, James N

    2003-12-01

    A 45-year-old woman was hospitalized to rule out acute myocardial infarction after coming to the emergency department with a complaint of substernal chest pressure. Her initial electrocardiogram indicated normal sinus rhythm with T-wave inversion and nonspecific ST changes suggestive of possible ischemia. She had no medical problems and took no prescription drugs. Further evaluation revealed that for approximately 4 years she had been taking Metabolife 356 preparations--a source of ephedrine alkaloids--for weight loss, and that she was at low risk for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Due to elevated cardiac markers, cardiac catheterization was performed, which revealed no atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. The patient's acute myocardial infarction was attributed to coronary artery vasospasm induced by ephedrine alkaloids. Clinicians should be aware of the growing evidence that supports life-threatening cardiovascular toxicities associated with these substances. PMID:14695044

  5. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. L. Ee; C. M. Lim; C. K. Lim; M. Rahmani; K. Shaari; C. F. J. Bong

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3?,4?-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds

  6. Synthesis studies on the Melodinus alkaloid meloscine.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ken S; Antoline, Joshua F

    2013-02-01

    The pentacyclic Melodinus alkaloid (±)-meloscine was synthesized in 19 chemical steps from 2-bromobenzaldehyde through a route featuring an allenyl azide cyclization cascade to deliver the core azabicyclo[3.3.0]octane substructure. Peripheral functionalization of this core included a Tollens-type aldol condensation to set the quaternary center at C(20) and a diastereoselective ring closing metathesis to forge the tetrahydropyridine ring. PMID:23316092

  7. Exploiting alkaloid biosynthesis in Madagascar periwinkle to obtain natural product derivatives and new biocatalysts

    E-print Network

    Bernhardt, Peter, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Plant alkaloid biosynthesis produces many natural products with medicinal value. For example, vinblastine and vincristine from Catharanthus roseus monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis, and camptothecin derivatives from ...

  8. Ergot alkaloids--biology and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Schardl, Christopher L; Panaccione, Daniel G; Tudzynski, Paul

    2006-01-01

    EA have been a major benefit, and a major detriment, to humans since early in recorded history. Their medicinal properties have been used, and continue to be used, to aid in childbirth, with new uses being found in the treatment of neurological and cardiovascular disorders. The surprisingly broad range of pharmaceutical uses for EA stems from their affinities for multiple receptors for three distinct neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and adrenaline), from the great structural diversity of natural EA, and from the application of chemical techniques that further expand that structural diversity. The dangers posed by EA to humans and their livestock stem from the ubiquity of ergot fungi (Claviceps species) as parasites of cereals, and of related grass endophytes (Epichloë, Neotyphodium, and Balansia species) that may inhabit pasture grasses and produce toxic levels of EA. Further concerns stem from saprophytic EA producers in the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, especially A. fumigatus, an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Numerous fungal species produce EA with a wide variety of structures and properties. These alkaloids are associated with plants in the families Poaceae, Cyperaceae, and Convolvulaceae, apparently because these plants can have symbiotic fungi that produce EA. Pharmacological activities of EA relate to their specific structures. Known as potent vasoconstrictors, the ergopeptines include a lysergic acid substituent with an amide linkage to a complex cyclol-lactam ring structure generated from three amino acids. Simpler lysergyl amides and clavines are more apt to have oxytonic or psychotropic activities. One of the lysergyl amides is LSD (5), the most potent hallucinogen known. The EA biosynthetic pathway in Claviceps species has been studied extensively for many decades, and recent studies have also employed epichloës and A. fumigatus. The early pathway, shared among these fungi, begins with the action of an aromatic prenyl transferase, DMATrp synthase, which links a dimethylallyl chain to L-tryptophan. When the dmaW gene encoding DMATrp synthase was cloned and sequenced, the predicted product bore no identifiable resemblance to other known prenyl transferases. The dma W genes of Claviceps species are present in clusters of genes, several of which also have demonstrated roles in EA biosynthesis. In many other fungi, dma W homologues are identifiable in otherwise very different gene clusters. The roles of DMA Trp synthase homologues in these other fungi are probably quite variable. One of them is thought to prenylate the phenolic oxygen of L-tyrosine, and another catalyzes the unusual reverse prenylation reaction in the biosynthesis of fumigaclavine C(10), an EA characteristic of A. fumigatus. The second step of the EA pathway is N-methylation of DMATrp (12) to form 13, which is then subjected to a series of oxidation/oxygenation and reduction reactions to generate, in order, chanoclavine-I (16), agroclavine (19), and elymoclavine (6). Shunt reactions generate a wide variety of other clavines. Two epimerizations occur in this pathway: one from 12 to 16, the other from 16 to 19. Further oxidation of 6, catalyzed by the cytochrome-P450 CloA, generates lysergic acid (1). An unusual NRPS complex, lysergyl peptide synthetase (LPS), is responsible for linking 1 to three hydrophobic L-amino acids to generate the ergopeptide lactams. The LPS complex includes two polypeptides, one (LPS 2) possessing a single module for activation of 1, and the other (LPS 1) possessing three modules, each specifying one of the L-amino acids. Variations in LPS 1 sequences are associated with variations in the incorporated amino acids, leading to differences between strain chemotypes, and even multiple ergopeptines within strains. For example, C. purpurea P1 produces two distinct ergopeptines (ergotamine (4) and ergocryptine (Table I)), each of which is believed to be generated by multiple LPS 1 subunits encoded by separate, but related, genes (lpsA1 and lpsA2). The main ecological roles of EA in nature are probably to protec

  9. Significance, chemistry and determination of ergot alkaloids: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krska; C. Crews

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the most relevant and recent information available on ergot alkaloids. This includes information about their occurrence, toxicity, chemistry, statutory limits, and their significance in feed and food. Recently, in 2005, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) concluded that validated analytical methods for the quantification of ergot alkaloids in feed materials are needed.

  10. Two new ?-carboline alkaloids from the roots of Gypsophila oldhamiana.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangmei; Wang, Gang; Lv, Huawei; Luo, Jianguang; Kong, Lingyi

    2015-07-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Gypsophila oldhamiana afforded two new ?-carboline alkaloids, oldhamiaines A and B (1 and 2), along with a known analogue (3). Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic and chemical methods. This is the first report of ?-carboline alkaloids in the genus Gypsophila. PMID:25554101

  11. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  12. Indole Alkaloids From Tissue-Cultured Tabernanthe Iboga H. Bn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominick V. Basile; Michell S. Punch; John Pablo; Bruce Brenner; W. Lee Hearn; Deborah C. Mash

    1999-01-01

    Tissue lines, selected from explants of Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn. and cultured in shake flasks, produced and released from three to five indole alkaloids into the culture medium. the iboga alkaloids in order of their relative abundance were ibogaine, dihydroxyibogamine, ibogamine, voacangine, and ibogaline. All five compounds have the same basic ring structure as ibogaine, a putative anti-addictive drug. Three

  13. Alkaloids from Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Ee, G C L; Lim, C M; Lim, C K; Rahmani, M; Shaari, K; Bong, C F J

    2009-01-01

    Detailed chemical studies on the roots of Piper sarmentosum and Piper nigrum have resulted in several alkaloids. The roots of P. sarmentosum gave a new aromatic compound, 1-nitrosoimino-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzene (1). Piper nigrum roots gave pellitorine (2), (E)-1-[3',4'-(methylenedioxy)cinnamoyl]piperidine (3), 2,4-tetradecadienoic acid isobutyl amide (4), piperine (5), sylvamide (6), cepharadione A (7), piperolactam D (8) and paprazine (9). Structural elucidation of these compounds was achieved through NMR and MS techniques. Cytotoxic activity screening of the plant extracts indicated some activity. PMID:19809914

  14. Dihydrochalcones, coumarins and alkaloids from Metrodorea nigra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolfo H. Müller; Paulo C. Vieira; João B. Fernandes

    1995-01-01

    Two novel dihydrochalcones, 2?,3,4?,6?-tetrahydroxy-4-methoxy-3?,5-di-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-dihydrochalcone and 2?,.3,6?-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-5-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-3?,4?-(2?,2?-dimethyldihydropyran)-dihydrochalcone, have been isolated from fresh fruits of Metrodorea nigra. Stems and leaves showed a similar composition and we have isolated common steroids, simple coumarins, several furocoumarins, furoquinoline alkaloids and a furofuran lignan. From stems, we have also isolated the pentacyclic 6-C-monoterpenyl-5,7-dioxycoumarin, deoxybruceol. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral

  15. Isolation of an alkaloid from Cassia occidentalis 

    E-print Network

    Puleo, Larry Ellis

    1966-01-01

    was obtained. This f1nal solut1on gave oharac- teristio albuminoid reactions. Bruere and Brocq-Rousseu7~5O reported that a benzene extract from the seed of Cassia occidentalis was toxio. Feeding tests with the seed and in)ection oi' the benzene extraot... showed that both were quite tox- io to laboratory animals (rats and mice) as well as to horses (no deta1ls of test g1ven). Chrysarobi. n was found in the benzene extract, but no alkaloids or cyanogentic glucosides were reported, According to Bruere...

  16. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of ergot alkaloids in human primary cells.

    PubMed

    Mulac, Dennis; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-11

    Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the species Claviceps. Toxic effects after consumption of contaminated grains are described since mediaeval times. Of the more than 40 known ergot alkaloids six are found predominantly. These are ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergosine and ergometrine, along with their corresponding isomeric forms (-inine-forms). Toxic effects are known to be induced by an interaction of the ergot alkaloids as neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. Nevertheless data concerning cytotoxic effects are missing and therefore a screening of the six main ergot alkaloids was performed in human primary cells in order to evaluate the toxic potential. As it is well known that ergot alkaloids isomerize easily the stability was tested in the cell medium. Based on these results factors were calculated to correct the used concentration values to the biologically active lysergic (-ine) form. These factors range from 1.4 for the most stable compound ergometrine to 5.0 for the most unstable ergot alkaloid ergocristine. With these factors, reflecting the instability, several controverse literature data concerning the toxicity could be explained. To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of ergot alkaloids, human cells in primary culture were used. These cells remain unchanged in contrast to cell lines and the data allow a better comparison to the in vivo situation than using immortalized cell lines. To characterize the effects on primary cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were used. The parameters necrosis (LDH-release) and apoptosis (caspase-3-activation, DNA condensation and fragmentation) were distinguished. The results show that depending on the individual structure of the peptide ergot alkaloids the toxic properties change. While ergometrine as a lysergic acid amide did not show any effect, the peptide ergot alkaloids revealed a different toxic potential. Of all tested ergot alkaloids ergocristine was the most cytotoxic compound inducing apoptosis in human kidney cells starting at a concentration of 1?M in RPTEC. Uptake studies underline the cytotoxic properties, with an accumulation of peptide ergot alkaloids and no uptake of ergometrine. The results represent a new description of effects of ergot alkaloids regarding cytotoxicity and accumulation in human primary cells. For the first time apoptosis has been identified besides well described receptor effects. This gives a hint for a more complex mode of action of ergot alkaloids than described in literature so far. PMID:21295106

  17. A new alkaloid from Salsola collina.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yu; Li, You-Bin; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ping; Yao, Yuan-Zhang

    2007-06-01

    Salsola collina is widely distributed in droughty and semi-droughty area, which is used as a kind of folk remedy in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of hypertension. The study is on the chemical constituents of this herb from its aerial parts to obtain its active constituents. Dried and crushed aerial parts of this herb were extracted three times with 95% EtOH at reflux. The ethanol extracts were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure at 70 degrees C to yield residue, which was suspended in water and successively partitioned with light petroleum, chloroform and n-butanol. The chloroform and n-butanol fractions were treated by various chromatographic techniques, such as silica gel, C18 reversed-phase silica gel and macroporous resin column chromatography. Compounds were elucidated by their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. In the course of our study on searching biological active components from this herb, a new alkaloid together with three known alkaloids were isolated and identified as N-transferuloyl-3-methyldopamine (1), 3-[4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-N-[2-(4-hydroxyl-3-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-2-propenamide (2), salsoline A (3), salsoline B (4). Compound 4 is a new compound and named as salsoline B, while compound 2 was obtained in Salsola collina for the first time. PMID:17702398

  18. Neutral heroin impurities from tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Toske, Steven G; Cooper, Samuel D; Morello, David R; Hays, Patrick A; Casale, John F; Casale, Ellen

    2006-03-01

    Laudanosine, reticuline, codamine, and laudanine are members of the tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline family of natural products. These alkaloids are present in the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, and are subsequently found as impurities in clandestinely processed morphine. Morphine is then synthesized to heroin using hot acetic anhydride. During the course of this study, it was determined that these four tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolines undergo degradation to a series of 18 neutral impurities when subjected to hot acetic anhydride. Based on the degradation pathway, these new impurities were categorized into two sets of impurities called the C1-acetates compounds and the stilbene compounds. Synthesis, isolation, and structural elucidation information is provided for the tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, and the new neutral impurities have been studied. Several hundred authentic heroin samples were analyzed using an established heroin signature program method. This methodology features the detection of trace neutral impurities present in heroin samples. It was determined that all 18 new impurities were detected in various quantities in four different types of heroin samples. Analytical results featuring these new impurities are reported for South American-, Southwest Asian-, Mexican-, and Southeast Asian-type heroin samples. These new impurities, coupled with other established forensic markers, enhance the ability to classify illicit heroin samples. PMID:16566764

  19. Alkaloids as inhibitors of photophosphorylation in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, R H; Andreo, C S

    1974-01-18

    A group of 12 alkaloids were tested as inhibitors of photophosphorylation in spinach chloroplasts. Ajmaline, a dihydroindole alkaloid, was found to be the strongest inhibitor of both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. Low concentrations of ajmaline also inhibited the dark and light ATPases, and the coupled electron flow from water to ferricyanide, measured either as ferrocyanide formed or as oxygen evolved, but not the uncoupled electron transport or the pH rise of illuminated unbuffered suspensions of chloroplasts. Higher concentrations of ajmaline stimulated, instead of inhibiting, photosynthetic electron transport or oxygen evolution and decreased the pH rise, thus behaving as an uncoupler, such as ammonia. Photophosphorylation was partially inhibited by 100 microM dihydrosanguinarine, 100 microM dihydrochelerythrine (benzophenanthridine alkaloids); 500 microM O,O'-dimethylmagnoflorine, 500 microM N-methylcorydine (aporphine alkaloids) and 1 mM julocrotine. They also inhibited coupled oxygen evolution and only partially (dihydrosanguinarine and dihydrochelerythrine) or not at all (the other alkaloids) uncoupled oxygen evolution. Spegazzinine (dihydroindole alkaloid), magnoflorine, N-methylisocorydine, coryneine (aporphine alkaloids), candicine and ribalinium chloride were without effect on photophosphorylation at 500 microM. PMID:19397001

  20. The role of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are not only one of the most intensively studied classes of natural products, their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities also makes them indispensable drug ingredients in both traditional and modern medicine. Among the methods for their production, biotechnological approaches are gaining importance, and biocatalysis has emerged as an essential tool in this context. A number of chemo-enzymatic strategies for alkaloid synthesis have been developed over the years, in which the biotransformations nowadays take an increasingly ‘central’ role. This review summarises different applications of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids and discusses how recent developments and novel enzymes render innovative and efficient chemo-enzymatic production routes possible. PMID:25580241

  1. Ephedrine-type alkaloid content of nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica (Ma-huang) as determined by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gurley, B J; Wang, P; Gardner, S F

    1998-12-01

    Nutritional supplements containing Ephedra sinica (ma-huang), a botanical source of ephedrine-type alkaloids, have been linked to numerous episodes of ephedrine (EPH) toxicity. With passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, nutritional supplements are no longer subject to the same FDA preapproval requirements as food additives, prescription, or nonprescription medications. As a consequence, EPH content is not a label requirement for Ephedra-containing supplements. Less stringent labeling requirements, therefore, may contribute to toxicity associated with these products. A validated HPLC method for the determination of ephedrine-type alkaloids, commonly found in Ephedra supplements, is presented. Nine commercially available supplements exhibited considerable variability in alkaloid content (EPH range: 1.08-13.54 mg). Only three products listed EPH content on the label while one exhibited lot to lot variations in EPH of 137%. PMID:10189265

  2. Tetrahydroberberine, a pharmacologically active naturally occurring alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Subramanya; Donahue, James P; Payton-Stewart, Florastina

    2015-04-01

    Tetrahydroberberine (systematic name: 9,10-dimethoxy-5,8,13,13a-tetrahydro-6H-benzo[g][1,3]benzodioxolo[5,6-a]quinolizine), C20H21NO4, a widely distributed naturally occurring alkaloid, has been crystallized as a racemic mixture about an inversion center. A bent conformation of the molecule is observed, with an angle of 24.72?(5)° between the arene rings at the two ends of the reduced quinolizinium core. The intermolecular hydrogen bonds that play an apparent role in crystal packing are 1,3-benzodioxole -CH2···OCH3 and -OCH3···OCH3 interactions between neighboring molecules. PMID:25836282

  3. Pyrrolidonyl and pyridyl alkaloids in Lymantria dispar.

    PubMed

    Deml, Reinhold

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence and metabolism of nicotine and related N-containing compounds in body fluids of the gipsy moth were addressed. Thin layer chromatographic studies clearly showed the simultaneous presence of GABA and 2-pyrrolidone but not of GABamide in the larval haemolymph and osmeterial secretion of Lymantria dispar as well as in the corresponding body fluids of the saturniids, Saturnia pavonia and Attacus atlas. Furthermore, feeding and injection experiments using alkylated precursors and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry gave evidence of the transformation of 2-pyrrolidone to nicotine and of nicotinic acid to nicotinamide in caterpillars of L. dispar. Based on these results, on the earlier described variation of the secondary-compound patterns of L. dispar during its development, and on literature data, metabolic pathways for the hitherto detected pyridyl and pyrrolidonyl alkaloids in Lymantriidae (and possibly Saturniidae) are proposed. PMID:14713166

  4. Marine bromopyrrole alkaloids: synthesis and diverse medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Rane, Rajesh; Sahu, Niteshkumar; Shah, Chetan; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2014-01-01

    Marine organisms have been found to be a very rich source of bioactive molecules. Among marine organisms, sponges have been proven to be excellent producers of secondary metabolites. More than 5,300 compounds have been isolated from sponges with around 200 new molecules reported each year. Bromopyrrole alkaloids constitute a family of exclusively marine alkaloids and represent a fascinating example of the large variety of compounds formed by marine sponges which exhibit different biological activities such as antifeedent, anti-biofilm, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antiserotonergic, antiangiogenic, antihistaminic, chitinase inhibitor and actimyosin ATPase activator. More than 140 derivatives with different structures and biological activities, have been isolated from more than 20 different sponges. Most of these alkaloids share a key building block, pyrrole-imidazole with oroidin being their underlying structural motif. In this review detailed account of isolation and medicinal application of marine bromopyrrole alkaloids and their synthetic derivatives are discussed. PMID:24359195

  5. Studies on the alkaloids of the calycanthaceae and their syntheses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Biao; Cheng, Ke-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids. PMID:25884552

  6. Complanadine A, a new dimeric alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun'ichi Kobayashi; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Hiroshi Morita

    2000-01-01

    A new dimeric alkaloid with a lycodine-type skeleton, complanadine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure including the absolute stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  7. A diastereocontrolled synthesis of (+)-febrifugine: a potent antimalarial piperidine alkaloid.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, T; Ogasawara, K

    2000-10-01

    A diastereocontrolled synthesis of (+)-febrifugine, a potent antimalarial piperidine alkaloid, has been achieved using a chiral block having a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane framework which exhibits inherent convex-face selectivity. PMID:11009379

  8. Stereocontrolled synthesis of a potent antimalarial alkaloid, (+)-febrifugine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miho Katoh; Ryuichiro Matsune; Hiromasa Nagase; Toshio Honda

    2004-01-01

    A novel and stereocontrolled synthetic path to a potential antimalarial piperidine alkaloid, (+)-febrifugine, was established by employing the reductive deamination and simultaneous recyclization of a proline derivative with samarium diiodide, as a key step.

  9. Proteomic profiling of Stemona alkaloids production response to chitosan elicitor.

    PubMed

    Dheeranupattana, S; Sangthong, P; Roytrakul, S; Chaichana, N

    2013-09-15

    The study purposed to investigate the protein expression of Stemona alkaloids biosynthesis response to chitosan elicitor by 2D gel electrophoresis. The total proteins extraction of Stemona roots were performed for comparison with the control and chitosan treatments. It was found that 15 out of 150 protein spots exhibited different expression between control and chitosan culture treatment. The identified 15 protein spots were subjected to amino acid sequencing and two proteins appeared interesting for examining Stemona alkaloids biosynthesis. After treated with chitosan, glutathione S-transferase became down-regulated while heat shock protein up-regulated in relation to the control treatment. These proteins may play roles in alkaloids biosynthesis via plant defense metabolism from the presumptions that chitosan might weaken the detoxifying function of glutathione S-transferase, then, heat shock protein is probably produced to signal for tissue protection mechanism. Thus, Stemona alkaloids may be responsive to this stress. PMID:24502153

  10. Aza-Tryptamine Substrates in Monoterpene Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hyang-Yeol

    Biosynthetic pathways can be hijacked to yield novel compounds by introduction of novel starting materials. Here we have altered tryptamine, which serves as the starting substrate for a variety of alkaloid biosynthetic ...

  11. Halogenation of Indole Alkaloids with Halodimethylsulfonium Halogenids and Halodimethylsulfuxonium Halogenids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gábor Megyeri; Tibor Keve

    1989-01-01

    A new field of application of halodimethyl-sulfonium halogenids and halodimethylsulfoxonium halogenids had been studied. The formers were used for the halogenation of indole alkaloids, compounds of ergoline or aspidospermidine structure, and vincamine.

  12. [Monomeric indole alkaloids from the aerial parts of Catharanthus roseus].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiang-Zhang; Wang, Guo-Cai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2010-04-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a plant of the Catharanthus genus of Apocynaceae which has been reported to have therapeutic effects of detoxication and anticancer. In order to further study the alkaloid constituents of C. roseus, the aerial parts of the plant were extracted with 95% EtOH, and then treated with 2% H2SO4 and NH3H2O to obtain total alkaloids. The total alkaloids were separated and purified by column chromatography over silica gel and prepared by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. A new alkaloid together with five known compounds were isolated and identified as vindolinine B (1), lochnericine (2), horhammericine (3), vindorosine (4), vindoline (5), and coronaridine (6). Compound 1 is a new compound and named as vindolinine B. PMID:21355212

  13. Substrate analogs to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus

    E-print Network

    McCoy, Elizabeth Ann, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Terpene indole alkaloids are a class of natural products produced by plants, many of which are used clinically for the treatment of human disease. Natural products, are not produced by the organism for the purpose of ...

  14. Reprogramming alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus : synthetic biology in plants

    E-print Network

    Runguphan, Weerawat

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal plant Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces over 130 monoterpene indole alkaloid (MIA) natural products. Many of these compounds have pharmaceutical value, such as the anticancer agents vinblastine ...

  15. Alkaloid production by somatic embryo cultures of Corydalis ambigua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noboru Hiraoka; Indra Dutt Bhatt; Yuko Sakurai; Jung-In Chang

    2004-01-01

    Somatic embryos of Corydalis ambigua (Papaveraceae), which were cultured in liquid Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 0.1 mM IAA and 3% sucrose, produced two tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids, corydaline (0.03% of dry cell weight) and cavidine (1.09%). Among various plant growth regulators tested, two phenylurea derivatives, thidiazuron and N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N? -phenylurea enhanced the alkaloid production. Addition of 1 mM thidiazuron to the

  16. Lyconadins C and F, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    New Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins C (1) and F (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin C (1) is a new C16N2-type Lycopodium alkaloid possessing unique fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of a cycloheptene ring fused to a decahydroquinoline and pyridone rings. Lyconadin F (2) possesses a primary amide moiety in its molecular, which is the first example of

  17. Patterns of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in 12 Ethiopian Crotalaria species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaleab Asres; Frank Sporer; Michael Wink

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-three alkaloidal extracts prepared from different parts of 12 Ethiopian Crotalaria species have been analysed for their alkaloid profiles using GLC–MS. Eleven of the species investigated namely, C. agatiflora Schweinf. subsp. erlangeri Bak. f., C. albicaulis Franch., C. axillaris Ait., C. emarginella Vatke, C. fascicularis Polhill, C. gillettii Polhill, C. incana L. subsp. purpurascens (Lam.) Milne-Redh., C. laburnifolia L. subsp.

  18. Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2014-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. PMID:25467154

  19. Suppression of ochratoxin biosynthesis by naturally occurring alkaloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Lee; B. S. Park; P. Bayman; J. L. Baker; W. S. Choi; B. C. Campbell

    2007-01-01

    The effects of four alkaloids on the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA), ochratoxin B (OTB) and citrinin were examined on four OTA-producing aspergilli: Aspergillus auricomus, A. sclerotiorum and two isolates of A. alliaceus. Piperine and piperlongumine, natural alkaloids of Piper longum, significantly inhibited OTA production at 0.001% (w\\/v) for all aspergilli examined. Piperine and piperlongumine affected the polyketide synthesis step

  20. Tissue Culture and Alkaloid Production of Erthroxylum coca var. coca

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Lydon; Richard H. Zimmerman; Ingrid M. Fordham; William R. Lusby

    1993-01-01

    A tissue culture method was developed to study the biosynthesis of alkaloids in Erythroxylum coca var. coca. Shoot cultures were established from excised embryos of seed from Erythyroxylum coca var. coca and grown on a semi-solid medium. Alkaloids extracted from leaves of shoot cultures and the parent plant were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC\\/MS) analysis and quanitifed by gas

  1. Production of Alkaloids in Plant Cell and Tissue Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominique Laurain-Mattar

    A low or no productivity of alkaloids in plant cell cultures can be explained by an insufficient level of cell differentiation.\\u000a The first strategy described in this chapter for improving isoquinoline alkaloid accumulation is organogenesis and somatic\\u000a embryogenesis induced by the addition of exogenous growth regulators in Papaver somniferum and Leucojum aestivum cell cultures. The second strategy described is the

  2. Cytotoxic indole alkaloids from the fruits of Melodinus cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shun; Zhang, Hao; Yuan, Chun-Mao; Zhang, Yu; Cao, Ming-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Yuan; Feng, Yan; Ding, Xiao; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Qing; He, Hong-Ping; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Eight indole alkaloids, melosines A-H, together with 13 known alkaloids, were isolated from the fruits of Melodinus cochinchinensis. The structure elucidation of isolated secondary metabolites was based on comprehensive spectroscopic data analysis. Melosine B showed moderate cytotoxic activity against five human cancer cell lines, HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480 with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 8.1?M. PMID:25817833

  3. Effects of Psychotria colorata alkaloids in brain opioid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tânia Alves Amador; Elaine Elisabetsky; Diogo Onofre de Souza

    1996-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey showed that home remedies prepared with flowers and fruits ofPsychotria colorata are used by Amazonian peasants as pain killers. Psychopharmacological in vivo evaluation of alkaloids obtained from leaves\\u000a and flowers of this species showed a marked dose-dependent naloxone-reversible analgesic activity, therefore suggesting an\\u000a opioid-like pharmacological profile. This paper reports an inhibitory effect ofP. colorata flower alkaloids on

  4. Genetics, genomics and evolution of ergot alkaloid diversity.

    PubMed

    Young, Carolyn A; Schardl, Christopher L; Panaccione, Daniel G; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E; Charlton, Nikki D; Moore, Neil; Webb, Jennifer S; Jaromczyk, Jolanta

    2015-04-01

    The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary) metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization). The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine. PMID:25875294

  5. Ergot alkaloids in Norwegian wild grasses: a mass spectrometric approach.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Vikøren, Turid; Ivanova, Lada; Handeland, Kjell

    2007-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins which are produced among fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae. Poisoning with ergot alkaloids is an important veterinary problem in animal husbandry and has recently also been recognised in wild animals. While the poisoning syndrome observed in domestic animals such as cattle, horses and sheep is usually caused by endophyte-infected grass, the recently observed ergotism among Norwegian cervids is probably due to infection of wild grasses with Claviceps. Mass spectrometry is today the method of choice for the rapid qualitative and quantitative determination of many natural compounds. This study uses tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry as well as ion trap mass spectrometry in connection with electrospray(+) ionisation for the quantification, screening and fragmentation of ergot alkaloids in extracts from Claviceps sclerotia that had been picked from wild grasses from several locations in Norway. Ergotamine, ergovaline, ergonovine and ergocryptine were available as standards and were quantified in the extracts, while ergocrystine, ergocornine, ergonine/ergosine, lysergic acid and lysergol were identified on the basis of their molecular weights and semi-quantified. Ergocrystine dominated the alkaloid spectrum of most extracts. Levels of the quantified alkaloids were in the range 0.2-9300 microg/g. Several unknown ergot alkaloids were found in the extracts. MS(n) experiments identified some as simple lysergic acid amide derivatives, while othes are probably related to ergocrystine and ergocryptine by dehydration, dehydrogenation and/or amino acid substitution at R(1) of the peptide moiety. PMID:17465016

  6. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Schardl, Christopher L.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Moore, Neil; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary) metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization). The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine. PMID:25875294

  7. Rapid determination of Papaver somniferum alkaloids in process streams using monolithic column high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Costin, Jason W; Lewis, Simon W; Purcell, Stuart D; Waddell, Lucy R; Francis, Paul S; Barnett, Neil W

    2007-07-30

    We have combined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separations using a monolithic column with acidic potassium permanganate and tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) chemiluminescence detection in a rapid and highly sensitive method to monitor the process of extracting opiate alkaloids from Papaver somniferum. Due to the high flow rates allowed with the monolithic column and the inherent selectivity of the chemiluminescence reactions, the four predominant alkaloids--morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine--were determined in less than 2 min. The results obtained with numerous process samples compared favourable with those of the standard HPLC methodology. Limits of detection were 1x10(-10) M, 5x10(-10) M, 5x10(-10) M and 1x10(-9) M, for morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine, respectively. PMID:17658308

  8. Alkaloids and athlete immune function: caffeine, theophylline, gingerol, ephedrine, and their congeners.

    PubMed

    Senchina, David S; Hallam, Justus E; Kohut, Marian L; Nguyen, Norah A; Perera, M Ann d N

    2014-01-01

    Plant alkaloids are found in foods, beverages, and supplements consumed by athletes for daily nutrition, performance enhancement, and immune function improvement. This paper examined possible immunomodulatory roles of alkaloids in exercise contexts, with a focus on human studies. Four representative groups were scrutinized: (a) caffeine (guaranine, mateine); (b) theophylline and its isomers, theobromine and paraxanthine; (c) ginger alkaloids including gingerols and shogaol; and (d) ephedra alkaloids such as ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Emerging or prospective alkaloid sources (Goji berry, Noni berry, and bloodroot) were also considered. Human in vitro and in vivo studies on alkaloids and immune function were often conflicting. Caffeine may be immunomodulatory in vivo depending on subject characteristics, exercise characteristics, and immune parameters measured. Caffeine may exhibit antioxidant capacities. Ginger may exert in vivo anti-inflammatory effects in certain populations, but it is unclear whether these effects are due to alkaloids or other biochemicals. Evidence for an immunomodulatory role of alkaloids in energy drinks, cocoa, or ephedra products in vivo is weak to nonexistent. For alkaloid sources derived from plants, variability in the reviewed studies may be due to the presence of unrecognized alkaloids or non-alkaloid compounds (which may themselves be immunomodulatory), and pre-experimental factors such as agricultural or manufacturing differences. Athletes should not look to alkaloids or alkaloid-rich sources as a means of improving immune function given their inconsistent activities, safety concerns, and lack of commercial regulation. PMID:24974722

  9. Transgenic and mutation-based suppression of a berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family reduces alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Lopez, Harry O; Bowen, Steve W; Andres, Karen R; Steede, William T; Dewey, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels. PMID:25688975

  10. Myopathy in cattle induced by alkaloid extracts from Thermopsis montanta, Laburnum anagyroides and a Lupinus sp.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Baker, D C

    1990-08-01

    A purified alkaloid preparation containing N-methylcytisine, cytisine, 5,6-dehydrolupanine, thermopsine and anagyrine from Thermopsis montana induced prolonged recumbency and microscopic acute hyaline skeletal myodegeneration with myofibre regeneration in cattle similar in type and severity to that induced by Thermopsis montanta plant material. This indicates that the alkaloid(s) of Thermopsis montana are responsible for the myopathy caused by the plant. An alkaloid preparation containing mostly anagyrine from a Lupinus sp. and an alkaloid preparation containing only cytisine from Laburnum anagyroides each caused microscopic skeletal muscle degeneration and necrosis similar to, but less severe than, the alkaloid extract from T. montana, but without clinical recumbency. Dosage and severity of response suggest that neither of those two alkaloids alone can account for the effects induced by Thermopsis. The data suggest that quinolizidine alkaloids with a alpha-pyridone A-ring may be responsible for the lesions and that individual alpha-pyridones may have additive effects. PMID:2246392

  11. Total synthesis of Galbulimima alkaloids. Resin-bound glycosyl phosphates as glycosyl donors.

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Diana Katharine

    2006-01-01

    I. Total Synthesis of Galbulimima Alkaloids. The total synthesis of enantiomerically enriched (+)- and (-)-galbulimima alkaloid 13 is outlined. Sequential use of catalytic cross-coupling and cross-metathesis reactions ...

  12. Synthesis of Morphinan Alkaloids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Elena; Narcross, Lauren; Ekins, Andrew; Falgueyret, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Vincent J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Morphinan alkaloids are the most powerful narcotic analgesics currently used to treat moderate to severe and chronic pain. The feasibility of morphinan synthesis in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae starting from the precursor (R,S)-norlaudanosoline was investigated. Chiral analysis of the reticuline produced by the expression of opium poppy methyltransferases showed strict enantioselectivity for (S)-reticuline starting from (R,S)-norlaudanosoline. In addition, the P. somniferum enzymes salutaridine synthase (PsSAS), salutaridine reductase (PsSAR) and salutaridinol acetyltransferase (PsSAT) were functionally co-expressed in S. cerevisiae and optimization of the pH conditions allowed for productive spontaneous rearrangement of salutaridinol-7-O-acetate and synthesis of thebaine from (R)-reticuline. Finally, we reconstituted a 7-gene pathway for the production of codeine and morphine from (R)-reticuline. Yeast cell feeding assays using (R)-reticuline, salutaridine or codeine as substrates showed that all enzymes were functionally co-expressed in yeast and that activity of salutaridine reductase and codeine-O-demethylase likely limit flux to morphine synthesis. The results of this study describe a significant advance for the synthesis of morphinans in S. cerevisiae and pave the way for their complete synthesis in recombinant microbes. PMID:25905794

  13. Lentiginosine, a dihydroxyindolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase.

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, I; Molyneux, R J; James, L F; Elbein, A D

    1990-02-20

    Lentiginosine, a dihydroxyindolizidine alkaloid, was extracted from the leaves of Astragalus lentiginosus with hot methanol and was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange, thin-layer, and radial chromatography. A second dihydroxyindolizidine, the 2-epimer of lentiginosine, was also purified to apparent homogeneity from these extracts. Gas chromatography of the two isomers (as the TMS derivatives) showed that they were better than 95% pure; lentiginosine eluted at 8.65 min and the 2-epimer at 9.00 min. Both compounds had a molecular ion in their mass spectra of 157, and the NMR spectra demonstrated that both were dihydroxyindolizidines differing in the configuration of the hydroxyl group at carbon 2. Lentiginosine was found to be a reasonably good inhibitor of the fungal alpha-glucosidase, amyloglucosidase (Ki = 1 x 10(-5) M), but it did not inhibit other alpha-glucosidases (i.e., sucrase, maltase, yeast alpha-glucosidase, glucosidase I) nor any other glycosidases. The 2-epimer had no activity against any of the glycosidases tested. PMID:2331469

  14. Diterpene alkaloids with an aza-ent-kaurane skeleton from Isodon rubescens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Guang; Li, Yan; Wu, Ji-Zhou; Pu, Jian-Xin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2015-02-27

    Two compounds belonging to a new group of diterpene alkaloids, kaurines A and B (1 and 2), and an alkaloid bearing a succinimide moiety (3) were obtained from Isodon rubescens. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computational (13)C NMR and ECD data analysis. These alkaloids differ from known diterpene alkaloids and diterpenoids and are presumably biosynthesized from ent-kaurane diterpenoids. PMID:25590529

  15. New phlegmarane-type, cernuane-type, and quinolizidine alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Takakazu Shinzato; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2004-01-01

    Two new phlegmarane-type alkaloids, cermizines A (1) and B (2), three new quinolizidine alkaloids, cermizine C (3) and senepodines G (4) and H (5), and a new C16N2 type alkaloid consisting of a quinolizidine and a piperidine ring, cermizine D (6), as well as two new cernuane-type alkaloids, cernuine N-oxide (7) and lycocernuine N-oxide (8), have been isolated together with

  16. Retention of Ergot Alkaloids in Wheat During Processing1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. FAJARDO; J. E. DEXTER; M. M. ROSCOE; T. W. NOWICKI

    Cereal Chem. 72(3):291-298 The retention of six alkaloids in hard red spring wheat infected by derived from the reduction system. Low concentrations of ergot alkaloids ergot (Clavicepspurpurea) was determined in mill streams and in processed were retained in high quality patent flour. Ergot alkaloids were quite Oriental noodles, pasta, and pan bread. Individual and total alkaloids stable during end-use processing.

  17. Comparative qualitative and quantitative determination of alkaloids in narcotic and condiment Papaver somniferum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Frick, Susanne; Kramell, Robert; Schmidt, Jürgen; Fist, Anthony J; Kutchan, Toni M

    2005-05-01

    In the present study morphinan, tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC and LC-MS analysis in tissues of the Tasmanian Papaver somniferum L. elite cultivar C048-6-14-64. The data were compared with the results from the low-morphine cultivar "Marianne". In the elite cultivar, 91.2% of the latex alkaloids consist of the three pharmaceutically most valuable alkaloids: morphine, codeine, and thebaine. In the root system, the major alkaloids are sanguinarine/10-hydroxysanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine/10-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine. In the stems and leaves of C048-6-14-64, the same alkaloids were measured as in the latex. In the stems, a gradient in relative total alkaloid content from the top downward toward the roots was observed. The concentration of morphine was decreasing toward the roots, whereas an increasing gradient from the upper to the lower stem parts was detected for codeine. The relative total alkaloid concentration in leaves remained constant; no gradient was observed. The cultivar "Marianne" displayed a shifted pattern of alkaloid accumulation and reduced levels of total alkaloid. In the condiment cultivar, 80.5% of the alkaloids of the latex consisted of the two phthalideisoquinoline alkaloids narcotoline and noscapine. Only 18.8% of the relative total alkaloid content were morphinan alkaloids. In contrast to the narcotic cultivar, in which the benzo[c]phenanthridines in roots dominated over the morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids, the concentration of benzo[c]phenanthridines in "Marianne" was similar to that of morphinan and tetrahydrobenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. These data suggest a differential alkaloid regulation in each cultivar of P. somniferum. PMID:15921406

  18. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs. PMID:20116429

  19. Recent investigations of ergot alkaloids incorporated into plant and/or animal systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by fungi have a basic chemical structure but different chemical moieties at substituent sites resulting in various forms of alkaloids that are distinguishable from one another. Since the ergoline ring structure found in ergot alkaloids is similar to that of biogenic amines (...

  20. Serratezomines D and E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium serratum var. serratum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takaaki Kubota; Hiroko Yahata; Sunao Yamamoto; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, serratezomines D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium serratum var. serratum. Serratezomine D (1) is a new lucidine-type alkaloid, while serratezomine E (2) is a new phlegmarane-type alkaloid. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Serratezomine D (1) exhibited an inhibitory

  1. Organization and Alkaloid Production in Tissue Culture of Datura innoxia Mill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. KINSARA; M. M. SElF

    1994-01-01

    A!JSTRACT. Cell suspension of Datura innoxia Mill, was investigated for growtti and production of tropane alkaloids. Study of the in vitro plant cul- ture resulted in obtaining high percent of alkaloids more than in the intact plant. Acclimatization of the in vitro plant to the conditions of Makkah area was carried out. The qualitative picture of the individual formed alkaloids

  2. Manzamine alkaloids: isolation, cytotoxicity, antimalarial activity and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Penta; Ganguly, Swastika; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan

    2014-11-01

    The infectious disease Malaria is caused by different species of the genus Plasmodium. Resistance to quinoline antimalarial drugs and decreased susceptibility to artemisinin-based combination therapy have increased the need for novel antimalarial agents. Historically, natural products have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Identification of natural products and their semi-synthetic derivatives with potent antimalarial activity is an important method for developing novel antimalarial agents. Manzamine alkaloids are a unique group of ?-carboline alkaloids isolated from various species of marine sponge displaying potent antimalarial activity against drug-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium. In this review, we demonstrate antimalarial potency, cytotoxicity and antimalarial SAR of manzamine alkaloids. PMID:24953707

  3. Monoterpene indole alkaloids from the twigs of Kopsia arborea.

    PubMed

    Cheenpracha, Sarot; Raksat, Achara; Ritthiwigrom, Thunwadee; Laphookhieo, Surat

    2014-10-01

    The phytochemistry of Kopsia arborea Blume has received considerable attention, which has resulted in the isolation of a number of new unusual indole alkaloids with intriguing structures. In this study, a new eburnane-type alkaloid, phutdonginin (1), together with eight known alkaloids: 19-OH-(-)- eburnamonine (2), melodinine E (3), kopsinine (4), kopsilongine (5), kopsamine (6), (-)-methylenedioxy-1 1,12-kopsinaline (7), decarbomethoxykopsiline (8), and vincadifformine (9), were isolated from the twigs of K. arborea. Their structures were characterized extensively by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HR-ESI-MS. All compounds were submitted to TLC screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Only kopsamine and decarbomethoxykopsiline showed AChE inhibition with MIR values of 12.5 and 6.25 ?g, respectively, compared with galanthamine (positive control, 0.004 ?g). In addition, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited moderate antibacterial activity against E. coli TISTR 780 with the MIC value of 32 .g/mL. PMID:25522533

  4. Activity of alkaloids on peptic ulcer: what's new?

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Raphaela Francelino; de Sales, Igor Rafael Praxedes; de Oliveira Formiga, Rodrigo; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Sobral, Marianna Vieira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Peptic ulcer is a common disease characterized by lesions that affect the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach and/or duodenum, and may extend into the muscular layer of the mucosa. Natural products have played an important role in the process of development and discovery of new drugs, due to their wide structural diversity and present, mostly specific and selective biological activities. Among natural products the alkaloids, biologically active secondary metabolites, that can be found in plants, animals or microorganisms stand out. The alkaloids are compounds consisting of a basic nitrogen atom that may or may not be part of a heterocyclic ring. This review will describe 15 alkaloids with antiulcer activity in animal models and in vitro studies. PMID:25580688

  5. Adlumiceine methyl ester, a new alkaloid from Fumaria vaillantii.

    PubMed

    Iranshahy, Milad; Javidi-Shirazi, Hamideh; Pham, Ngoc B; Quinn, Ronald J; Sadeghian, Hamid; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2014-12-01

    A new alkaloid, adlumiceine methyl ester (1), together with two known alkaloids, parfumine (2) and N-methylhydrastine methyl ester (3), was isolated from aerial parts of Fumaria vaillantii. The structures of compounds were determined by 1D/2D NMR and MS data. All three compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against PC3 and MCF7 cell lines using Alamar blue assay. The tested compounds showed no significant cytotoxic activity (IC50>50 ?M) against PC3 and MCF7 cell lines. PMID:25359679

  6. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from a marine sponge Agelas sp.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Taishi; Tanaka, Naonobu; Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Azusa; Gonoi, Tohru; Fromont, Jane; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-01-01

    Five new bromopyrrole alkaloids, 2-bromokeramadine (1), 2-bromo-9,10-dihydrokeramadine (2), tauroacidins C (3) and D (4), and mukanadin G (5), were isolated from an Okinawan marine sponge Agelas sp. The structures of 1-5 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and conformational analysis. Mukanadin G (5) has a tricyclic skeleton consisting of a fused tetrahydrobenzaminoimidazole and 2,5-dioxopyrrolidine moieties. Antimicrobial activities of 1-3, and 5 as well as three related known bromopyrrole alkaloids, keramadine (6), tauroacidin A (7), and taurodispacamide A (8) were evaluated. PMID:24789935

  7. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    SciTech Connect

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  8. [Alkaloids from roots and stems of Litsea cubeba].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shui-Ying; Guo, Qiang; Cao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Li; Tu, Peng-Fei; Chai, Xing-Yun

    2014-10-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the roots and stems of Litsea cubeba led to the isolation of seven isoquinolone alkaloids. By spectroscopic analysis and comparison of their 1H and 13C-NMR data with those in literatures, these alkaloids were identified as (+)-norboldine (1), (+)-boldine (2), (+)-reticuline (3), (+)-laurotetanine (4), (+)-isoboldine (5), (+)-N-methyl-laurotetanine (6), and berberine (7), respectively. Among them, 7 was isolated from the genus for the first time. The evaluation of these compounds showed weak anti-inflammatory activity against NO production in RAW 267.4 and BV-2 cells. PMID:25751947

  9. Cytotoxic mannopyranosides of indole alkaloids from Zanthoxylum nitidum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Shi, Xiaodong; Mao, Xia; Chen, Jiangang; Li, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Three new mannopyranosides of indole alkaloids, methyl 7-(?-D-mannopyranosyloxy)-1H-indole-2-carboxylate (1), methyl 7-[(3-O-acetyl-?-D-mannopyranosyl)oxy]-1H-indole-2-carboxylate (2), and 2-methyl-1H-indol-7-yl ?-D-mannopyranoside (3), were isolated from an EtOH extract of the roots of Zanthoxylum nitidum. Their structures were identified as new compounds on the basis of the spectroscopic analyses. Bioactivity evaluation revealed that these alkaloids possess significant cytotoxicities against all the tested tumor cell lines with IC50 values of less than 30??M. PMID:24934682

  10. Synthetic studies on amaryllidaceae and other terrestrially derived alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Banwell, Martin G; Gao, Nadia Yuqian; Schwartz, Brett D; White, Lorenzo V

    2012-01-01

    The total syntheses of a wide range of terrestrially derived alkaloids, especially ones isolated from members of the Amaryllidaceae family, are described. Two recurring themes associated with these syntheses are the use of two types of building blocks, namely ring-fused cyclopropanes, especially geminally-dihalogenated ones, and enzymatically derived cis-1,2-dihydrocatechols. These have often served as precursors to 2- or 3-halogenated 2-cyclohexen-1-ols that are themselves engaged in cross-coupling reactions, radical addition-elimination processes and/or Claisen- or Overman-type rearrangements so as to construct the highly functionalized six-membered rings associated with the target alkaloids. PMID:21972020

  11. Hapalindole-related Alkaloids from the Cultured Cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Shunyan; Krunic, Aleksej; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Orjala, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    Four new hapalindole-related alkaloids, namely fischambiguines A and B, ambiguine P, ambiguine Q nitrile as well as ambiguine G nitrile were identified from the cultured cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua (UTEX 1903). The structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis including MS, 1D and 2D NMR and X-ray crystallography. The alkaloids possessed fused penta- and hexacyclic carbon skeletons. Fischambiguine B displayed a strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an MIC value of 2 ?M, with no detectable cytotoxicity in a Vero cell line. PMID:20965528

  12. Chemiluminescence detection of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Francis, Paul S; Adcock, Jacqui L; Costin, Jason W; Purcell, Stuart D; Pfeffer, Frederick M; Barnett, Neil W

    2008-11-01

    A review with 98 references. The determination of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids and their semi-synthetic derivatives has important applications in industrial process monitoring, clinical analysis and forensic science. Liquid-phase chemiluminescence reagents such as tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) and acidic potassium permanganate exhibit remarkable sensitivity and complementary selectivity for many P. somniferum alkaloids, which has been exploited in the development of a range of analytical procedures using flow analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and microfluidic instrumentation. PMID:18707837

  13. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application. PMID:25898581

  14. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Haiting; Liu, Jing; Liu, Hanzhu; Xin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration. PMID:25101324

  15. The development of new synthetic strategies and methodologies for complex alkaloid total synthesis : a concise synthesis of (+)-chimonanthine, (+)-WIN 64821, (-)-ditryptophenaline and related alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Michael Anthony, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    I. The Development of a General Strategy Towards Dimeric Hexahydropyrroloindole Alkaloids. A Concise Total Synthesis of (+)-Chimonanthine, (+)-Folicanthine and (-)Calycanthine. An efficient and convergent strategy for the ...

  16. Synthetic approaches to the polycyclic alkaloid stemofoline.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Alison M; Davies, Michael P H; Thomas, Eric J

    2007-10-01

    Preliminary studies of a synthetic approach to the alkaloid stemofoline 1 are reported. Stereoselective cyclisation of the ketoester 14 gave the 1-butyl-2,8-bis(methoxycarbonyl)-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane 21 in which the 2-methoxycarbonyl group is in the axial position. The analogous ketones 15, 18, and 19 were also cyclised to give the 8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes 22-24 with axial electron-withdrawing 2-substituents. The structure of the bicyclic ketosulfone 22 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Conversion of ester 21 into the tricyclic lactams 31 and 39, in which the amide fragments are significantly distorted from planarity, was achieved by treatment of the iodides 29 and 38 with tert-butyllithium. The structure of the deprotected tricyclic hydroxylactam 40 was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which showed the non-planar geometry of the lactam fragment and the distortion induced into the bicyclo[3.2.1]octane by the additional two-carbon bridge. This meant that the endo hydrogen at C9 was significantly closer to the 5-hydroxyl group than the endo hydrogen at C8. This structural feature was utilised to direct a regioselective remote oxidation of the hydroxylactam 40 using lead tetraacetate, which was accompanied by selective insertion into the closer endo C-H bond to give the tetracyclic ether 41. Lactam 39 was converted into the tricyclic aminoketone 49 by reduction to the aminol 44 using lithium aluminium hydride and reduction of the intermediate, possibly the chloride 46, formed from aminol 44 using thionyl chloride, with more lithium aluminium hydride, followed by O-deprotection and oxidation. The bicyclic ketoester 21 was also protected as its ketal 50, which was taken through via the tricyclic lactam 54 into the ketoamine 49. Finally, allylation of the tricyclic lactam 42 and amine 49 gave the axial allylated products 60 and 58, but further elaboration for incorporation of C10 and C11 (of stemofoline) was not straightforward. Alkylation of the protected hydroxyketone 64, which was prepared from the bicyclic ketoester 21, gave the axial alkylated products 65 and 69, and the ketoester 69 was converted into the tricyclic hydroxylactone 73. However, the formation of a tetracyclic lactam by treatment of the iodide 75 with tert-butyllithium was not successful. PMID:17878973

  17. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...

  18. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of three species of senecio in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Benn, M; Majak, W

    1996-02-01

    A new alkaloid, 9- O-acetyl-7- O-angelyl-retronecine, was isolated from Senecio triangularis together with 7-O-angelyl-, 9-O-angelyl-, and 7-O-angelyl-9-O-sarracinylretronecine; S. pseudaureus and S. streptanthifolios yielded only retrorsine and senecionine. PMID:17252412

  19. Tropane alkaloid analysis by chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques: an update.

    PubMed

    Aehle, Elke; Dräger, Birgit

    2010-05-15

    Tropane alkaloids like atropine are antidotes applied against organophosphorus intoxications. Atropine is toxic itself and should be closely monitored during treatment. Hence, simple, fast, and sensitive determination methods for tropane alkaloids in serum are desirable. Mostly adopted methods of analysis are gas chromatography (GC); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Various liquid and solid capillary fillings used in micellar electrokinetic chromatography, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography, capillary electrochromatography, and enantioseparation provide high versatility to CE applications. In HPLC, specialised columns enhance separation efficacy. Ultraviolet light detection is common practise, but recently sensitivity and analyte identification were enhanced by coupling GC, HPLC, and CE to mass spectrometry. Apart from medical treatment, tropane alkaloids, cocaine in particular, are abused with various intentions. Forensic analysis of tropane alkaloids and their metabolites comprises the additional difficulty of unequivocal drug identification. Because of severe legal consequences, sophisticated analytical methods were developed and may provide additional techniques for therapeutic drug monitoring. Examples from forensic cocaine analysis and from doping analysis are included in this review. PMID:20381435

  20. New carbazole alkaloids from Clausena anisata with antitumor promoting activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, C; Katsuno, S; Itoigawa, M; Ruangrungsi, N; Mukainaka, T; Okuda, M; Kitagawa, Y; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H; Furukawa, H

    2000-01-01

    Four new carbazole alkaloids, named clausamine D (1), E (2), F (3), and G (4), were isolated from Clausena anisata as inhibitors of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in Raji cells. PMID:10650093

  1. LOLINE ALKALOID BIOSYNTHESIS GENE EXPRESSION IN EPICHLOE ENDOPHYTES OF GRASSES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DONG-XIU ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Loline alkaloids (LA) are secondary metabolites produced by Epichloandamp;euml; (anamorph, Neotyphodium) grass endophytes. They are toxic and deterrent to a broad range of herbivorous insects but not to livestock. This protective bioactivity has spurred considerable research into the LA biosynthetic pathway. LOL, the gene cluster containing nine genes, is required for LA biosynthesis. The regulation of LOL genes during LA

  2. Diversification of Ergot Alkaloids in Natural and Modified Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Sarah L.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Several fungi in two different families––the Clavicipitaceae and the Trichocomaceae––produce different profiles of ergot alkaloids, many of which are important in agriculture and medicine. All ergot alkaloid producers share early steps before their pathways diverge to produce different end products. EasA, an oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme class, has alternate activities in different fungi resulting in branching of the pathway. Enzymes beyond the branch point differ among lineages. In the Clavicipitaceae, diversity is generated by the presence or absence and activities of lysergyl peptide synthetases, which interact to make lysergic acid amides and ergopeptines. The range of ergopeptines in a fungus may be controlled by the presence of multiple peptide synthetases as well as by the specificity of individual peptide synthetase domains. In the Trichocomaceae, diversity is generated by the presence or absence of the prenyl transferase encoded by easL (also called fgaPT1). Moreover, relaxed specificity of EasL appears to contribute to ergot alkaloid diversification. The profile of ergot alkaloids observed within a fungus also is affected by a delayed flux of intermediates through the pathway, which results in an accumulation of intermediates or early pathway byproducts to concentrations comparable to that of the pathway end product. PMID:25609183

  3. Diversification of ergot alkaloids in natural and modified fungi.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sarah L; Panaccione, Daniel G

    2015-01-01

    Several fungi in two different families--the Clavicipitaceae and the Trichocomaceae--produce different profiles of ergot alkaloids, many of which are important in agriculture and medicine. All ergot alkaloid producers share early steps before their pathways diverge to produce different end products. EasA, an oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme class, has alternate activities in different fungi resulting in branching of the pathway. Enzymes beyond the branch point differ among lineages. In the Clavicipitaceae, diversity is generated by the presence or absence and activities of lysergyl peptide synthetases, which interact to make lysergic acid amides and ergopeptines. The range of ergopeptines in a fungus may be controlled by the presence of multiple peptide synthetases as well as by the specificity of individual peptide synthetase domains. In the Trichocomaceae, diversity is generated by the presence or absence of the prenyl transferase encoded by easL (also called fgaPT1). Moreover, relaxed specificity of EasL appears to contribute to ergot alkaloid diversification. The profile of ergot alkaloids observed within a fungus also is affected by a delayed flux of intermediates through the pathway, which results in an accumulation of intermediates or early pathway byproducts to concentrations comparable to that of the pathway end product. PMID:25609183

  4. Effect of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine foregut vasculature. Ergovaline induced the greatest response in ruminal artery while ergovaline and ergotamine induced the greatest response in ruminal vein. Lysergic acid did not stimulate a contractile response in either the ruminal artery or vein...

  5. Complanadines C and D, new dimeric alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Yuzuru Mikami; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    Two new dimeric Lycopodium alkaloids, complanadines C (1) and D (2), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structures and relative stereochemistry of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of the spectral data. Complanadine D (2) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

  6. Lyconesidines A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Hiroshi Morita; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2002-01-01

    Three new alkaloids, lyconesidines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense, and the structures and absolute stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data, X-ray analysis, and modified Mosher's method.

  7. A concise enantioselective synthesis of antimalarial febrifugine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ooi, H; Urushibara, A; Esumi, T; Iwabuchi, Y; Hatakeyama, S

    2001-03-22

    Reaction of (S)-2-(tert-butyldiphenylsilyloxy)-5-(mesyloxy)pentanal with hydroxylamine in allyl alcohol brought about simultaneous 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of the resulting nitrone to allyl alcohol to give three diastereoisomeric adducts, from which (+)-febrifugine and (+)-isofebrifugine, potent antimalarial alkaloids, were synthesized. PMID:11263924

  8. The alkaloid profiles of Sophora nuttalliana and Sophora stenophylla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sophora is a diverse genus in the family Fabaceae, comprised of herbs, shrubs, and trees that occurs throughout the world, primarily in the northern hemisphere. Species of Sophora are known to contain quinolizidine alkaloids that are toxic and potentially teratogenic. Two perennial herbaceous spec...

  9. LATE SEASON TOXIC ALKALOID CONCENTRATIONS IN TALL LARKSPUR (DELPHINIUM SPP.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall larkspurs [Delphinium barbeyi, D. occidentale, D. glaucescens, D. glaucum] pose a serious poisoning threat to cattle on many summer ranges. Livestock producers often defer grazing until larkspur is mature, but specific information is lacking on toxic alkaloid concentrations in larkspur from th...

  10. Terpenoid indole alkaloids from Mappianthus iodoides Hand.-Mazz.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hai-Jian; Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Shu-Wei; Wei, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Wen-Qiong; Xuan, Li-Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Ten terpenoid indole alkaloids, mappiodines A-C and mappiodosides A-G, together with eight known compounds, were isolated from stems of Mappianthus iodoides Hand.-Mazz. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including 1D, 2D NMR, MS and CD methods. The ten compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity, but were inactive. PMID:24495957

  11. Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Aspidosperma-Type Alkaloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin M. Lopchuk

    2011-01-01

    Aspidosperma alkaloids are complex indole-containing natural products that historically have generated a considerable amount of interest from the synthetic community. Many members of this class are biologically active and replete with functional groups and chiral centers which provide a challenging proving ground for new methodology. This review will highlight recent advances in the total synthesis of molecules such as aspidospermidine,

  12. Biochemistry of hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) alkaloids and their acute and chronic toxicity in livestock. A review.

    PubMed

    López, T A; Cid, M S; Bianchini, M L

    1999-06-01

    The literature on Conium maculatum biochemistry and toxicology, dispersed in a large number of scientific publications, has been put together in this review. C. maculatum is a weed known almost worldwide by its toxicity to many domestic animals and to human beings. It is an Umbelliferae, characterized by long, hollow stems, reaching up to 2 m height at maturity, producing a large amount of lush foliage during its vegetative growth. Its flowers are white, grouped in umbels formed by numerous umbellules. It produces a large number of seeds that allow the plant to form thick stands in modified soils, sometimes encroaching on cultivated fields, to the extent of impeding the growth of any other vegetation inside the C. maculatum area of growth. Eight piperidinic alkaloids have been identified in this species. Two of them, gamma-coniceine and coniine are generally the most abundant and they account for most of the plant acute and chronic toxicity. These alkaloids are synthesized by the plant from eight acetate units from the metabolic pool, forming a polyketoacid which cyclises through an aminotransferase and forms gamma-coniceine as the parent alkaloid via reduction by a NADPH-dependent reductase. The acute toxicity is observed when animals ingest C. maculatum vegetative and flowering plants and seeds. In a short time the alkaloids produce a neuromuscular blockage conducive to death when the respiratory muscles are affected. The chronic toxicity affects only pregnant animals. When they are poisoned by C. maculatum during the fetuses organ formation period, the offspring is born with malformations, mainly palatoschisis and multiple congenital contractures (MCC; frequently described as arthrogryposis). Acute toxicity, if not lethal, may resolve in the spontaneous recovery of the affected animals provided further exposure to C. maculatum is avoided. It has been observed that poisoned animals tend to return to feed on this plant. Chronic toxicity is irreversible and although MCC can be surgically corrected in some cases, most of the malformed animals are lost. Since no specific antidote is available, prevention is the only way to deal with the production loses caused by this weed. Control with herbicides and grazing with less susceptible animals (such as sheep) have been suggested. C. maculatum alkaloids can be transferred to milk and to fowl muscle tissue through which the former can reach the human food chain. The losses produced by C. maculatum chronic toxicity may be largely underestimated, at least in some regions, because of the difficulty in associate malformations in offspring with the much earlier maternal poisoning. PMID:10340826

  13. Formicine ants: An arthropod source for the pumiliotoxin alkaloids of dendrobatid poison frogs

    PubMed Central

    Saporito, Ralph A.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Donnelly, Maureen A.; Edwards, Adam L.; Longino, John T.; Daly, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive chemical defense, these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from a variety of alkaloid-containing arthropods. The pumiliotoxins represent a major, widespread, group of alkaloids that are found in virtually all anurans that are chemically defended by the presence of lipophilic alkaloids. Identifying an arthropod source for these alkaloids has been a considerable challenge for chemical ecologists. However, an extensive collection of neotropical forest arthropods has now revealed a putative arthropod source of the pumiliotoxins. Here we report on the presence of pumiliotoxins in formicine ants of the genera Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina, as well as the presence of these ants in the stomach contents of the microsympatric pumiliotoxin-containing dendrobatid frog, Dendrobates pumilio. These pumiliotoxins are major alkaloids in D. pumilio, and Brachymyrmex and Paratrechina ants now represent the only known dietary sources of these toxic alkaloids. These findings further support the significance of ant-specialization and alkaloid sequestration in the evolution of bright warning coloration in poison frogs and toads. PMID:15128938

  14. Differential allocation of seed-borne ergot alkaloids during early ontogeny of morning glories (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Wesley T; Panaccione, Daniel G; Hazekamp, Corey S; mckee, Michelle C; Ryan, Katy L; Clay, Keith

    2013-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that can increase host plant resistance to above- and below-ground herbivores. Some morning glories (Convolvulaceae) are infected by clavicipitaceous fungi (Periglandula spp.) that produce high concentrations of ergot alkaloids in seeds-up to 1000-fold greater than endophyte-infected grasses. Here, we evaluated the diversity and distribution of alkaloids in seeds and seedlings and variation in alkaloid distribution among species. We treated half the plants with fungicide to differentiate seed-borne alkaloids from alkaloids produced de novo post-germination and sampled seedling tissues at the cotyledon and first-leaf stages. Seed-borne alkaloids in Ipomoea amnicola, I. argillicola, and I. hildebrandtii remained primarily in the cotyledons, whereas I. tricolor allocated lysergic acid amides to the roots while retaining clavines in the cotyledons. In I. hildebrandtii, almost all festuclavine was found in the cotyledons. These observations suggest differential allocation of individual alkaloids. Intraspecific patterns of alkaloid distribution did not vary between fungicide-treated and control seedlings. Each species contained four to six unique ergot alkaloids and two species had the ergopeptine ergobalansine. De novo production of alkaloids did not begin immediately, as total alkaloids in fungicide-treated and control seedlings did not differ through the first-leaf stage, except in I. argillicola. In an extended time-course experiment with I. tricolor, de novo production was detected after the first-leaf stage. Our results demonstrate that allocation of seed-borne ergot alkaloids varies among species and tissues but is not altered by fungicide treatment. This variation may reflect a response to selection for defense against natural enemies. PMID:23835852

  15. Feeding deterrency of some pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids towards pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and evidence for phloem transport of indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, D L; Jones, K C; Molyneux, R J

    1985-08-01

    The feeding deterrency of a series of pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids and selected derivatives was measured against the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris). The indolizidine alkaloid, castanospermine, was intensely active (ED50, 20 ppm) as were the quinolizidine alkaloids, but only modest feeding deterrency was observed with most of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids tested. The insect survival rate of aphids on a castanospermine-supplemented diet over 24 hr was also very low relative to the controls. Castanospermine does not inhibit aphid trehalase. The indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine occurred in the honeydew of pea aphid feeding on the locoweed,Astragalus lentiginosus. Since the pea aphid is a phloem feeder, swainsonine must be transported in the phloem. PMID:24310329

  16. Urinary and biliary excretion of ergot alkaloids from steers that grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Stuedemann, J A; Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Fayrer-Hosken, R A; Hay, W P; Dawe, D L; Seman, D H; Martin, S A

    1998-08-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue. Little is known about the bioavailability of the ergot alkaloid classes (lysergic acid, lysergic acid amides, or ergopeptine alkaloids) in livestock, and this hampers development of pharmacological strategies to ameliorate the toxicosis. One method used to determine bioavailability of ergot alkaloids is to examine urinary and biliary excretion patterns. Thus, our objectives were to compare ergot alkaloid excretion via urinary or biliary systems and to determine the rate of appearance or clearance of these alkaloids in cattle that were grazing E+ or endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue. In autumn 1996, bile and urine samples were collected from eight steers (203 kg), each grazing E+ and E- tall fescue, and total alkaloid excretion was quantified using competitive ELISA. Approximately 96% of the ergot alkaloids were excreted in urine. The same steers were used to examine the rate of appearance in, or clearance from, urine when switched from E+ to E-, or from E- to E+, pastures in comparison with steers that were continuously grazing E+ or E- tall fescue at 0, 2, 5, and 7 d. Steers were returned to their original pastures after 7 d, and urine was collected at 2, 5, and 7 d. Urinary alkaloid concentrations in steers switched from E- to E+ pastures were similar (P = .55) to those in steers that continuously grazed E+ tall fescue after 2 d. Steers switched from E+ to E- pastures had urinary alkaloid concentrations similar (P = .91) to those in steers that continuously grazed E- pastures after 2 d. In 1997, two trials were conducted in which steers (191 kg) were switched or remained on E+ or E- pastures, and urine was collected at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 96 h to estimate rate of alkaloid appearance or clearance. Steers switched from E- to E+ 1) had about 33% as much urinary alkaloids as steers grazing E+ pasture after 12 h, 2) were not different after 24 h (P = .76), 3) had twice those of the E+ steers at 48 h (P < .05), and 4) were not different after 96 h. Steers switched from E+ to E- tall fescue had approximately 33% less (P < .05) urinary alkaloids than those grazing E+ at 12 h, 67% less (P < .05) at 24 and 48 h, and were not different (P = .86) from steers continuously grazing E- pastures after 96 h. Urinary alkaloid excretion patterns were similar to ergot alkaloid solubility patterns from in vitro digestion of E+ tall fescue. We suggest that alkaloids, liberated from the forage by ruminal microorganisms, were rapidly absorbed as lysergic acid amides and biotransformed ergopeptine alkaloids. PMID:9734865

  17. Alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Berkov, Strahil; Pavlov, Atanas

    2012-01-15

    The alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 18 alkaloids were identified, and galanthamine, hamayne and lycorine were dominant. The L. aestivum 80 shoot culture, cultivated at temporary immersion conditions, is a prospective biological matrix for obtaining wide range Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, showing valuable biological and pharmacological activities. The temperature of cultivation influenced enzyme activities, catalyzing phenol oxidative coupling of 4'-O-methylnorbelladine and formation of the different groups Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Decreasing the temperature of cultivation of L. aestivum 80 shoot culture led to activation of para-ortho' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of galanthamine type alkaloids) and inhibited ortho-para' and para-para' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of lycorine and haemanthamine types alkaloids). PMID:22118817

  18. Localization of the Enzymes of Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Leaf Chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus1

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Michael; Hartmann, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    Studies with purified chloroplasts of Lupinus polyphyllus LINDL. leaflets indicate that the first two enzymes of quinolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, lysine decarboxylase and 17-oxosparteine synthase, are localized in the chloroplast stroma. Thus, both enzymes share the same subcellular compartment as the biosynthetic pathway of lysine, the precursor of quinolizidine alkaloids. The activity of diaminopimelate decarboxylase, the final enzyme in lysine biosynthesis, is about two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the enzymes of alkaloid formation. PMID:16662483

  19. Sequestration of Veratrum alkaloids by specialist Rhadinoceraea nodicornis konow (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) and its ecoethological implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urs Schaffner; Jean-Luc Boevé; Hans Gfeller; Urs P. Schlunegger

    1994-01-01

    The larvae of the specialist sawflyRhadinoceraea nodicornis Konow (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) store in their hemolymph ceveratrum alkaloids originating from the host plantVeratrum album L. (Liliales, Melanthiaceae). The major alkaloid found in the hemolymph is 3-acetyl-zygadenine. Qualitative and quantitative data showed that the plant alkaloid 3-angeloylzygadenine is most probably metabolized in the larval gut to zygadenine and then acetylated. A still unidentified

  20. Distribution of morphinan and benzo[ c]phenanthridine alkaloid gene transcript accumulation in Papaver somniferum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fong-Chin Huang; Toni M Kutchan

    2000-01-01

    The opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. produces the antimicrobial benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloid sanguinarine and the narcotic analgesic morphinan alkaloid morphine. Transcripts of three genes of alkaloid biosynthesis in P. somniferum in developing seedlings, mature plants and plant cell suspension culture were monitored for temporal\\/spatial or for methyl jasmonate-induced accumulation by RNA gel blot analysis. These genes encoded (S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3?-hydroxylase (CYP80B1) that

  1. Organogenesis, Differentiation and Histolocalization of Alkaloids in Cultured Tissues and Organs of Duboisia myoporoides R. Br

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurussaba Khanam; Cheang Khoo; Robert Close; Abdul G. Khan

    2000-01-01

    Duboisia myoporoides R. Br. shoots were regenerated from non-organogenic and organogenic calli induced with nine different cytokinin\\/auxin combinations. Alkaloid colour reagents localized tropane alkaloids in the vascular regions which had large cells in the secondary xylem of the basal stem sections of the non-rooted shoots. Tropane alkaloids were localized in shoots regenerated from calli induced with two different cytokinin\\/auxin combinations.

  2. Effect of Agrobacterium rhizogenes T-DNA on alkaloid production in Solanaceae plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Moyano; S. Fornalé; J. Palazón; R. M. Cusidó; M. Bonfill; C. Morales; M. T. Piñol

    1999-01-01

    Inoculation of leaf sections of tobacco, Duboisia hybrid and Datura metel Solanaceae plants with A4 strain of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, induced transformed roots with the capacity to produce putrescine-derived alkaloids. In general, the hairy roots obtained showed two morphologies: typical hairy roots with high capacity to produce alkaloids and callus-like roots with faster growth capacity and lower alkaloid production. The aux1

  3. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition of three Chinese medicinal herbs, Eupatorium cannabinum, E. japonicum and Crotalaria assamica.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J A; Lin, H J; Kumana, C R; Ng, M M

    1992-01-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition of three Chinese herbs, "pei lan", "cheng gan cao" and "zi xiao rong," identified respectively as Eupatorium cannabinum, Eupatorium japonicum (Compositae) and Crotalaria assamica (Leguminosae), were studied by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry. Viridiflorine, cynaustraline, amabiline, supinine, echinatine, rinderine and isomers of these alkaloids were found in the Eupatorium species. Monocrotaline was the only pyrrolizidine alkaloid detected in the Crotalaria species. PMID:1471612

  4. Identification and quantitation of opium alkaloids in somatic embryos of Papaver somniferum L.

    E-print Network

    Galewsky, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    and makes them water soluble. The acidic aqueous extract is then made basic, usually with ammonium hydroxide, deprotonating the basic alkaloids and allowing them to partition into non-polar solvents. Evaporation of the solvent yields a residue which can... extractions makes use of the basic characteristics of these compounds. When alkaloids are in acetic acid they are water soluble salts; addition of concentrated ammonium hydroxide causes the alkaloids to form the free base. The free-base is less water...

  5. Non-competitive inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by bromotyrosine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Ogundajo, Akintayo L; Oladosu, Ibrahim A; Changwichit, Kanokwan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Yuenyongsawad, Supreeya; Plubrukarn, Anuchit

    2014-11-01

    Fifteen bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids were isolated from the sponge Pseudoceratina cf. purpurea. The acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity of all the isolated compounds were examined; to purealidin Q, isoanomoian A, aplyzanzine A, and aplysamine 2 were active with IC50 values of 1.2, 70, 104, and 1.3 ?M, respectively. On the other hand, antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells of aerophobin 1 gave an IC50 value of 0.8 ?M. The Michaelis-Menten plots of the active alkaloids indicated that all the four compounds inhibited acetylcholinesterase in a non-competitive manner. The structures of the active compounds suggested that the N,N-dimethylaminopropyloxydibromotyramine moiety may play an important role in the enzyme-inhibiting activity, presumably on the anionic and hydrophobic binding sites. PMID:25532280

  6. Recent progress in the total synthesis of indole alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Edwankar, Chitra R; Edwankar, Rahul V; Namjoshi, Ojas A; Rallapalli, Sundari K; Yang, Jie; Cook, James M

    2009-11-01

    This review describes the most recent synthetic routes directed toward the construction of structurally complex indole alkaloids, many syntheses of which contain the asymmetric Pictet-Spengler reaction as a key stereochemical step. A kinetic and conformational study of the epimerization of cis 1,2,3-trisubstituted tetrahydro-beta-carbolines into their trans counterparts is described, because this is key to complete asymmetric induction in the Pictet-Spengler reaction. A mechanistic study of the enzyme-catalyzed Pictet-Spengler reaction is also included. The total synthesis of the opioid agonist mitragynine, as well as corynantheidol and the oxindole alstonisine is presented. With regard to bisindole alkaloids, the total synthesis of the antileishmanial bisindoles accedinisine and N'-demethylaccedinisne is described. PMID:19894188

  7. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic isoquinoline alkaloids from Litsea cubeba.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Hu, Jin-Feng; Lv, Wen-Wen; Zhao, Qing-Chun; Shi, Guo-Bing

    2012-01-01

    Five novel isoquinoline alkaloids (+)-N-(methoxylcarbonyl)-N-nordicentrin (1), (+)-N-(methoxylcarbonyl)-N-norpredicentrine (2), (+)-N-(methoxylcarbonyl)-N-norbulbodione (3), and (+)-N-(methoxylcarbonyl)-N-norisocorydione (4), and (+)-8-methoxyisolaurenine-N- oxide (5) were isolated, together with one known compound, (+)-N-(methoxylcarbonyl)- N-norglaucine (6), from a 70% EtOH extract of the barks of Litsea cubeba. Structural elucidation of all the compounds were performed by spectral methods such as 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV, and HRESIMS. Alkaloids 1, 2 and 6 showed antimicrobial activity against the bacterium S. aureus and two fungi (A. alternata and C. nicotianae). Compounds 3,4 exhibited significant cytotoxicity against all of six tested tumor cell lines. PMID:23117434

  8. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Sophora velutina subsp. zimbabweensis (Fabaceae: Sophoreae).

    PubMed

    Korir, Erick; Kiplimo, Joyce J; Crouch, Neil R; Moodley, Nivan; Koorbanally, Neil A

    2012-08-01

    Three novel quinolizidine alkaloids, N-methylenehydroxycytisine (1), 6,7-dihydroxylupanine (2), and velutinine (3) have been isolated from the fruits and pods (1 and 2) and stem bark (3) of Sophora velutina subsp. zimbabweensis along with the known quinolizidine alkaloids, 7-hydroxylupanine (4), thermopsine (5), N-methylcytisine (6), cytisine (7), an aromatic ester, methyl-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-propenoate (8) and the triterpenoids, lup-20(29)-ene-3beta-ol (9) and 12-oleanen-3-one (10). Compounds 6 and 10 showed good antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, with MIC values of 20.8 and 10.9 microg mL(-1), respectively. The other compounds tested exhibited low to moderate antibacterial activity. PMID:22978215

  9. A Submarine Journey: The Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Barbara; Malgesini, Beatrice; Piutti, Claudia; Quartieri, Francesca; Scolaro, Alessandra; Papeo, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    In his most celebrated tale “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, Oscar Wilde stated that “those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril”. This sentence could be a prophetical warning for the practitioner who voluntarily challenges himself with trying to synthesize marine sponge-deriving pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. This now nearly triple-digit membered community has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years, both in terms of new representatives and topological complexity – from simple, achiral oroidin to the breathtaking 12-ring stylissadines A and B, each possessing 16 stereocenters. While the biosynthesis and the role in the sponge economy of most of these alkaloids still lies in the realm of speculations, significant biological activities for some of them have clearly emerged. This review will account for the progress in achieving the total synthesis of the more biologically enticing members of this class of natural products. PMID:20098608

  10. Morphogenesis and Ultrastructure of Claviceps purpurea During Submerged Alkaloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Vo?íšek, J.; Ludvík, J.; ?ehá?ek, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Criteria for morphogenetic and ultrastructural distinction between conidia and chlamydospores of a submerged culture of Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. are described. Both the hyphae of the sphacelia (asexual) stage and the conidia contained granular cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic invaginations in vacuoles were transformed to electron-opaque bodies and disintegrated prior to germination. The budding of conidia had basipetal succession. The chlamydospores were formed by rounding up the terminal cells of filamentous hyphae. Homogeneous nonvacuolized cytoplasm with lipid droplets and lipid-forming bodies was characteristic of young chlamydospores. Cristate mitochondria did not appear in the chlamydospores before the alkaloid production phase. Simultaneously a specific organelle in the chlamydospores, a dense body, appeared to absorb intracellular lipids and form large deposits of phospholipid material. No germination of chlamydospores was observed. The ultrastructural pattern described for chlamydospores was also observed in hyphae with reduced proliferation during the alkaloid production phase. Images PMID:4436258

  11. Alkaloids of Stipa robusta (sleepygrass) infected with an Acremonium endophyte.

    PubMed

    Petroski, R J; Powell, R G; Clay, K

    1992-01-01

    Stipa robusta (= Stipa vaseyi) is a perennial grass found in certain areas of the southwestern United States. It is commonly known as sleepygrass, as horses that ingest this grass may become profoundly somnolent or stuporous for periods of time lasting up to several days. In an attempt to determine the active principle(s), fractionation of a methanolic extract of sleepygrass infected with an Acremonium endophyte has yielded lysergic acid amide (20 micrograms/g dry wt), isolysergic amide (8), 8-hydroxylsergic acid amide (0.3), ergonovine (7), chanoclavine-I (15), and N-formylloline (18). Related alkaloids have been found in many endophyte-infected grasses. The dominant alkaloid constituent in sleepygrass, lysergic acid amide, has not previously been identified in a grass in such high concentration. Lysergic acid amide is likely to be the basis for the extreme sedative effects on animals, given past pharmacological work on the compound from the ergot fungus Claviceps paspali. PMID:1344912

  12. Interrupted Fischer Indolization Approach toward the Communesin Alkaloids and Perophoramidine

    PubMed Central

    Schammel, Alex W.; Chiou, Grace; Garg, Neil K.

    2012-01-01

    A concise approach toward the total synthesis of the communesin alkaloids and perophoramidine is reported. The strategy relies on the use of the interrupted Fischer indolization to build the tetracyclic indoline core of the natural products. Studies to probe the scope and limitations of this plan are presented. Although the methodology does not tolerate a C8-allyl substituent en route to the challenging vicinal quaternary stereocenters, variation at C7 and on the C ring is permitted. PMID:22905746

  13. Anti-invasive activity of alkaloids and polyphenolics in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virinder S. Parmar; Marc E. Bracke; Jan Philippe; Jesper Wengel; Subhash C. Jain; Carl E. Olsen; Kirpal S. Bisht; Nawal K. Sharma; Andy Courtens; Sunil K. Sharma; Krist'l Vennekens; Veerle Van Marck; Sanjay K. Singh; Naresh Kumar; Ajay Kumar; Sanjay Malhotra; Rajesh Kumar; Vivek K. Rajwanshi; Rajni Jain; Marc M. Mareel

    1997-01-01

    Invasiveness, the ability of certain tumour cells to migrate beyond their natural tissue boundaries, often leads to metastasis, and usually determines the fatal outcome of cancer. The need for anti-invasive agents has led us to search for possibly active compounds among alkaloids and polyphenolics. One hundred compounds were screened in an assay based on the confrontation of invasive human MCF-7\\/6

  14. 2-substituted quinoline alkaloids as potential antileishmanial drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Fournet, A; Barrios, A A; Muñoz, V; Hocquemiller, R; Cavé, A; Bruneton, J

    1993-01-01

    Ten 2-substituted quinoline alkaloids isolated from a plant used for treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis have antileishmanial in vitro activities against the extracellular forms of Leishmania spp. BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania amazonensis PH8 or H-142 or Leishmania venezuelensis were treated 1 day after the parasitic infection with a quinoline alkaloid (100 mg/kg of body weight per day) or with reference drug N-methylglucamine antimonate (Glucantime) (56 mg of pentavalent antimony [Sbv] per kg per day) for 14 days. Lesion development was the criterium used to assess disease severity. Two three-carbon chain quinolines [2-n-propylquinoline and 2-(1',2'-trans-epoxypropyl)quinoline (chimanine D)] were more potent than N-methylglucamine antimonate against L. amazonensis PH8, and five quinoline alkaloids [2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenylethyl)quinoline, cusparine, 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)quinoline, 2-(E)-prop-1'-enylquinoline (chimanine B), and skimmianine] were as effective as the reference drug. Single treatment near the site of infection, 14 days after infection with L. amazonensis, with 2-n-propylquinoline or chimanine B reduced the severity of lesions but less notably than N-methylglucamine antimonate. 2-n-Propylquinoline exhibited significant activity against the virulent strain L. venezuelensis. The active products did not show any apparent toxicities during the experiment. This study is, to our knowledge, the first to show the activity of 2-substituted quinoline alkaloids for experimental treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further investigations of these compounds might yet prove helpful for the development of new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:8494383

  15. Zoaramine, a zoanthamine-like alkaloid with a new skeleton.

    PubMed

    Cen-Pacheco, Francisco; Norte, Manuel; Fernández, José J; Daranas, Antonio Hernández

    2014-06-01

    Chemical investigation of an Atlantic variety of Zoanthus sp. led to the isolation of two new metabolites, zoaramine and zoarenone. Their structures were deduced by the use of NMR spectroscopy and computational calculation of (1)H and (13)C chemical shifts. The core of these novel compounds resembles the structure of norzoanthamine alkaloids, and their isolation represents an important step toward a better understanding of the biogenetic origin of this group of antiosteoporotic molecules. PMID:24831410

  16. Alkaloids of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) species from Southern Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Angelo S. Zuanazzi; Valéria Tremea; Renata P. Limberger; Marcos Sobral; Amélia T. Henriques

    2001-01-01

    A new alkaloid identified as 3?,6?-ditigloyloxynortropane as 3?,7?-ditigloyloxynortropane, 4-hydroxyhygrinic acid, methylecgonidine and tropacocaine have been isolated from the leaves of Erythroxylum argentinum. The new structure was established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Four other species E. deciduum, E. microphyllum, E. pelleterianum and E. cuneifolium collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were screened for methylecgonidine and tropacocaine by

  17. Bioactive carbazole alkaloids from the stems of Clausena lansium.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Qian; Liu, Hang; Li, Chuang-Jun; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Dan; Li, Li; Sun, Hua; Bao, Xiu-Qi; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Seven new carbazole alkaloids, claulansines L-R (1-7), and six known analogues (8-13) were isolated from the stems of Clausena lansium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including UV, IR, and NMR experiments (HSQC, HMBC, and NOE experiment). Compound 7 showed moderate anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 3, 5, 6, 8, and 12 exhibited moderate hepatoprotective activities. PMID:25804252

  18. Clausenol and clausenine--two carbazole alkaloids from Clausena anisata.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Chowdhury, B K; Bhattacharyya, P

    1995-09-01

    Two new carbazole alkaloids, designated as clausenol and clausenine, were isolated from an alcoholic extract of the stem bark of Clausena anisata. Their structures were established as 1-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methylcarbazole and 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl carbazole, respectively, from physical and chemical evidence and synthesis. Clausenol was found to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. PMID:7546552

  19. Lycotetrastine A, a novel hexacyclic alkaloid from Huperzia tetrasticha

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Adil Astulla; Motoo Shiro; Hiroshi Morita

    2011-01-01

    A novel C20N-type Lycopodium alkaloid with an unprecedented fused-hexacyclic ring system consisting of a ?-lactone, an aza-cycloheptene, an aza-cyclohexane, a cyclohexane, a cyclopentane, and tetrahydrofuran rings, lycotetrastine A (1) was isolated from the club moss of Huperzia tetrasticha. The structure and absolute stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations and X-ray analysis.

  20. Ultrasonic extraction of steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; O'Donnell, Colm P; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2014-07-01

    Potato processors produce large volumes of waste in the form of potato peel which is either discarded or sold at a low price. Potato peel waste is a potential source of steroidal alkaloids which are biologically active secondary metabolites which could serve as precursors to agents with apoptotic, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the relative efficacy of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and solid liquid extraction (SLE) both using methanol, to extract steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste and identified optimal conditions for UAE of ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine. Using response surface methodology optimal UAE conditions were identified as an amplitude of 61 ?m and an extraction time of 17 min which resulted the recovery of 1102 ?g steroidal alkaloids/g dried potato peel (DPP). In contrast, SLE yielded 710.51 glycoalkaloid ?g/g DPP. Recoveries of individual glycoalkoids using UAE yielded 273, 542.7, 231 and 55.3 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. Whereas for SLE yields were 180.3, 337.6, 160.2 and 32.4 ?g/g DPP for ?-solanine, ?-chaconine, solanidine and demissidine respectively. The predicted values from the developed second order quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the experimental values with low average mean deviation (E<5%) values. Predicted models were highly significant (p<0.05) for all parameters studied. This study indicates that UAE has strong potential as an extraction method for steroidal alkaloids from potato peel waste. PMID:24582305

  1. Effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids through different trophic levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Roberto Trigo

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), mainly those with a 1,2-double bond in the necine base moiety (=1,2-dehydropyrrolizidines),\\u000a constitute a class of well studied compounds with respect to their flux through different trophic levels. Plants belonging\\u000a to various clades (e.g. Echiteae, Eupatorieae and Senecioneae, Boraginaceae, and Crotalarieae) biosynthesize PAs as N-oxides, generally in the roots, and transport them through the phloem to stems,

  2. Amaryllidaceae Isocarbostyril Alkaloids and Their Derivatives as Promising Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ingrassia, Laurent; Lefranc, Florence; Mathieu, Véronique; Darro, Francis; Kiss, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This review covers the isolation, total synthesis, biologic activity, and more particularly the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activities of naturally occurring isocarbostyril alkaloids from the Amaryllidaceae family. Starting from these natural products, new derivatives have been synthesized to explore structure-activity relationships within the chemical class and to obtain potential candidates for preclinical development. This approach appears to be capable of providing novel promising anticancer agents. PMID:18607503

  3. Improved extraction and complete mass spectral characterization of steroidal alkaloids from Veratrum californicum.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Christopher M; Habig, Jeffrey W; Fisher, Ashley A; Ambrose, Katherine V; Jiménez, Susana T; McDougal, Owen M

    2013-08-01

    Four steroidal alkaloids extracted from the roots and rhizomes of Veratrum californicum were separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified using high resolution electrospray ionization time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS/MS) as veratrosine, cycloposine, veratramine, and cyclopamine. This paper compares ethanol and benzene as extraction solvents, HPLC solvent conditions leading to good separation of steroidal alkaloids, and MS/MS fragmentation patterns for the four steroidal alkaloids which have been released to the public database MassBank.jp. The reported Soxhlet extraction method nearly triples the recovery of steroidal alkaloids from V. californicum. PMID:24079166

  4. A new isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-microbial properties from Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid. var. jaeschkeana.

    PubMed

    Alamzeb, Muhammad; Khan, M Rafiullah; Mamoon-Ur-Rashid; Ali, Saqib; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    One new isoquinoline alkaloid named berberidione (1) along with four new source alkaloids berberine (2), palmatine (3), jatrorrhizine (4) and chondrofoline (5) and three new source non-alkaloids syringic acid (6), ?-sitosterol (7) and stigmasterol (8) was isolated and characterised from different fractions of Berberis jaeschkeana Schneid var. jaeschkeana. All the structures were determined from 1D and 2D spectroscopic data. Crude extract, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed excellent anti-microbial properties. The toxicity level for the alkaloids was found to be very low on THP-1 cells. PMID:25424893

  5. Feeding responses to selected alkaloids by gypsy moth larvae, Lymantria dispar (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Rodgers, Erin J.; Arnold, Nicole S.; Williams, Denise

    2006-03-01

    Deterrent compounds are important in influencing the food selection of many phytophagous insects. Plants containing deterrents, such as alkaloids, are generally unfavored and typically avoided by many polyphagous lepidopteran species, including the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). We tested the deterrent effects of eight alkaloids using two-choice feeding bioassays. Each alkaloid was applied at biologically relevant concentrations to glass fiber disks and leaf disks from red oak trees ( Quercus rubra) (L.), a plant species highly favored by these larvae. All eight alkaloids tested on glass fiber disks were deterrent to varying degrees. When these alkaloids were applied to leaf disks, only seven were still deterrent. Of these seven, five were less deterrent on leaf disks compared with glass fiber disks, indicating that their potency was dramatically reduced when they were applied to leaf disks. The reduction in deterrency may be attributed to the phagostimulatory effect of red oak leaves in suppressing the negative deterrent effect of these alkaloids, suggesting that individual alkaloids may confer context-dependent deterrent effects in plants in which they occur. This study provides novel insights into the feeding behavioral responses of insect larvae, such as L. dispar, to selected deterrent alkaloids when applied to natural vs artificial substrates and has the potential to suggest deterrent alkaloids as possible candidates for agricultural use.

  6. Activities of Naphthylisoquinoline Alkaloids and Synthetic Analogs against Leishmania major?

    PubMed Central

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia; Faber, Johan H.; Gulder, Tanja; Kajahn, Inga; Pedersen, Sarah E. H.; Schultheis, Martina; Bringmann, Gerhard; Moll, Heidrun

    2007-01-01

    The current treatments for leishmaniasis are unsatisfactory due to their toxic side effects, high costs, and increasing problems with drug resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative drugs against leishmaniasis. Different approaches have been used to identify novel pharmacophores against Leishmania sp. parasites, and one strategy has been the analysis of naturally occurring plant-derived compounds, including naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, we examined the abilities of these alkaloids to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes and evaluated their effects on macrophages, dendritic cells, and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we determined the efficacy of selected compounds in decreasing the infection rate of macrophages and regulating their production of cytokines and nitric oxide. Our results demonstrate that the naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids ancistrocladiniums A and B (compounds 10 and 11) and the synthetic isoquinolinium salt (compound 14) were effective against intracellular amastigotes in the low submicromolar range, while toxicity against mammalian cells was observed at concentrations that were significantly higher than those needed to impair parasite replication. The activities of compounds 11 and 14 were mainly directed against the amastigote stage of L. major. This effect was not associated with the stimulation of host macrophages to produce nitric oxide or secrete cytokines relevant for the leishmanicidal function. In conclusion, our data suggest that ancistrocladiniums A and B (compounds 10 and 11) and the synthetically prepared isoquinolinium salt (compound 14) are promising candidates to be considered as lead compounds for leishmanicidal drugs. PMID:17088484

  7. Cactus alkaloids. XXXVI. Mescaline and related compounds from Trichocereus peruvianus.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, J H; McLaughlin, J L; Kondrat, R W; Cooks, R G

    1977-01-01

    Agurell has previously detected (tlc, glc-ms) tyramine, 3-methoxytyramine, and two unknown alkaloids in the Peruvian cactus, Trichocereus peruvianus Br. and R. The presence of mescaline in other similar Trichocereus species prompted us to reinvestigate this species, which is commercially available in the United States. The nonphenolic alkaloid extracts yielded an abundance of crystalline mescaline hydrochloride (0.82% yield) and a trace of 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine (tlc-ms). Crystalline tyramine hydrochloride, 3-methoxytyramine hydrochloride, and 3,5 dimethoxy-4-hydroxphenethylamine hydrochloride were isolated from the phenolic alkaloid extracts; the last compound has not been previously crystallized from nature, although it is the immediate biosynthetic precursor of mescaline. Crystalline 2-chloromescaline hydrochloride was isolated drom the nonphenolic extracts; but, as determined by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry, this new compound is an extraction artifact. Both 2-chloromescaline and 2.6-dichloromescaline hydrochlorides were prepared synthetically from mescaline. This cactus species has a mescaline content equal or superior to peyote and should be legally controlled as an item of drug abuse. PMID:600028

  8. Alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don cell cultures. XIII. Effects of bioregulators on indole alkaloid biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Kutney; Barbara Aweryn; Kenneth B. Chatson; Lewis S. L. Choi; Wolfgang G. W. Kurz

    1985-01-01

    A study on the effect of various bioregulators on the biosynthesis of ajmalicine (8) and catharanthine (9) in plant tissue cultures of Catharanthus roseus is described. It is shown that 1,1-dimethylpiperidine bromide (3) and 2-diethylaminoethyl-3,4-dimethylphenylether (7) are effective in increasing these alkaloid levels in the cell line PRL #200. Such studies may prove beneficial in larger scale experiments designed for

  9. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in two Cryptantha species: Including two new open chain diesters one of which is amphoteric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A livestock poisoning outbreak near Kingman, Arizona, USA, potentially linked to dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, prompted an evaluation of some local plants for the presence of these hepatotoxic alkaloids. Two species of Cryptantha, a Boraginaceous genus previously shown to produce potentially toxic...

  10. [Effect produced by the alkaloid fraction of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite) on the peristaltic reflex of the guinea pig ileum].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L; Martínez, M

    1990-01-01

    An alkaloidal fraction was obtained from Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir (tepescohuite) trunk bark. The product contained mainly an indolealkylamine and three minor alkaloids. This fraction inhibited the peristaltic reflex in the guinea-pig isolated ileum in vitro. PMID:2103706

  11. An Ergot Alkaloid Biosynthesis Gene and Clustered Hypothetical Genes from Aspergillus fumigatus†

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Christine M.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    The ergot alkaloids are a family of indole-derived mycotoxins with a variety of significant biological activities. Aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, and several fungi in the relatively distant taxon Clavicipitaceae (clavicipitaceous fungi) produce different sets of ergot alkaloids. The ergot alkaloids of these divergent fungi share a four-member ergoline ring but differ in the number, type, and position of the side chains. Several genes required for ergot alkaloid production are known in the clavicipitaceous fungi, and these genes are clustered in the genome of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. We investigated whether the ergot alkaloids of A. fumigatus have a common biosynthetic and genetic origin with those of the clavicipitaceous fungi. A homolog of dmaW, the gene controlling the determinant step in the ergot alkaloid pathway of clavicipitaceous fungi, was identified in the A. fumigatus genome. Knockout of dmaW eliminated all known ergot alkaloids from A. fumigatus, and complementation of the mutation restored ergot alkaloid production. Clustered with dmaW in the A. fumigatus genome are sequences corresponding to five genes previously proposed to encode steps in the ergot alkaloid pathway of C. purpurea, as well as additional sequences whose deduced protein products are consistent with their involvement in the ergot alkaloid pathway. The corresponding genes have similarities in their nucleotide sequences, but the orientations and positions within the cluster of several of these genes differ. The data indicate that the ergot alkaloid biosynthetic capabilities in A. fumigatus and the clavicipitaceous fungi had a common origin. PMID:15933009

  12. Construction of the [6-7-5-5] tetracyclic core of all the carbocyclic frameworks of yuzurimine-type alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Ichiro; Niida, Keisuke; Kigoshi, Hideo

    2015-07-25

    Yuzurimine-type alkaloids make up a sub-family of Daphniphyllum alkaloids structurally featuring a [6-7-5-5] tetracarbocyclic core framework. In this manuscript, we describe our construction of the [6-7-5-5] tetracarbocyclic core of yuzurimine-type alkaloids by using a unique in situ intramolecular Wittig reaction and Sm-mediated cyclization as key steps. PMID:26097917

  13. Variability in tissue cultures of Choisya ternata . III comparing alkaloid production in cell lines obtained by various strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyne Trémouillaux-Guiller; Hippolyte Kodja; Françoise Andreu; Joël Crèche; Jean-Claude Chénieux; Marc Rideau

    1988-01-01

    Callus cultures of Choisya ternata have been prepared by different strategies: aggregate clones, subclones and protoclones obtained from well-established strains; protoclones obtained from mesophyll tissue; cultures transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. All of them show high variability in their dihydrofuroquinoline alkaloid production. As compared to the alkaloid content of the whole plant, one alkaloid (platydesminium) could be obtained in higher amounts

  14. [Expression pattern of genes involved in tropane alkaloids biosynthesis and tropane alkaloids accumulation in Atropa belladonna].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Wei; Wang, Ya-Xiong; Zhang, Qiao-Zhuo; Li, Jin-Di; Xia, Ke; Wu, Neng-Biao; Liao, Zhi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Atropa belladonna is a medicinal plant and main commercial source of tropane alkaloids (TAs) including scopolamine and hyoscyamine, which are anticholine drugs widely used clinically. Based on the high throughput transcriptome sequencing results, the digital expression patterns of UniGenes representing 9 structural genes (ODC, ADC, AIH, CPA, SPDS, PMT, CYP80F1, H6H, TRII) involved in TAs biosynthesis were constructed, and simultaneously expression analysis of 4 released genes in NCBI (PMT, CYP80F1, H6H, TRII) for verification was performed using qPCR, as well as the TAs contents detection in 8 different tissues. Digital expression patterns results suggested that the 4 genes including ODC, ADC, AIH and CPA involved in the upstream pathway of TAs, and the 2 branch pathway genes including SPDS and TRII were found to be expressed in all the detected tissues with high expression level in secondary root. While the 3 TAs-pathway-specific genes including PMT, CYP80F1, H6H were only expressed in secondary roots and primary roots, mainly in secondary roots. The qPCR detection results of PMT, CYP80F1 and H6H were consistent with the digital expression patterns, but their expression levels in primary root were too low to be detected. The highest content of hyoscyamine was found in tender stems (3.364 mg x g(-1)), followed by tender leaves (1.526 mg x g(-1)), roots (1.598 mg x g(-1)), young fruits (1.271 mg x g(-1)) and fruit sepals (1.413 mg x g(-1)). The highest content of scopolamine was detected in fruit sepals (1.003 mg x g(-1)), then followed by tender stems (0.600 mg x g(-1)) and tender leaves (0.601 mg x g(-1)). Both old stems and old leaves had the lowest content of hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The gene expression profile and TAs accumulation indicated that TAs in Atropa belladonna were mainly biosynthesized in secondary root, and then transported and deposited in tender aerial parts. Screening Atropa belladonna secondary root transcriptome database will facilitate unveiling the unknown enzymatic reactions and the mechanisms of transcriptional control. PMID:24754168

  15. Quinolizidine alkaloids and phomopsins in lupin seeds and lupin containing food

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Reinhard; Heinz Rupp; Fritz Sager; Michael Streule; Otmar Zoller

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in replacing (genetically modified) soya by lupin. Lupin seeds, flours and lupin containing food have been analyzed in order to assess the relevance of a potential health hazard given by mycotoxins and\\/or naturally occurring alkaloids. Since not all important alkaloids used for quantitation were commercially available, isolation of lupanine, 13?-hydroxylupanine and angustifoline

  16. Toxicity of ergovaline, the tall fescue ergot alkaloid, to Pratylenchus scribneri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotyphodium infected tall fescue produces a variety of secondary metabolites that are toxic and/or grazing deterrents. Alkaloid production has been related to defense against vertebrate and insect pests, in particular plant-parasitic nematodes. The ergot and pyrrollizidine (loline) alkaloids are ...

  17. Agelasine G, a new antileukemic alkaloid from the Okinawan marine sponge Agelas sp.

    PubMed

    Ishida, K; Ishibashi, M; Shigemori, H; Sasaki, T; Kobayashi, J

    1992-03-01

    A new antileukemic alkaloid, agelasine G (1a), has been isolated from the Okinawan marine sponge Agelas sp. and its structure elucidated to be a bromopyrrole alkaloid containing 9-methyladenine and diterpene moieties on the basis of the spectroscopic data. PMID:1611691

  18. Automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography for separation of opiate alkaloids and derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques Pothier; Nicole Galand

    2005-01-01

    There are three types of opiate alkaloids. First, the poppy alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine; then, the semi-synthetic and synthetic derivatives used in therapy as antitussives and analgesics, such as pholcodine, ethylmorphine and dextromethorphan; at last narcotic compounds, diacetylmorphine (heroin) and opiates employed as substitutes in treatment of addiction: buprenorphine and methadone. For classical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of

  19. Analysis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids from Narcissus by GC–MS and capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gotti; J. Fiori; M. Bartolini; V. Cavrini

    2006-01-01

    Amaryllidaceae are known as ornamental plants, furthermore some species of this family contain galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and other alkaloids with interesting pharmacological activity. In the present work, the quali- and quantitative analysis of Amaryllidaceae-type alkaloids in the bulbs of Narcissus species is presented using different analytical approaches. Extracts of Narcissus pseudonarcissus cv.

  20. Ten new fawcettimine-related alkaloids from three species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuaki Katakawa; Hiroko Mito; Noriyuki Kogure; Mariko Kitajima; Sumphan Wongseripipatana; Munehisa Arisawa; Hiromitsu Takayama

    2011-01-01

    Ten new fawcettimine-related alkaloids, i.e., lycopoclavamines, lycoposquarrosamine-A, and other hydroxylated fawcettimine derivatives, were isolated from three species of Lycopodium (Lycopodium clavatum, Lycopodium serratum, and Lycopodium squarrosum). The structures of the new alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical correlation.

  1. Heterozygous P53 knockout mouse model for dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced carcinogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids are a large, structurally diverse group of plant-derived protoxins that are potentially carcinogenic. With worldwide significance, these alkaloids can contaminate or be naturally present in the human food supply. To develop a small animal model that may be used to com...

  2. Toxic alkaloid concentrations in Delphinium nuttallianum, D. andersonii, and D. geyeri in the Intermountain region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low larkspurs (Delphinium nuttalliunum, D. andersonii) and plains larkspur (D. geyeri) are serious poisoning threats to cattle grazing on western North American rangelands. The dominant toxic alkaloid in low larkspurs and plains larkspur is methyllycaconitine (MLA); another very toxic alkaloid in lo...

  3. Studies on Indonesian medicinal plants VI further alkaloids from Fibraurea chloroleuca.

    PubMed

    Siwon, J; Verpoorte, R; Svendsen, A B

    1981-01-01

    From the stem and root bark of Fibraurea chloroleuca Miers the alkaloids magnoflorine, pseudocolumbamine, dehydrocorydalmine and palmatrubine were isolated and identified by their spectral data. By means of TLC the alkaloids berberine and berberrubine were found to be present in minute amounts. PMID:17401818

  4. Phase II study of a new vinca alkaloid derivative, S12363, in advanced breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antoine Adenis; Jean-Marc Pion; Pierre Fumoleau; Pierre Pouillart; Michel Marty; Bruno Giroux; Jacques Bonneterre

    1995-01-01

    Vinca alkaloids are widely used in the medical treatment of breast cancer. Our study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic activity of a new vinca alkaloid derivative, S12363 (vinfosiltine), which is 36 and 72 times more cytotoxic in vitro than vincristine and vinblastine, respectively. Because phase I studies did not allow a choice of the best treatment schedule, a randomization was

  5. Antifungal activity of the methanolic extract and alkaloids of Glaucium oxylobum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Morteza-Semnani; Gh. Amin; M. R. Shidfar; H. Hadizadeh; A. Shafiee

    2003-01-01

    The methanolic extract and total alkaloids of the aerial parts of Glaucium oxylobum exhibited good activity against Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis,Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Four alkaloids, dicentrine, glaucine, protopine, and ?-allocryptopine, were identified as the compounds responsible for the antifungal activity of this plant.

  6. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect vasoactivity of these compounds. Objectives were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in mesenteric artery and vein and determine if previous exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue affec...

  7. Genetic Variability and Interrelationship Among Opium and its Alkaloids in Opium Poppy ( Papaver Somniferum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hemant K. Yadav; S. Shukla; S. P. Singh

    2006-01-01

    Summary  The plant species Papaver somniferum L. (opium poppy) is grown commercially in several countries under secure area to produce opium and its major alkaloids i.e. morphine, codeine, thebaine, narcotine and papaverine for pharmaceutical industries. In recent years the global demand for these alkaloids and its derivatives are growing. Seeing the global demand there is urgent need to develop high opium

  8. Effect of Feeding Fescue Seed Containing Ergot Alkaloid Toxins on Stallion Spermatogenesis and Sperm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fayrer-Hosken, R; Stanley, A; Hill, N; Heusner, G; Christian, M; Fuente, R De La; Baumann, C; Jones, L

    2012-01-01

    Contents The cellular effects of tall fescue grass–associated toxic ergot alkaloids on stallion sperm and colt testicular tissue were evaluated. This was a continuation of an initial experiment where the effects of toxic ergot alkaloids on the stallion spermiogram were investigated. The only spermiogram parameter in exposed stallions that was affected by the toxic ergot alkaloids was a decreased gel-free volume of the ejaculate. This study examined the effect of toxic ergot alkaloids on chilling and freezing of the stallion sperm cells. The effect of toxic ergot alkaloids on chilled extended sperm cells for 48 h at 5 °C was to make the sperm cells less likely to undergo a calcium ionophore–induced acrosome reaction. The toxic ergot alkaloids had no effect on the freezability of sperm cells. However, if yearling colts were fed toxic ergot alkaloids, then the cytological analysis of meiotic chromosome synapsis revealed a significant increase in the proportion of pachytene spermatocytes showing unpaired sex chromosomes compared to control spermatocytes. There was little effect of ergot alkaloids on adult stallions, but there might be a significant effect on yearling colts. PMID:22524585

  9. NATURAL FUNGICIDES FROM RUTA GRAVEOLENS L. LEAVES, INCLUDING A NEW QUINOLONE ALKALOID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-directed isolation of antifungal compounds from Ruta graveolens leaves yielded seven compounds (two furanocoumarins, four quinolone alkaloids, including one novel compound (1-methyl-2- 4-[3,4-(methylenedioxy)phenyl]hexyl]-4-quinolone), and one quinoline alkaloid). We also report the 1H and ...

  10. Ability of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana to produce Cinchona alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Shoji; Simanjuntak, Partomuan; Maetani, Yoshihide; Kitamura, Chinami; Ohashi, Kazuyoshi; Shibuya, Hirotaka

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the ability of endophytic filamentous fungi associated with Cinchona ledgeriana (Rubiaceae) to produce Cinchona alkaloids on potato dextrose agar medium and in a synthetic liquid medium. It was found that all twenty-one endophytic fungi produce Cinchona alkaloids, despite their genetic differences. PMID:22886817

  11. The serum concentrations of lupine alkaloids in orally-dosed Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Davis, T Zane

    2015-06-01

    Teratogenic alkaloid-containing Lupinus spp. cause congenital defects known as crooked calf disease that is periodically economically devastating for the cattle industry. Previous research indicates that cattle breeds may eliminate plant toxins differently, potentially altering their susceptibility. The objective of this study was to describe the toxicokinetics in Holsteins of anagyrine, the teratogenic lupine alkaloid that produces crooked calf disease. Other alkaloids including lupanine, an unidentified alkaloid and 5,6-dehydrolupanine were also evaluated. Dried ground Lupinus leucophyllus was orally dosed to four Holstein steers and blood samples were collected for 96?h, analyzed for serum alkaloid concentrations and toxicokinetic parameters calculated. The serum elimination of anagyrine in Holstein steers was faster than those reported for beef breeds. This suggests that Holsteins may be less susceptible to lupine-induced crooked calf disease. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings and to verify if there is a breed difference in disease incidence or severity. PMID:25912242

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Crotalaria taxa from northern Australia: risk to grazing livestock.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Mary T; McKenzie, Ross A; Blaney, Barry J; Reichmann, Keith G

    2009-01-14

    Crotalaria species containing hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids grow widely in pastures in northern Australia and have sporadically poisoned grazing livestock. The diverse Crotalaria taxa present in these pastures include varieties, subspecies, and chemotypes not previously chemically examined. This paper reports the pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition and content of 24 Crotalaria taxa from this region and assesses the risk of poisoning in livestock consuming them. Alkaloids present in C. goreensis , C. aridicola subsp. densifolia, and C. medicaginea var. neglecta lack the esterified 1,2-unsaturated functionality required for pyrrole adduct formation, and these taxa are not hepatotoxic. Taxa with high levels of hepatotoxic alkaloids, abundance, and biomass pose the greatest risk to livestock health, particularly C. novae-hollandiae subsp. novae-hollandiae, C. ramosissima , C. retusa var. retusa, and C. crispata . Other species containing moderate alkaloid levels, C. spectabilis and C. mitchellii , also pose significant risk when locally abundant. PMID:19061310

  13. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  14. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  15. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  16. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and ?-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and ?-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21949209

  17. Unravelling the architecture and dynamics of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis pathways using metabolite correlation networks.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Kieu-Oanh; Jamali, Arash; Lanoue, Arnaud; Gontier, Eric; Dauwe, Rebecca

    2015-08-01

    The tropane alkaloid spectrum in Solanaceae is highly variable within and between species. Little is known about the topology and the coordination of the biosynthetic pathways leading to the variety of tropine and pseudotropine derived esters in the alkaloid spectrum, or about the metabolic dynamics induced by tropane alkaloid biosynthesis stimulating conditions. A good understanding of the metabolism, including all ramifications, is however necessary for the development of strategies to increase the abundance of pharmacologically interesting compounds such as hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The present study explores the tropane alkaloid metabolic pathways in an untargeted approach involving a correlation-based network analysis. Using GC-MS metabolite profiling, the variation and co-variation among tropane alkaloids and primary metabolites was monitored in 60 Datura innoxia Mill. individuals, of which half were exposed to tropane alkaloid biosynthesis stimulating conditions by co-culture with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Considerable variation was evident in the relative proportions of the tropane alkaloids. Remodeling of the tropane alkaloid spectrum under co-culture with A. rhizogenes involved a specific and strong increase of hyoscyamine production and revealed that the accumulation of hyoscyamine, 3-tigloyloxy-6,7-epoxytropane, and 3-methylbutyryloxytropane was controlled independently of the majority of tropane alkaloids. Based on correlations between metabolites, we propose a biosynthetic origin of hygrine, the order of esterification of certain di-oxygenated tropanes, and that the rate of acetoxylation contributes to control of hyoscyamine production. Overall, this study shows that the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids may be far more complex and finely controlled than previously expected. PMID:25823585

  18. Bovine lateral saphenous veins exposed to ergopeptine alkaloids do not relax.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, A; Harmon, D L; Branco, A F; Klotz, J L

    2014-03-01

    The ergot alkaloid ergovaline has demonstrated a persistent and sustained contractile response in several different vascular models. It was hypothesized that different alkaloids isolated from tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) will contribute to this contractile response differently. The objective was to compare contractile-response patterns of single additions of the ergoline alkaloids lysergic acid, lysergol, and ergonovine and the ergopeptine alkaloids ergotamine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, ergocornine, and ergovaline (provided as tall fescue seed extract). Lateral saphenous veins were collected from 6 Holstein steers (BW = 397 ± 28 kg) immediately after slaughter, sliced into cross-sections, and suspended in myograph chambers containing oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O2/5% CO2; pH = 7.4; 37°C). Treatments were added at 0 min and buffer was replaced in 15-min intervals for a 120-min incubation. In addition to maximum tension and time to reach maximum tension, percent relaxation and rate of relaxation were determined following maximum tension for each treatment. All compounds tested produced significant contractile responses (P < 0.05). All ergoline alkaloids reached maximum response in less time (P < 0.05) than the remaining compounds and began to relax immediately after first buffer change. Lysergic acid had the greatest (P < 0.05) percent relaxation and ergonovine had the greatest (P < 0.05) rate of relaxation. The ergopeptine alkaloids ergovaline, ergotamine, ergocristine, ergocryptine, and ergocornine had slower developing contractile responses with a longer (P < 0.05) interval until maximum tension was achieved compared to the ergoline alkaloids. Maximal responses to all the ergopeptine alkaloids, however, all persisted for the 120-min duration with negligible relaxation occurring. The different classes of alkaloids differed greatly in the type of contractile response generated in the lateral saphenous vein. Persistence of contractile response is thought to be the primary contributing factor to the vasoconstriction observed in animals demonstrating signs of fescue toxicosis, where different ergot alkaloids can contribute differently. PMID:24492541

  19. Growth and production optimization of tropane alkaloids in Datura stramonium cell suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Iranbakhsh, A R; Oshagi, M A; Ebadi, M

    2007-04-15

    Abstract: A number of physicochemical conditions such different concentration of glucose, sucrose, potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and temperatures were tested to optimize growth and production of tropane alkaloids from Datura stramonium (Solanaceae) plants. Cell suspension from semi-clear calli of leave explants developed in MS medium containing kinetin (0.5 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) hormones was used to measure biomass and total alkaloids and comparison of treatments. The results showed that 30 and 40 g L(-1) glucose led to the highest level of alkaloids and biomass productions, respectively. 20 and 40 g L(-1) sucrose concentrations resulted in order the most rates of alkaloids and biomass productions. The results showed that increasing of nitrate concentration led to the reduction of the alkaloids. The best concentration of potassium nitrate for the production of tropane alkaloids and biomass were in order 9.4 and 3.76 mM. Also it was evinced that the optimized concentration of ammonium nitrate for alkaloids production was 10.3 mM and for the biomass was 41.22 mM. The best concentration of calcium chloride for growth and production of the alkaloids was 7.92 mM. Testing different temperature specified that the best condition for production of the alkaloids was 20 degrees C whereas it was 25 degrees C for biomass production. The results of this study could be recommended to farmers involved in production of D. stramonium for tropain alkaloids at industrial and semi-industrial scales. PMID:19069922

  20. Opium poppy and Madagascar periwinkle: model non-model systems to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Facchini, Peter J; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2008-05-01

    Alkaloids represent a large and diverse group of compounds that are related by the occurrence of a nitrogen atom within a heterocyclic backbone. Unlike other types of secondary metabolites, the various structural categories of alkaloids are unrelated in terms of biosynthesis and evolution. Although the biology of each group is unique, common patterns have become apparent. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which produces several benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, and Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus), which accumulates an array of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, have emerged as the premier organisms used to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The status of these species as model systems results from decades of research on the chemistry, enzymology and molecular biology responsible for the biosynthesis of valuable pharmaceutical alkaloids. Opium poppy remains the only commercial source for morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic analgesics, such as oxycodone, derived from thebaine. Catharanthus roseus is the only source for the anti-cancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Impressive collections of cDNAs encoding biosynthetic enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in the formation of benzylisoquinoline and monoterpenoid indole alkaloids are now available, and the rate of gene discovery has accelerated with the application of genomics. Such tools have allowed the establishment of models that describe the complex cell biology of alkaloid metabolism in these important medicinal plants. A suite of biotechnological resources, including genetic transformation protocols, has allowed the application of metabolic engineering to modify the alkaloid content of these and related species. An overview of recent progress on benzylisoquinoline and monoterpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy and C. roseus is presented. PMID:18476877

  1. Aaptamines, marine spongean alkaloids, as anti-dormant mycobacterial substances.

    PubMed

    Arai, Masayoshi; Han, Chisu; Yamano, Yoshi; Setiawan, Andi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2014-04-01

    A new aaptamine class alkaloid, designated 2-methoxy-3-oxoaaptamine (1), together with seven known aaptamines (2-8) were isolated from a marine sponge of Aaptos sp. as anti-mycobacterial substances against active and dormant bacilli. The chemical structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Compound 1 was anti-mycobacterial against Mycobacterium smegmatis in both active growing and dormancy-inducing hypoxic conditions with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.25 ?g/ml, and compounds 2, 5, 6, and 7 showed anti-mycobacterial activities under hypoxic condition selectively, with MIC values of 1.5-6.25 ?g/ml. PMID:24414399

  2. Alkaloids of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) species from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zuanazzi, J A.S.; Tremea, V; Limberger, R P.; Sobral, M; Henriques, A T.

    2001-08-01

    A new alkaloid identified as 3beta,6beta-ditigloyloxynortropane as 3beta,7beta-ditigloyloxynortropane, 4-hydroxyhygrinic acid, methylecgonidine and tropacocaine have been isolated from the leaves of Erythroxylum argentinum. The new structure was established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Four other species E. deciduum, E. microphyllum, E. pelleterianum and E. cuneifolium collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were screened for methylecgonidine and tropacocaine by CG/MS. Two of these plants contain tropacocaine and two contain methylecgonidine. GC/MS analysis of all 5 species for cocaine proved fruitless. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results is discussed. PMID:11412954

  3. The Effect of Polyhydroxylated Alkaloids on Maltase-Glucoamylase

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qian; Xiang, Junfeng; Zhang, Hong; Li, Qian; Tang, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important carbohydrate-splitting enzymes is themaltase-glucoamylase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-glucosidic linkages. Maltase-glucoamylase inhibitors during the last few years have aroused medical interests in the treatment of diabetes. They contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of maltase-glucoamylase. At present there are many different classes of maltase-glucoamylase inhibitors. This paper focuses on alkaloidal inhibitors of maltase-glucoamylase and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies between them in order to discover some drugs with better efficiency and lower toxicity for treating diabetes. PMID:23967118

  4. Gene-inspired mycosynthesis of skeletally new indole alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li Ping; Yuan, Peng; Jiang, Nan; Mei, Ya Ning; Zhang, Wen Jing; Wu, Hui Min; Zhang, Ai Hua; Cao, Jiang Ming; Xiong, Zheng Xin; Lu, Ye; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-06-01

    Dalesindole, an antibacterial and anti-inflammatory indole alkaloid with an undescribed carbon skeleton, was stereoselectively constructed by Daldinia eschscholzii through class II aldolase catalyzed Michael addition of fungal chromone with 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) formed in situ from indole-3-carbinol (I3C) under catalyses of monooxygenase and 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase (AONS). Dalesindole isomerizes via a retro-Michael reaction to give stereoisomers with bioactivities. The work provides an access to new bioactive hybrids of fungal oligoketide with microbially decorated exogenous chemistry. PMID:25985278

  5. Mass-spectrometry-directed analysis and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloid cis/trans isomers in Gynura japonica.

    PubMed

    Fang, Lianxiang; Xiong, Aizhen; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Wenzhi; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-08-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are highly hepatotoxic natural chemicals that produce irreversible chronic and acute hepatotoxic effects on human beings. Purification of large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is necessary for toxicity studies. In this study, an efficient method for targeted analysis and purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloid cis/trans isomers from herbal materials was developed for the first time. Targeted analysis of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids was performed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (precursor ion scan and daughter ion scan), and the purification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was achieved with a mass-directed auto purification system. The extraction and preparative liquid chromatography conditions were optimized. The developed method was applied to analysis of Gynura japonica (Thunb.) Juel., a herbal medicine traditionally used for detumescence and relieving pain but is potentially hepatotoxic as it contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Twelve pyrrolizidine alkaloids (six cis/trans isomer pairs) were identified with reference compounds or characterized by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and five individual pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including (E)-seneciphylline, seneciphylline, integerrimine, senecionine, and seneciphyllinine, were prepared from G. japonica roots with high efficiency. The results of this work provide a new technique for the preparation of large amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloid reference substances, which will also benefit toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and treatments for pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced toxicity. PMID:24840731

  6. Synthesis of unnatural alkaloid scaffolds by exploiting plant polyketide synthase

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Makoto; Shi, She-Po; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2011-01-01

    HsPKS1 from Huperzia serrata is a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) with remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic potential. Here we present the synthesis of unnatural unique polyketide–alkaloid hybrid molecules by exploiting the enzyme reaction using precursor-directed and structure-based approaches. HsPKS1 produced novel pyridoisoindole (or benzopyridoisoindole) with the 6.5.6-fused (or 6.6.5.6-fused) ring system by the condensation of 2-carbamoylbenzoyl-CoA (or 3-carbamoyl-2-naphthoyl-CoA), a synthetic nitrogen-containing nonphysiological starter substrate, with two molecules of malonyl-CoA. The structure-based S348G mutant not only extended the product chain length but also altered the cyclization mechanism to produce a biologically active, ring-expanded 6.7.6-fused dibenzoazepine, by the condensation of 2-carbamoylbenzoyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs. Thus, the basic nitrogen atom and the structure-based mutagenesis enabled additional C?C and C?N bond formation to generate the novel polyketide-alkaloid scaffold. PMID:21825160

  7. Cytotoxic Alkaloids from the Whole Plants of Zephyranthes candida

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Fuqian; Zhang, Jinwen; Li, Xingyao; Zhang, Mengke; Hao, Xincai; Xue, Yongbo; Li, Yan; Horgen, F. David; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui

    2012-01-01

    Seven new alkaloids, N-methylhaemanthidine chloride (1), N-methyl-5,6-dihydroplicane (5), O-methylnerinine (6), N-ethoxycarbonylethylcrinasiadine (7), N-ethoxycarbonylpropylcrinasiadine (8), N-phenethylcrinasiadine (9) and N-isopentylcrinasiadine (10), together with eight known alkaloids, haemanthamin (2), 3-epimacronine (3), (+)-tazettine (4), N-methylcrinasiadine (11), trisphaeridine (12), 5,6-dihydrobicolorine (13), lycorine (14), and nigragillin (15), were isolated from the whole plants of Zephyranthes candida. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic data interpretation, with single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis performed on 1. The absolute configuration of 3-epimacronine (3) was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with CuK? irradiation. Compounds 1–15 were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines and the Beas-2B immortalized (non-cancerous) human bronchial epithelial cell line. Compounds 1, 2, 9, and 14 exhibited cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 0.81 to 13 ?M with selectivity indices as high as 10 when compared to the Beas-2B cell line. PMID:23190013

  8. Acridone alkaloids as potent inhibitors of cathepsin V.

    PubMed

    Severino, Richele P; Guido, Rafael V C; Marques, Emerson F; Brömme, Dieter; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Fernandes, João B; Andricopulo, Adriano D; Vieira, Paulo C

    2011-02-15

    Cathepsin V is a lysosomal cysteine peptidase highly expressed in thymus, testis and corneal epithelium. Eleven acridone alkaloids were isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. (Rutaceae), with eight of them being identified as potent and reversible inhibitors of cathepsin V (IC(50) values ranging from 1.2 to 3.9 ?M). Detailed mechanistic characterization of the effects of these compounds on the cathepsin V-catalyzed reaction showed clear competitive inhibition with respect to substrate, with dissociation constants (K(i)) in the low micromolar range (2, K(i)=1.2 ?M; 6, K(i)=1.0 ?M; 7, K(i)=0.2 ?M; and 11, K(i)=1.7 ?M). Molecular modeling studies provided important insight into the structural basis for binding affinity and enzyme inhibition. Experimental and computational approaches, including biological evaluation, mode of action assessment and modeling studies were successfully employed in the discovery of a small series of acridone alkaloid derivatives as competitive inhibitors of catV. The most potent inhibitor (7) has a K(i) value of 200 nM. PMID:21277783

  9. Synthesis of unnatural alkaloid scaffolds by exploiting plant polyketide synthase.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Makoto; Shi, She-Po; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Shin; Kato, Ryohei; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2011-08-16

    HsPKS1 from Huperzia serrata is a type III polyketide synthase (PKS) with remarkable substrate tolerance and catalytic potential. Here we present the synthesis of unnatural unique polyketide-alkaloid hybrid molecules by exploiting the enzyme reaction using precursor-directed and structure-based approaches. HsPKS1 produced novel pyridoisoindole (or benzopyridoisoindole) with the 6.5.6-fused (or 6.6.5.6-fused) ring system by the condensation of 2-carbamoylbenzoyl-CoA (or 3-carbamoyl-2-naphthoyl-CoA), a synthetic nitrogen-containing nonphysiological starter substrate, with two molecules of malonyl-CoA. The structure-based S348G mutant not only extended the product chain length but also altered the cyclization mechanism to produce a biologically active, ring-expanded 6.7.6-fused dibenzoazepine, by the condensation of 2-carbamoylbenzoyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs. Thus, the basic nitrogen atom and the structure-based mutagenesis enabled additional C?C and C?N bond formation to generate the novel polyketide-alkaloid scaffold. PMID:21825160

  10. History of ergot alkaloids from ergotism to ergometrine.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, P W; de Groot, A N

    1995-06-01

    Epidemics of ergotism occurred frequently in the Middle Ages. They were a source of inspiration for artists and were popularly known as 'St. Anthony's Fire', resulting in gangrene, neurological diseases and death. It was caused by eating rye bread contaminated with the fungus claviceps purpurea. In 1582 it was described that a delivery could be hastened by administering a few spurs of the secale cornutum. The dosage was, however, very inaccurate resulting in frequent uterine ruptures. The nickname of the preparation of 'pulvis ad partum' was changed to 'pulvis ad mortem'. Therefore, after 1828 the ergot alkaloids were no longer used during delivery but only as a measure to prevent postpartum haemorrhage. From 1875 onwards many derivatives of ergot alkaloids were found. Dudley and Moir isolated ergometrine in 1932. It proved to have a very specific uterotonic action. However, because of severe and unpredictable side effects and the instability of the drug, ergometrine is not the drug of choice for either the prevention or the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage. PMID:7641960

  11. Isoquinoline alkaloid production by transformed cultures of Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, K; Shimomura, K

    2001-01-01

    Three clones of transformed cultures of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) were established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes MAFF 03-01724. MAFF clone 1 being capable of forming somatic embryos was selected and its growth and isoquinoline alkaloid production was investigated. The illumination, temperature and nutrient medium composition greatly affected growth, cell morphology and alkaloid accumulation. The MAFF clone 1 cultured in Root Culture medium in the dark at 22 degrees C accumulated a high quantity of sanguinarine (652 micrograms/g dry weight) though the growth was poor (4.4 fold as fresh weight basis after 2 months of culture). The MAFF clone 1 cultured in a quarter macro salt strength Woody Plant medium under 14 h/day light at 22 degrees C developed into plantlets and accumulated significant quantity of codeine (648 micrograms/g dry wt) together with papaverine, noscapine, and sanguinarine. This clone was applied to a rotating drum fermenter (2 L working volume), and ca. 0.3 mg codeine and 0.06 mg sanguinarine were obtained after 4 weeks of culture. One quarter of the codeine produced was found in the culture medium. PMID:11915285

  12. Alkaloid delta agonist BW373U86 increases hypoxic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bofetiado, D M; Mayfield, K P; D'Alecy, L G

    1996-06-01

    Activation of delta opioid receptors increases survival time during acute, lethal hypoxia in mice. delta Agonists therefore present a promising avenue for therapeutic application to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with clinical hypoxia in settings such as drowning, head injury apnea, and complicated childbirths. However, most delta agonists now available are peptides, and may have limited clinical utility. In the present study, we evaluate the neuroprotective ability of an alkaloid delta agonist, BW373U86. Alkaloid compounds, due to increased stability and increased systemic distribution, may be more favorable for clinical use. We found that BW373U86, like the peptide delta agonist, DPDPE ([D-Pen2, D-Pen5]-enkephalin), increases survival time of mice during lethal hypoxia. The mechanism of neuroprotection induced by delta receptor activation appears to involve decreasing body temperature. Further, using selective opioid receptor antagonists, it appears that BW373U86 exerts these neuroprotective effects by acting at delta-opioid receptors. PMID:8638797

  13. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S. [Division of Animal Science, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Evans, Tim J. [Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Rucker, Ed [Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX77843 (United States); Rottinghaus, George E. [Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Spiers, Donald E. [Division of Animal Science, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail: spiersd@missouri.edu

    2008-03-15

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.

  14. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated. PMID:21360378

  15. Alkaloids: an overview of their antibacterial, antibiotic-enhancing and antivirulence activities.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Cushnie, Benjamart; Lamb, Andrew J

    2014-11-01

    With reports of pandrug-resistant bacteria causing untreatable infections, the need for new antibacterial therapies is more pressing than ever. Alkaloids are a large and structurally diverse group of compounds that have served as scaffolds for important antibacterial drugs such as metronidazole and the quinolones. In this review, we highlight other alkaloids with development potential. Natural, semisynthetic and synthetic alkaloids of all classes are considered, looking first at those with direct antibacterial activity and those with antibiotic-enhancing activity. Potent examples include CJ-13,136, a novel actinomycete-derived quinolone alkaloid with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.1 ng/mL against Helicobacter pylori, and squalamine, a polyamine alkaloid from the dogfish shark that renders Gram-negative pathogens 16- to >32-fold more susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Where available, information on toxicity, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms of action and in vivo activity is presented. The effects of alkaloids on virulence gene regulatory systems such as quorum sensing and virulence factors such as sortases, adhesins and secretion systems are also described. The synthetic isoquinoline alkaloid virstatin, for example, inhibits the transcriptional regulator ToxT in Vibrio cholerae, preventing expression of cholera toxin and fimbriae and conferring in vivo protection against intestinal colonisation. The review concludes with implications and limitations of the described research and directions for future research. PMID:25130096

  16. Alkaloid biosynthesis in Papaver sp. cells in culture and during organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alkhimova, O G; Kyrylenko, T K; Vagyn, Y V; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2001-01-01

    In vitro cell cultures of two Papaver species, P. somniferum and P. bracteatum initiated from mature seeds were screened for their ability to produce alkaloids. Protocols for callus induction, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis were established. The alkaloid contents were analysed by high-performance-liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and spectrophotometric assays. Undifferentiated callus produced small amounts of sanguinarine, which increased with the degree of tissue differentiation. Embryogenic calli were maintained in culture for more than 2 years, retaining a high regeneration capability. Thin-layer chromatography analysis revealed variations in alkaloid spectrum between parallel cell lines. The morphinan alkaloid, thebaine, was found to be accumulated exclusively in morphogenous strains of P. bracteatum, and morphine was the major alkaloid in the spectrum of P. somniferum dedifferentiated callus. Regenerant plants synthesized thebaine and sanguinarine at the same level as juvenile plants grown from P. bracteatum seeds. We revealed differences in the ability to produce different types of alkaloids: seed-derived plants were able to accumulate thebaine while undifferentiated primary cell cultures produced only sanguinarine. The production of either sanguinarine and morphinan alkaloids are found in regenerants showing that both metabolic pathways were active in young plantlets. PMID:12035546

  17. Identification of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that bridges the clavine and ergoline alkaloid pathways.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Thomas; Ortel, Ingo; Tudzynski, Paul; Keller, Ullrich

    2006-04-01

    Clavines and D-lysergic acid-derived alkaloid amides and alkaloid peptides are two different families of compounds that have the indole-derived tetracyclic metergoline ring system in common. Previous work has shown that D-lysergic acid is biosynthetically derived from clavine alkaloids. Recent cloning and analysis of the ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene cluster from the D-lysergic acid peptide (ergopeptines)-producing Claviceps purpurea, has shown that it most probably contains all genes necessary for D-lysergic acid synthesis as well as those that encode the assembly of D-lysergic acid peptides, such as ergotamine. To address the role of the oxygenase genes of alkaloid-gene clusters, the only cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene of this cluster was inactivated by disruption. The resultant mutant accumulated agroclavine, elymoclavine, and chanoclavine in substantial amounts but not ergopeptines. Feeding the mutant with D-lysergic acid restored ergopeptine synthesis; this suggests a block in the conversion of elymoclavine to D-lysergic acid. The gene was designated cloA (for encoding a clavine oxidase, CLOA). Retransformation of the mutant with the intact cloA gene also restored ergopeptine synthesis. These data show that CLOA catalyses the conversion of clavines to D-lysergic acid, it acts as a critical enzyme in the ergot alkaloid gene cluster, and bridges the biosynthesis of the two different families of alkaloids. PMID:16538694

  18. Induction of tropane alkaloid formation in transformed root cultures of Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Zayed, Rawia; Wink, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Brugmansia suaveolens were set up by infection of root tips with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The successful transformation was confirmed by analysing rolC and virC genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Hairy root cultures were employed to study the formation of tropane alkaloids, such as hyoscyamine. The transformed cultures were incubated with potential elicitors, such as methyljasmonate, quercetin and salicylic acid in order to stimulate the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids. Profile and amounts of tropane alkaloids were analysed using capillary GLC-MS. At least 18 different tropane alkaloids could be identified. Treatment of the cultures with 200 microM methyljasmonate increased the alkaloid accumulation 25-fold up to a level of 1 mg/g fresh weight as compared to untreated controls. Quercetin enhanced the alkaloid production 10 fold (0.4 mg/g fresh weight) within 24 h. In contrast 100 microM salicylic acid decreased alkaloids to a level of 1 microg/g fresh weight. PMID:15666547

  19. Structure-Activity Relationship of Benzophenanthridine Alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Having Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Luciana de C.; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D.; Neto, Alexandre T.; Mostardeiro, Clarice P.; Da Cruz, Ivana B. M.; Oliveira, Raul M.; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1–3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4–12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect considering the decrease in TBARS and AOPP (advanced oxidized protein products) levels when compared to the control group. PMID:24824737

  20. Structure-activity relationship of benzophenanthridine alkaloids from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium having antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Luciana de C; Zanon, Graciane; Weber, Andréia D; Neto, Alexandre T; Mostardeiro, Clarice P; Da Cruz, Ivana B M; Oliveira, Raul M; Ilha, Vinicius; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae) is a plant alkaloid that grows in South America and has been used in Brazilian traditional medicine for the treatment of different health problems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the steam bark crude methanol extract, fractions, and pure alkaloids of Z. rhoifolium. Its stem bark extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, ranging from 12.5 to 100 µg/mL using bioautography method, and from 125 to 500 µg/mL in the microdilution bioassay. From the dichloromethane basic fraction, three furoquinoline alkaloids (1-3), and nine benzophenanthridine alkaloids (4-12) were isolated and the antimicrobial activity of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids is discussed in terms of structure-activity relationships. The alkaloid with the widest spectrum of activity was chelerythrine (10), followed by avicine (12) and dihydrochelerythrine (4). The minimal inhibitory concentrations of chelerythrine, of 1.50 µg/mL for all bacteria tested, and between 3.12 and 6.25 µg/mL for the yeast tested, show this compound to be a more powerful antimicrobial agent when compared with the other active alkaloids isolated from Z. rhoifolium. To verify the potential importance of the methylenedioxy group (ring A) of these alkaloids, chelerythrine was selected to represent the remainder of the benzophenanthridine alkaloids isolated in this work and was subjected to a demethylation reaction giving derivative 14. Compared to chelerythrine, the derivative (14) was less active against the tested bacteria and fungi. Kinetic measurements of the bacteriolytic activities of chelerythrine against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) were determined by optical density based on real time assay, suggesting that its mechanism of action is not bacteriolytic. The present study did not detect hemolytic effects of chelerythrine on erythrocytes and found a protective effect considering the decrease in TBARS and AOPP (advanced oxidized protein products) levels when compared to the control group. PMID:24824737

  1. Unified Total Syntheses of Fawcettimine Class Alkaloids: Fawcettimine, Fawcettidine, Lycoflexine, and Lycoposerramine B

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Guojun; Williams, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The total syntheses of the lycopodium alkaloids: fawcettimine, fawcettidine, lycoflexine, and lycoposerramine B have been accomplished through an efficient, unified, and stereocontrolled strategy, which relies on a Diels-Alder reaction to construct the cis-fused 6,5-carbocycles with one all-carbon quaternary center. Access to the enantioselective syntheses of both antipodes of those alkaloids can be achieved by kinetic resolution of the earliest intermediate via a Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation (Sharpless AD). Compared to existing approaches to these alkaloids, our synthetic route possesses superior stereocontrol over the C-4 and C-15 stereogenic centers as well as allowing for more functional variation on the 6-membered ring. PMID:22519642

  2. Genotoxicity of the boldine aporphine alkaloid in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.

    PubMed

    Moreno, P R; Vargas, V M; Andrade, H H; Henriques, A T; Henriques, J A

    1991-06-01

    The aporphine alkaloid boldine, present in Peumus boldus (boldo-do-Chile) widely used all over the world, was tested for the presence of genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic activities in microorganisms. This alkaloid did not show genotoxic activity with or without metabolic activation in the SOS chromotest and Ames tester strains TA100, TA98 and TA102. It was not able to induce point and frameshift mutations in haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. However, mitotic recombinational events such as crossing-over and gene conversion were weakly induced in diploid yeast cells by this alkaloid. Also, boldine was able to induce weakly cytoplasmic 'petite' mutation in haploid yeast cells. PMID:2046695

  3. Neonaucline, a new indole alkaloid from the leaves of Ochreinauclea maingayii (Hook. f.) Ridsd. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Muktar, Mat Ropi; Osman, Norfaizah; Awang, Khalijah; Hazni, Hazrina; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Hadi, A Hamid A; Zaima, Kazuma; Morita, Hiroshi; Litaudon, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A new indole alkaloid; neonaucline (1), along with six known compounds-Cadamine (2), naucledine (3), harmane, benzamide, cinnamide and blumenol A-were isolated from the leaves of Ochreinauclea maingayii (Rubiaceae). In addition to that of compound 1, (13)C-NMR data of cadamine (2) and naucledine (3) were also reported. Structural elucidations of these alkaloids were performed using spectroscopic methods especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. The excellent vasorelaxant activity on isolated rat aorta was observed for the alkaloids 1-3 after injection of each sample at 1 × 10(-5) M. PMID:22205092

  4. Isolation of teratogenic alkaloids by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Browne, C A; Sim, F R; Rae, I D; Keeler, R F

    1984-12-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used for both analytical and preparative separations of several steroidal alkaloids which occur in extracts of Veratrum californicum. The inclusion of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in the mobile phase improved the efficiency of the chromatography and the solubility of the compounds in aqueous acetonitrile. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to assist the identification of the isolated steroidal alkaloids. The effect of the interaction of trifluoroacetic acid with the alkaloids could be clearly seen by changes in the chemical shifts in the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. PMID:6526920

  5. Evaluation of antifungal and DNA-damaging activities of alkaloids from branches of Porcelia macrocarpa.

    PubMed

    Lago, João Henrique G; Chaves, Mariana H; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C; Agripino, Débora G; Young, Maria Cláudia M

    2007-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal fractions of the CH2Cl2 extract from branches of Porcelia macrocarpa using mutant yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum led to the isolation of bioactive alkaloids: two tetrahydrobenzylisoquinolines (1 and 2), two aporphines (3 and 4), one proaporphine (5), one oxoaporphine (6), four azantraquinones (7-10) and four azafluorenones (11-14). The alkaloids cleistopholine (7) and 6-methoxycleistopholine (8) showed the highest fungitoxic activity while the mixture of 6- and 7-methoxyonychine (12+13) and 6,7-dimethoxyonychine (14) showed a weak DNA-damaging potential. PMID:17354171

  6. Factors affecting total alkaloid and nitrate levels in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke)

    E-print Network

    Krejsa, Beverly Blohowiak

    1981-01-01

    . . Alkaloid levels were compared. between 11 millet lines grown under irrigation and no irrigation in the field and. in the greenhouse. Nitrate levels were compared between lines in the field. . Alks1oid and NO levels were detezmined sepazstely in leaf..., N, and Page S study 32 2 Total alkaloid concentration in Millex 24 pearl millet leaf and stem tissue from the drought, N, and S study. . . . . 36 3 Correlation coefficients for alkaloid and. NO levels in Millex 24 pearl miH. et from the drought...

  7. Methods for regeneration and transformation in Eschscholzia californica: A model plant to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Benjamin P; Facchini, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Eschscholzia californica Cham. (California poppy) is a plant species that accumulates pharmacologically active alkaloids biosynthetically related to the morphinan alkaloids of Papaver somniferum. This, in combination with the relative ease with which it is propagated in vitro, makes it a key model for benzylisoquinoline biosynthesis. Transformation techniques are an important tool for these studies and for metabolic engineering attempts. Agrobacterium mediated transformation techniques for this model species have been developed in our lab and used for modulation of transcript levels relevant to the biosynthesis of these alkaloids. Here we describe the techniques used in our lab for production of transgenic callus, hairy root cultures, and whole plants. PMID:16673930

  8. Biosynthesis and Accumulation of Ergoline Alkaloids in a Mutualistic Association between Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae) and a Clavicipitalean Fungus1

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Anne; Steffan, Nicola; Ploss, Kerstin; Hellwig, Sabine; Steiner, Ulrike; Drewke, Christel; Li, Shu-Ming; Boland, Wilhelm; Leistner, Eckhard

    2008-01-01

    Ergoline alkaloids occur in taxonomically unrelated taxa, such as fungi, belonging to the phylum Ascomycetes and higher plants of the family Convolvulaceae. The disjointed occurrence can be explained by the observation that plant-associated epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi capable of synthesizing ergoline alkaloids colonize the adaxial leaf surface of certain Convolvulaceae plant species. The fungi are seed transmitted. Their capacity to synthesize ergoline alkaloids depends on the presence of an intact differentiated host plant (e.g. Ipomoea asarifolia or Turbina corymbosa [Convolvulaceae]). Here, we present independent proof that these fungi are equipped with genetic material responsible for ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis. The gene (dmaW) for the determinant step in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis was shown to be part of a cluster involved in ergoline alkaloid formation. The dmaW gene was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the encoded DmaW protein purified to homogeneity, and characterized. Neither the gene nor the biosynthetic capacity, however, was detectable in the intact I. asarifolia or the taxonomically related T. corymbosa host plants. Both plants, however, contained the ergoline alkaloids almost exclusively, whereas alkaloids are not detectable in the associated epibiotic fungi. This indicates that a transport system may exist translocating the alkaloids from the epibiotic fungus into the plant. The association between the fungus and the plant very likely is a symbiotum in which ergoline alkaloids play an essential role. PMID:18344419

  9. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium.

    PubMed

    Faeth, Stanley H; Gardner, Dale R; Hayes, Cinnamon J; Jani, Andrea; Wittlinger, Sally K; Jones, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    The native North American perennial grass Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth [= Stipa robusta (Vasey) Scribn.] or sleepygrass is toxic and narcotic to livestock. The causative agents are alkaloidal mycotoxins produced from infections by a systemic and asexual Neotyphodium endophyte. Recent studies suggest that toxicity is limited across the range of sleepygrass in the Southwest USA. We sampled 17 populations of sleepygrass with varying distance from one focal population known for its high toxicity levels near Cloudcroft, NM, USA. For some, we sampled individual plants twice within the same growing season and over successive years (2001-2004). We also determined infection levels in each population. In general, all populations were highly infected, but infection levels were more variable near the focal population. Only infected plants within populations near the Cloudcroft area produced alkaloids. The ergot alkaloid, ergonovine, comprised the bulk of the alkaloids, with lesser amounts of lysergic and isolysergic acid amides and ergonovinine alkaloids. Levels of all alkaloids were positively correlated among individual plants within and between growing seasons. Infected plants that produced no alkaloids in 1 yr did not produce any alkaloids within the same growing season or in other years. Levels of alkaloids in sleepygrass populations declined with distance from the Cloudcroft population, although infection levels increased. Infected plants in populations in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado produced no alkaloids at all despite 100% infectivity. Our results suggest that only specific Neotyphodium haplotypes or specific Neotyphodium-grass combinations produce ergot alkaloids in sleepygrass. The Neotyphodium haplotype or host-endophyte combination that produces toxic levels of alkaloids appears restricted to one locality across the range of sleepygrass. Because of the wide variation in alkaloid levels among populations, interactions between the endophyte and host, and consequences for herbivores, competitors, and pathogens and other components of the community, are likely to vary widely across the geographic range of this native grass. PMID:16555135

  10. Bromopyrrole alkaloids isolated from the Patagonian bryozoan Aspidostoma giganteum.

    PubMed

    Patiño C, Laura P; Muniain, Claudia; Knott, Maria Elena; Puricelli, Lydia; Palermo, Jorge A

    2014-05-23

    Nine new bromopyrrole alkaloids, aspidostomides A-H and aspidazide A (1-9), were isolated from the Patagonian bryozoan Aspidostoma giganteum. Aspidostomides A-H have dibromotyrosine- or bromotryptophan-derived moieties forming either linear amides or pyrroloketopiperazine-type lactams with a bromopyrrole carboxylic acid as a common structural motif. On the other hand, aspidazide A is a rare asymmetric acyl azide formed by an N-N link of two different pyrroloketopiperazine lactams and is the first isolated compound of this class from marine invertebrates. This work is the first report of secondary metabolites isolated from a bryozoan from the Patagonian region. The structures of compounds 1-9 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical transformations. One of these compounds, aspidostomide E (5), was moderately active against the 786-O renal carcinoma cell line. PMID:24824796

  11. Design, synthesis and antistaphylococcal activity of marine pyrrole alkaloid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Rane, Rajesh A; Sahu, Niteshkumar U; Shah, Chetan P; Shah, Nishant K

    2014-06-01

    A novel set of 16 hybrids of bromopyrrole alkaloids with aroyl hydrazone were designed, synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 43866), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; ATCC 35556) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984). Of the 16 tested hybrids, 14 exhibited equal or superior antibiofilm activity against MSSA and MRSA relative to standard vancomycin. Compound 4m showed highest potency with antibiofilm activity of 0.39?µg/mL and 0.78?µg/mL against MSSA and MRSA, respectively. Thus, this compound could act as a potential lead for further development of new antistaphylococcal drugs. PMID:23663080

  12. [Alkaloids and lignans from stems of Piper betle].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangzhong; Yin, Yan; Huang, Wenquan; Sun, Kuizong; Cheng, Chunmei; Bai, Lian; Dai, Yun

    2010-09-01

    Alkaloids and lignans from the stems of Piper betle were studied. Compounds were isolated and purified by repeated silica gel, reverse phase silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. From the ethyl acetate soluble fractions of the 70% acetone extract, ten compounds were isolated and identified as piperine (1), pellitorine (2), N-isobutyl-2E,4E-dodecadienamide (3), dehydropipernonaline (4), piperdardine (5), piperolein-B (6), guineensine (7), (2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2,4-heptadienamide (8), syringaresinol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9),pinoresinol (10). All Compounds were isolated from the plant for the first time, and compounds 9 and 10 were isolated firstly from the genus. PMID:21137339

  13. Pyrroloacridine Alkaloids from Plakortis quasiamphiaster: Structures and Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ralifo, Paul; Sanchez, Laura; Gassner, Nadine C.; Tenney, Karen; Lokey, R. Scott; Holman, Theodore R.; Valeriote, Frederick A.; Crews, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    A re-collection of Plakortis quasiamphiaster from Vanuatu in 2003 resulted in the isolation of three known compounds, plakinidine A (1) and amphiasterins B1 (6) and B2 (7). Also isolated was a new bis-oxygenated pyrroloacridine alkaloid, plakinidine E (8), with a unique O-substitution versus N-substitution at position C-12 in 1. The biological evaluation of the active compounds in two assays provided complementary data. Plakinidine A (1) exhibited cytotoxicity against human colon H-116 cells with an IC50 of 0.23 ?g/mL, but there were no effects against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid homozygous deletion strain of topoisomerase I (top1?). By contrast, 8 was inactive against H-116 cells but was potent in the yeast halo screen. PMID:17253856

  14. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  15. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. ?-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), ?-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

  16. Two new alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea and their cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin-Long; Liang, Xiao; Gao, Pin-Yi; Li, Dan-Qi; Sun, Qian; Li, Ling-Zhi; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Two new alkaloids named (3R)-3,5-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone (1) and 1,5-dimethyl-6-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-1,2,4-triazin-3(2H)-one (2), together with two known compounds (7'R)-N-feruloyl normetanephrine (3) and N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (4) were isolated from the air-dried aerial parts of Portulaca oleracea L. Their structures and configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and HR-MS techniques. In addition, compounds 1-4 were tested for in vitro cytotoxic activities against human lung (K562 and A549) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435) cancer cell lines. PMID:24321009

  17. [A new indole alkaloid from the stems of Brucea mollis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Shuang-Gang, M A; Fang, Zhen-Feng; Zhang, Gui-Jie; Yu, Shi-Shan; Chen, Xiao-Guang

    2014-02-01

    Eight compounds were isolated from the stems of Brucea mollis by various chromatographic techniques such as column chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC, and their structures were elucidated as bruceolline O (1), 1-(1-beta-glucopyranosyl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde (2), canthin-6-one (3), 11-hydroxycanthin-6-one (4), 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (5), 4-methoxycanthin-6-one (6), infractin (7), and beta-carboline-1-propionic acid (8). The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-8 against HCT-8 and A549 human cell lines were determined, but none of them exhibited significant activity (IC 50 > 10 micromol x L(-1)). Among them, compound 1 is a new indole alkaloid, and compounds 2 and 5-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:24761613

  18. Ingenines A and B, Two New Alkaloids from the Indonesian Sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S R M; Mohamed, G A; Zayed, M F; Sayed, H M

    2014-07-22

    As a continuation of the work on EtOAc fraction of the Indonesian sponge Acanthostrongylophora ingens, 2 new alkaloids: one pyrimidine-?-carboline alkaloid named ingenine A (2) and one pyrimidine-?-carboline alkaloid named ingenine B (3), along with annomontine (1) were isolated. Their structures were unambiguously established on the basis of NMR spectroscopy ((1)?H, (13)C, (1)?H-(1)?H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC) and mass spectral data. This is the first report of isolation pyrimidine-?-carboline alkaloid from natural source. Compounds 1 and 3 showed pronounced cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma L5178Y cancer cell line with ED50 7.8 and 9.1??g/mL respectively, while compound 2 showed weak activity. PMID:25050517

  19. Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Peganum harmala and its main alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Moloudizargari, Milad; Mikaili, Peyman; Aghajanshakeri, Shahin; Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Shayegh, Jalal

    2013-07-01

    Wild Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L. family Zygophyllaceae) is well-known in Iran and various parts of this plant including, its seeds, bark, and root have been used as folk medicine. Recent years of research has demonstrated different pharmacological and therapeutic effects of P. harmala and its active alkaloids, especially harmine and harmaline. Analytical studies on the chemical composition of the plant show that the most important constituents of this plant are beta-carboline alkaloids such as harmalol, harmaline, and harmine. Harmine is the most studied among these naturally occurring alkaloids. In addition to P. harmala (Syrian rue), these beta-carbolines are present in many other plants such as Banisteria caapi and are used for the treatment of different diseases. This article reviews the traditional uses and pharmacological effects of total extract and individual active alkaloids of P. harmala (Syrian rue). PMID:24347928

  20. Dimerization of functional pyrroloindolizines for the synthesis of complex myrmicarin alkaloids

    E-print Network

    Ondrus, Alison E.

    The union of functionalized pyrroloindolizines for the synthesis of heterodimeric products relevant to myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Design and synthesis of tricyclic substrates and new methods for their union enable ...

  1. Studies of Genetic Variation of Essential Oil and Alkaloid Content in Boldo (Peumus boldus).

    PubMed

    Vogel, H; Razmilic, I; Muñoz, M; Doll, U; Martin, J S

    1999-02-01

    Boldo is a tree or shrub with medicinal properties native to Chile. The leaves contain alkaloids and essential oils. Variation of total alkaloid concentration, of the alkaloid boldine, and essential oil components were studied in different populations from northern, central, and southern parts of its geographic range and in their progenies (half-sib families). Total alkaloid concentration showed genetic variation between progenies of the central population but not between populations. Boldine content found in concentrations of 0.007 to 0.009% did not differ significantly between populations. Principal components of the essential oil were determined genetically, with highest values for ascaridole in the population of the north and for P-cymene in the south. Between half-sib families genetic variation was found in the central and northern populations for these components. The high heritability coefficients found indicate considerable potential for successful selection of individuals for these characters. PMID:17260243

  2. Alkaloids in Processed Rhizoma Corydalis and Crude Rhizoma Corydalis Analyzed by GC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ru; Su, Huidan; Li, Yunlong

    2014-01-01

    The alkaloids in the processed Rhizoma Corydalis and the crude Rhizoma Corydalis were qualitatively and semiquantitatively analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. The processing herb drug procedure was carried out according to the standard method of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The samples were extracted using Soxhlet extractor with different solvents: methanol and acetone. The extraction effect on different solvents was investigated. The results showed that 11 kinds of alkaloids were identified from the crude Rhizoma Corydalis and only two were from the processed Rhizoma Corydalis. A total of 13 kinds of alkaloids were all based on two backbones. The alkaloids in the processed sample were less than those in the crude Rhizoma Corydalis significantly, while almost the corydaline has been changed in conformation after the sample had undergone processing, which provided support for the conclusion of reducing toxicity when the herbal medicine having been undergone a traditional drugs treatment process. PMID:25210643

  3. Lycopladine A, a new C 16N alkaloid from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Hiroshi Morita; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    A new C16N type alkaloid, lycopladine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum, and the structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectral data.

  4. Structural elucidation and NMR assignments of a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Crotalaria vitellina Ker Gawl.

    PubMed

    Casimiro Bezerra, Denise Aline; Fechine Tavares, Josean; dos Santos, Paula Ferreira; Castello Branco, Marianna Vieira Sobral; de Fátima Agra, Maria; Subrinho, Fernanda Lima; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral

    2013-08-01

    A new pyrrolizidine alkaloid, named crotavitelin, was isolated from fruits of Crotalaria vitellina, Fabaceae (Papilionoideae). The structure was established by spectroscopic techniques such as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR, IR, and MS. PMID:23716472

  5. Enantioselective Synthesis of Tetrahydroprotoberberines and Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids from a Deprotonated -Aminonitrile

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    and (-)-tetrahydropseudoepiberberine using Noyori's asymmetric transfer hydrogenation are described. The dimeric alkaloids (+)-O by washing the organic phase with a NiCl2 solution. Transfer hydrogenation with Noyori's Ru-Ts-DPEN catalyst

  6. Effect of purine alkaloids on the proliferation of lettuce cells derived from protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Hamako; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the ecological role of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and paraxanthine, which are released from purine alkaloid forming plants, the effects of these purine alkaloids on the division and colony formation of lettuce cells were assessed at concentrations up to 1 mM. Five days after treatment with 500 ?M caffeine, theophylline and paraxanthine, division of isolated protoplasts was significantly inhibited. Thirteen days treatment with > 250 ?M caffeine had a marked inhibitory effect on the colony formation of cells derived from the protoplasts. Other purine alkaloids also acted as inhibitors. The order of the inhibition was caffeine > theophylline > paraxanthine > theobromine. These observations suggest that a relatively low concentration of caffeine is toxic for proliferation of plant cells. In contrast, theobromine is a weak inhibitor of proliferation. Possible allelopathic roles of purine alkaloids in natural ecosystems are discussed. PMID:26058150

  7. Thesinine-4?- O-?- d-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martina Herrmann; Holger Joppe; Gerhard Schmaus

    2002-01-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4?-O-?-d-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of dried seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  8. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

  9. Structures and antimicrobial activities of pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from different chromotypes of the ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, N; Bry, D; López-Legentil, S; Simon-Levert, A; Long, C; Banaigs, B

    2010-06-25

    Three new pentacyclic alkaloids were isolated from different chromotypes of the western Mediterranean ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei. The purple color morph collected in Catalonia contained the known compounds kuanoniamine D (1), shermilamine B (2), N-deacetylkuanoniamine D (3), and styelsamine C (4) and a new alkaloid named N-deacetylshermilamine B (5). The green color morph collected in the Balearic Islands contained the known compounds 11-hydroxyascididemin (6) and 8,9-dihydro-11-hydroxyascididemin (7) and two new alkaloids named cystodimine A (8) and cystodimine B (9). The blue color morph collected in Catalonia yielded the known compound ascididemin (10). The structures of all compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR data. The antimicrobial potential of the pyridoacridine alkaloids isolated from each color morph was evaluated and compared. PMID:20491501

  10. Indolizidine 239Q and Quinolizidine 275I. Major alkaloids in two Argentinian bufonid toads (Melanophryniscus)

    PubMed Central

    Daly, John W.; Garraffo, H. Martin; Spande, Thomas F.; Yeh, Herman J. C.; Peltzer, Paola M.; Cacivio, Pedro; Baldo, J. Diego; Faivovich, Julián

    2008-01-01

    Alkaloid profiles in skin of poison frogs/toads (Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Bufonidae, and Myobatrachidae) are highly dependent on diet and hence on the nature of habitat. Extracts of the two species of toads (Melanophryniscus klappenbachi and M. cupreuscapularis) from similar habitats in the Corrientes/Chaco Provinces of Argentina have similar profiles of alkaloids, which differ considerably from profiles from other Melanophryniscus species from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina. Structures of two major alkaloids 239Q (1) and 275I (2) were determined by mass, FTIR, and NMR spectral analysis as 5Z,9Z-3-(1-hydroxybutyl)-5-propylindolizidine and 6Z,10E-4,6-di(pent-4-enyl) quinolizidine, respectively. A third alkaloid, 249F (3), is postulated to be a homopumiliotoxin with an unprecedented conjugated exocyclic diene moiety. PMID:18848574

  11. Effect of certain elicitors on production of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in hairy root cultures of Echium rauwolfii.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Mawla, A M A

    2010-03-01

    Hairy root cultures of Echium rauwolfii were obtained by infection of sterile apical shoots with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The linear increase in fresh weight was found to be parallel to the alkaloids production. The transformed cultures were exposed to different elicitors, such as methyl jasmonate (MJ), quercetin and salicylic acid in order to increase their productivity. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were quantitatively determined by HPLC. Estimation of total alkaloids was achieved by peak area calculations. MJ at a concentration of 100 microM induced the accumulation of total alkaloids about 19-fold compared to the untreated control. The flavonoid quercetin (Q) at a concentration of 50 microM enhanced the pyrrolizidine accumulation approximately 6-fold. The induction effect of both MJ and Q can be suppressed by pre-incubation of hairy root cultures with salicylic acid. PMID:20383945

  12. Effect of ergot alkaloids on contractility of bovine right ruminal artery and vein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids produced by the Neotyphodium coenophialum endophyte associated with tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) are imputed to cause symptoms of fescue toxicosis related to peripheral vasoconstriction. These compounds were hypothesized to correspondingly affect foregut vasculature. The objective of ...

  13. Development of Transcriptomic Resources for Interrogating the Biosynthesis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Medicinal Plant Species

    E-print Network

    Gongora-Castillo, Elsa

    The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs), includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the ...

  14. Investigation of the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in cell culture by fourier transformation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mulac, Dennis; Grote, Anna-Karina; Kleigrewe, Karin; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-07-27

    Ergot alkaloids are known toxic secondary metabolites of the fungus Claviceps purpurea occurring in various grains, especially rye products. The liver is responsible for converting the ergot alkaloids into metabolites; however, the toxic impact of these end products of metabolism is still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in colon and liver cell lines (HT-29, HepG2), as well as in human primary renal cells (RPTEC). It was shown that cells in vitro are able to metabolize ergot alkaloids, forming a variety of metabolic compounds. Significant differences between the used cell types could be identified, and a suitable model system was established using HT-29 cells, performing an intensive metabolism to hydroxylated metabolites. The formed substances were analyzed by coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FLD-FTMS) as a powerful tool to identify known and unknown metabolites. PMID:21650459

  15. Mw Systematic Study of Alkaloids: the Distorted Tropane of Scopoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecija, Patricia; Cocinero, Emilio J.; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Fernandez, Jose A.; Castano, Fernando; Lesarri, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Tropane alkaloids have diverse pharmacological uses and are well-known for their neurostimulant activity. Previous structure-activity-relationship established correlations between bioactivity and several aspects of ligand conformation and stereochemistry, including delicate intramolecular effects like nitrogen inversion^{a}. We have initiated a series of structural studies on tropane alkaloids^{b}, aimed to discerning their intrinsic stereochemical properties using rotational spectroscopy in supersonic jets^{c}. Here we extend these studies to the epoxytropanes, initially motivated to interrogate the influence of the epoxy group on nitrogen inversion and ring conformation. The rotational spectrum evidences a single structure in the gas phase, providing a first description of the (three ring) structurally-distorted tropane in scopoline. The determined rotational parameters of scopoline reveal the structural consequences of the intramolecular cyclation of scopine, which breaks the original epoxy group and creates a new ether bridge and a 7?-hydroxytropane configuration. The hydroxyl group further stabilizes the molecule by an O-H \\cdots N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which, in turn, forces the N-methyl group to the less stable axial form^{b}. The experimental work was supported by ab initio and DFT calculations. ^{a} i) S.Singh, Chem. Rev. 100, 925 (2000); ii) A. Krunic, D. Pan, W.J. Dunn III, S.V.S. Miariappan, Bioorg. & Med. Chem. 17, 811 (2009). ^{b} E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 6076 (2010). ^{c} E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández, F. Castaño, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 12, 12486 (2010).

  16. Expression of Veratrum alkaloid teratogenicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Omnell, M L; Sim, F R; Keeler, R F; Harne, L C; Brown, K S

    1990-08-01

    Jervine, a steroidal alkaloid found as a minor constituent in the teratogenic range plant Veratrum californicum, has produced similar terata in sheep, rabbit, hamster, and chick, although the sensitivity to the alkaloid varies in the different species. Sprague Dawley rats and Swiss Webster mice are relatively insensitive. The aim of this study was to determine the teratogenic potential of jervine in three strains of mice and to ascertain if the response is strain dependent. One strain, Swiss N:GP(S), was retested since a Swiss Webster strain had been found previously to be jervine-resistant. In addition, we tested C57BL/6J and A/J, which are known to differ in their response to the teratogenic action of steroids and vitamin A. Mice were treated by gavage with single doses of jervine (70, 150, or 300 mg/kg body weight) on either day 8, 9, or 10 of gestation. Jervine was teratogenic to C57BL/6J and A/J mice but not to N:GP(S). The induced terata included cleft lip with or without cleft palate, isolated cleft palate, mandibular micrognathia or agnathia, and limb malformations. Fetal teratogenicity and maternal and fetal toxicity were highly correlated. The prevalence of each defect and fetal death was a function of strain, dose, and time of treatment. Maternal death was higher in C57BL/6J than in A/J mice. Although some of the terata were similar, the response pattern between strains was different from corticosteroids and vitamin A for both sensitive period and the strain dose response. An effect on differentiation of chondrocyte precursors may account for many of the defects, but an earlier lethal effect on differentiation of neural crest cells or precordal mesenchyme may also occur. PMID:2218940

  17. Complicated hypertension related to the abuse of ephedrine and caffeine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jeffrey A; Setty, Arathi; Steiner, Matthew J; Kaufman, Kenneth R; Skotzko, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra containing products (ECPs), which most often contain additional sources of caffeine alkaloids, may be an under-recognized cause of hypertension. ECPs, especially when used in combination or at higher than recommended doses, can cause life-threatening cardiovascular and neurological complications. We present a case of hypertensive encephalopathy with new onset generalized tonic-clonic seizure secondary to concomitant use of two OTC supplements containing a mixture of ephedrine and caffeine alkaloids. PMID:16956868

  18. Collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone and analogues thereof.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shi-Zhi; Lei, Ting; Wei, Kun; Yang, Yu-Rong

    2014-11-01

    The collective total synthesis of tetracyclic diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids, (+)-paniculatine, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone, and two analogues (-)-13-epi-paniculatine and (+)-3-hydroxyl-13-dehydro-paniculatine, has been accomplished. By logic-guided addition of a strategically useful hydroxyl group at C-3 of paniculatine, the formidable tetracyclic core was rapidly synthesized utilizing a site-specific and stereoselective aldol cyclization, thus making the ABD ? ABCD tetracyclic approach to diquinane Lycopodium alkaloids attainable for the first time. PMID:25299586

  19. In vitro production of adaline and coccinelline, two defensive alkaloids from ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Laurent; Jean-Claude Braekman; Désiré Daloze; Jacques M. Pasteels

    2002-01-01

    In vitro experiments using [1–14C] and [2–14C]acetate were devised to study the biosynthesis of the defensive coccinellid alkaloids adaline and coccinelline in Adalia 2-punctata and Coccinella 7-punctata, respectively. The labelled alkaloids obtained in these experiments had a specific activity about ten times higher than that of the samples obtained in feeding experiments. This in vitro assay has enabled us to

  20. Biosynthetic studies on adaline and adalinine, two alkaloids from ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Laurent; Benjamine Lebrun; Jean-Claude Braekman; Désiré Daloze; Jacques M Pasteels

    2001-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the homotropane alkaloid (?)-adaline in the coccinellid beetle Adalia bipunctata has been studied by incorporation experiments with [1-14C] and [2-14C]acetate. A degradation scheme was developed which selectively afforded benzoic acid containing the carbonyl carbon atom of adaline. The labelling pattern thus obtained indicated that the alkaloid is biosynthesized via a polyacetate pathway. Moreover, feeding A. bipunctata adults

  1. Geometry of tricyclic quinolizidine-piperidine alkaloids in solution by NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukwicki, Tadeusz; Wysocka, Waleria

    1999-01-01

    The Haasnoot equation was used to determine HCCH spectroscopy dihedral angles from 1H NMR spectroscopy in tricyclic quinolizidine-piperidine alkaloids in solution: seco(11,12)- 12,13-didehydromultiflorine (1), seco(11,12)- 5,6-didehydromultiflorine (2) and angustifoline (3). Ring C in the three alkaloids has quite a regular chair conformation. Ring B is a flattened chair in 1 and 3 and a sofa in 2. The geometry of 2 is similar to that of cytisine (4).

  2. Cytochemical Localization of Polysaccharides in Claviceps paspali Ultrastructure During Submerged Fermentation of Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Vo?íšek, J.; Ludvík, J.; ?ehá?ek, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Morphological characteristics of two types of elements in the submerged mycelium of Claviceps paspali are described. Distribution of polysaccharides in the cell wall and cytoplasm was cytochemically determined at the ultrastructural level. Polysaccharide deposition into the cell walls was proportional to the increase in the alkaloid yield. In the cytoplasm, on the other hand, the presence of polysaccharide grains indicated an absence of alkaloid synthesis. Images PMID:4362461

  3. Complanadine B, obscurumines A and B, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Morita; Kan'ichiro Ishiuchi; Asami Haganuma; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    A new dimer of C16N2 type alkaloid, complanadine B (1), and two new C16N type alkaloids, obscurumines A (2) and B (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and L. obscurum, respectively. The structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated by combination of 2D NMR spectra and chemical transformation. Complanadine A (4) isolated together with 1 induced

  4. Lyconadins D and E, and complanadine E, new Lycopodium alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Haruaki Ishiyama; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Koichiro Mori; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lyconadins D (1) and E (2), and complanadine E (3), were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. Lyconadin D (1) was the first example of fastigiatine-type alkaloid isolated from Lycopodium complanatum. The structures and relative stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Complanadine E (3) enhanced mRNA expression for NGF.

  5. Elicitation of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in transformed root cultures of Datura stramonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Zabetakis; R Edwards; D O'Hagan

    1999-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Datura stramonium were treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJa), a cell wall preparation from baker's yeast and oligogalacturonides, respectively, and analysed for the accumulation of the tropane alkaloids, littorine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, and their precursors, phenyllactate and tropine. The treatments increased alkaloid accumulation in the order MeJa>fungal elicitor>oligogalacturonide and, in all cases, this was associated with an

  6. Potential of gamma radiation enhancing the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids in black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Sharma; R. K. Lal; H. O. Misra; M. M. Gupta; R. S. Ram

    1989-01-01

    A productive yellow flowered mutant with high tropane alkaloid content was isolated in the M2 generation of gamma irradiated (Co60 at 40 kr) progenies ofHyoscyamus niger. Mutant progenies, on an average, were capable of synthetising more than twice crude alkaloid (0.147% to 0.221%) in M3 through M6 generations compared to the parental control (0.065 to 0.106%). In pilot scale trial

  7. Cell type-specific localization of transcripts encoding nine consecutive enzymes involved in protoberberine alkaloid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Samanani, Nailish; Park, Sang-Un; Facchini, Peter J

    2005-03-01

    Molecular clones encoding nine consecutive biosynthetic enzymes that catalyze the conversion of l-dopa to the protoberberine alkaloid (S)-canadine were isolated from meadow rue (Thalictrum flavum ssp glaucum). The predicted proteins showed extensive sequence identity with corresponding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of related benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in other species, such as opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). RNA gel blot hybridization analysis showed that gene transcripts for each enzyme were most abundant in rhizomes but were also detected at lower levels in roots and other organs. In situ RNA hybridization analysis revealed the cell type-specific expression of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthetic genes in roots and rhizomes. In roots, gene transcripts for all nine enzymes were localized to immature endodermis, pericycle, and, in some cases, adjacent cortical cells. In rhizomes, gene transcripts encoding all nine enzymes were restricted to the protoderm of leaf primordia. The localization of biosynthetic gene transcripts was in contrast with the tissue-specific accumulation of protoberberine alkaloids. In roots, protoberberine alkaloids were restricted to mature endodermal cells upon the initiation of secondary growth and were distributed throughout the pith and cortex in rhizomes. Thus, the cell type-specific localization of protoberberine alkaloid biosynthesis and accumulation are temporally and spatially separated in T. flavum roots and rhizomes, respectively. Despite the close phylogeny between corresponding biosynthetic enzymes, distinct and different cell types are involved in the biosynthesis and accumulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in T. flavum and P. somniferum. Our results suggest that the evolution of alkaloid metabolism involves not only the recruitment of new biosynthetic enzymes, but also the migration of established pathways between cell types. PMID:15722473

  8. Determination of quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora medicinal plants by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunqiu Yu; Peilan Ding; Daofeng Chen

    2004-01-01

    A new capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the determination of quinolizidine alkaloids in Sophora medicinal plants was developed. A total of seven alkaloid components (cytisine, sophocarpine, matrine, lehmannine, sophoranol, oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine) were separated within 15min. The running buffer was a 50mM phosphate buffer containing 1%HP-?-CD and 3.3% isopropanol. The linear calibration ranges were 5.50–88.0?gml?1 for cytisine and lehmannine, 5.00–88.0?gml?1

  9. Alkaloid Production in Tissue Cultures of Papaver somniferum L. cv. Office95

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esin Akçam Oluk

    2006-01-01

    The capacity of alkaloid synthesis was examined in embryogenic callus tissues of Turkish opium poppy, Papaver somniferum L cv. office-95. Eight months old cultures grown in hormone-free MS were examined for alkaloid content. They were found to produce codeine at a level of 1.2 × 10 -2 , the baine 2.5 × 10 -3 , noscapine 2.2 × 10-3, morphine

  10. Studies on tissue cultures of the genus Cinchona L. alkaloid production in cell suspension cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Koblitz; D. Koblitz; H. P. Schmauder; D. Gröger

    1983-01-01

    Initiation and culture of callus and cell suspensions of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra as well as the successful isolation and selection of a high-yielding alkaloid-forming strain derived from the leaf rachis of a C. succirubra plant are described. Results of feeding experiments with L-tryptophan using two different culture procedures are presented and discussed. Maximum alkaloid yields of up to

  11. Selective apoptosis-inducing activity of crinum-type Amaryllidaceae alkaloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James McNulty; Jerald J. Nair; Carles Codina; Jaume Bastida; Siyaram Pandey; Jenny Gerasimoff; Carly Griffin

    2007-01-01

    The selective apoptosis-inducing activity of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids belonging to the crinane-type is reported. A mini-library of natural and synthetic crinane alkaloids was assembled. Biological screening indicated crinamine 4 and haemanthamine 9 to be potent inducers of apoptosis in tumour cells at micromolar concentrations. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the requirement for both an alpha-C2 bridge and a free hydroxyl at the C-11

  12. Currencies of mutualisms: sources of alkaloid genes in vertically transmitted epichloae.

    PubMed

    Schardl, Christopher L; Young, Carolyn A; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E; Panaccione, Daniel G; Farman, Mark L; Webb, Jennifer S; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-06-01

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed. PMID:23744053

  13. Alkaloids as important scaffolds in therapeutic drugs for the treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Kittakoop, Prasat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloid molecules can act, depending on a type of amine functionality present in alkalods, as either hydrogenacceptor or hydrogen-donor for hydrogen bonding that is critically important for the interaction (binding) between targets (enzymes, proteins and receptors) and drugs (ligands). Because of this unique property, alkaloid scaffolds are therefore present in several drugs and lead compounds. This review highlights alkaloid scaffolds in drugs, particularly those recently approved in 2012; it also covers the scaffolds in leads and drug candidates which are in clinical trials and preclinical pipeline. The review focuses on three therapeutic areas including treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and tobacco cessation. Alkaloid scaffolds in drugs and leads are inspired by those of naturally occurring alkaloids, and these scaffolds include pyridine, piperidine, quinoline, quinolinone, quinazoline, isoquinoline, indole, indolinone, isoindole, isoxazole, imidazole, indazole, thiazole, pyrazole, oxazolidinone, oxadiazole, and benzazepine. In addition to medicinal chemistry aspects, natural products possessing an individual alkaloid scaffold, as well as the mechanism of action of drugs and leads, are also discussed in this review. PMID:24359196

  14. 13,14-dihydrocoptisine--the genuine alkaloid from Chelidonium majus.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Jana; Yahyazadeh, Mahdi; Hänsel, Sophie; Kleinwächter, Maik; Ibrom, Kerstin; Selmar, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    The genuine major benzylisoquinoline alkaloid occurring in the traditional medicinal plant greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) is 13,14-dihydrocoptisine and not - as described previously - coptisine. Structure of 13,14-dihydrocoptisine was elucidated. The discrepancy between the alkaloid pattern of the living plants and that of detached and dried leaves is due to the rapid and prompt conversion of 13,14-dihydrocoptisine to coptisine in the course of tissue injuries. Indeed, apart from the major alkaloid, some minor alkaloids might also be converted; this however is not in the centre of focus of this paper. This conversion is initiated by the change of pH. In vivo 13,14-dihydrocoptisine is localized in the acidic vacuoles, where it is stable. In contrast, in the neutral milieu, which results when vacuoles are destroyed in the course of tissue injuries, the genuine alkaloid is oxidized to yield coptisine. Accordingly, when alkaloids from C.majus should be analyzed, any postmortal conversion of 13,14-dihydrocoptisine has to be prevented. PMID:25666130

  15. Determination of Ephedrine Alkaloids in Dietary Supplements and Botanicals by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, William A.; Sorenson, Wendy R.; Laurensen, J.; Luo, G.; McClanahan, R.; Perez, R.; Roper, C.; Kotello, S.; Schwind, B.; Shevchuk, C.; Suen, E.; Sullivan, D.

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and precision of a method for ephedrine-type alkaloids [i.e., norephedrine (NE), norpseudoephedrine (NPE), ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE), methylephedrine (ME), and methylpseudoephedrine (MPE)] in dietary supplements and botanicals. The amount of ephedrine-type alkaloids present was determined using liquid chromatography with tandem mass selective detection. The samples were diluted to reflect a concentration of 0.0200 to 1.00 ?g/mL for each alkaloid. An internal standard was added and the alkaloids were separated using a 5 ?m phenyl LC column with an ammonium acetate, glacial acetic acid, acetonitrile, and water mobile phase. Eight blind duplicates of dietary supplements or botanicals were analyzed by 10 collaborators. Included was a negative control, ephedra nevadensis, and negative controls fortified at 2 different levels with each of the 6 ephedrine-type alkaloids. The spike levels were approximately 100 and 1000 ?g/g for NE, 100 and 600 ?g/g for NPE, 6500 and 65 000 ?g/g for E, 1000 and 10 000 ?g/g for PE, 300 and 3000 ?g/g for ME, and 100 and 1000 ?g/g for MPE. On the basis of the accuracy and precision results for this interlaboratory study, it is recommended that this method be adopted Official First Action for the determination of 6 different individual ephedrine-type alkaloids in dietary supplements and botanicals. PMID:14509421

  16. Determination of Ephedra Alkaloids in Urine and Plasma by HPLC-UV: Collaborative Study

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Mark C.; Gray, D.; Laurensen, J.; Luo, G.; McClanahan, R.; Perez, R.; Roper, C.; Roscoe, V.; Shevchuk, C.; Suen, E.; Sullivan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedra alkaloid content (ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, and methylpseudoephedrine) in 8 blind duplicates of human plasma and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. In addition to negative urine and plasma controls, urine samples were spiked with individual ephedra alkaloids ranging in concentration from about 1 to 5 ?g/mL. Plasma samples were spiked with individual ephedra alkaloids ranging in concentration from about 100 to 400 ng/mL. Sample solutions were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. The ephedra alkaloids were not consistently detected in any of the spiked plasma samples. When ephedra alkaloids were detected in the plasma samples, reproducibility between blind replicate samples was very poor. Repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy were also very poor for the spiked urine samples. On the basis of these re sults, the HPLC-UV method for the determination of ephedra alkaloids in human urine and plasma is not recommended for adoption as Official First Action. PMID:15084082

  17. Comparative analysis of Papaver somniferum genotypes having contrasting latex and alkaloid profiles.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Nidarshana; Singh, Mridula; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Shasany, Ajit K; Shanker, Karuna; Lal, Raj K; Khanuja, Suman P S

    2014-07-01

    Papaver somniferum produces therapeutically useful benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) like papaverine, thebaine, codeine, and morphine that accumulate in its capsular latex. Morphine is a potent analgesic but is also abused as a narcotic, which has increased the demand for non-narcotic thebaine that can be converted into various analgesics. To curtail the narcotic menace, many distinct genotypes of the plant have been developed that are deficient in morphine and/or latex. Sujata is one such latex-less low alkaloid-producing variety developed from the alkaloid-rich gum harvest variety Sampada. Its utility for gene prospecting and studying differential gene regulation responsible for its low alkaloid, nutritive seed oil, and latex-less phenotype has been exploited in this study. BIA profiling of Sujata and Sampada capsules at the early and late stages indicated that except for thebaine, Sujata had a depressed alkaloid phenotype as compared to Sampada. Comparative transcript-based analysis of the two genotypes was carried out in the early stage capsule (higher thebaine) using subtractive hybridization and microarray. Interrogation of a P. somniferum array yielded many differentially expressing transcripts. Their homology-based annotation classified them into categories--latex related, oil/lipid related, alkaloid related, cell wall related, and others. These leads will be useful to characterize the highly sought after Sujata phenotype. PMID:24306419

  18. Efficient and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of alkaloids in hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lili; Hopkins, Andrew A; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W

    2006-12-13

    An efficient high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the analysis of alkaloids in hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L.) was developed. The method employed HPTLC glass plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of ethyl acetate/chloroform/7 N NH4OH in methanol (8:2:1, v/v/v). Using unidimensional double-development, bands were well separated for 10 alkaloid standards as well as alkaloids observed in hardinggrass plant extracts. Identities of compounds observed using HPTLC were validated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Software was used to quantify individual alkaloids in plant samples based on HPTLC retention factors and intensities relative to standards of known concentration. Correlation coefficients of 0.99 were obtained between estimated and actual concentrations for four standards (methyltyramine, hordenine, gramine, and 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine), with linearity in the range of 120-3840 ng/spot. The HPTLC method is repeatable and specific for beta-carboline, tryptamine, gramine, and tyramine type alkaloids in mixed standard and plant extracts. Initial results indicate substantial variation in alkaloid composition among and within hardinggrass populations. PMID:17147408

  19. Ergot alkaloids: structure diversity, biosynthetic gene clusters and functional proof of biosynthetic genes.

    PubMed

    Wallwey, Christiane; Li, Shu-Ming

    2011-03-01

    Ergot alkaloids are toxins and important pharmaceuticals which are produced biotechnologically on an industrial scale. They have been identi?ed in two orders of fungi and three families of higher plants. The most important producers are fungi of the genera Claviceps, Penicillium and Aspergillus (all belonging to the Ascomycota). Chemically, ergot alkaloids are characterised by the presence of a tetracyclic ergoline ring, and can be divided into three classes according to their structural features, i.e. amide- or peptide-like amide derivatives of D-lysergic acid and the clavine alkaloids. Signi?cant progress has been achieved on the molecular biological and biochemical investigations of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in the last decade. By gene cloning and genome mining, gene clusters for ergot alkaloid biosynthesis have been identi?ed in at least 8 different ascomycete species. Functions of most structure genes have been assigned to reaction steps in the biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids by gene inactivation experiments or biochemical characterisation of the overproduced proteins. PMID:21186384

  20. Induction of pyridine alkaloid formation in transformed root cultures of Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Rawia; Wink, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Hairy root cultures of Nicotiana tabacum were set up by excised root tips with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The successful transformation was confirmed by analyzing rolC and virC genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Hairy root cultures were employed to study the formation of pyridine alkaloids, mainly nicotine. The transformed cultures were incubated with potential elicitors, such as methyljasmonate, quercetin and salicylic acid, in order to stimulate the biosynthesis of pyridine alkaloids. Profile and amounts of pyridine alkaloids were analyzed using capillary GLC-MS. Treatment of the cultures with methyljasmonate (50 microM) increased the alkaloid accumulation ca. 7-fold up to a level of 0.58 mg/g fresh weight as compared to untreated controls. Quercetin (200 microM) enhanced the alkaloid production ca. 4-fold (0.34 mg/g fresh weight) within 24 h. In contrast salicylic acid in all tested concentrations decreased the alkaloid level to 1 microg/g fresh weight. Also the inhibitory effect of salicylic acid on the elicitation effect of methyljasmonate and quercetin was investigated. PMID:20158160

  1. Currencies of Mutualisms: Sources of Alkaloid Genes in Vertically Transmitted Epichloae

    PubMed Central

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Pan, Juan; Florea, Simona; Takach, Johanna E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Farman, Mark L.; Webb, Jennifer S.; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Charlton, Nikki D.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Chen, Li; Shi, Chong; Leuchtmann, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous systems of potential herbivores. These protective metabolites include ergot alkaloids and indole-diterpenes (tremorgens), which are active in vertebrate systems, and lolines and peramine, which are more specific against invertebrates. Several Epichloë species have been described which are sexual and capable of horizontal transmission, and most are vertically transmissible also. Asexual epichloae are mainly or exclusively vertically transmitted, and many are interspecific hybrids with genomic contributions from two or three ancestral Epichloë species. Here we employ genome-scale analyses to investigate the origins of biosynthesis gene clusters for ergot alkaloids (EAS), indole-diterpenes (IDT), and lolines (LOL) in 12 hybrid species. In each hybrid, the alkaloid-gene and housekeeping-gene relationships were congruent. Interestingly, hybrids frequently had alkaloid clusters that were rare in their sexual ancestors. Also, in those hybrids that had multiple EAS, IDT or LOL clusters, one cluster lacked some genes, usually for late pathway steps. Possible implications of these findings for the alkaloid profiles and endophyte ecology are discussed. PMID:23744053

  2. A new indole alkaloid, 7-hydroxyspeciociliatine, from the fruits of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa and its opioid agonistic activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariko Kitajima; Kaori Misawa; Noriyuki Kogure; Ikram M. Said; Syunji Horie; Yoshio Hatori; Toshihiko Murayama; Hiromitsu Takayama

    2006-01-01

    A new indole alkaloid, 7-hydroxyspeciociliatine (1), was isolated from the fruits of Malaysian Mitragyna speciosa Korth., together with 11 known indole and oxindole alkaloids (3–13). The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical conversion. The opioid agonistic activity of the new alkaloid was investigated in guinea-pig ileum experiments. The compound was found to have a

  3. Quantitative 1H nuclear magnetic resonance metabolite profiling as a functional genomics platform to investigate alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Jillian M; Weljie, Aalim M; Vogel, Hans J; Facchini, Peter J

    2008-08-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a versatile model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is widely cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Variations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of genetic diversity are often associated with perturbations in other metabolic pathways. As part of a functional genomics platform, we used (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolite profiling for the analysis of primary and secondary metabolism in opium poppy. Aqueous and chloroform extracts of six different opium poppy cultivars were subjected to chemometric analysis. Principle component analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra for latex extracts clearly distinguished two varieties, including a low-alkaloid variety and a high-thebaine, low-morphine cultivar. Distinction was also made between pharmaceutical-grade opium poppy cultivars and a condiment variety. Such phenotypic differences were not observed in root extracts. Loading plots confirmed that morphinan alkaloids contributed predominantly to the variance in latex extracts. Quantification of 34 root and 21 latex metabolites, performed using Chenomx NMR Suite version 4.6, showed major differences in the accumulation of specific alkaloids in the latex of the low-alkaloid and high-thebaine, low-morphine varieties. Relatively few differences were found in the levels of other metabolites, indicating that the variation was specific for alkaloid metabolism. Exceptions in the low-alkaloid cultivar included an increased accumulation of the alkaloid precursor tyramine and reduced levels of sucrose, some amino acids, and malate. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of 42 genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism showed differential gene expression mainly associated with alkaloid biosynthesis. Reduced alkaloid levels in the condiment variety were associated with the reduced abundance of transcripts encoding several alkaloid biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:18550684

  4. Heterologous expression of lysergic acid and novel ergot alkaloids in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sarah L; Panaccione, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    Different lineages of fungi produce distinct classes of ergot alkaloids. Lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids produced by fungi in the Clavicipitaceae are particularly important in agriculture and medicine. The pathway to lysergic acid is partly elucidated, but the gene encoding the enzyme that oxidizes the intermediate agroclavine is unknown. We investigated two candidate agroclavine oxidase genes from the fungus Epichloë festucae var. lolii × Epichloë typhina isolate Lp1 (henceforth referred to as Epichloë sp. Lp1), which produces lysergic acid-derived ergot alkaloids. Candidate genes easH and cloA were expressed in a mutant strain of the mold Aspergillus fumigatus, which typically produces a subclass of ergot alkaloids not derived from agroclavine or lysergic acid. Candidate genes were coexpressed with the Epichloë sp. Lp1 allele of easA, which encodes an enzyme that catalyzed the synthesis of agroclavine from an A. fumigatus intermediate; the agroclavine then served as the substrate for the candidate agroclavine oxidases. Strains expressing easA and cloA from Epichloë sp. Lp1 produced lysergic acid from agroclavine, a process requiring a cumulative six-electron oxidation and a double-bond isomerization. Strains that accumulated excess agroclavine (as a result of Epichloë sp. Lp1 easA expression in the absence of cloA) metabolized it into two novel ergot alkaloids for which provisional structures were proposed on the basis of mass spectra and precursor feeding studies. Our data indicate that CloA catalyzes multiple reactions to produce lysergic acid from agroclavine and that combining genes from different ergot alkaloid pathways provides an effective strategy to engineer important pathway molecules and novel ergot alkaloids. PMID:25107976

  5. Identification and quantification of the main active anticancer alkaloids from the root of Glaucium flavum.

    PubMed

    Bournine, Lamine; Bensalem, Sihem; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane; Maiza-Benabdesselam, Fadila; Bedjou, Fatiha; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila; Tits, Monique; Frédérich, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Glaucium flavum is used in Algerian folk medicine to remove warts (benign tumors). Its local appellations are Cheqiq el-asfar and Qarn el-djedyane. We have recently reported the anti-tumoral activity of Glaucium flavum root alkaloid extract against human cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. The principal identified alkaloid in the extract was protopine. This study aims to determine which component(s) of Glaucium flavum root extract might possess potent antitumor activity on human cancer cells. Quantitative estimation of Glaucium flavum alkaloids was realized by HPLC-DAD. Glaucium flavum effect on human normal and cancer cell viability was determined using WST-1 assay. Quantification of alkaloids in Glaucium flavum revealed that the dried root part contained 0.84% of protopine and 0.07% of bocconoline (w/w), while the dried aerial part contained only 0.08% of protopine, glaucine as the main alkaloid, and no bocconoline. In vitro evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity on breast cancer and normal cells demonstrated that purified protopine did not reproduce the full cytotoxic activity of the alkaloid root extract on cancer cell lines. On the other hand, bocconoline inhibited strongly the viability of cancer cells with an IC50 of 7.8 µM and only a low cytotoxic effect was observed against normal human cells. Our results showed for the first time that protopine is the major root alkaloid of Glaucium flavum. Finally, we are the first to demonstrate a specific anticancer effect of Glaucium flavum root extract against breast cancer cells, which can be attributed, at least in part, to bocconoline. PMID:24317429

  6. Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  7. Autophagy-mediated chemosensitizing effect of the plant alkaloid voacamine on multidrug resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Meschini, S; Condello, M; Marra, M; Formisano, G; Federici, E; Arancia, G

    2007-03-01

    In our previous studies, voacamine, a bisindolic alkaloid extracted from Peschiera fuchsiaefolia, was examined for its possible capability of enhancing the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin (DOX) on multidrug resistant (MDR) human osteosarcoma cells (U-2 OS-R). Voacamine induced in resistant cells a significant increase of drug retention and intranuclear location which became comparable to those observed in the parental sensitive counterparts (U-2 OS-WT). In the present study, the cell survival analysis and the electron microscopic observations confirmed the evident cytotoxicity of DOX on MDR cells after pre-treatment with the plant extract. Moreover, an increase of the reactivity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with the monoclonal antibody UIC2, which recognizes an epitope of the drug transporter in its functional conformation, was revealed, demonstrating that voacamine is a substrate of P-gp, thus acting as a competitive antagonist of the cytotoxic agent. Moreover, to investigate if the enhancement of the cytotoxic effect induced by voacamine could be due to an apoptotic process, we carried out the analysis of cell morphology after Hoechst staining and the quantification of apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC assay. These evaluations showed a very low rate of apoptosis in U-2 OS-R cells treated with voacamine and DOX given in association. In addition, the combined treatment induced ultrastructural modifications suggestive of autophagic cell death. In particular, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed the presence of numerous lysosomes and the formation of a large number of autophagosomes containing residual digested material. In conclusion, these findings seem to indicate that voacamine is capable of enhancing the cytotoxic effect of DOX on MDR cells by favouring a lethal autophagic process. PMID:17070665

  8. N-alkenyl indoles as useful intermediates for alkaloid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Boonnak, Nawong; Padwa, Albert

    2011-11-18

    A mild cross-coupling reaction to access several N-alkenyl-substituted indoles has been developed. The coupling procedure involves treating a NH-indole with various alkenyl bromides using a combination of 10 mol % of copper(I) iodide and 20 mol % of ethylenediamine as the catalyst in dioxane at 110 °C in the presence of K(3)PO(4) as the base. When treated with acid, these unique enamines produce a dimeric product derived from a preferred protonation reaction at the enamine ?-bond. A cationic cyclization reaction of the readily available 2-(2-(1H-indol-1-yl)allyl)cyclopentanol was utilized to construct tetracyclic indole derivatives with a quaternary stereocenter attached to the C(2)-position of the indole ring. An alternative strategy for selective functionalization at the C(2)-position of a N-alkenyl-substituted indole derivative that was also studied involves a radical cyclization of a xanthate derivative. The work described provides an attractive route to the tetracyclic core of some vinca alkaloids, including the tetrahydroisoquinocarbazole RS-2135. PMID:22007631

  9. Cytotoxic Epipolythiodioxopiperazine Alkaloids from Filamentous Fungi of the Bionectriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Mario; Graf, Tyler N.; Ayers, Sloan; Adcock, Audrey F.; Kroll, David J.; Yang, Jilai; Swanson, Steven M.; Munoz-Acuna, Ulyana; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J.; Agrawal, Rajesh; Wani, Mansukh C.; Darveaux, Blaise A.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the organic extracts of two filamentous fungi of the Bionectriaceae, strains MSX 64546 and MSX 59553 from the Mycosynthetix library, led to the isolation of a new dimeric epipolythiodioxopiperazine alkaloid, verticillin H (1), along with six related analogues, Sch 52900 (2), verticillin A (3), gliocladicillin C (4), Sch 52901 (5), 11?-deoxyverticillin A (6), and gliocladicillin A (7). The structures of compounds 1–7 were determined by extensive NMR and HRMS analyses, as well as by comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1–7) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, displaying IC50 values ranging from 1.2 µM to 10 nM. Compounds 1–5 were examined for activity in the NF-?B assay, where compounds 2 and 3 revealed activity in the sub-micromolar range. Additionally, compounds 1, 3, and 4 were tested for EGFR inhibition using an enzymatic assay, while compound 3 was examined against an overexpressing EGFR+ve cancer cell line. PMID:22968289

  10. Liriodenine alkaloid in Annona diversifolia during early development.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz Chacón, I; González-Esquinca, A R

    2012-01-01

    Plants of the Annonaceae family produce a series of alkaloids, including liriodenine oxoaporphine. Its distribution in these primitive angiosperms suggests that it plays an important role, but very little is known about which plant organs it accumulates in, or in which developmental stages it is synthesised. Accordingly, liriodenine production was studied during the early stages of germination and seedling development in Annona diversifolia Saff. Liriodenine samples were obtained from the roots and were characterised on the basis of spectroscopic data. Quantification was done by HPLC in the organs and tissues of newly collected seeds, seeds following 1-, 2-, 5- and 10-day imbibitions, upon emergence of the radicle and at the seedling stage. According to our results, liriodenine could not have originated from the parent plant, nor during embryogenesis because it appears for the first time in the endosperm approximately 5 days after the start of imbibition. Therefore, its synthesis does not depend directly on photosynthesis. During the seedling stage it is found in the root and the stem but it is absent from the cotyledonary leaves and the first true leaves. Liriodenine biosynthesis begins during the early stages of development in the endosperm and seed radicles. PMID:21790492

  11. Cyclolization of D-lysergic acid alkaloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Havemann, Judith; Vogel, Dominik; Loll, Bernhard; Keller, Ullrich

    2014-01-16

    The tripeptide chains of the ergopeptines, a class of pharmacologically important D-lysergic acid alkaloid peptides, are arranged in a unique bicyclic cyclol based on an amino-terminal ?-hydroxyamino acid and a terminal orthostructure. D-lysergyl-tripeptides are assembled by the nonribosomal peptide synthetases LPS1 and LPS2 of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea and released as N-(D-lysergyl-aminoacyl)-lactams. We show total enzymatic synthesis of ergopeptines catalyzed by a Fe²?/2-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase (EasH) in conjunction with LPS1/LPS2. Analysis of the reaction indicated that EasH introduces a hydroxyl group into N-(D-lysergyl-aminoacyl)-lactam at ?-C of the aminoacyl residue followed by spontaneous condensation with the terminal lactam carbonyl group. Sequence analysis revealed that EasH belongs to the wide and diverse family of the phytanoyl coenzyme A hydroxylases. We provide a high-resolution crystal structure of EasH that is most similar to that of phytanoyl coenzyme A hydroxylase, PhyH, from human. PMID:24361048

  12. Microwave Spectroscopy of Alkaloids: the Conformational Shapes of Nicotine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Pe?a, I.; Cabezas, C.; Blanco, S.; Alonso, J. L.

    2010-06-01

    Nicotinoid alkaloids consist of two ring systems connected via a C-C ?-bond: Joining pyridine either with a (substituted) pyrrolidine or piperidine ring system, pyrrolidinic or piperidinic nicotinoids are formed. Nicotine itself, consisting of pyridine and N-methylpyrrolidine, is the prototype pyrrolidinic nicotinoid. Its coupled heteoaromatic and heteroaliphatic ring systems exhibit three sites that allow for conformational flexibility: (I) puckering of the pyrrolidine ring (Eq./Ax. positions of the pyridine), (II) inversion of the N-methyl group (Eq./Ax. positions of the hydrogen), and (III) relative orientation of the two rings (Syn-Anti). Two conformations of nicotine have been observed using the In-phase/quadrature-phase-Modulation Passage-Acquired-Coherence Technique (IMPACT) Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) spectrometer in Valladolid. The preferred conformations are characterized by an equatorial (Eq.) pyridine moiety and equatorial (Eq.) N-CH_3 stereochemistry. The planes of two rings are almost perpendicular with respect to each other while exhibiting two low energy conformations, Syn and Anti, that differ by a 180° rotation about the C-C ?-bond. The Eq.-Eq. conformational preference is likely due to a weak hydrogen bond interaction between the nitrogen lone pair at the N-methylpyrroline and the closest hydrogen in pyridine. Supporting quantum-chemical calculations are also provided. Lavrich, R. J.; Suenram, R. D.; Plusquellic, D. F.; Davis, S. 58th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Columbus, OH 2003, RH13.

  13. Cytotoxic epipolythiodioxopiperazine alkaloids from filamentous fungi of the Bionectriaceae.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Mario; Graf, Tyler N; Ayers, Sloan; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Yang, Jilai; Swanson, Steven M; Munoz-Acuna, Ulyana; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Agrawal, Rajesh; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2012-11-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the organic extracts of two filamentous fungi of the Bionectriaceae, strains MSX 64546 and MSX 59553 from the Mycosynthetix library, led to the isolation of a new dimeric epipolythiodioxopiperazine alkaloid, verticillin H (1), along with six related analogs, Sch 52900 (2), verticillin A (3), gliocladicillin C (4), Sch 52901 (5), 11'-deoxyverticillin A (6) and gliocladicillin A (7). The structures of compounds 1-7 were determined by extensive NMR and HRMS analyses, as well as by comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1-7) were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines, displaying IC(50) values ranging from 1.2 ?M to 10 nM. Compounds 1-5 were examined for activity in the NF-?B assay, where compounds 2 and 3 revealed activity in the sub-micromolar range. Additionally, compounds 1, 3 and 4 were tested for EGFR inhibition using an enzymatic assay, while compound 3 was examined against an overexpressing EGFR(+ve) cancer cell line. PMID:22968289

  14. Roman Numerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website provides an overview of the Principles of Roman numerals as well as a history of Roman numerals, which dates back to 1st millennium BC when they were used by Romans to record numbers in stone, art and coins. Some pictures in the gallery highlight the ways in which Roman Numerals are used today, such as on watch and clock faces. The authors point out that Roman numerals have a classic style and are less functional than the Arabic (decimal) numbers ( 0 to 9 ) which were introduced into Europe about 900 AD and adopted quickly because of their convenience and mathematical ease of use. They also provide lists (including one of Roman Numerals 1 to 2016), tables, and a converter that visitors can use to convert Roman numeral numbers to decimal numbers. Another section provides resources for teachers on lesson ides for teaching Roman Numerals.

  15. Alkaloid variation among epichloid endophytes of sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and consequences for resistance to insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Saari, Susanna; Lovin, Mary E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Jarmusch, Scott A; Musso, Ashleigh M; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H

    2015-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes are well known symbionts of many cool-season grasses that may alleviate environmental stresses for their hosts. For example, endophytes produce alkaloid compounds that may be toxic to invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores. Achnatherum robustum, commonly called sleepygrass, was aptly named due to the presence of an endophyte that causes toxic effects to livestock and wildlife. Variation in alkaloid production observed in two A. robustum populations located near Weed and Cloudcroft in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, suggests two different endophyte species are present in these populations. Genetic analyses of endophyte-infected samples revealed major differences in the endophyte alkaloid genetic profiles from the two populations, which were supported with chemical analyses. The endophyte present in the Weed population was shown to produce chanoclavine I, paspaline, and terpendoles, so thus resembles the previously described Epichloë funkii. The endophyte present in the Cloudcroft population produces chanoclavineI, ergonovine, lysergic acid amide, and paspaline, and is an undescribed endophyte species. We observed very low survival rates for aphids feeding on plants infected with the Cloudcroft endophyte, while aphid survival was better on endophyte infected plants in the Weed population. This observation led to the hypothesis that the alkaloid ergonovine is responsible for aphid mortality. Direct testing of aphid survival on oat leaves supplemented with ergonovine provided supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The results of this study suggest that alkaloids produced by the Cloudcroft endophyte, specifically ergonovine, have insecticidal properties. PMID:25501262

  16. Studies on quantitative determination of total alkaloids and berberine in five origins of crude medicine "Sankezhen".

    PubMed

    Li, Luyang; Long, Weifang; Wan, Xiangluan; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Fei; Wan, Dingrong

    2015-02-01

    The roots of Berberis plants are widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine called "Sankezhen", having the activities of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, and the ingredients are alkaloids. This work aims to study and compare the total alkaloids and individual alkaloid (berberine) contents in roots and stems from five origins of Berberis plants (Berberis soulieana Schneid., B. henryana Schneid., B. triacanthophora Fedde, B. gagnepainii Schneid. and B. bergmanniae Schneid.) and provides some references for resource and quality evaluation of the medicine. Acid dye colorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography were used in the determination. The results showed that the contents for the total alkaloids in root and stem samples were in the range of 1.60-4.72% and 0.76-2.70%, while those of the berberine were 0.70-2.92% and 0.23-1.07%. With higher contents of the total alkaloids and berberine, the roots of B. soulieana, B. gagnepainii and B. bergmanniae were good sources of "Sankezhen". Meanwhile, the contents were also high in stems of the three plants, indicating that the stems were likely to be alternative sources of "Sankezhen" after further research. As the results of precision, stability and recovery tests shown, the methods were simple, rapid and reliable, and provided valuable basis for quality evaluation and new resource investigation of "Sankezhen". PMID:25013028

  17. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S

    2012-09-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1(st) h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum. PMID:23716876

  18. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1st h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum. PMID:23716876

  19. Diversity in aconitine alkaloid profile of Aconitum plants in Hokkaido contrasts with their genetic similarity.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Higuchi, Mari; Kamikawa, Shohei; Miyako, Haruka; Wakita, Yuriko; Ohtsuka, Isao; Hayashi, Shigeki; Hishida, Atsuyuki; Kawahara, Nobuo; Nishizawa, Makoto; Yamagishi, Takashi; Kadota, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Aconite tuber is a representative crude drug for warming the body internally in Japanese Kampo medicine and Chinese traditional medicine. The crude drug is used in major prescriptions for the aged. Varieties of Aconitum plants are distributed throughout the Japanese Islands, especially Hokkaido. With the aim of identifying the medicinal potential of Aconitum plants from Hokkaido, 107 specimens were collected from 36 sites in the summer of 2011 and 2012. Their nuclear DNA region, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and aconitine alkaloid contents were analyzed. Phylogenic analysis of ITS by maximum parsimony analysis showed that the majority of the specimens were grouped into one cluster (cluster I), separated from the other cluster (cluster II) consisting of alpine specimens. The aconitine alkaloid content of the tuberous roots of 76 specimens showed 2 aspects-specimens from the same collection site showed similar aconitine alkaloid profiles, and cluster I specimens from different habitats showed various alkaloid profiles. Environmental pressure of each habitat is presumed to have caused the morphology and aconitine alkaloid profile of these genetically similar specimens to diversify. PMID:25199501

  20. N-Methyldecahydroquinolines: An Unexpected Class of Alkaloids from Amazonian Poison Frogs (Dendrobatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daly, John W.; Ware, Nathaniel; Saporito, Ralph A.; Spande, Thomas F.; Garraffo, H. Martin

    2012-01-01

    The dominant alkaloids previously identified in skin extracts of Amazonian dendrobatid frogs of the genus Ameerega are histrionicotoxins and 2,5-disubstituted decahydroquinolines. Analysis of alkaloids in skin extracts of Ameerega picta from Bolivia revealed that the alkaloid 257A, previously reported as a 2,5-disubstituted decahydroquinoline, is an N-methyl-2,5-disubstituted decahydroquinoline. We characterized alkaloids of another 12 of the more than 25 species recently assigned to the genus Ameerega, and five additional N-methyldecahydroquinolines were identified. In some cases, the relative configuration of the N-methyldecahydroquinolines was determined by comparison with the N-methylated products prepared from the corresponding 2,5-disubstituted decahydroquinolines of known relative configuration. A dietary source for N-methyldecahydroquinolines is unknown; however, myrmicine ants are the likely source for the 2,5-disubstituted decahydroquinolines. The alkaloids in skin extracts of three species of another genus of Amazonian poison frog, Adelphobates, were also characterized, but N-methyldecahydroquinolines were not detected. PMID:19432407

  1. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of alkaloids in Uncaria species by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bo; Qi, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Dan

    2014-01-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/MS) method has been optimized and established for the rapid analysis of the alkaloids in 22 samples originating from five Uncaria (U.) species. The accurate mass measurement of all the protonated molecules and subsequent fragment ions offers higher quality structural information for the interpretation of fragmentation pathways of the various groups of alkaloids. A total of 19 oxindole alkaloids, 16 indole alkaloids and 1 flavone were identified by co-chromatography of the sample extract with authentic standards, comparison of the retention time, characteristic molecular ions and fragment ions, or were tentatively identified by MS/MS determination. Moreover, the method was validated for the simultaneous quantification of the 24 components within 10.5 min. The potential chemical markers were identified for classification of the U. species samples by principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The results demonstrate the similarity and differences in alkaloids among the five U. species, which is helpful for the standardization and quality control of the medical materials of the U. Ramulus Cum Unics (URCU). Furthermore, with multivariate statistical analysis, the determined markers are more definite and useful for chemotaxonomy of the U. genus. PMID:25366313

  2. Enhancement of alkaloid production in opium and California poppy by transactivation using heterologous regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Apuya, Nestor R; Park, Joon-Hyun; Zhang, Liping; Ahyow, Maurice; Davidow, Patricia; Van Fleet, Jennifer; Rarang, Joel C; Hippley, Matthew; Johnson, Thomas W; Yoo, Hye-Dong; Trieu, Anthony; Krueger, Shannon; Wu, Chuan-yin; Lu, Yu-ping; Flavell, Richard B; Bobzin, Steven C

    2008-02-01

    Genes encoding regulatory factors isolated from Arabidopsis, soybean and corn have been screened to identify those that modulate the expression of genes encoding for enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of morphinan alkaloids in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) and benzophenanthridine alkaloids in California poppy (Eschscholzia californica). In opium poppy, the over-expression of selected regulatory factors increased the levels of PsCOR (codeinone reductase), Ps4'OMT (S-adenosyl-l-methionine:3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4'-O-methyltransferase) and Ps6OMT [(R,S)-norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase] transcripts by 10- to more than 100-fold. These transcriptional activations translated into an enhancement of alkaloid production in opium poppy of up to at least 10-fold. In California poppy, the transactivation effect of regulatory factor WRKY1 resulted in an increase of up to 60-fold in the level of EcCYP80B1 [(S)-N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase] and EcBBE (berberine bridge enzyme) transcripts. As a result, the accumulations of selected alkaloid intermediates were enhanced up to 30-fold. The transactivation effects of other regulatory factors led to the accumulation of the same intermediates. These regulatory factors also led to the production of new alkaloids in California poppy callus culture. PMID:17961129

  3. Increasing morphinan alkaloid production by over-expressing codeinone reductase in transgenic Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Philip J; Miller, James A C; Allen, Robert S; Chitty, Julie A; Gerlach, Wayne L; Frick, Susanne; Kutchan, Toni M; Fist, Anthony J

    2007-01-01

    Only plants of the Papaver genus (poppies) are able to synthesize morphinan alkaloids, and cultivation of P. somniferum, opium poppy, remains critical for the production and supply of morphine, codeine and various semi-synthetic analgesics. Opium poppy was transformed with constitutively expressed cDNA of codeinone reductase (PsCor1.1), the penultimate step in morphine synthesis. Most transgenic lines showed significant increases in capsule alkaloid content in replicated glasshouse and field trials over 4 years. The morphinan alkaloid contents on a dry weight basis were between 15% and 30% greater than those in control high-yielding genotypes and control non-transgenic segregants. Transgenic leaves had approximately 10-fold greater levels of Cor transcript compared with non-transgenic controls. Two cycles of crossing of the best transgenic line into an elite high-morphine genotype resulted in significant increases in morphine and total alkaloids relative to the elite recurrent parent. No significant changes in alkaloid profiles or quantities were observed in leaf, roots, pollen and seed. PMID:17207254

  4. Alkaloid defenses of co-mimics in a putative Müllerian mimetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polytypism in aposematic species is unlikely according to theory, but commonly seen in nature. Ranitomeya imitator is a poison frog species exhibiting polytypic mimicry of three congeneric model species (R. fantastica, R. summersi, and two morphs of R. variabilis) across four allopatric populations (a "mimetic radiation"). In order to investigate chemical defenses in this system, a key prediction of Müllerian mimicry, we analyzed the alkaloids of both models and mimics from four allopatric populations. Results In this study we demonstrate distinct differences in alkaloid profiles between co-mimetic species within allopatric populations. We further demonstrate that R. imitator has a greater number of distinct alkaloid types than the model species and more total alkaloids in all but one population. Conclusions Given that R. imitator is the more abundant species in these populations, R. imitator is likely driving the majority of predator-learned avoidance in these complexes. The success of Ranitomeya imitator as a putative advergent mimic may be a direct result of differences in alkaloid sequestration. Furthermore, we propose that automimicry within co-mimetic species is an important avenue of research. PMID:24707851

  5. Loganin and secologanin derived tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids from Palicourea crocea and Palicourea padifolia (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Berger, Andreas; Kostyan, Maria Katharina; Klose, Simon Immo; Gastegger, Michael; Lorbeer, Eberhard; Brecker, Lothar; Schinnerl, Johann

    2015-08-01

    During comparative analysis on Palicourea species from Costa Rica, two unusual loganin derived tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids were isolated from an accession of Palicourea crocea. Besides the already known brachycerine (2), palicroceaine (1) features a novel hexacyclic backbone. A second provenance, however, yielded strictosidinic acid (3), belonging to the more common secologanin derived tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids, such as those found in Palicourea padifolia. From this species, strictosidine (4), lyaloside (5) and its derivative (E)-O-(6')-(4?-hydroxy-3?,5?-dimethoxy)-cinnamoyl lyaloside (6) could be isolated. A herbarium specimen-based screening was performed, indicating some degree of regional differentiation in alkaloid content and biosynthetic pathways within the widespread and variable Pal. crocea. It further shows its differentiation from the related strictosidine containing Palicourea croceoides. The occurrence of loganin derived tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids in Pal. crocea, Psychotria brachyceras and Psychotria brachypoda, all putatively unrelated members of the Palicourea s.l. clade, is a noteworthy exception within the genus, otherwise largely characterized by secologanin-derived tryptamine-iridoid alkaloids. PMID:26043882

  6. Influence of genetic factors on the ephedrine alkaloid composition ratio of Ephedra plants.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masashi; Hirayama, Manabu; Ohtomi, Norihiro; Ohno, Takeshi; Nomura, Yukihiro; Iida, Osamu; Sugimura, Koji; Kawahara, Nobuo; Tsuchida, Takashi; Mikage, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the ephedrine alkaloid [(-)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine] composition ratio of a crude Chinese herbal drug described in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 'Ephedra herb (Chinese name: Mahuang)'. There were marked changes in the alkaloid composition ratio of wild plants in areas where both male and female clusters coexisted. However, in genetically homogeneous areas with the growth of male or female clusters alone, all of the coefficients of the regression lines were positive, but each gradient varied. This suggests that the alkaloid composition ratio has a clear tendency in each individual. Based on this, we cultivated individuals for vegetative propagation, and evaluated the alkaloid content ratio. Those propagated by separating the roots showed a specific tendency regardless of the cultivation area (Wakayama, Tanegashima). Those propagated by separating the herbaceous stem showed a specific tendency regardless of the soil or harvest time. In addition, we surveyed the (-)-ephedrine content ratio of 3- to 6-year-old strains. There was a high positive correlation coefficient between the previous and subsequent years. These findings suggest that the ephedrine alkaloid composition ratio of Ephedra herb depends on genetic factors, but not on environmental factors or the growth period. PMID:25115226

  7. Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal Monophyletic Origin of the Ergot Alkaloid Gene dmaW in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are indole-derived mycotoxins that are important in agriculture and medicine. Ergot alkaloids are produced by a few representatives of two distantly related fungal lineages, the Clavicipitaceae and the Trichocomaceae. Comparison of the ergot alkaloid gene clusters from these two lineages revealed differences in the relative positions and orientations of several genes. The question arose: is ergot alkaloid biosynthetic capability from a common origin? We used a molecular phylogenetic approach to gain insights into the evolution of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis. The 4-?,?-dimethylallyltryptophan synthase gene, dmaW, encodes the first step in the pathway. Amino acid sequences deduced from dmaW and homologs were submitted to phylogenetic analysis, and the results indicated that dmaW of Aspergillus fumigatus (mitosporic Trichocomaceae) has the same origin as corresponding genes from clavicipitaceous fungi. Relationships of authentic dmaW genes suggest that they originated from multiple gene duplications with subsequent losses of original or duplicate versions in some lineages. PMID:19812724

  8. Alkaloid binding and activation of D2 dopamine receptors in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Larson, B T; Harmon, D L; Piper, E L; Griffis, L M; Bush, L P

    1999-04-01

    Ergot and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, either extracted from endophyte-infected tall fescue, synthesized, or purchased commercially, were evaluated in cultured cells to estimate their binding to the D2 dopamine receptor and subsequent effects on cyclic AMP production in GH4ZR7 cells, transfected with a rat D2 dopamine receptor. Ergopeptide alkaloid (alpha-ergocryptine, bromocryptine, ergotamine tartrate, and ergovaline) inhibition of the binding of the D2-specific radioligand, [3H]YM-09151-2, exhibited inhibition constants (K(I)) in the nanomolar range, whereas dopamine was less potent (micromolar). The lysergic acid amides (ergine and ergonovine) were 1/100th as potent as the ergopeptide alkaloids. Ergovaline and ergotamine tartrate were equally effective in inhibiting vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated cyclic AMP production, with consistent nanomolar effective concentration (EC50) values. The remaining ergopeptide alkaloids (alpha-ergocryptine and bromocryptine), lysergic acid amides (ergonovine and ergine), and dopamine were 1/100th as potent. Two representative pyrrolizidines, N-formylloline and N-acetylloline, exhibited no binding activity at the D2 dopamine receptor or effects on the cyclic AMP system within the concentration ranges of nanomolar to millimolar. Our results indicate that the commercially available ergot alkaloids ergotamine tartrate and ergonovine may be used interchangeably in the D2 dopamine receptor system to simulate the effects of extracted ergovaline and ergine and to examine responses in receptor binding and the inhibition of cyclic AMP. PMID:10328360

  9. Antitumor Activity and Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of Dercitin, a New Acridine Alkaloid Isolated from a Marine Detritus Species Sponge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal S. Burres; Sharareh Sazesh; Geewananda P. Gunawardana; Jacob J. Clement

    A new cytotoxic acridine alkaloid that exhibited antitumor activity in vivo was isolated from a marine Dercitus species sponge collected at a depth of 160 m in the Bahamas. This violet alkaloid, designated dercitin, inhibited the proliferation of cultured murine and human leukemia, lung, and colon tumor cells at MM concentrations (K.� values of 63-150 MM ) and prolonged the

  10. Nagelamide I and 2,2'-didebromonagelamide B, new dimeric bromopyrrole-imidazole alkaloids from a marine sponge Agelas sp.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Takahiro; Kubota, Takaaki; Fromont, Jane; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2014-01-01

    New dimeric bromopyrrole-imidazole alkaloids, nagelamide I (1) and 2,2'-didebromonagelamide B (2), have been isolated from an Okinawan marine sponge Agelas species. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated based on analyses of the spectral data. Nagelamide I (1) was the first symmetric dimeric bromopyrrole-imidazole alkaloid consisting of two subunits connected with a single bond. PMID:24492593

  11. Contractile response of fescue-naïve bovine lateral saphenous veins to increasing concentrations of tall fescue alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue have been shown to elicit different effects in the grazing animal. As part of an ongoing characterization of vascular response generated by different alkaloids, the objective this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergono...

  12. Effects of the steroidal alkaloid tomatine in auxin bioassays and its interaction with indole-3-acetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Roddick

    1971-01-01

    The steroidal alkaloid tomatine did not enhance elongation of oat coleoptile and first internode sections, or of wheat coleoptile sections. Higher concentrations of the alkaloid inhibited elongation and interacted antagonistically with IAA. Although 10-4 M tomatine alone did not influence elongation of oat coleoptile sections, it did reduce growth response to exogenous IAA. Tomatine concentrations less than 10-4 M did

  13. The Actions of Piperidine Alkaloids at Fetal Muscle-Type and Autonomic-Type Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum, Nicotiana spp., and Lupinus spp. A pharmacodynamic comparison was made of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, and coniine in; SH-SY5Y cells which express autonomic-type nicotinic acetylcholine recept...

  14. Kopsiyunnanines J1 and J2, new strychnos-type homo-monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Kopsia arborea.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Koyama, Tetsuya; Wu, Yuqiu; Kogure, Noriyuki; Zhang, Rongping; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Two new indole alkaloids, kopsiyunnanines J1 and J2, were isolated from Yunnan Kopsia arborea, and their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Kopsiyunnanines J1 and J2 are unprecedented Strychnos-type indole alkaloids having an additional C1 unit in the secologanin moiety of the molecule. PMID:25920218

  15. [Biosynthesis of poppy isoquinoline alkaloids in nature and in vitro culture. 1. Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.)].

    PubMed

    Kunakh, V A; Katsan, V A

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of literature data on production of isoquinoline alkaloids by Papaver somniferum L. plants and cell cultures has been made. The relationship of morphinane alkaloids biosynthesis with the processes of tissue and cell differentiation are discussed. The information on enzymes and pathways of regulation of morphine and sanguinarine biosynthesis are presented. The data on sanguinarine and morphine physiological role are analyzed. PMID:14681992

  16. A reversed-phase HPLC-UV method developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of six alkaloids from Nicotiana spp.

    PubMed

    Moghbel, Nahid; Ryu, BoMi; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2015-08-01

    A reversed-phase HPLC-UV method was developed, optimized, and validated for the separation and quantitation of six target alkaloids from leaves of Nicotiana species (nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine, anabasine, myosmine, and cotinine). A bidentate reversed-phase C18 column was used as stationary phase and an alkaline ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The alkaloids were well separated in a short run time of 13min with mobile phase pH 10.5 and a small gradient of 9-13% acetonitrile, and detected using UV at 260nm. Peak parameters were acceptable for all six closely related alkaloids. The proposed method has enough linearity with correlation coefficient >0.999 within the investigated range for all tested alkaloids. Satisfactory precision was achieved for both intra- and inter-day assay, with RSD less than 2% for all alkaloid standards. Reproducibility was also within the acceptable range of RSD <2%. Limit of detection was 1.6?g/mL for nicotine and below 1?g/mL for all other alkaloids. The limit of quantification was 2.8 and 4.8?g/mL for nornicotine and nicotine respectively, and below 2?g/mL for all other alkaloids. The method was successfully applied for simultaneous analysis of alkaloids in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. PMID:26114650

  17. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  18. Alteration of the Alkaloid Profile in Genetically Modified Tobacco Reveals a Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase in Nicotine N-Demethylation1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Fan, Longjiang; Kittur, Farooqahmed S.; Sun, Kehan; Qiu, Jie; Tang, She; Holliday, Bronwyn M.; Xiao, Bingguang; Burkey, Kent O.; Bush, Lowell P.; Conkling, Mark A.; Roje, Sanja; Xie, Jiahua

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key enzyme of the tetrahydrofolate (THF)-mediated one-carbon (C1) metabolic network. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of 5,10-methylene-THF to 5-methyl-THF. The latter donates its methyl group to homocysteine, forming methionine, which is then used for the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine, a universal methyl donor for numerous methylation reactions, to produce primary and secondary metabolites. Here, we demonstrate that manipulating tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) MTHFR gene (NtMTHFR1) expression dramatically alters the alkaloid profile in transgenic tobacco plants by negatively regulating the expression of a secondary metabolic pathway nicotine N-demethylase gene, CYP82E4. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and alkaloid analyses revealed that reducing NtMTHFR expression by RNA interference dramatically induced CYP82E4 expression, resulting in higher nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. Conversely, overexpressing NtMTHFR1 suppressed CYP82E4 expression, leading to lower nicotine-to-nornicotine conversion rates. However, the reduced expression of NtMTHFR did not affect the methionine and S-adenosyl-methionine levels in the knockdown lines. Our finding reveals a new regulatory role of NtMTHFR1 in nicotine N-demethylation and suggests that the negative regulation of CYP82E4 expression may serve to recruit methyl groups from nicotine into the C1 pool under C1-deficient conditions. PMID:23221678

  19. Hainanerectamines A-C, alkaloids from the Hainan sponge Hyrtios erecta.

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Fei; Xue, Duo-Qing; Yao, Li-Gong; Li, Jing-Ya; Li, Jia; Guo, Yue-Wei

    2014-07-01

    Two new indole alkaloids, hainanerectamines A (1) and B (2), and one new ?-carboline alkaloids, hainanerectamines C (4), along with five known related alkaloids (3, 5-8), have been isolated from the Hainan marine sponge Hyrtios erecta. The structures of new compounds 1, 2 and 4 were determined by detailed analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra and by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those of related model compounds. Compounds 2-4 exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against Aurora A, a member of serine/threonine kinase family involving in the regulation of cell division and a new target in cancer treatment, with IC50 values of 24.5, 13.6, and 18.6 ?g/mL, respectively. PMID:24983641

  20. Proaporphine and aporphine alkaloids with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity from Stephania epigaea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian-Wei; Cai, Le; Fang, Yun-Shan; Xiao, Huai; Li, Zhen-Jie; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-07-01

    An unusual proaporphine alkaloid bearing an isopropanenitrile group at isoquinoline nitrogen, named epiganine A (1) and a new aporphine alkaloid, epiganine B (2), together with eight known alkaloids, pronuciferine (3), dehydrodicentrine (4), romerine (5), romeline (6), N-methylcalycinine (7), phanostenine (8), dicentrine (9), and N-methyllaurotetanine (10), were isolated from the roots of Stephania epigaea. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by calculating electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and comparing with experimental data. Compounds 2 and 4 showed strong acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects with the IC50 values of 4.36 and 2.98?M, respectively. Compounds 5-9 also exhibited potent AChE inhibitory activities. PMID:26028544

  1. Free radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase inhibition of Mahonia aquifolium extract and isoquinoline alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Rackova, Lucia; Oblozinsky, Marek; Kostalova, Daniela; Kettmann, Viktor; Bezakova, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Roots and stem-bark of Mahonia aquifolium (Oregon grape) (Berberidaceae) are effectively used in the treatment of skin inflammatory conditions. In the present study, the effect of Mahonia aquifolium crude extract and its two representative alkaloid fractions containing protoberberine and bisbenzylisoquinoline (BBIQ) alkaloids on activity of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX), was studied. The reactivity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), a free stable radical, was evaluated to elucidate the rate of possible lipid-derived radical scavenging in the mechanism of the enzyme inhibition. The results indicate that although the direct radical scavenging mechanism cannot be ruled out in the lipoxygenase inhibition by Mahonia aquifolium and its constituents, other mechanisms based on specific interaction between enzyme and alkaloids could play the critical role in the lipoxygenase inhibition rather than non-specific reactivity with free radicals. PMID:17634120

  2. Total Syntheses of the Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids (±)-Alstilobanine A and E, and (±)-Angustilodine

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yiqing; Majireck, Max M.

    2014-01-01

    A synthetic strategy has been developed culminating in stereoselective total syntheses of the small class of unusual monoterpenoid indole alkaloids exemplified by alstilobanine A (3) and E (2) and angustilodine (1). A pivotal step includes a novel intermolecular Michael-type addition of an indole ester dianion to a piperidine-derived nitrosoalkene to form the C15, C16 bond of the alkaloids. In addition, an application of the Romo protocol for effecting a stereoselective intramolecular nucleophile-assisted aldol-lactonization was employed, leading to a ?-lactone incorporating the requisite cis-fused 2-azadecalin moiety and also setting the C15, C19, C20 relative stereochemistry of the metabolites. It was then possible to stereoselectively effect an aldolization of a dianion derived from this indole ester ?-lactone intermediate with formaldehyde to introduce the requisite C16 hydroxymethyl group. Further manipulations of the system ultimately led to the three alkaloids in racemic form. PMID:24319990

  3. Elucidating steroid alkaloid biosynthesis in Veratrum californicum: production of verazine in Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Megan M; Ruzicka, Dan R; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Augustin, Jörg M; Starks, Courtney M; O'Neil-Johnson, Mark; McKain, Michael R; Evans, Bradley S; Barrett, Matt D; Smithson, Ann; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Deyholos, Michael K; Edger, Patrick P; Pires, J Chris; Leebens-Mack, James H; Mann, David A; Kutchan, Toni M

    2015-06-01

    Steroid alkaloids have been shown to elicit a wide range of pharmacological effects that include anticancer and antifungal activities. Understanding the biosynthesis of these molecules is essential to bioengineering for sustainable production. Herein, we investigate the biosynthetic pathway to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that shows promising antineoplastic activities. Supply of cyclopamine is limited, as the current source is solely derived from wild collection of the plant Veratrum californicum. To elucidate the early stages of the pathway to cyclopamine, we interrogated a V. californicum RNA-seq dataset using the cyclopamine accumulation profile as a predefined model for gene expression with the pattern-matching algorithm Haystack. Refactoring candidate genes in Sf9 insect cells led to discovery of four enzymes that catalyze the first six steps in steroid alkaloid biosynthesis to produce verazine, a predicted precursor to cyclopamine. Three of the enzymes are cytochromes P450 while the fourth is a ?-aminobutyrate transaminase; together they produce verazine from cholesterol. PMID:25939370

  4. Exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation reduces fetal growth in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Susan K.; Andrae, John G.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (1) endophyte-infected (N. coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and (2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E?; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E?. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E?. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development. PMID:25191653

  5. Exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation reduces fetal growth in sheep.

    PubMed

    Duckett, Susan K; Andrae, John G; Pratt, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (1) endophyte-infected (N. coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and (2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development. PMID:25191653

  6. Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Involved in Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus1

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Vincenzo; Cutler, Adrian J.

    1987-01-01

    The subcellular localization of enzymes involved in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in leaves of Catharanthus roseus has been investigated. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase which together produce strictosidine, the first indole alkaloid of this pathway, are both cytoplasmic enzymes. S-Adenosyl-l-methionine: 16-methoxy-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxytabersonine-N-methyltransferase which catalyses the third to last step in vindoline biosynthesis could be localized in the chloroplasts of Catharanthus leaves and is specifically associated with thylakoids. Acetyl-coenzyme-A-deacetylvindoline-O-acetyltransferase which catalyses the last step in vindoline biosynthesis could also be localized in the cytoplasm. The participation of the chloroplast in this pathway suggests that indole alkaloid intermediates enter and exit this compartment during the biosynthesis of vindoline. PMID:16665811

  7. Main alkaloids of Peganum harmala L. and their different effects on dicot and monocot crops.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua; Huang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yuanming; Zhang, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids with allelopathic activity are not as well-known as other allelochemicals. Our study revealed that total alkaloids from seeds of the medicinal plant Peganum harmala L. possessed significant growth inhibitory effect on four treated plants, with dicot plants (lettuce and amaranth) being more sensitive than the tested monocot plants (wheat and ryegrass). Further investigation led to the isolation of harmaline and harmine as the main active ingredients in the total alkaloids of P. harmala seeds. Harmaline exerted potent inhibitory effects on seedling growth of treated plants, especially dicots, inhibiting root elongation of lettuce and amaranth by 31% and 47% at a very low concentration (5 µg/mL), whereas harmine exhibited much weaker non-selective inhibitory effect on the plants. Considering the high yield and poor utilization of P. harmala in China, we anticipate that this plant could be exploited as an alternative weed management tool in the future. PMID:23446919

  8. Oxidative stress and production of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids: biotechnological implications.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hélio Nitta; Rau, Mariana Ritter; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2014-02-01

    Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) encompass plant natural products with important pharmacological relevance. They include the anti-tumoral MIAs found in Catharanthus roseus and Camptotheca acuminata. The often low yields of bioactive alkaloids in plants has prompted research to identify the factors regulating MIA production. Oxidative stress is a general response associated with biotic and abiotic stresses leading to several secondary responses, including elicitation of MIA production. These changes in secondary metabolism may take place directly or via second messengers, such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). H2O2 is the main ROS that participates in MIA biosynthesis. This review analyzes the links between oxidative stress, elicitation of bioactive MIA production and their potential roles in antioxidant defense, as well as exploring the implications to developing biotechnological strategies relevant for alkaloid supply. PMID:24062135

  9. Exposure to Ergot Alkaloids During Gestation Reduces Fetal Growth in Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckett, Susan; Pratt, Scott; Andrae, John

    2014-08-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and 2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development.

  10. Galanthamine and related alkaloids production by Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture using a temporary immersion technology.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Georgiev, Milen; Ilieva, Mladenka; Pavlov, Atanas

    2011-01-01

    The process of galanthamine and related alkaloids production by Leucojum aestivum shoot culture in a temporary immersion system was studied. It was established that temporary immersion approach is prospective for development of a biosynthetic process for obtaining valuable Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Both immersion frequency and temperature had significant effect on biomass accumulation and the yields of galanthamine and related alkaloids. The maximal yield of galanthamine was achieved at the cultivation of L. aestivum shoot culture in temporary immersion RITA(®) system at immersion frequency 15 min flooding and 8 h stand-by periods, at 26 °C. Data on the relationships in the biological system "Nutrient medium-L. aestivum shoot culture-galanthamine" are presented as well. PMID:20680514

  11. Enantiospecific Synthesis and Biological Investigations of a Nuphar Alkaloid: Proposed Structure of a Castoreum Component

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Hajime; Georg, Gunda I.

    2014-01-01

    An enantiospecific synthesis of a Nuphar alkaloid was achieved in 9 steps from N-Boc-(L)-proline. The alkaloid is a minor component of castoreum, the dried scent glands of the beaver. During the course of our study, the stereochemistry of three synthetic intermediates was verified by X-ray analysis, which contributes to resolving existing discrepancies among the literature reports regarding the synthesis of this particular compound. Based on our synthesis, we propose the structure of the natural product. Also, intrigued by castoreum’s therapeutic effect, which was used in ancient Greece and Rome for gynecological and other purposes, biological screening was conducted. We found that the alkaloid has affinity for the oxytocin receptor. PMID:25395879

  12. Rapid Identification of Enzyme Variants for Reengineered Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Periwinkle

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Peter; McCoy, Elizabeth; O’Connor, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Monoterpene indole alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle), such as the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine, have important pharmacological activities. Metabolic engineering of alkaloid biosynthesis can provide an efficient and environmentally friendly route to analogs of these synthetically challenging and pharmaceutically valuable natural products. However, the narrow substrate scope of strictosidine synthase, the enzyme at the entry point of the pathway, limits a pathway engineering approach. We demonstrate that with a new expression system and screening method it is possible to rapidly identify strictosidine synthase variants that accept tryptamine analogs not turned over by the wild-type enzyme. The variants are used in stereoselective synthesis of ?-carboline analogs and assessed for biosynthetic competence within the terpene indole alkaloid pathway. These results present an opportunity to explore metabolic engineering of “unnatural” product production in the plant periwinkle. PMID:17719488

  13. In vitro permeation of mesembrine alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum across porcine buccal, sublingual, and intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Shikanga, Emmanuel A; Hamman, Josias H; Chen, Weiyang; Combrinck, Sandra; Gericke, Nigel; Viljoen, Alvaro M

    2012-02-01

    Sceletium tortuosum is an indigenous South African plant that has traditionally been used for its mood-enhancing properties. Recently, products containing S. tortuosum have become increasingly popular and are commonly administered as tablets, capsules, teas, decoctions, or tinctures, while traditionally the dried plant material has been masticated. This study evaluated the in vitro permeability of the four major S. tortuosum alkaloids (i.e., mesembrine, mesembrenone, mesembrenol, and mesembranol) across porcine intestinal, sublingual, and buccal tissues in their pure form and in the form of three different crude plant extracts, namely water, methanol, and an acid-base alkaloid-enriched extract. The permeability of mesembrine across intestinal tissue was higher than that of the highly permeable reference compound caffeine (which served as a positive control for membrane permeability) both in its pure form, as well as in the form of crude extracts. The intestinal permeability of mesembranol was similar to that of caffeine, while those of mesembrenol and mesembrenone were lower than that of caffeine, but much higher than that of the poorly permeable reference compound atenolol (which served as a negative control for membrane permeability). In general, the permeabilities of the alkaloids were lower across the sublingual and the buccal tissues than across the intestinal tissue. However, comparing the transport of the alkaloids with that of the reference compounds, there are indications that transport across the membranes of the oral cavity may contribute considerably to the overall bioavailability of the alkaloids, depending on pre-systemic metabolism, when the plant material is chewed and kept in the mouth for prolonged periods. The results from this study confirmed the ability of the alkaloids of S. tortuosum in purified or crude extract form to permeate across intestinal, buccal, and sublingual mucosal tissues. PMID:22105579

  14. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    PubMed Central

    Mace, Wade J.; Lunn, Kristy L.; Kaur, Navjot; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well-known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g., the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the well-being of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g., ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl-alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. “Grasslands Samson”) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested. PMID:25505785

  15. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Mace, Wade J; Lunn, Kristy L; Kaur, Navjot; Lloyd-West, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well-known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g., the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the well-being of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g., ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl-alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. "Grasslands Samson") infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested. PMID:25505785

  16. Plant tropane alkaloid biosynthesis evolved independently in the Solanaceae and Erythroxylaceae

    PubMed Central

    Jirschitzka, Jan; Schmidt, Gregor W.; Reichelt, Michael; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; D’Auria, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacologically important tropane alkaloids have a scattered distribution among angiosperm families, like many other groups of secondary metabolites. To determine whether tropane alkaloids have evolved repeatedly in different lineages or arise from an ancestral pathway that has been lost in most lines, we investigated the tropinone-reduction step of their biosynthesis. In species of the Solanaceae, which produce compounds such as atropine and scopolamine, this reaction is known to be catalyzed by enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. However, in Erythroxylum coca (Erythroxylaceae), which accumulates cocaine and other tropane alkaloids, no proteins of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family were found that could catalyze this reaction. Instead, purification of E. coca tropinone-reduction activity and cloning of the corresponding gene revealed that a protein of the aldo-keto reductase family carries out this reaction in E. coca. This protein, designated methylecgonone reductase, converts methylecgonone to methylecgonine, the penultimate step in cocaine biosynthesis. The protein has highest sequence similarity to other aldo-keto reductases, such as chalcone reductase, an enzyme of flavonoid biosynthesis, and codeinone reductase, an enzyme of morphine alkaloid biosynthesis. Methylecgonone reductase reduces methylecgonone (2-carbomethoxy-3-tropinone) stereospecifically to 2-carbomethoxy-3?-tropine (methylecgonine), and has its highest activity, protein level, and gene transcript level in young, expanding leaves of E. coca. This enzyme is not found at all in root tissues, which are the site of tropane alkaloid biosynthesis in the Solanaceae. This evidence supports the theory that the ability to produce tropane alkaloids has arisen more than once during the evolution of the angiosperms. PMID:22665766

  17. Chemometric approach for development, optimization, and validation of different chromatographic methods for separation of opium alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Acevska, J; Stefkov, G; Petkovska, R; Kulevanova, S; Dimitrovska, A

    2012-05-01

    The excessive and continuously growing interest in the simultaneous determination of poppy alkaloids imposes the development and optimization of convenient high-throughput methods for the assessment of the qualitative and quantitative profile of alkaloids in poppy straw. Systematic optimization of two chromatographic methods (gas chromatography (GC)/flame ionization detector (FID)/mass spectrometry (MS) and reversed-phase (RP)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/diode array detector (DAD)) for the separation of alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae) was carried out. The effects of various conditions on the predefined chromatographic descriptors were investigated using chemometrics. A full factorial linear design of experiments for determining the relationship between chromatographic conditions and the retention behavior of the analytes was used. Central composite circumscribed design was utilized for the final method optimization. By conducting the optimization of the methods in very rational manner, a great deal of excessive and unproductive laboratory research work was avoided. The developed chromatographic methods were validated and compared in line with the resolving power, sensitivity, accuracy, speed, cost, ecological aspects, and compatibility with the poppy straw extraction procedure. The separation of the opium alkaloids using the GC/FID/MS method was achieved within 10 min, avoiding any derivatization step. This method has a stronger resolving power, shorter analysis time, better cost/effectiveness factor than the RP-HPLC/DAD method and is in line with the "green trend" of the analysis. The RP-HPLC/DAD method on the other hand displayed better sensitivity for all tested alkaloids. The proposed methods provide both fast screening and an accurate content assessment of the six alkaloids in the poppy samples obtained from the selection program of Papaver strains. PMID:22318699

  18. Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci

    PubMed Central

    Schardl, Christopher L.; Young, Carolyn A.; Hesse, Uljana; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Andreeva, Kalina; Calie, Patrick J.; Fleetwood, Damien J.; Haws, David C.; Moore, Neil; Oeser, Birgitt; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Schweri, Kathryn K.; Voisey, Christine R.; Farman, Mark L.; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W.; Roe, Bruce A.; O'Sullivan, Donal M.; Scott, Barry; Tudzynski, Paul; An, Zhiqiang; Arnaoudova, Elissaveta G.; Bullock, Charles T.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Chen, Li; Cox, Murray; Dinkins, Randy D.; Florea, Simona; Glenn, Anthony E.; Gordon, Anna; Güldener, Ulrich; Harris, Daniel R.; Hollin, Walter; Jaromczyk, Jolanta; Johnson, Richard D.; Khan, Anar K.; Leistner, Eckhard; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Li, Chunjie; Liu, JinGe; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Miao; Mace, Wade; Machado, Caroline; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Pan, Juan; Schmid, Jan; Sugawara, Koya; Steiner, Ulrike; Takach, Johanna E.; Tanaka, Eiji; Webb, Jennifer S.; Wilson, Ella V.; Wiseman, Jennifer L.; Yoshida, Ruriko; Zeng, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids of four distinct classes, all of which deter insects, and some—including the infamous ergot alkaloids—have potent effects on mammals. The exceptional chemotypic diversity of the epichloae may relate to their broad range of host interactions, whereby some are pathogenic and contagious, others are mutualistic and vertically transmitted (seed-borne), and still others vary in pathogenic or mutualistic behavior. We profiled the alkaloids and sequenced the genomes of 10 epichloae, three ergot fungi (Claviceps species), a morning-glory symbiont (Periglandula ipomoeae), and a bamboo pathogen (Aciculosporium take), and compared the gene clusters for four classes of alkaloids. Results indicated a strong tendency for alkaloid loci to have conserved cores that specify the skeleton structures and peripheral genes that determine chemical variations that are known to affect their pharmacological specificities. Generally, gene locations in cluster peripheries positioned them near to transposon-derived, AT-rich repeat blocks, which were probably involved in gene losses, duplications, and neofunctionalizations. The alkaloid loci in the epichloae had unusual structures riddled with large, complex, and dynamic repeat blocks. This feature was not reflective of overall differences in repeat contents in the genomes, nor was it characteristic of most other specialized metabolism loci. The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloid diversification. We suggest that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epichloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses. PMID:23468653

  19. Alkaloids of the South African Amaryllidaceae: a review.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jerald J; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Caries; Viladomat, Francesc; van Staden, Johannes

    2013-09-01

    The plant family Amaryllidaceae is known for its horticultural and ornamental appeal as well as its medicinal value. In relation to these characteristics, trade in Amaryllid flower varieties (especially daffodils) is a multi-million dollar revenue generator for the floriculture industry. Of greater significance are the medicinal attributes of the family, which has already spawned the Alzheimer's prescription drug galanthamine, a potent and selective inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, of significance in the progression of neurodegeneration associated with motor neuron diseases, with annual global sales of around $150 million. Furthermore, it is anticipated that an anticancer drug target related to the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid pancratistatin, presently under advanced clinical evaluation, will enter commercial circulation within the next decade. Members of the Amaryllidaceae are distributed through both tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, but are of prominence within three distinct geographical locations, including Andean South America, the Mediterranean basin, and southern Africa. The southern African zone is known to harbor at least a third of the worldwide complement of around 1000 species, many of which are widely utilized in the traditional medicinal practices of the indigenous people of the region. Given its therapeutic and economic value, its natural abundance in the southern African region, coupled to its widespread usage in ethnic medicine, the family Amaryllidaceae provides a diverse and accessible platform for phytochemical based drug discovery. A consolidation of its traditional usage as well as its chemical and pharmacological profiles will thus guide efforts aimed at maximizing this potential. In undertaking this survey of the Amaryllidaceae of southern African, we aimed to achieve these goals. PMID:24273880

  20. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from the papaveraceae: the heritage of Johannes Gadamer (1867-1928).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Achim; Imming, Peter

    2011-11-28

    The substance archive of the laboratory of Johannes Gadamer (1867-1928), Marburg, Germany, was analyzed thoroughly with modern instrumental methods, with the samples purified when necessary, and the authenticity of the samples confirmed by historical and analytical evidence. Eight formerly unknown alkaloids of the benzylisoquinoline type were identified in the archive originally isolated from Corydalis cava or Fumaria vaillantii. This finding underscores the importance of the work of Johannes Gadamer and his group in stimulating overall progress in natural product chemistry. Several alkaloids were isolated by the group long before they were officially reported. PMID:22029392

  1. Dispacamide E and other bioactive bromopyrrole alkaloids from two Indonesian marine sponges of the genus Stylissa.

    PubMed

    Ebada, Sherif S; Linh, Mai Hoang; Longeon, Arlette; de Voogd, Nicole J; Durieu, Emilie; Meijer, Laurent; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise; Singab, Abdel Nasser B; Müller, Werner E G; Proksch, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Chemical investigation of methanolic extracts of the two Indonesian marine sponges Stylissa massa and Stylissa flabelliformis yielded 25 bromopyrrole alkaloids including 2 new metabolites. The structures of all isolated compounds were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive 1D and 2D NMR, LR-MS and HR-MS analyses. All isolated compounds were assayed for their antiproliferative and protein kinase inhibitory activities. Several of the tested compounds revealed selective activity(ies) which suggested preliminary SARs of the isolated bromopyrrole alkaloids. PMID:25116895

  2. Evolution of a Strategy for Total Synthesis of the Marine Fungal Alkaloid (±)-Communesin F

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jae Hong; Liu, Peng; Weinreb, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    A new synthetic strategy for construction of the heptacyclic marine fungal alkaloid (±)-communesin F has been devised. Key reactions include an intramolecular Heck cyclization of a tetrasubstituted alkene to generate a tetracyclic enamide bearing one of the quaternary carbon centers (C7) of the alkaloid, an intramolecular reductive cyclization of an N-Boc aniline onto the oxindole moiety to form a pentacyclic framework containing the southern aminal, a stereoselective N-Boc-lactam enolate C-allylation to introduce the second quaternary carbon center (C8), and an azide reduction/N-Boc-lactam-opening cascade leading to the northern aminal. PMID:20334369

  3. Cytisine-like alkaloids from Ormosia hosiei Hemsl. & E.H. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Pouny, Isabelle; Batut, Muriel; Vendier, Laure; David, Bruno; Yi, Sirong; Sautel, François; Arimondo, Paola B; Massiot, Georges

    2014-11-01

    Four alkaloids named hosieines A-D were isolated from the root and stem of Ormosia hosiei. Their flat structures were established by mass spectrometry and by a combination of NMR experiments. These molecules probably share a common biosynthetic origin with the lupin alkaloids but they differ in the formation of the last ring, being here part of a rare 2-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane system. Their absolute configuration was determined by X-ray crystallography using CuK? radiation. As has been described for cytisine, they display a remarkable affinity towards neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine ?4?2 receptor. PMID:25172516

  4. Unlocking the Diversity of Alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus: Nuclear Localization Suggests Metabolic Channeling in Secondary Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinides, Anna; Tatsis, Evangelos C.; Foureau, Emilien; Caputi, Lorenzo; Kellner, Franziska; Courdavault, Vincent; O’Connor, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The extraordinary chemical diversity of the plant-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids, which include vinblastine, quinine, and strychnine, originates from a single biosynthetic intermediate, strictosidine aglycone. Here we report for the first time the cloning of a biosynthetic gene and characterization of the corresponding enzyme that acts at this crucial branchpoint. This enzyme, an alcohol dehydrogenase homolog, converts strictosidine aglycone to the heteroyohimbine-type alkaloid tetrahydroalstonine. We also demonstrate how this enzyme, which uses a highly reactive substrate, may interact with the upstream enzyme of the pathway. PMID:25772467

  5. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as ‘ergot alkaloid intoxication’. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  6. Teratogenic effects in cattle of Conium maculatum and conium alkaloids and analogs.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F; Balls, L D

    1978-01-01

    The plant Conium maculatum produced congenital defects in calves born to cows gavaged the fresh green plant during days 50-75 of gestation. Both arthrogryposis and spinal curvature were produced and were similar to the defects produced by the piperidine alkaloid coniine. The arthrogrypotic manifestations of the condition markedly increased in severity as the animals aged. Animals gavaged dry plant had either normal or equivocally deformed offspring. A number of chain length and ring saturation analogs of coniine were not teratogenic. No congenital defects arose in offspring from maternal inhalation of either the teratogenic alkaloid coniine, or from the teratogenic green plant. PMID:630821

  7. Relationships among Ergot Alkaloids, Cytochrome P450 Activity, and Beef Steer Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkrans, Charles; Ezell, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Determining a grazing animal’s susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 ?M of ergotamine (ET), dihydroergotamine (DHET), and ergonovine (EN)] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800). With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P < 0.001) by an interaction between alkaloids and concentration. That interaction resulted in no concentration effect of EN, but within ET and DHET 20 and 40 µM concentrations inhibited CYP450 activity when compared with controls. In experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 d of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg) after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 d. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control). Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P < 0.05). Steers were genotyped at CYP450 single nucleotide polymorphism, C994G. Steer genotype affected (P < 0.03) inhibition of CYP450 activity by urine; heterozygous steers had the least amount of CYP450 inhibition suggesting that genotyping cattle may be a method of identifying animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins.

  8. Relationships among ergot alkaloids, cytochrome P450 activity, and beef steer growth

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkrans, Charles F.; Ezell, Nicholas S.

    2015-01-01

    Determining a grazing animal's susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 ?M of ergotamine (ET), dihydroergotamine (DHET), and ergonovine (EN)] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800). With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P < 0.001) by an interaction between alkaloids and concentration. That interaction resulted in no concentration effect of EN, but within ET and DHET 20 and 40 ?M concentrations inhibited CYP450 activity when compared with controls. In experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 days of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg) after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 days. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control). Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = ?0.31; P < 0.05). Steers were genotyped at CYP450 single nucleotide polymorphism, C994G. Steer genotype affected (P < 0.03) inhibition of CYP450 activity by urine; heterozygous steers had the least amount of CYP450 inhibition suggesting that genotyping cattle may be a method of identifying animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins. PMID:25815288

  9. Gene Clusters for Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in the Grass-Endophytic Fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Spiering; Christina D. Moon; Heather H. Wilkinson; Christopher L. Schardl

    2004-01-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1,

  10. Relationships among ergot alkaloids, cytochrome P450 activity, and beef steer growth.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrans, Charles F; Ezell, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    Determining a grazing animal's susceptibility to ergot alkaloids has been a research topic for decades. Our objective was to determine if the Promega™ P450-Glo assay could be used to indirectly detect ergot alkaloids or their metabolites in urine of steers. The first experiment validated the effects of ergot alkaloids [0, 20, and 40 ?M of ergotamine (ET), dihydroergotamine (DHET), and ergonovine (EN)] on human CYP3A4 using the P450-Glo assay (Promega™ V9800). With this assay, luminescence is directly proportional to CYP450 activity. Relative inhibition of in vitro cytochrome P450 activity was affected (P < 0.001) by an interaction between alkaloids and concentration. That interaction resulted in no concentration effect of EN, but within ET and DHET 20 and 40 ?M concentrations inhibited CYP450 activity when compared with controls. In experiment 2, urine was collected from Angus-sired crossbred steers (n = 39; 216 ± 2.6 days of age; 203 ± 1.7 kg) after grazing tall fescue pastures for 105 days. Non-diluted urine was added to the Promega™ P450-Glo assay, and observed inhibition (3.7 % ± 2.7 of control). Urine content of total ergot alkaloids (331.1 ng/mg of creatinine ± 325.7) was determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine inhibition of CYP450 activity and total alkaloids were correlated (r = -0.31; P < 0.05). Steers were genotyped at CYP450 single nucleotide polymorphism, C994G. Steer genotype affected (P < 0.03) inhibition of CYP450 activity by urine; heterozygous steers had the least amount of CYP450 inhibition suggesting that genotyping cattle may be a method of identifying animals that are susceptible to ergot alkaloids. Although, additional research is needed, we demonstrate that the Promega™ P450-Glo assay is sensitive to ergot alkaloids and urine from steers grazing tall fescue. With some refinement the P450-Glo assay has potential as a tool for screening cattle for their exposure to fescue toxins. PMID:25815288

  11. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    PubMed

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a small number of equine and bovine farms where poor animal health and performance had been reported. Additionally, in some circumstances changes to the diet, where animals were fed primarily herbage, were sufficient to reverse adverse effects. Pending additional information, these results suggest that Irish farm advisors and veterinarians should be aware of the potential adverse role on animal health and performance of ergot alkaloids from perennial ryegrass infected with endophytic fungi. PMID:25295161

  12. Hindi Numerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, William

    In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…

  13. Metabolism studies of the Kratom alkaloid speciociliatine, a diastereomer of the main alkaloid mitragynine, in rat and human urine using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anika A. Philipp; Dirk K. Wissenbach; Armin A. Weber; Josef Zapp; Hans H. Maurer

    2011-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) is currently used as a drug of abuse. When monitoring its abuse in urine, several alkaloids and their metabolites must be\\u000a considered. In former studies, mitragynine (MG), its diastereomer speciogynine (SG), and paynantheine and their metabolites\\u000a could be identified in rat and human urine using LC-MSn. In Kratom users' urines, besides MG and SG, further isomeric compounds

  14. Alkaloid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance: new strategies going beyond the standard.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Kenneth T; Ebild, Sarah J; Christensen, S Brøgger; Godejohann, Markus; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2012-12-28

    The hyphenated technique HPLC-SPE-NMR is an important tool for rapid dereplication of complex mixtures of in particular small molecules and has been successfully employed in natural product research. However, positively charged alkaloids at low pH are often poorly trapped on the generally used SPE cartridge limiting the general application of the procedure. In this work, two new approaches for efficient SPE trapping of alkaloids and elution efficiencies were evaluated using 24 model alkaloids. Use of a 0.1 M NaOH solution as the post-column dilution greatly enhanced trapping of alkaloids on the commonly used cartridge containing divinylbenzene polymer (GP resin). This procedure, however, was unsuitable for trapping phenolic alkaloids. Severe line broadening and immiscibility with water made chloroform-d(1) unsuited as eluent. None of these problems occurred when methanol-d(4) was used as eluent. Previously, mixed mode cation exchange sorbents have not been used in HPLC-SPE-NMR analysis of natural products. In contrast to GP resin this material showed good retention and elution characteristics for retention and elution of alkaloids. As well the use of methanol-d(4) containing 1% aqueous NaOD (40%) as methanol-d(4) containing 5% aqueous NH(4)OH (30%) as eluents were successful, even though elution of alkaloids with pK(a) of the corresponding acid above 10 proved difficult. Alkaloid extracts of Huperzia selago containing complex aliphatic alkaloids and Triclisia patens containing bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids were used for validation of the protocols for analysis of a diverse collection of alkaloids. Mixed mode cation exchange sorbent was efficient for trapping and elution of both types of alkaloids as evidenced by acquisition of 2D NMR data for all trapped compounds. In contrast, GP resin proved only viable for all the H. selago alkaloids whereas trapping and elution of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids were dubious. PMID:23195707

  15. Minor tobacco alkaloids as biomarkers for tobacco use: comparison of users of cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, cigars, and pipes.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, P; Yu, L; Shulgin, A T; Benowitz, N L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study (1) determined levels of various tobacco alkaloids in commercial tobacco products. (2) determined urinary concentrations, urinary excretion, and half-lives of the alkaloids in humans; and (3) examined the possibility that urine concentrations of nicotine-related alkaloids can be used as biomarkers of tobacco use. METHODS: Nicotine intake from various tobacco products was determined through pharmacokinetic techniques. Correlations of nicotine intake with urinary excretion and concentrations of anabasine, anatabine, nornicotine, nicotine, and cotinine were examined. By using urinary excretion data, elimination half-lives of the alkaloids were calculated. RESULTS: Alkaloid levels in commercial tobacco products, in milligrams per gram, were as follows: nicotine, 6.5 to 17.5; nornicotine, 0.14 to 0.66; anabasine, 0.008 to 0.030; and anatabine, 0.065 to 0.27. Measurable concentrations of all alkaloids were excreted in the urine of most subjects smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes and using smokeless tobacco. Correlations between nicotine intake and alkaloid concentrations were good to excellent. CONCLUSIONS: Anabasine and anatabine, which are present in tobacco but not in nicotine medications, can be used to assess tobacco use in persons undergoing nicotine replacement therapy. PMID:10224986

  16. Antiproliferative activity of O4-benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids against HCT-116 and HL-60 tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hatae, Noriyuki; Fujita, Erina; Shigenobu, Saori; Shimoyama, Sayumi; Ishihara, Yuhsuke; Kurata, Yuhki; Choshi, Tominari; Nishiyama, Takashi; Okada, Chiaki; Hibino, Satoshi

    2015-07-15

    The O4-benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids exhibit potent antiproliferative activity against cancer cells, which is derived from their ability to inhibit of topoisomerase I and II. It has been reported that in the alkaloids a cationic quaternary ammonium atom, which results in resonance effects between ring A and B, is necessary for increased antiproliferative activity. These findings indicate the role of their substituents at ring A on inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. In the present study, we systematically assessed the cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring alkaloids and their derivatives containing various ring A substituents against two tumor cell lines, HCT-116 colon tumor cells and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Among the cationic iminium alkaloids, which displayed more potent activity than the corresponding neutral derivatives, and the 7,8-oxygenated benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids, chelerythrine and NK109, exhibited stronger antiproliferative activity than the 8,9- and 9,10-oxygenated alkaloids. The activity of cationic iminium alkaloids could be correlated with the bond lengths of their ring A substituents and the electrostatic potentials of their ammonium molecules by DFT calculation. PMID:26026362

  17. Alkaloids from the mangrove-derived actinomycete Jishengella endophytica 161111.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Kong, Fandong; Wei, Jingjing; Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Hong, Kui; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    A new alkaloid, 2-(furan-2-yl)-6-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (1), along with 12 known compounds, 2-(furan-2-yl)-5-(2S,3S,4-trihydroxybutyl)pyrazine (2), (S)-4-isobutyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (3), (S)-4-isopropyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (4), (4S)-4-(2-methylbutyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (5), (S)-4-benzyl-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine-6-carbaldehyde (6), flazin (7), perlolyrine (8), 1-hydroxy-?-carboline (9), lumichrome (10), 1H-indole-3-carboxaldehyde (11), 2-hydroxy-1-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone (12), and 5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (13), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of an endophytic actinomycetes, Jishengella endophytica 161111. The new structure 1 and the absolute configurations of 2-6 were determined by spectroscopic methods, J-based configuration analysis (JBCA) method, lactone sector rule, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Compounds 8-11 were active against the influenza A virus subtype H1N1 with IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values of 38.3(±1.2)/25.0(±3.6)/39.7(±5.6)/45.9(±2.1) ?g/mL and 3.0/16.1/3.1/11.4, respectively. The IC50 and SI values of positive control, ribavirin, were 23.1(±1.7) ?g/mL and 32.2, respectively. The results showed that compound 9 could be a promising new hit for anti-H1N1 drugs. The absolute configurations of 2-5, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and the specific rotations of 3-6 were also reported here for the first time. PMID:24451190

  18. Expression Profiling of Heat Stress Effects on Mice Fed Ergot Alkaloids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachin Bhusari; Zhilin Liu; Leonard B. Hearne; Donald E. Spiers; William R. Lamberson; Eric Antoniou

    2007-01-01

    Fescue toxicosis affects wild and domestic animals consuming ergot alkaloids contained in tall fescue forage infected with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum. When animals are consuming infected fescue (E+) forage during periods of elevated ambient temperatures (summer), a range of phenotypic disorders collectively called summer slump is observed. It is characterized by hyperthermia, with an accompanying decrease in feed intake,

  19. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio species does not affect the specialist herbivore Tyria jacobaeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirka Macel; Peter G. L. Klinkhamer; Klaas Vrieling; Ed van der Meijden

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the diversity of related secondary metabolites in plants is still poorly understood. It is often thought that the evolution of plant secondary metabolites is driven by specialist insect herbivores and under this coevolutionary model it is expected that related compounds differ in their effects on specialist herbivores. Here we focus on the diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)

  20. Piperidine, pyridine alkaloid inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inhibition of fetal movement is one mechanism behind the development of multiple congenital contracture-type defects and cleft palate in developing fetuses of humans and animals. In this study, we tested the alkaloids anabasine, lobeline, and myosmine for agonist actions, and sensitivity to alp...

  1. Alkaloids from the seeds of Peganum harmala showing antiplasmodial and vasorelaxant activities.

    PubMed

    Astulla, Adil; Zaima, Kazumasa; Matsuno, Yosuke; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Ekasari, Wiwied; Widyawaruyanti, Aty; Zaini, Noor Cholies; Morita, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Bioassay-guided purification from the seeds of Peganum harmala led to the isolation of harmine (1), harmaline (2), vasicinone (3), and deoxyvasicinone (4). Harmine (1) and harmaline (2) showed a moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Quinazoline alkaloid, vasicinone (3), showed a vasorelaxant activity against phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rat aorta. PMID:18523842

  2. Coregulated Expression of Loline Alkaloid-Biosynthesis Genes in Neotyphodium Uncinatum Cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epichloë endophytes (holomorphic Epichloë spp. and anamorphic Neotyphodium spp.) are systemic, often heritable symbionts of cool-season grasses (subfamily Pooideae). Many epichloae provide protection to their hosts by producing anti-insect compounds. Among these are the loline alkaloids (LA), which ...

  3. Fos-like immunoreactivity in rat dorsal raphe nuclei induced by alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ekkasit Kumarnsit; Uraporn Vongvatcharanon; Niwat Keawpradub; Pranom Intasaro

    2007-01-01

    Mitragyna speciosa (MS) has been traditionally used for medicinal purposes especially in southern Thailand. Previously, an alkaloid extract of this plant was demonstrated to mediate antinociception, partly, through the descending serotonergic system. The present study investigated the stimulatory effect of the MS extract on the dorsal raphe nucleus and its antidepressant-like activity. The MS extract containing approximately 60% mitragynine as

  4. The first total synthesis of (?)-mitragynine, an analgesic indole alkaloid in mitragyna speciosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromitsu Takayama; Moriyoshi Maeda; Satoshi Ohbayashi; Mariko Kitajima; Shin-ichiro Sakai; Norio Aimi

    1995-01-01

    Starting from an optically pure alcohol, (R)-(3), which was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of the racemic acetate (2) or enantioselective reduction of the ketone derivative (4), the chiral total synthesis of mitragynine (1), a major corynanthe-type indole alkaloid having an analgesic effect in Mitragyna speciosa, was accomplished.

  5. Currencies of mutualisms: Sources of alkaloid genes in vertically transmitted epichloae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epichloae (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), a monophyletic group of fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, are systemic symbionts of cool-season grasses (Poaceae subfamily Poöideae). Most epichloae are vertically transmitted in seeds (endophytes), and most produce alkaloids that attack nervous ...

  6. Effects of solar UV radiation on alkaloid production in Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-producing species of Erythroxylum have been cultivated in South America for centuries, yet little is know of environmental effects on alkaloid production in these species. Given the high incidence of UV radiation in the equatorial and high altitude environments in which cocaine-producing sp...

  7. Stereospecific Total Synthesis of the Indole Alkaloid Ervincidine. Establishment of the C-6 Hydroxyl Stereochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The total synthesis of the indole alkaloid ervincidine (3) is reported. This research provides a general entry into C-6 hydroxy-substituted indole alkaloids with either an ? or a ? configuration. This study corrects the errors in Glasby’s book (GlasbyJ. S.Encyclopedia of the Alkaloids; Plenum Press: New York, 1975) and Lounasmaa et al.’s review (LounasmaaM.; HanhinenP.; WestersundM. In The Alkaloids; CordellG. A., Ed.; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, 1999; Vol. 52, pp 103–195) as well as clarifies the work of Yunusov et al. (MalikovV. M.; SharipovM. R.; YunusovS. Yu.Khim. Prir. Soedin.1972, 8, 760?761. RakhimovD. A.; SharipovM. R.; AripovKh. N.; MalikovV. M.; ShakirovT. T.; YunusovS. Yu.Khim. Prir. Soedin.1970, 6, 724–725). It establishes the correct absolute configuration of the C-6 hydroxyl function in ervincidine. This serves as a structure proof and corrects the misassigned structure reported in the literature. PMID:24697213

  8. Alkaloid presence and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) bioassay of medicinal species of eastern Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Coe, Felix G; Parikh, Dimpi M; Johnson, Caley A

    2010-04-01

    We used an alkaloid test and a brine shrimp bioassay to assess the bioactivity of the medicinal plants used by eastern Nicaraguan healers in traditional medicine. Ethnomedicinal uses were obtained from interviews of traditional healers. Aqueous extracts derived from 30 species of angiosperms were assayed for the presence of alkaloids and toxicity. Species tested are distributed in 30 genera and 21 families. Of the 30 species tested for alkaloids with Dragendorff's reagent, 29 contained alkaloids. Toxicological analysis was conducted using the brine shrimp lethal assay (BSLA). Biological activity using BSLA was recorded as the median lethal concentration (LC50) that kills 50% of the larvae within 24 h of contact with the aqueous plant extracts. The LC50 of the shrimp was less than 2500 microg/mL for 3 (10%) species, 2500-5000 microg/mL for 9 (30%), 5001-7500 microg/mL for 7 (23%), 7501-10000 microg/mL for 3 (10%), and greater than 10000 microg/mL for 8 (27%) of the species. The members of the orders Santales and Rubiales in general contained species with greater toxicity than any other group. Struthanthus cassythoides (Struthanthus cassythoides Millsp.(Loranthaceae)). (LC50 1574 microg/mL) and Alibertia edulis (Rich.) A. Rich. (Rubiaceae) (LC50 1741 microg/mL) were the most toxic. PMID:20645724

  9. Contact toxicities of Anuran Skin Alkaloids against the Red Imported Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly 500 alkaloids, representing over 20 structural classes, have been identified from the skin of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae). These cutaneous compounds, which are derived from leaf-litter arthropods eaten by the frogs, generally are believed to deter predators. We tested the red imported fire a...

  10. Elucidation of the DNA binding specificity of the natural plant alkaloid chelerythrine: a biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Basu, Pritha; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2014-09-01

    Interaction of the anticancer plant alkaloid chelerythrine with four sequence specific synthetic polynucleotides was studied by spectroscopy and calorimetry experiments. The binding resulted in strong hypochromic and bathochromic effects in the absorption spectrum of the alkaloid, enhancement in the fluorescence with the AT polynucleotides and the homo-GC polynucleotide and quenching with the hetero-GC polynucleotide. Cooperative binding was observed with all the polynucleotides. Fluorescence polarization anisotropy, iodide quenching and viscosity results confirmed intercalative binding of the alkaloid. The binding resulted in the thermal stabilization of the polynucleotides and moderate perturbations in the B-conformation of the DNA. The high binding affinity values (?10(6) M(-1)) evaluated from the spectroscopic data was in excellent agreement with those obtained from calorimetry. The binding was exothermic and favoured by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropic contributions in all cases other than homo-AT polynucleotide, where it was endothermic and entropy driven. Salt-dependent calorimetry data revealed that the binding reaction was driven mostly by non-polyelectrolytic forces. The magnitude of the negative heat capacity values confirmed the role of significant hydrophobic effects in the interaction profile of the alkaloid with the polynucleotides. The results revealed the specificity of chelerythrine to follow homo-GC>hetero-GC>hetero-AT=homo-AT polynucleotide. PMID:25010289

  11. Chromatography of sterols, alkaloids and other drugs using steam as the mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Baydarovtseva, M C; Rudenko, B A; Kucherov, V F; Kuleshova, M I

    1975-02-12

    The chromatographic separation of steroids, alkaloids and other drugs with water vapour as the mobile phase has been studied. It is shown that this technique facilitates the analysis and reduces the retention times. The determination of the substances in low concentrations in aqueous solutions or dispersions also appears to be possible. PMID:1150761

  12. Simultaneous determination of six Aconitum alkaloids in proprietary Chinese medicines by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying Xie; Zhi Hong Jiang; Hua Zhou; Hong Xi Xu; Liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    By optimizing the extraction, separation and analytical conditions, a reliable and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with photodiode array detector (DAD) was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of six Aconitum alkaloids, i.e., aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine, in Chinese medicinal herbs, aconite roots, and 12 proprietary Chinese medicines containing processed aconite roots. The separation of these

  13. Evaluation of the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Tall Fescue Alkaloids Using Fescue Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vasoconstriction is associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Because it is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or in concert, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of D-lysergic acid (LSA) and ergovaline (ERV) individua...

  14. Are loline alkaloid levels regulated in grass endophytes by gene expression or substrate availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfam. Pooideae) possess seedborne fungal symbionts, the epichloae, known for their bioprotective properties, and especially for production of anti-insect alkaloids such as lolines. Asexual epichloae (Neotyphodium species) are primarily or entirely transmitted ver...

  15. Studies on the alkaloid composition of the Hawaiian Baby Woodrose Argyreia nervosa, a common legal high.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2015-04-01

    Seeds from the Hawaiian Baby Woodrose Argyreia nervosa of different origin and labelling and with allegedly high levels of ergot alkaloids were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique. Lysergic acid amide (LSA), ergometrine, lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine, lysergic acid and their respective stereoisomers were identified as well as penniclavine and lysergic acid ?-hydroxyethylamide. In addition, methylergometrine, methysergide, and lysergylalanine were detected, some high molecular weight ergot alkaloid derivatives and hydroxyalanine derived ergopeptide fragments were detected indicating the presence of ergopeptides in the seeds. The results of the study demonstrate that the content of ergot alkaloids in Argyreia nervosa seeds depends on the quality of the material. For a consumer the quality of the seeds is unforeseeable. For the toxicological expert it is essential to investigate not only the identity of such a confiscated seed material, but also the various ergot alkaloid constituents to assess the hazardous nature and the toxic potential of the material. PMID:25747328

  16. Lycoparins A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium casuarinoides inhibiting acetylcholinesterase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Eri Kato; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Nobuo Kawahara; Yukihiro Goda; Motoo Shiro; Hiroshi Morita

    2008-01-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, lycoparins A–C (1–3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium casuarinoides. Structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations. Lycoparins C (3) exhibited an inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase, while lycoparins A (1) and B (2) did not show activity.

  17. Lannotinidines A–G, new alkaloids from two species of Lycopodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Koyama; Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Miwa Yoshinaga; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2005-01-01

    Seven new Lycopodium alkaloids, lannotinidines A–G (1–7), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium annotinum and L. annotinum var. acrifolium. Stereochemistry of 1–7 was elucidated by combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformation. Lannotinidines B–E (2–5) elevated NGF mRNA expression.

  18. Carinatumins A–C, new alkaloids from Lycopodium carinatum inhibiting acetylcholinesterase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chee Yan Choo; Yusuke Hirasawa; Chiaki Karimata; Koichiro Koyama; Mitsuhiro Sekiguchi; Jun’ichi Kobayashi; Hiroshi Morita

    2007-01-01

    Three new Lycopodium alkaloids, carinatumins A–C (1–3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium carinatum. Structures and stereochemistry of 1–3 were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR correlations. Carinatumins A (1) and B (2) exhibited a potent inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase.

  19. Lycopladines B–D and lyconadin B, new alkaloids from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Tomohiro Hoshino; Yutaro Obara; Norimichi Nakahata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2006-01-01

    Four new alkaloids, lycopladines B–D (1–3) and lyconadin B (4), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum and the structures including the stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and modified Mosher’s method. Lyconadin B (4) elevated NGF mRNA expression in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.

  20. Senepodine A, a novel C 22N 2 alkaloid from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Morita; Yusuke Hirasawa; Naotoshi Yoshida; Jun'ichi Kobayashi

    2001-01-01

    A new class of C22N2Lycopodium alkaloid consisting of an octahydroquinoline and a quinolizidine ring, senepodine A (1), has been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense, and the structure including relative stereochemistry was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  1. Lycochinines A–C, novel C 27N 3 alkaloids from Lycopodium chinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuke Hirasawa; Tomoyuki Tanaka; Koichiro Koyama; Hiroshi Morita

    2009-01-01

    Three novel C27N3-type Lycopodium alkaloids, lycochinines A–C (1–3) consisting of an octahydroquinoline or a decahydroquinoline, a quinolizidine, and a piperidine, were isolated from the club moss Lycopodium chinense. The relative stereochemistry of 1–3 was determined by a combination of NOESY correlations and chemical transformations.

  2. Lycopladine H, a novel alkaloid with fused-tetracyclic skeleton from Lycopodium complanatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kan’ichiro Ishiuchi; Takaaki Kubota; Shigeki Hayashi; Toshiro Shibata; Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2009-01-01

    A novel Lycopodium alkaloid, lycopladine H (1), with a fused-tetracyclic ring system consisting of an azocane ring connected to a [2,2,2]-bicyclooctane ring and a 3-piperidone ring, was isolated from the club moss Lycopodium complanatum. The structure and relative stereochemistry of 1 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.

  3. Nitensidine A, a guanidine alkaloid from Pterogyne nitens, induces osteoclastic cell death.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yasuhiro; Murase, Hayato; Satake, Kazuhiro; Mitani, Yuji; Regasini, Luis Octavio; da Silva Bolzani, Vanderlan; Efferth, Thomas; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Nitensidine A is a guanidine alkaloid isolated from Pterogyne nitens, a common plant in South America. To gain insight into the biological activity of P. nitens-produced compounds, we examined herein their biological effects on osteoclasts, multinucleated giant cells that regulate bone metabolism by resorbing bone. Among four guanidine alkaloids (i.e., galegine, nitensidine A, pterogynidine, and pterogynine), nitensidine A and pterogynine exhibited anti-osteoclastic effects at 10 ?M by reducing the number of osteoclasts on the culture plate whereas galegine and pterogynidine did not. The anti-osteoclastic activities of nitensidine A and pterogynine were exerted in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas nitensidine A exhibited an approximate threefold stronger effect than pterogynine (IC50 values: nitensidine A, 0.93 ± 0.024 ?M; pterogynine, 2.7 ± 0.40 ?M). In the present study, the anti-osteoclastic effects of two synthetic nitensidine A derivatives (nitensidine AT and AU) were also examined to gain insight into the structural features of nitensidine A that exert an anti-osteoclastic effect. The anti-osteoclastic effect of nitensidine A was greatly reduced by substituting the imino nitrogen atom in nitensidine A with sulfur or oxygen. According to the differences in chemical structures and anti-osteoclastic effects of the four guanidine alkaloids and the two synthetic nitensidine A derivatives, it is suggested that the number, binding site, and polymerization degree of isoprenyl moiety in the guanidine alkaloids and the imino nitrogen atom cooperatively contribute to their anti-osteoclastic effects. PMID:23892478

  4. Alterations in osmoregulation, antioxidant enzymes and indole alkaloid levels in Catharanthus roseus exposed to water deficit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Abdul Jaleel; P. Manivannan; A. Kishorekumar; B. Sankar; R. Gopi; R. Somasundaram; R. Panneerselvam

    2007-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don plants were grown in different water regimes in order to study the drought induced osmotic stress and proline (PRO) metabolism, antioxidative enzyme activities and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants under pot culture were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 days interval drought (DID) stress from 30 days after sowing (DAS) and regular irrigation was kept

  5. Dimerization of functional pyrroloindolizines for the synthesis of complex myrmicarin alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ondrus, Alison E.; Kaniskan, H. Ümit; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The union of functionalized pyrroloindolizines for the synthesis of heterodimeric products relevant to myrmicarin alkaloids is described. Design and synthesis of tricyclic substrates and new methods for their union enable the investigation of late-stage cyclopentannulation strategies. The rapid assembly of dimeric structures using unique modes of pyrroloindolizine reactivity presents a concise approach to the dimeric myrmicarins and relevant derivatives. PMID:20798891

  6. Separation and purification of five alkaloids from Aconitum duclouxii by counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yarong; Cai, Shining; Chen, Yang; Deng, Liang; Zhou, Xumei; Liu, Jia; Xu, Xin; Xia, Qiang; Lin, Mao; Zhang, Jili; Huang, Weili; Wang, Wenjun; Xiang, Canhui; Cui, Guozhen; Du, Lianfeng; He, Huan; Qi, Baohui

    2015-07-01

    C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids are the main components of Aconitum duclouxii Levl. The process of separation and purification of these compounds in previous studies was tedious and time consuming, requiring multiple chromatographic steps, thus resulted in low recovery and high cost. In the present work, five C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids, namely, benzoylaconine (1), N-deethylaconitine (2), aconitine (3), deoxyaconitine (4), and ducloudine A (5), were efficiently prepared from A. duclouxii Levl (Aconitum L.) by ethyl acetate extraction followed with counter-current chromatography. In the process of separation, the critical conditions of counter-current chromatography were optimized. The two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water/NH3 ·H2 O (25%) (1:1:1:1:0.1, v/v) was selected and 148.2 mg of 1, 24.1 mg of 2, 250.6 mg of 3, 73.9 mg of 4, and 31.4 mg of 5 were obtained from 1 g total Aconitum alkaloids extract, respectively, in a single run within 4 h. Their purities were found to be 98.4, 97.2, 98.2, 96.8, and 96.6%, respectively, by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The presented separation and purification method was simple, fast, and efficient, and the obtained highly pure alkaloids are suitable for biochemical and toxicological investigation. PMID:25907585

  7. Tussilagine and isotussilagine: two pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the genus arnica1.

    PubMed

    Paßreiter, C M; Willuhn, G; Röder, E

    1992-12-01

    In flowerheads of ARNICA MONTANA, A. CHAMISSONIS ssp. FOLIOSA, A. AMPLEXICAULIS, and A. SACHALINENSIS, traces of the non-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids tussilagine and isotussilagine were detected. Their identity was unambiguously confirmed by direct comparison (TLC, GC, GC/MS) with the authentic samples. PMID:17226521

  8. Cyclopamine and related steroidal alkaloid teratogens: their occurrence, structural relationship, and biologic effects.

    PubMed

    Keeler, R F

    1978-10-01

    A spontaneous congenital deformity is produced in lambs whose dams consume Veratrum californicum on the 14th day of gestation. The deformity is generally expressed as cyclopia, cebocephaly, anophthalmia, or microphthalmia. This teratogenic effect is produced by certain steroidal alkaloid teratogens from the plant - most notably the compound cyclopamine. Cyclopamine is a C-nor-D-homo steroid with fused furanopiperidine rings E and F at right angles to the plane of the steroid because of spiro attachment at C-17 of the steroid. Among veratrum alkaloids, only those with an intact furan ring E were teratogenic in sheep, whereas those in which the peperidine ring is not rigidly positioned at right angles to the steroid were not. Many ruminants and laboratory animals are susceptible to the teratogen. It has wide species and tissue specificity and appears to have a direct effect on the embryo, not as a consequence of metabolic alteration of its structure nor as an indirect effect through a maternal influence. Other plant sources, notably potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplant contain related spirosolane steroidal alkaloids. Among naturally occurring spirosolanes, solasodine is teratogenic in hamsters, but neither tomatidine not diosgenin, the non-nitrogen containing analog of solasodine, is teratogenic. Results of these and other studies suggest that a basic nitrogen positioned alpha with respect to the steroidal plane and at appropriate distance beyond the D ring confers the teratogenicity on the molecule. Potato sprouts with high alkaloid content are teratogenic in hamsters, but tubers and peels are not. PMID:723484

  9. Geographic Variation in Alkaloid Production in Conium maculatum Populations Experiencing Differential Herbivory by Agonopterix alstroemeriana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Castells; Mark A. Berhow; Steven F. Vaughn; May R. Berenbaum

    2005-01-01

    Conium maculatum, a Eurasian weed naturalized in North America, contains high concentrations of piperidine alkaloids that act as chemical defenses against herbivores. C. maculatum was largely free from herbivory in the United States, until approximately 30 yr ago, when it was reassociated via accidental introduction with a monophagous European herbivore, the oecophorid caterpillar Agonopterix alstroemeriana. At present, A. alstroemeriana is found

  10. Secretory Structures and Localization of Alkaloids in Conium maculatum L. (Apiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GABRIELLA CORSI; DAVID BIASCI

    1998-01-01

    In this paper histochemical investigations of the secretory structures ofConium maculatumL., are described that discriminated between ducts and vittae. The localization of alkaloids in seedlings, vegetative organs, flowers, and in the mericarp (during its development from ovary to full maturity), was achieved using specific histochemical tests.

  11. Metabolism of purine alkaloids and xanthine in leaves of maté (Ilex paraguariensis).

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuling; Katahira, Riko; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Accumulation and metabolism of purine alkaloids in leaves of maté (Ilex paraguariensis) were investigated. In winter, leaves accumulated caffeine but not theobromine, indicating that caffeine is the end product of purine alkaloid synthesis in maté. To elucidate the purine alkaloid metabolism in maté leaves, the metabolic fate of [8-(14)C]theobromine, [8-(14)C]theophylline, [8-(14)C]caffeine and [8-(14)C] xanthine was investigated in the leaf disks of young and mature leaves. In young maté leaves, significant amounts of theobromine and theophylline were utilized for caffeine biosynthesis, but the conversion was not observed in mature leaves. A small amount of theophylline was converted to theobromine. Practically no caffeine catabolism was detected in maté leaves during a 24 h-incubation. Catabolism of theobromine and theophylline via 3-methylxanthine was observed mainly in mature leaves. Xanthine was catabolised extensively via ureides in both young and mature leaves, but limited amounts are also utilized for the synthesis of theobromine, theophylline and caffeine. Possible pathways for the metabolism of purine alkaloids in maté leaves are discussed. PMID:26058140

  12. Isariotins A-D, alkaloids from the insect pathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 7831.

    PubMed

    Haritakun, Rachada; Srikitikulchai, Prasert; Khoyaiklang, Punsa; Isaka, Masahiko

    2007-09-01

    Isariotins A-D (1- 4), alkaloids possessing a unique bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane ring, were isolated from the insect pathogenic fungus Isaria tenuipes BCC 7831. The structures of these compounds were elucidated primarily by NMR and mass spectroscopic analyses. PMID:17822299

  13. Nitrogen supplementation does not affect level of an Alkaloid swainsonine in four locoweeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweeds are legumes that can be highly poisonous to livestock and wild animals. Locoweed toxicity depends on the association of a plant and a fungal endophyte which produces the alkaloid swainsonine (SWA); however, environmental factors affecting SWA synthesis are unknown. Additionally, locoweeds ...

  14. A virus-induced gene silencing approach to understanding alkaloid metabolism in Catharanthus roseus

    PubMed Central

    Liscombe, David K.; O’Connor, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    The anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine are bisindole alkaloids derived from coupling vindoline and catharanthine, monoterpenoid indole alkaloids produced exclusively by Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) plants. Industrial production of vinblastine and vincristine currently relies on isolation from C. roseus leaves, a process that affords these compounds in 0.0003–0.01% yields. Metabolic engineering efforts to improve alkaloid content or provide alternative sources of the bisindole alkaloids ultimately rely on the isolation and characterization of the genes involved. Several vindoline biosynthetic genes have been isolated, and the cellular and subcellular organization of the corresponding enzymes has been well studied. However, due to the leaf-specific localization of vindoline biosynthesis, and the lack of production of this precursor in cell suspension and hairy root cultures of C. roseus, further elucidation of this pathway demands the development of reverse genetics approaches to assay gene function in planta. The bipartite pTRV vector system is a Tobacco Rattle Virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) platform that has provided efficient and effective means to assay gene function in diverse plant systems. We have developed a VIGS method to investigate gene function in C. roseus plants using the pTRV vector system. The utility of this approach in understanding gene function in C. roseus leaves is demonstrated by silencing known vindoline biosynthetic genes previously characterized in vitro. PMID:21802100

  15. Enhanced productivity of tropane alkaloids and fertility in artificial autotetraploids of Hyoscyamus niger L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. C. Lavania; Sangeeta Srivastava

    1991-01-01

    Genetically stable artificial autotetraploids with over 90% seed set were obtained by colchicine treatment of the solanaceous species Hyoscyamus niger L. (2n=4x=68). The tetraploids were vigorous and yielded 22.5% more tropane alkaloid per individual than the source diploids.

  16. Indole Alkaloids from Fischerella Inhibit Vertebrate Development in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Model

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Katherine; Gantar, Miroslav; Gibbs, Patrick D. L.; Schmale, Michael C.; Berry, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are recognized producers of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolite associated, in particular, with so-called “harmful algal blooms” (HABs) and eutrophication of freshwater systems. In the present study, two apparently teratogenic indole alkaloids from a freshwater strain of the widespread cyanobacterial genus, Fischerella (Stigonemataceae), were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation, specifically using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo, as a model of vertebrate development. The two alkaloids include the previously known 12-epi-hapalindole H isonitrile (1), and a new nitrile-containing variant, 12-epi-ambiguine B nitrile (2). Although both compounds were toxic to developing embryos, the former compound was shown to be relatively more potent, and to correlate best with the observed embryo toxicity. Related indole alkaloids from Fischerella, and other genera in the Stigonemataceae, have been widely reported as antimicrobial compounds, specifically in association with apparent allelopathy. However, this is the first report of their vertebrate toxicity, and the observed teratogenicity of these alkaloids supports a possible contribution to the toxicity of this widespread cyanobacterial family, particularly in relation to freshwater HABs and eutrophication. PMID:25533520

  17. Antiviral and antimicrobial profiles of selected isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria and Corydalis species.

    PubMed

    Orhana, Ilkay; Ozçelik, Berrin; Karao?lu, Taner; Sener, Bilge

    2007-01-01

    In the current study, 33 isoquinoline alkaloids belonging to protopine-, benzylisoquinoline-, benzophenanthridine-, spirobenzylisoquinoline-, phthalideisoquinoline-, aporphine-, protoberberine-, cularine-, and isoquinolone-types as well as 7 derivatives of them obtained from some Fumaria and Corydalis species growing in Turkey have been evaluated for their in vitro antiviral and antimicrobial activities. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of the compounds using Madine-Darby bovine kidney and Vero cell lines and their maximum non-toxic concentrations (MNTC) and cytopathogenic effects (CPE) were determined using acyclovir and oseltamivir as the references. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the alkaloids were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans by the microdilution method and compared to ampicilline, ofloxacine, and ketocanazole as the references. The alkaloids did not present any notable antibacterial effect, while they had significant antifungal activity at 8 microg/ml concentration. On the other hand, the alkaloids were found to have selective inhibition against the PI-3 virus ranging between 0.5 and 64 microg/ml as minimum and maximum CPE inhibitory concentrations, whereas they were completely inactive towards HSV. PMID:17425100

  18. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of alkaloids isolated from Stephania cepharantha.

    PubMed

    Nawawi, A; Ma, C; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kurokawa, M; Shiraki, K; Kashiwaba, N; Ono, M

    1999-03-01

    By screening water and MeOH extracts of 30 Chinese medicinal plants for their anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 activity, a MeOH extract of the root tubers of Stephania cepharantha HAYATA showed the most potent activity on the plaque reduction assay with an IC50 value of 18.0 microg/ml. Of 49 alkaloids isolated from the MeOH extract, 17 alkaloids were found to be active against HSV-1, including 13 bisbenzylisoquinoline, 1 protoberberine, 2 morphinane and 1 proaporphine alkaloids, while benzylisoquinoline and hasubanane alkaloids were inactive. Although N-methylcrotsparine was active against HSV-1, as well as HSV-1 thymidine kinase deficient (acyclovir resistant type, HSV-1 TK-) and HSV-2 (IC50 values of 8.3, 7.7 and 6.7 microg/ml, respectively), it was cytotoxic. FK-3000 was found to be the most active against HSV-1, HSV-1 TK- and HSV-2 (IC50 values of 7.8, 9.9 and 8.7 microg/ml) with in vitro therapeutic indices of 90, 71 and 81, respectively. FK-3000 was found to be a promising candidate as an anti-HSV agent against HSV-1, acyclovir (ACV) resistant-type HSV-1 and HSV-2. PMID:10220283

  19. Alkaloid profiling as an approach to differentiate Lupinus garfieldensis, Lupinus sabinianus, and Lupinus sericeus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – Many species in the Lupinus genus are poorly defined resulting in improper taxonomic identification. Lupine species may contain quinolizidine and/or piperidine alkaloids that can be acutely toxic and/or teratogenic resulting in crooked calf disease. Objective – To identify any char...

  20. Lycopodatines A-C, C(16)N alkaloids from Lycopodium inundatum.

    PubMed

    Morita, Hiroshi; Hirasawa, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2005-12-01

    Three new alkaloids, lycopodatines A (1), B (2), and C (3), have been isolated from the club moss Lycopodium inundatum, and the structures and absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR data and chemical transformation. PMID:16378384

  1. Azamacrolides: a family of alkaloids from the pupal defensive secretion of a ladybird beetle (Epilachna varivestis).

    PubMed Central

    Attygalle, A B; McCormick, K D; Blankespoor, C L; Eisner, T; Meinwald, J

    1993-01-01

    Defensive droplets from glandular hairs of the pupa of the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, contain a group of structurally novel alkaloids, the azamacrolides. The major constituent of this secretion, epilachnene, is shown to be (5Z)-11-propyl-12-azacyclotetradec-5-en-14-olide. The secretion also contains an epilachnadiene and trace amounts of three closely related components. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8506367

  2. Biomimetic Approach toward the Total Synthesis of rac-2-(Acylmethylene)pyrrolidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Chiao; Tsai, Pei-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Chun; Chang, Chih-Wei; Jhong, Yuandong; Chen, Yun-Chung; Chien, Tun-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    2-(Acylmethylene)pyrrolidine derivatives were synthesized via intermolecular decarbonylative Mannich reaction from various methyl ketones and 1-alkyl-1-pyrroliniums, generated in situ from 1-alkylprolines. This approach mimics the biosynthetic pathway and provides a direct access to a series of 2-(acylmethylene)pyrrolidine alkaloids, including hygrine, N-methylruspolinone, dehydrodarlinine, and ruspolinone. PMID:26029977

  3. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease rumen epithelial blood flow of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  4. Hypaphorine, an indole alkaloid from Erythrina velutina, induced sleep on normal mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaaki Ozawa; Kazuki Honda; Izumi Nakai; Akio Kishida; Ayumi Ohsaki

    2008-01-01

    An indole alkaloid (hypaphorine (1)) was isolated from Brazilian medicinal plant, Erythrina velutina (Leguminosae). This compound was investigated for sleep promoting effects in mice, and the results showed that it significantly increased non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep time during the first hour after its administration. The NREM sleep time was enhanced by 33% in the experimental mice when compared to

  5. Total synthesis of sedum alkaloids via catalyst controlled aza-Cope rearrangement and hydroformylation with formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Wulff, William D

    2013-01-18

    The catalytic asymmetric aminoallylation of chiral aldehydes is developed as a new method for the catalyst controlled synthesis of syn- and anti-1,3-aminoalcohols. This methodology is highlighted in the synthesis of the sedum alkaloids (+)-sedridine and (+)-allosedridine both of which have their final carbon incorporated during closure of the piperidine ring via a hydroformylation with formaldehyde. PMID:23259754

  6. Total Synthesis of Sedum Alkaloids via Catalyst Controlled aza-Cope Rearrangement and Hydroformylation with Formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong; Wulff, William D.

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic asymmetric aminoallylation of chiral aldehydes is developed as a new method for the catalyst controlled synthesis of syn- and anti-1,3-aminoalcohols. This methodology is highlighted in the synthesis of the sedum alkaloids (+)-sedridine and (+)-allosedridine both of which have their final carbon incorporated during closure of the piperidine ring via a hydroformylation with formaldehyde. PMID:23259754

  7. Opium Alkaloid Noscapine is an Antitumor Agent that Arrests Metaphase and Induces Apoptosis in Dividing Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keqiang Ye; Yong Ke; Nagalakshmi Keshava; John Shanks; Judith A. Kapp; Rajeshwar R. Tekmal; John Petros; Harish C. Joshi

    1998-01-01

    An alkaloid from opium, noscapine, is used as an antitussive drug and has low toxicity in humans and mice. We show that noscapine binds stoichiometrically to tubulin, alters its conformation, affects microtubule assembly, and arrests mammalian cells in mitosis. Furthermore, noscapine causes apoptosis in many cell types and has potent antitumor activity against solid murine lymphoid tumors (even when the

  8. Determination of opium alkaloids in crude opium using non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inga Bjornsdottir; Steen Honoré Hansen

    1995-01-01

    A method for the quantitative determination of the opium alkaloids morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine in crude opium and in drug preparations based on non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis has been developed. The non-aqueous mode provides high separation selectivity and new possibilities for regulating the selectivity in capillary electrophoresis. The nature of the organic solvent, the acidity of the electrolytes as

  9. Production of alkaloids by in vitro culture of Erythrina americana Miller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rubén San Miguel-Chávez; Marcos Soto-Hernández; Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia; Geoffrey Kite; Mariano Martínez-Vázquez; Ma. del Rosario M. García; Teresa S. Terrazas

    2003-01-01

    The production of erythroidines and other alkaloids was studied in cotyledons, callus and cell suspension cultures of Erythrina americana Miller. The cell suspension cultures, grown in Murashige & Skoog medium with naphthaleneacetic acid (3 mg l-1) and kinetin (2 mg l-1), produced 89 and 17 µg a- and ß-erythroidines respectively per g dry wt.

  10. Herbal tea induced hepatic veno-occlusive disease: quantification of toxic alkaloid exposure in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Kumana, C R; Ng, M; Lin, H J; Ko, W; Wu, P C; Todd, D

    1985-01-01

    Four young Chinese women took daily doses of an unidentified 'Indian' herbal tea as treatment for psoriasis. Three (one of whom died), developed ascites, hepatomegaly and biochemical abnormalities within 19-45 days. The fourth patient discontinued herbal tea after 21 days when she developed a skin rash. Two patients had portal hypertension, while all had liver histology showing features of veno-occlusive disease. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were identified spectrophotometrically in the brewed tea, and in the chopped leaves of the herbal mixture; the mean dose in the tea prepared for consumption being 12 mg/day of alkaloid base and 18 mg/day of N-oxide. The mean cumulative dose of alkaloids (base + N-oxide) before onset of symptoms (three patients), was estimated to be 18 mg/kg. In the asymptomatic patient with histological liver disease only, the corresponding dose was 15 mg/kg. These cases thus provide some measure of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in adults. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3965360

  11. Herbal tea induced hepatic veno-occlusive disease: quantification of toxic alkaloid exposure in adults.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Ng, M; Lin, H J; Ko, W; Wu, P C; Todd, D

    1985-01-01

    Four young Chinese women took daily doses of an unidentified 'Indian' herbal tea as treatment for psoriasis. Three (one of whom died), developed ascites, hepatomegaly and biochemical abnormalities within 19-45 days. The fourth patient discontinued herbal tea after 21 days when she developed a skin rash. Two patients had portal hypertension, while all had liver histology showing features of veno-occlusive disease. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids were identified spectrophotometrically in the brewed tea, and in the chopped leaves of the herbal mixture; the mean dose in the tea prepared for consumption being 12 mg/day of alkaloid base and 18 mg/day of N-oxide. The mean cumulative dose of alkaloids (base + N-oxide) before onset of symptoms (three patients), was estimated to be 18 mg/kg. In the asymptomatic patient with histological liver disease only, the corresponding dose was 15 mg/kg. These cases thus provide some measure of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in adults. PMID:3965360

  12. Leaf herbivory and nutrients increase nectar alkaloids Lynn S. Adler,1

    E-print Network

    Adler, Lynn

    LETTER Leaf herbivory and nutrients increase nectar alkaloids Lynn S. Adler,1 * Michael Wink,2 and leaf defences is entirely unexplored. Correlations between leaf and nectar traits may be mediated by resources and prior damage. We determined the effect of nutrients and leaf herbivory by Manduca sexta

  13. APPARENT EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE ON ALKALOID PRODUCTION IN COCA PLANTS GROWN IN COLOMBIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the routine analysis of coca leaf material from South America, alkaloids in Erythroxylum coca var. ipadu leaf samples from fields suspected of being treated with glyphosate were compared with those from non-treated E. coca var. ipadu and Erythroxylum novogranatense var. novogranatense plants....

  14. Determination of Catechins and Purine Alkaloids in Tea by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tan Heping; Xu Wenping; Zhao Aiping; Zhou Lili; Liu Mingdong; Tan Fuyuan; Zou Yan; Wang Yuejie

    2012-01-01

    With a novel internal standard, 8-chlorotheophylline, a high-performance liquid chromatography method was successfully developed for simultaneous determination of six catechins, three purine alkaloids and gallic acid in green tea, oolong tea and black tea. The analysis was carried out on a C18 column with the temperature of 35 °C, and a gradient elution was adopted with a mobile phase composed

  15. The alkaloids of Aspidosperma neblinae . An application of a directly coupled gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Thomas; H. K. Schnoes; K. Biemann

    1969-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Die Analyse der Basenfraktion vonAspidosperma neblinae mit Hilfe eines mit einem Massenspektrometer gekuppelten Gas-Chromatographen führte zur Identifizierung der folgenden Alkaloide: Aspidospermidin, 1, 2-Dehydroaspidospermidin, Deacetylpyrifolidin, 1, 2-Dehydrodeacetylpyrifolidin, Demethoxyaspidospermin, Aspidospermin, Demethylaspidospermin, Pyrifolidin, Aspidocarpin, Eburnamonin, und Neblinin.

  16. Facilitation of memory retrieval by the “anti-addictive” alkaloid, ibogaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piotr Popik

    1996-01-01

    Anecdotal observations in humans indicate that indole alkaloid ibogaine may have antiaddictive properties. It has been suggested that the therapeutic action of ibogaine may depend upon facilitated access to the past experiences, purportedly influencing the initiation of drug addiction. To determine if ibogaine may facilitate memory retrieval, rats were trained in the Morris maze spatial navigation task. It has been

  17. Steroidal alkaloids in tissue cultures and regenerated plants of Solanum dulcamara

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Emke; U. Eilert

    1986-01-01

    Callus and cell suspension cultures were established with shoots of the soladulcidine variety of the bittersweet Solanum dulcamara L. Plantlets were regenerated from undifferentiated callus. From mixotrophic callus as well as mixotrophic suspension cultures soladulicidine, solasodine and the corresponding neutral spirostanes tigogenin and diosgenin were isolated and identified by thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. Total alkaloid concentrations were about

  18. Silencing of tryptamine biosynthesis for production of nonnatural alkaloids in plant culture

    PubMed Central

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Maresh, Justin J.; O'Connor, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products have long served as both a source and inspiration for pharmaceuticals. Modifying the structure of a natural product often improves the biological activity of the compound. Metabolic engineering strategies to ferment “unnatural” products have been enormously successful in microbial organisms. However, despite the importance of plant derived natural products, metabolic engineering strategies to yield unnatural products from complex, lengthy plant pathways have not been widely explored. Here, we show that RNA mediated suppression of tryptamine biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus hairy root culture eliminates all production of monoterpene indole alkaloids, a class of natural products derived from two starting substrates, tryptamine and secologanin. To exploit this chemically silent background, we introduced an unnatural tryptamine analog to the production media and demonstrated that the silenced plant culture could produce a variety of novel products derived from this unnatural starting substrate. The novel alkaloids were not contaminated by the presence of the natural alkaloids normally present in C. roseus. Suppression of tryptamine biosynthesis therefore did not appear to adversely affect expression of downstream biosynthetic enzymes. Targeted suppression of substrate biosynthesis therefore appears to be a viable strategy for programming a plant alkaloid pathway to more effectively produce desirable unnatural products. Moreover, although tryptamine is widely found among plants, this silenced line demonstrates that tryptamine does not play an essential role in growth or development in C. roseus root culture. Silencing the biosynthesis of an early starting substrate enhances our ability to harness the rich diversity of plant based natural products. PMID:19666570

  19. Polymorphic Nucleic Acid Binding of Bioactive Isoquinoline Alkaloids and Their Role in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Motilal; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive alkaloids occupy an important position in applied chemistry and play an indispensable role in medicinal chemistry. Amongst them, isoquinoline alkaloids like berberine, palmatine and coralyne of protoberberine group, sanguinarine of the benzophenanthridine group, and their derivatives represent an important class of molecules for their broad range of clinical and pharmacological utility. In view of their extensive occurrence in various plant species and significantly low toxicities, prospective development and use of these alkaloids as effective anticancer agents are matters of great current interest. This review has focused on the interaction of these alkaloids with polymorphic nucleic acid structures (B-form, A-form, Z-form, HL-form, triple helical form, quadruplex form) and their topoisomerase inhibitory activity reported by several research groups using various biophysical techniques like spectrophotometry, spectrofluorimetry, thermal melting, circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, viscosity, isothermal titration calorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, molecular modeling studies, and so forth, to elucidate their mode and mechanism of action for structure-activity relationships. The DNA binding of the planar sanguinarine and coralyne are found to be stronger and thermodynamically more favoured compared to the buckled structure of berberine and palmatine and correlate well with the intercalative mechanism of sanguinarine and coralyne and the partial intercalation by berberine and palmatine. Nucleic acid binding properties are also interpreted in relation to their anticancer activity. PMID:20814427

  20. Persistence of echimidine, a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, from honey into mead

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey produced by bees foraging on Echium plantagineum is known to contain dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids characteristic of the plant. Following a prolific growth of E. plantagineum in the wake of Australian bushfires, two samples of mead, a fermented drink made from honey, and the honey used to pre...

  1. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying Staphylococcus aureus isolated from foods and its control by crude alkaloid from papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Handayani, Lita; Faridah, Didah Nur; Kusumaningrum, Harsi D

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a known pathogen causing intoxication by producing enterotoxins in food. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A is one of the enterotoxins commonly implicated in staphylococcal food poisoning. The ability of crude alkaloid extract from papaya leaves to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and staphylococcal enterotoxin A synthesis was investigated. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus was isolated from raw milk and ready-to-eat foods. Crude alkaloid was extracted from ground, dried papaya leaves using ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and a MIC of the alkaloid was determined by the broth macrodilution method. Furthermore, S. aureus isolate was exposed to the crude alkaloid extract at one- and twofold MIC, and the expression of sea was subsequently analyzed using a quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR. Ten isolates of S. aureus were obtained, and nine of those isolates were sea carriers. The yield of crude alkaloid extract was 0.48 to 1.82% per dry weight of papaya leaves. A MIC of crude alkaloid to S. aureus was 0.25 mg/ml. After exposure to the alkaloid at 0.25 and 0.5 mg/ml for 2 h, a significant increase in cycle threshold values of sea was observed. The sea was expressed 29 and 41 times less when S. aureus was exposed to crude alkaloid at one- and twofold MIC, respectively. This study revealed that crude alkaloid of papaya leaves could control staphylococcal enterotoxin A gene-carrying S. aureus by suppressing the expression of sea, in addition to the ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. The expression of sea was successfully quantified. PMID:25364936

  2. Modulation of berberine bridge enzyme levels in transgenic root cultures of California poppy alters the accumulation of benzophenanthridine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Un; Yu, Min; Facchini, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    California poppy (Eschscholzia californica Cham.) root cultures produce a variety of benzophenanthridine alkaloids, such as sanguinarine, chelirubine and macarpine, with potent biological activity. Sense and antisense constructs of genes encoding the berberine bridge enzyme (BBE) were introduced into California poppy root cultures. Transgenic roots expressing BBE from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) displayed higher levels of BBE mRNA, protein and enzyme activity, and increased accumulation of benzophenanthridine alkaloids compared to control roots transformed with a beta-glucuronidase gene. In contrast, roots transformed with an antisense-BBE construct from California poppy had lower levels of BBE mRNA and enzyme activity, and reduced benzophenanthridine alkaloid accumulation, relative to controls. Pathway intermediates were not detected in any transgenic root lines. Suppression of benzophenanthridine alkaloid biosynthesis using antisense-BBE also reduced the growth rate of the root cultures. Two-dimensional 1H-NMR spectroscopy showed no difference in the abundance of carbohydrate metabolites in the various transgenic roots lines. However, transformed roots with low levels of benzophenanthridine alkaloids contained larger cellular pools of certain amino acids compared to controls. In contrast, cellular pools of several amino acids were reduced in transgenic roots with elevated benzophenanthridine alkaloid levels relative to controls. The relative abundance of tyrosine, from which benzophenanthridine alkaloids are derived, was only marginally altered in all transgenic root lines; thus, altering metabolic flux through benzophenanthridine alkaloid pathways can affect cellular pools of specific amino acids. Consideration of such interactions is important for the design of metabolic engineering strategies that target benzophenanthridine alkaloid biosynthesis. PMID:12602874

  3. Determination of Ephedrine Alkaloids in Botanicals and Dietary Supplements by HPLC-UV

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Mark C.; Gray, D.; Luo, G.; McClanahan, R.; Perez, R.; Roper, C.; Roscoe, V.; Shevchuk, C.; Suen, E.; Sullivan, D.; Walther, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method for the determination of the major (ephedrine [EP] and pseudoephedrine [PS]) and minor (norephedrine [NE], norpseudoephedrine [NP], methylephedrine [ME], and methylpseudoephedrine [MP]) alkaloids in selected dietary supplements representative of the commercially available products. Ten collaborating laboratories determined the ephedrine-type alkaloid content in 8 blind replicate samples. Five products contained ephedra ground herb or ephedra extract. These 5 products included ground botanical raw material of Ephedra sinica, a common powdered extract of Ephedra sinica, a finished product containing only Ephedra sinica ground botanical raw material, a complex multicomponent dietary supplement containing Ma Huang, and a high-protein chocolate flavored drink mix containing Ma Huang extract. In addition, collaborating laboratories received a negative control and negative control spiked with ephedrine alkaloids at high and low levels for recovery studies. Test extracts were treated to solid-phase extraction using a strong-cation exchange column to help remove interferences. The HPLC analyses were performed on a polar-embedded phenyl column using UV detection at 210 nm. Repeatability relative standard deviations (RSDr) ranged from 0.64–3.0% for EP and 2.0–6.6% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDR) ranged from 2.1–6.6% for EP and 9.0–11.4% for PS, excluding the high protein drink mix. Recoveries ranged from 84.7–87.2% for EP and 84.6–98.2% for PS. The data developed for the minor alkaloids are more variable with generally unsatisfactory HORRATS(i.e., >2). However, since these alkaloids generally add little to the total alkaloid content of the products, the method gives satisfactory results in measuring total alkaloid content (RSDr 0.85–3.13%; RSDR 2.03–10.97%, HORRAT 0.69–3.23, exclusive of the results from the high protein drink). On the basis of these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for determination of EP and PS in dietary supplements exclusive of the high protein drinks. PMID:15084081

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of (beta)-carboline alkaloids of Peganum harmala (L) seeds and their combination effects.

    PubMed

    Nenaah, Gomah

    2010-10-01

    The ?-carboline alkaloids of Peganum harmala L were extracted through a bioassay-guided fractionation and their antimicrobial activities were investigated. Results revealed significant differences (P>0.05) between compounds depending on the microorganism tested and the application method. When examined individually, harmine was the most effective against Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans where inhibition zones ranged between 21.2 and 24.7 mm. Potentiality of the alkaloids was increased when applied as binary mixtures suggesting a kind of synergistic interaction with inhibition zones reaching 31.5mm with the total alkaloidal extract. We recommended the use of such compounds as new antimicrobial biorationals. PMID:20398742

  5. Identification of legal highs--ergot alkaloid patterns in two Argyreia nervosa products.

    PubMed

    Paulke, Alexander; Kremer, Christian; Wunder, Cora; Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Toennes, Stefan W

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays psychoactive plants marketed as "legal highs" or "herbal highs" increase in popularity. One popular "legal high" are the seeds of the Hawaiian baby woodrose Argyreia nervosa (Synonym: Argyreia speciosa, Convolvolus speciosus). At present there exists no study on A. nervosa seeds or products, which are used by consumers. The quality of commercial available A. nervosa seeds or products is completely unknown. In the present study, a commercial available seed collection (five seeds labeled "flash of inspiration", FOI) was analyzed for ergot alkaloids together with an A. nervosa product (two preparations in capsule form, "druids fantasy", DF). For this purpose high performance liquid chromatography high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-HRMS/MS) technique was employed. Besides the major ingredients such as lysergic acid amide (LSA) and ergometrine the well known A. nervosa compounds lysergol/elymoclavine/setoclavine, chanoclavine and the respective stereoisomers were detected in DF, while only LSA and ergometrine could be found in FOI. In addition, in DF lysergic acid was found, which has not been reported yet as ingredient of A. nervosa. In both products, DF as well as in FOI, LSA/LSA-isomers were dominant with 83-84% followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine with 10-17%. Therefore, LSA, followed by ergometrine/ergometrinine, could be confirmed to be the main ergot alkaloids present in A. nervosa seeds/products whereas the other ergot alkaloids seemed to be of minor importance (less than 6.1% in DF). The total ergot alkaloid amounts varied considerably between DF and FOI by a factor of 8.6 as well as the LSA concentration ranging from 3 ?g (lowest amount in one FOI seed) to approximately 34 ?g (highest amount in one DF capsule). Among the FOI seeds, the LSA concentration varied from approximately 3-15 ?g per seed. Thus, the quality/potency of seeds/preparations depends on the amount of ergot alkaloids and the intensity of an expected trip is totally unpredictable. PMID:25036782

  6. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. PMID:16284661

  7. Systematic silencing of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthetic genes reveals the major route to papaverine in opium poppy.

    PubMed

    Desgagné-Penix, Isabel; Facchini, Peter J

    2012-10-01

    Papaverine, a major benzylisoquinoline alkaloid in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), is used as a vasodilator and antispasmodic. Conversion of the initial intermediate (S)-norcoclaurine to papaverine involves 3'-hydroxylation, four O-methylations and dehydrogenation. However, our understanding of papaverine biosynthesis remains controversial more than a century after an initial scheme was proposed. In vitro assays and in vivo labeling studies have been insufficient to establish the sequence of conversions, the potential role of the intermediate (S)-reticuline, and the enzymes involved. We used virus-induced gene silencing in opium poppy to individually suppress the expression of six genes with putative roles in papaverine biosynthesis. Suppression of the gene encoding coclaurine N-methyltransferase dramatically increased papaverine levels at the expense of N-methylated alkaloids, indicating that the main biosynthetic route to papaverine proceeds via N-desmethylated compounds rather than through (S)-reticuline. Suppression of genes encoding (S)-3'-hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine 4-O-methyltransferase and norreticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which accept certain N-desmethylated alkaloids, reduced papaverine content. In contrast, suppression of genes encoding N-methylcoclaurine 3'-hydroxylase or reticuline 7-O-methyltransferase, which are specific for N-methylated alkaloids, did not affect papaverine levels. Suppression of norcoclaurine 6-O-methyltransferase transcript levels significantly suppressed total alkaloid accumulation, implicating (S)-coclaurine as a key branch-point intermediate. The differential detection of N-desmethylated compounds in response to suppression of specific genes highlights the primary route to papaverine. PMID:22725256

  8. Simultaneous quantification and pharmacokinetics of alkaloids in Herba Ephedrae-Radix Aconiti Lateralis extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuai; Tang, Qingfa; Huo, Huiling; Li, Hancheng; Xing, Xuefeng; Luo, Jiabo

    2015-01-01

    The combination of Herba Ephedrae (Mahuang in Chinese) and Radix Aconiti Lateralis (Fuzi in Chinese) is a classical preparation in traditional Chinese medicine and used for treating colds and rheumatic arthralgia. However, herbal medicines containing ephedrines and Aconitum alkaloids are strictly regulated because of the potential for adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system. We aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of 11 alkaloids in the Mahuang-Fuzi combination and single-herb extracts after oral administration in rats. The alkaloids were norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, methylephedrine, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine. Simultaneous determination of the alkaloids, including two pairs of diastereomers, was achieved in 14.5 min by a simple, rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The separation was performed on a Zorbax SB-Aq column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 ?m) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The validated method demonstrated adequate sensitivity, selectivity and process efficiency for the quantitative analysis of complex herbal components. Compared with single-herb extracts, alkaloids in plasma (except methylephedrine, benzoylmesaconine and benzoylhypaconine) showed slower elimination (the mean residence time or half-life was longer), although the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration curve values decreased. Accumulation may occur with continuous drug intake. These results suggest that drug monitoring may be essential for the safe use of the Mahuang-Fuzi combination. PMID:25324527

  9. Numerical architecture.

    PubMed

    Mandelbaum, Eric

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there is a "Number Sense" (Dehaene, 1997) or "Core Knowledge" of number ensconced in a modular processing system (Carey, 2009) has gained popularity as the study of numerical cognition has matured. However, these claims are generally made with little, if any, detailed examination of which modular properties are instantiated in numerical processing. In this article, I aim to rectify this situation by detailing the modular properties on display in numerical cognitive processing. In the process, I review literature from across the cognitive sciences and describe how the evidence reported in these works supports the hypothesis that numerical cognitive processing is modular. I outline the properties that would suffice for deeming a certain processing system a modular processing system. Subsequently, I use behavioral, neuropsychological, philosophical, and anthropological evidence to show that the number module is domain specific, informationally encapsulated, neurally localizable, subject to specific pathological breakdowns, mandatory, fast, and inaccessible at the person level; in other words, I use the evidence to demonstrate that some of our numerical capacity is housed in modular casing. PMID:23460477

  10. Numerical Recipes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Numerical Recipes books are developed by Numerical Recipes Software and published by Cambridge University Press. The website provides information on how to purchase the books, which are part of a series entitled "Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing." "Numerical Recipes" is also a copyrighted computer software included in those books and sold separately. The books and software are available in a variety of computer languages, such as C++, C, and Fortran, and provide routines and recipes, along with explanations and "tricks and tips for scientific computing." Visitors can download the whole C (or Fortran) book for free, although the publisher hopes that after sampling a few sections people will buy the book. The website also provides news updates on the products as well as access to the Numerical Recipes Forum, where those interested in scientific computing can interact, ask and answer questions, and trade tips and tricks. Registration is free and a prize is offered to encourage people to join and offer valuable comments.

  11. Localization of key enzymes in alkaloid producing plants: Tryptophan synthase [Beta] in Camptotheca acuminata and tyrosine decarboxylase in Papaver somniferum 

    E-print Network

    El-Ahmady, Sherweit Hamed

    2000-01-01

    enzymes, tryptophan synthase ? (TSB) and tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC), have been localized in Camptotheca acuminata and Papaver somniferum respectively. In C. acuminata, TSB plays a role in the biosynthesis of the monoterpene indole alkaloid camptothecin...

  12. Development and validation of a LC-MS method for quantitation of ergot alkaloids in lateral saphenous vein tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of seven ergot alkaloids (lysergic acid, ergonovine, ergovaline, ergocornine, ergotamine, ergocryptine and ergocrystine) in vascular tissue was developed and validated. Reverse-phase chromatography, coupled to an...

  13. Thin-layer chromatography-densitometry and liquid chromatography analysis of alkaloids in leaves of Papaver somniferum under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Beata; Lakatos, Agnes; Kõszegi, Tamás; Kátay, György; Botz, L

    2005-01-01

    The effect of stress conditions on the concentrations of secondary metabolites were examined during various developmental stages of Papaver somniferum plants. P. somniferum plants were grown in laboratory conditions (Budakalász). The experiment consisted of 22 treatments. Significantly different alkaloid contents can be observed under different stress conditions. In general, the alkaloid contents of plants are very low; therefore, a highly sensitive and reliable method has to be developed for analysis. The amount of alkaloids was measured by 2 separation and detection techniques. Accuracy of the thin-layer chromatography method for quantitative analysis is limited. Without purification of samples the background is too noisy. Column liquid chromatography is a sensitive and relatively inexpensive method that allows precise quantitative determination of the alkaloid content. PMID:16386012

  14. Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for determination of alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (Papaveraceae).

    PubMed

    Acevska, Jelena; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Brezovska, Katerina; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    An HPLC method for the separation of six target alkaloids from Papaver somniferum L. (morphine, codeine, oripavine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine) was developed, optimized, and validated. The chromatographic behavior of these alkaloids was investigated using a reversed-phase chromatography at acidic and alkaline pH. The effects of ion-pairing agents, pH value of the mobile phase, concentration of the buffer components, mobile phase organic modifier, and column temperature were studied. Regardless of the large differences in their pKa values, all alkaloids were separated within a close retention window, and good peak shape was achieved for each of the six alkaloids. The proposed method has adequate selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and reproducibility and is applicable for poppy straw. PMID:22649926

  15. ~" NUMERICAL MATHEMATICS

    E-print Network

    Dongarra, Jack

    are those of Poiseuille flow, Couette flow, pressure gradient driven circular pipe flow, and Couette. /Applied Numerical Mathematics 22 (1996) 399-434 low pressure regions from which variable weather patterns entrainment, such as EHD clutch de- velopment, or EHD high voltage generators. Yet other important mundane

  16. Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  17. Responses of two hymenopteran predators to surface Chemistry of their prey: Significance for an alkaloid-sequestering caterpillar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. B. Montllor; E. A. Bernays; M. L. Cornelius

    1991-01-01

    Larvae ofUresiphita reversalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) sequester quinolizidine alkaloids from their leguminous hosts and store them primarily in the cuticle. Stored alkaloids are lost with the last larval molt. Extracts of late-instar larvae and of pupae were applied to larvae of the potato tuber moth,Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Gelichiidae), which are normally palatable to two hymenopteran predators, the Argentine ant,Iridomyrmex humilis

  18. Storage and metabolism of radioactively labeled pyrrolizidine alkaloids by butterflies and larvae of Mechanitis polymnia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Brückmann; José Roberto Trigo; Mary Ann Foglio; Thomas Hartmann

    2000-01-01

    Summary.   Tracer feeding studies with radioactively labeled pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were performed to attain experimental information\\u000a about the specificity and mechanisms of uptake, metabolism and storage of PAs in the alkaloid sequestering ithomiine butterfly\\u000a Mechanitis polymnia. Adult butterflies easily ingest the tracers offered dissolved in a saturated sugar solution. Feeding of [14C]rinderine (free base) confirmed that M. polymnia is well

  19. The A622 gene in Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco): evidence for a functional role in pyridine alkaloid synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen D. DeBoer; Jessica C. Lye; Campbell D. Aitken; Angela K.-K. Su; John D. Hamill

    2009-01-01

    Nicotiana glauca (Argentinean tree tobacco) is atypical within the genus Nicotiana, accumulating predominantly anabasine rather than nicotine and\\/or nornicotine as the main component of its leaf pyridine\\u000a alkaloid fraction. The current study examines the role of the A622 gene from N. glauca (NgA622) in alkaloid production and utilises an RNAi approach to down-regulate gene expression and diminish levels of A622

  20. Variability in tissue cultures of Choisya ternata . Alkaloid accumulation in protoclones and aggregate clones obtained from established strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyne Tremouillaux-Guiller; Françoise Andreu; Joël Creche; Jean-Claude Chenieux; Marc Rideau

    1987-01-01

    Protoclones and aggregate clones have been prepared from 5 callus strains of C. ternata chosen for their dihydrofuroquinoline-accumulating capacities in a population of well-established strains. The results show that it is possible to obtain cell lines which accumulate higher alkaloid contents than the highest alkaloid-producing strain; the probability of obtaining a high-producing clone is greater if a high-producing strain is